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Sample records for generating station site

  1. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  2. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  3. HT to HTO conversion and field experiments near Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Stuart, M; Bredlaw, M; Festarini, A; Beaton, D

    2014-06-01

    The Canadian input parameters related to tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) used in tritium dose models are currently based on experiments performed at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in 1986, 1987 and 1994. There is uncertainty in how well other sites experiencing atmospheric HT releases are represented by these data. In order to address this uncertainty, HT to HTO conversion factors were evaluated at different locations near the Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site using various experimental approaches. These were D2 gas exposure chamber experiments, atmospheric tritium measurements, and HTO and OBT measurements in vegetation and soil. In addition to these field experiments, chamber experiments were conducted using HT gas on field soil samples. The suggested Canadian input parameters for atmospheric tritium releases estimate the total fraction of HT oxidized in air and in soil, at the site, to be up to a maximum of 2.4%. Based on the more limited data obtained near DNPGS in early spring, this fraction would likely be closer to 0.5%. The result suggests that current parameters provide a conservative estimate for the DNPGS site.

  4. 77 FR 61645 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Victoria County Station Site; Notice of Withdrawal of Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... availability of this application was published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22434). On June 14, 2010 (75 FR 33653), a subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register announcing the...) submitted an application for an Early Site Permit (ESP) for the Victoria County Station (VCS) site...

  5. 35. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CONTROL ROOM OF ELECTRIC POWER STATION WITH DIESEL ENGINE POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATION EQUIPMENT IN BACKGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 37. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - ELEVATED VIEW OF FIVE (5) 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY - POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 36. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CLOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CLOSE UP VIEW OF 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 38. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR - OBLIQUE VIEW AT FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SET NUMBER 5. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 15. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 55° EAST AT FIVE DIESEL ENGINE/ GENERATOR SILENCER SYSTEM EXHAUST STACKS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. Developing Study Stations on Your School Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Natural Resources, Columbus. Office of Information and Education.

    The school site is a convenient location for study stations since it is available for short periods of time and can be used consistently. Special preparations, such as transportation, required for off-site fieldtrips can be eliminated. In addition, on-site activities provide students with concrete experiences necessary to understand difficult…

  11. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The distribution, species composition, and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  14. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution, species composition and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  15. 77 FR 22361 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Final Supplement 47 to the Generic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... site is located approximately 12 miles north of Richland, WA. Possible alternatives to the proposed action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources. ADDRESSES: Please... COMMISSION Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Final Supplement 47 to the Generic...

  16. Next generation SAR demonstration on space station

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, Wendy; Kim, Yunjin; Freeman, Anthony; Jordan, Rolando

    1999-01-22

    This paper describes the next generation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that enables future low cost space-borne radar missions. In order to realize these missions, we propose to use an inflatable, membrane, microstrip antenna that is particularly suitable for low frequency science radar missions. In order to mitigate risks associated with this revolutionary technology, the space station demonstration will be very useful to test the long-term survivability of the proposed antenna. This experiment will demonstrate several critical technology challenges associated with space-inflatable technologies. Among these include space-rigidization of inflatable structures, controlled inflation deployment, flatness and uniform separation of thin-film membranes and RF performance of membrane microstrip antennas. This mission will also verify the in-space performance of lightweight, high performance advanced SAR electronics. Characteristics of this SAR instrument include a capability for high resolution polarimetric imaging. The mission will acquire high quality scientific data using this advanced SAR to demonstrate the utility of these advanced technologies. We will present an inflatable L-band SAR concept for commercial and science applications and a P-band design concept to validate the Biomass SAR mission concept. The ionospheric effects on P-band SAR images will also be examined using the acquired data.

  17. Next-Generation GPS Station for Hazards Mitigation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. The same technology developed under NASA funding can be applied to enhance monitoring of large engineering structures such as bridges, hospitals and other critical infrastructure. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS/GNSS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS/GNSS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can then provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. We have developed a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a strong-motion accelerometer module, and a meteorological sensor package, for deployment at existing continuous GPS stations in southern California; fifteen stations have already been upgraded. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. New on-the-fly data products are estimated with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional seismogeodetic displacements for earthquake, tsunami and structural monitoring and precipitable water for forecasting extreme weather events such as summer monsoons and atmospheric rivers experienced in California. Unlike more

  18. 76 FR 9379 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Lasalle County Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... radioactive waste (LLRW), from the following Exelon owned nuclear power stations: Braidwood Station, Units 1... radioactive waste generators located in states that are not part of the Atlantic Low-Level Waste Compact...-38, ``Storage of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites'' and to meet the...

  19. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  20. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  1. 78 FR 782 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Energy Northwest (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-21, which authorizes operation of the Columbia Generating Station. The...

  2. Improving the efficiency of a four-unit generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kornegay, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing the efficiency of hydro generating stations is gaining importance as more and more power stations become automated. The increase in annual revenues due to efficiency improvements is one factor in evaluating the cost justification of an automation project. Several previous works have stated that the efficiency of a generating can be improved by using certain generation dispatching methods. The purpose of this study is to quantify the gain in annual revenues for a four-unit hydro generating station, using actual data from an existing station. The method used in this study does not require a rigorous analytical study. It should, however, provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the potential revenue gain achievable by using an automated generation dispatching control. This method is adaptable to stations with any number of units.

  3. Cofiring at the Seward Generating Station -- A long term demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.; Tillman, D.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    GPU Genco, supported by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office and the Federal Energy Technology Center, is demonstrating cofiring of wood waste with coal using separate injection of prepared wood waste at its Seward Generating Station. The program is based upon 3 previous tests: a program of parametric testing at Shawville Generating Station and two parametric test programs at Seward Generating Station. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is the primary contractor for the demonstration. The physical plant installed at Seward Generating Station includes a pole barn, a trommel screen, a fuel storage silo, and a pneumatic transport system. Testing of cofiring has been at the 5 to 10% heat input level. This paper summarizes the progression of cofiring testing at GPU Genco, details the facility design and equipment installed at the Seward Generation Station.

  4. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  8. 75 FR 33656 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment....2, as requested by Exelon Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster Creek), located in Ocean County, New Jersey. Therefore, as required...

  9. 76 FR 79227 - Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company... Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster..., Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  10. 76 FR 19148 - PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Station (HCGS) and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2 (Salem). Possible alternatives to the proposed action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources. As discussed... for energy planning decision makers would be unreasonable. This recommendation is based on: (1)...

  11. 88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early stage of construction. View is from south 30 degrees west showing DR 3 in foreground with DR 2 in middle and DR 1 out of view. Official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photographer, 5 October, 1959, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-27. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Power plant V - Thek generating station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    The design and operating features of a 10 MWe parabolic dish concentrator steam-cycle generating plant are described. The dishes which have 75 sq m area with a concentration factor of 265, were proved in the Themis project. The total field for the 10 MWe would cover 63,100 sq m and require 842 units. Using a water-steam cycle at 50 bars, temperature would never surpass 264 C, with an after-generator condition of 33 bars at 204 C. Preheating the water is intended with a fused salt reservoir containing 570 tons in 350 cu m container, around which condensed water would flow. Maintaining the primary loop at mildly elevated temperatures would permit uninterrupted operation during cloudy periods. A total shutdown would occur if cloudy conditions last more than one hour, and start-up would involve reheating the primary loop, recharging the storage, and then respinning the turbine.

  13. 88. Photocopied August 1978. STATION GENERATORS LOOKING EAST FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Photocopied August 1978. STATION GENERATORS LOOKING EAST FROM THE CENTRAL GALLERY, AUGUST 11, 1914. BY THIS DATE MICHIGAN NORTHERN HAD COMPLETED THE INSTALLATION OF GENERATORS IN THE EASTERN HALF OF THE POWER HOUSE AND HAD BEGUN WORK ON THE WEST. THE MOTOR-GENERATORS PURSHASED BY THE M.L.S.P.C. IN 1902 CAN BE SEEN ON THE LEFT BY THE LINE OF COLUMNS. (910) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. ISSLIVE! Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Severance, Mark; Blue, Regina; Khan, Ahmed; Healy, Matthew D.; Ehlinger, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    Just 200 miles above us, the International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting. Each day, the astronauts on board perform a variety of activities from exercise, science experiments, and maintenance. Yet, many on the ground don?t know about these daily activities. ISSLive! - an education project - is working to bridge this knowledge gap with traditional education channels such as schools, but also non-traditional channels with the non-technical everyday public. ISSLive! provides a website that seamlessly integrates planning and telemetry data, video feeds, 3D models, and iOS and android applications. Through the site, users are able to view astronauts? daily schedules, in plain English alongside the original data. As an example, when an astronaut is working with a science experiment, a user will be able to read about the activity and for more detailed activities follow provided links to view more information -- all integrated into the same site. Live telemetry data from a predefined set can also be provided alongside the activities. For users to learn more, 3D models of the external and internal parts of the ISS are available, allowing users to explore the station and even select sensors, such as temperature, and view a real-time chart of the data. Even ground operations are modelled with a 3D mission control center, providing users information on the various flight control disciplines and showing live data that they would be monitoring. Some unique activities are also highlighted, and have dedicated spaces to explore in more detail. Education is the focus of ISSLive!, even from the beginning when university students participated in the development process as part of their master?s projects. Focus groups at a Houston school showed interest in the project, and excitement towards including ISSLive! in their classroom. Through this inclusion, student?s knowledge can be assessed with projects, oral presentations, and other assignments. For the public citizens outside of the

  15. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after...

  16. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  17. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  18. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  19. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  20. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  1. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  2. 75 FR 33366 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Amendment published in the Federal Register on June 3, 2008 (73 FR 31719). However, by letter dated April 21... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of..., application for amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-16 for the Oyster Creek Nuclear...

  3. 77 FR 135 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  4. Engineer and technical training at GPUN's nuclear generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P. )

    1993-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) owns and operates the Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) unit I nuclear generating stations. They also continue the recovery efforts of the damaged reactor at TMI-2. Technical training for engineers and support staff is managed by the GPUN Corporate Training Department. The group also manages the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)-accredited Engineering Support Personnel (ESP) Training Program and the GPUN New Engineer Training Program. The New Engineer Training Program has been in existence since 1982 and has trained and oriented [approximately]100 new college graduates to the nuclear industry.

  5. Main Generator Seal Oil Supply Reliability Improvements at Southern California Edison's San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Simma, Fred Y.; Chetwynd, Russell J.; Rowe, Stuart A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the justification for the approach, details and results of the Main Generator Seal Oil System reliability enhancements on the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, SONGS. The SONGS, Unit 3 experienced substantial turbine damage in early 2001 after the turbine bearings lubrication oil supply failed. During a loss of off-site power incident, power was lost to the two AC powered turbine lubrication oil pumps due to a breaker failure in the switchgear and the DC powered emergency bearing lubricating oil pump failed to start due to a breaker trip. The SONGS turbine generators coasted down from full speed to a full stop without lubricating oil. This resulted in significant bearing, journal and steam path damage that required a four-month duration repair outage during a time period where electricity was in short supply in the State of California. The generator hydrogen sealing system remained operable during this event, however it was recognized during the event follow up investigation that this system had vulnerabilities to failure similar to the bearing lubrication system. In order to prevent a reoccurrence of this extremely costly event, SONGS has taken actions to modify both of these critical turbine generator systems by adding additional, continuously operating pumps with a new, independent power source and independently routed cables. The main challenge was to integrate the additional equipment into the existing lubrication and seal oil systems. The lubrication Oil System was the first system to be retro-fitted and these results already have been presented. Reference 2. This paper provides the result of the reliability enhancements for the Main Generator Seal Oil System, which concludes the turbine/generator critical oil systems reliability improvements, performed by SONGS. It is worth noting that the design team discovered and corrected a number of other significant operational issues, which had been present from the early days and also learned

  6. 17. TOP 3/1. Site plan of the woodward pumping station. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TOP 3/1. Site plan of the woodward pumping station. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  7. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  8. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  9. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  10. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  11. Potential Release Site Sediment Concentrations Correlated to Storm Water Station Runoff through GIS Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. McLean

    2005-06-01

    DOE DWDCG. Tables were then created for each analyte that listed the PRSs average value by storm water station allowing a tabular view of the mapped data. The final table that was created listed the number of high erosion PRSs and regular PRSs over background values that were contained in each watershed. An overall relationship between the high erosion PRSs or the regular PRSs and the storm water stations was not identified through the methods used in this research. However, the Arc Hydro data models created for this analysis were used to track possible sources of contamination found through sampling at the storm water gaging stations. This geometric network tracing was used to identify possible relationships between the storm water stations and the PRSs. The methods outlined for the geometric network tracing could be used to find other relationships between the sites. A cursory statistical analysis was performed which could be expanded and applied to the data sets generated during this research to establish a broader relationship between the PRSs and storm water stations.

  12. Site Effects Estimation by a Transfer-Station Generalized Inversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Yu, Xiangwei

    2016-04-01

    Site effect is one of the essential factors in characterizing strong ground motion as well as in earthquake engineering design. In this study, the generalized inversion technique (GIT) is applied to estimate site effects. Moreover, the GIT is modified to improve its analytical ability.GIT needs a reference station as a standard. Ideally the reference station is located at a rock site, and its site effect is considered to be a constant. For the same earthquake, the record spectrum of an interested station is divided by that of the reference station, and the source term is eliminated. Thus site effects and the attenuation can be acquired. In the GIT process, the amount of earthquake data available in analysis is limited to that recorded by the reference station, and the stations of which site effects can be estimated are also restricted to those stations which recorded common events with the reference station. In order to improve the limitation of the GIT, a modified GIT is put forward in this study, namely, the transfer-station generalized inversion method (TSGI). Comparing with the GIT, this modified GIT can be used to enlarge data set and increase the number of stations whose site effects can be analyzed. And this makes solution much more stable. To verify the results of GIT, a non-reference method, the genetic algorithms (GA), is applied to estimate absolute site effects. On April 20, 2013, an earthquake with magnitude of MS 7.0 occurred in the Lushan region, China. After this event, more than several hundred aftershocks with ML<3.0 occurred in this region. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the site effects and Q factor for this area based on the aftershock strong motion records from the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System. Our results show that when the TSGI is applied instead of the GIT, the total number of events used in the inversion increases from 31 to 54 and the total number of stations whose site effect can be estimated

  13. Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

    2003-02-11

    This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind generation to support

  14. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 76 FR 54502 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Notice of Availability of Draft Supplement 47 to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Generating Station is located in Richland, Washington. Possible alternatives to the proposed action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources. Any interested party may submit... COMMISSION Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Notice of Availability of Draft Supplement 47...

  16. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  17. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  18. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  19. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  20. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  1. 28. Site Plan: AF Station P67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan: AF Station P-67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot Plan (to accompany FY 1956 project planning report), USACOE, 22 July 1954. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  2. Surface Meteorological Station - ANL 10m, (1) Sonics, (1) EBBR, Physics site-3 - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Muradyan, Paytsar

    2016-10-25

    Sonic anemometers from Physics Site-3 and Site-9 provide wind components and virtual temperature. The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) station at Physics site-3 provides measurements of the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat, net radiation, and surface soil heat flux.

  3. Surface Meteorological Station - ANL 10m, (1) Sonic, Physics site-9 - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Muradyan, Paytsar

    2016-10-25

    Sonic anemometers from Physics Site-3 and Site-9 provide wind components and virtual temperature. The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) station at Physics site-3 provides measurements of the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat, net radiation, and surface soil heat flux.

  4. The third generation SLR station Potsdam no. 7836

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, H.; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Neubert, Reinhart

    1993-01-01

    The new satellite laser ranging (SLR) station Potsdam has been installed during the winter of 1991/1992 in an existing dome near the old ruby laser at Helmert Tower. It has been built around a one-meter-Coude telescope and is equipped by a 50 ps Nd:YAG laser and a SPAD receiver. The first successful Lageos passes were obtained in May 1992 demonstrating 2-3 cm rms at the single photon level. The new station will be used for experimental work and selected campaigns as well.

  5. Next-Generation Real-Time Geodetic Station Sensor Web for Natural Hazards Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.; Clayton, R. W.; Fang, P.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Kedar, S.; Laber, J. L.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.; Webb, F.; Yu, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a NASA AIST project focused on better forecasting, assessing, and mitigating natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station, and a Geodetic Sensor Web to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. The project encompasses the following tasks, including hardware and software components: (1) Development of a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a MEMS accelerometer package, and a MEMS meteorological sensor package, for deployment at 26 existing continuous GPS stations in southern California. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. (2) Estimation of new on-the-fly data products with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional broadband displacements and precipitable water, by new software embedded in the Geodetic Module's processor, rather than at a central processing facility. (3) Development of a Geodetic Sensor Web to allow the semi-autonomous sensors to transmit and receive information in real time by means of redundant sensor proxy

  6. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  7. Nova Scotia Power shows how to generate electricity from ocean. [Annapolis Tidal Generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The first tidal power plant in North America has completed a successful first year of operation, reports Nova Scotia Power Corp., the utility that built it and operates it. Rated at 19 MW, it's the largest tidal generating plant in the world, but the Canadians consider it a pilot-scale installation built to test the feasibility of harnessing the unusually large tides in the Bay of Fundy on Canada's east coast. Called the Annapolis Tidal Generating station it's located on a narrow neck of land separating the Annapolis River from the Bay of Fundy. The tides there range from 15 to 25 feet, averaging 21 feet. In the average tidal cycle the plant generates electricity for about six hours, sluices water into the reservoir for about three hours, and is at a standstill for about three hours. During the first year of operation the plant produced 25 million kWh. Reported availability was 99%. It missed only eight tides out of a possible 728.

  8. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; Odelevsky, Vladimir; Firsyuk, Sergey; Alifanov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has a unique ability to capture the imagination of both students and teachers worldwide. Since 2000, the presence of humans onboard ISS has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over 43 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related educational activities. Projects such as YouTube Space Lab, Sally Ride Earth Knowledge-based Acquired by Middle Schools (EarthKAM), SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) Zero-Robotics, Tomatosphere, and MAI-75 events among others have allowed for global student, teacher and public access to space through student classroom investigations and real-time audio and video contacts with crewmembers. Educational activities are not limited to STEM but encompass all aspects of the human condition. This is well illustrated in the Uchu Renshi project, a chain poem initiated by an astronaut while in space and continued and completed by people on Earth. With ISS operations now extended to 2024, projects like these and their accompanying educational materials are available to more students around the world. From very early on in the program's history, students have been provided with a unique opportunity to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects. Many of these projects support inquiry-based learning that allows students to ask questions, develop hypothesis-derived experiments, obtain supporting evidence and identify solutions or explanations. This approach to learning is well-published as one of the most effective ways to inspire students to pursue careers in scientific and technology fields. Ever since the first space station element was launched, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed, both individually and collaboratively, by all the

  9. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  10. 75 FR 69136 - Southern California Edison Company, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, March 27, 2009; 74 FR 13926). Thus, through the proposed... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern California Edison Company, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and...

  11. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  12. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  13. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Next-Generation Geodetic Station for Natural Hazards Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.; Melgar-Moctezuma, D.; Crowell, B. W.; Webb, F.; Moore, A. W.; Kedar, S.; Owen, S. E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The last few years have seen an apparent increase in natural disasters worldwide and certainly an increase in disaster-related loss of life and property due to earthquakes, tsunamis, severe storms, and flooding. The latest example is the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake and ensuing tsunami and nuclear meltdown, whose devastating humanitarian and socio-economic effects still ripple throughout Japan and the world. Enhanced in situ geodetic monitoring has been shown to be a critical element in mitigating the effects of these types of natural disasters. For example, it took Japanese authorities relying solely on seismic instruments about 20 minutes to determine that a great earthquake had occurred on March 11. Initial estimates by the Japan Meteorological Agency were of a magnitude 6.8 earthquake after 3 minutes, and a magnitude 7.9 after 10-20 minutes. Using the existing real-time high-rate GPS network in Japan (GEONET) in a simulated real-time mode, we demonstrate that it would have taken only 2-3 minutes to determine that the magnitude was 9.0. Early detection of this great earthquake was of the essence, since the first tsunami waves hit the coastline after only 30 minutes. We describe the components of a next-generation in situ geodetic observatory, one of whose primary applications is to forecast, assess, and mitigate these types of natural hazards as part of an information system for scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. To provide meaningful early warnings for earthquakes (up to several minutes in advance), for tsunamis (several tens of minutes), and for major storms and flooding (up to 24 hours), future geodetic observatories will require continuous displacement and precipitable water estimates, with mm-level precision and accuracy. To achieve this in an efficient manner will require on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and

  15. Reductions of NOx emissions from the Bowline Point generating station

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, R.C.; Conti, A.V.; Hersh, S.

    1996-12-31

    Improved combustion hardware, based upon the simultaneous optimization of oil atomizer and flame stabilizer technologies, has been retrofitted to oil and gas fired boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, particulate matter emissions, and opacity, and to provide operational and performance benefits. This technology, known as REACH, can be applied to wall and tangential-fired boilers at a fraction of the cost of installing new burners. In combination with conventional NO{sub x} controls such as overfire air, flue gas recirculation, and low-NO{sub x} burners, REACH technology can provide an additional increment in NO{sub x} reduction; often valuable for meeting and maintaining regulatory compliance. This paper describes the results achieved when this technology was applied to the boilers at Orange and Rockland Utilities` Bowline Point Station to meet NYSDEC part 227 regulations for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). Bowline Point Unit 1 is a 600 MWe tangentially fired boiler with no installed NO{sub x} control systems. Bowline Point No. 2 is a 600 MW opposed-wall fired boiler with overfire air and windbox flue gas recirculation capability.

  16. Evaluation of precipitation chemistry siting criteria using paired stations from northern Maine and southeastern Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Artz, R.S.; Rolph, G.D. )

    1987-01-01

    During the early 1970's, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began precipitation chemistry monitoring at ten National Weather Service (NWS) stations located across the United States. The goal was to design a network consisting of regionally representative precipitation stations to define the levels and gradients of concentration of the chemicals found in precipitation. The data were also useful for effects research and, over a period of decades, for the calculation of trends. A monthly wet-only sampling protocol was used and EPA analyzed the samples for pH, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Mg{sup ++}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, conductivity and precipitation depth. In an effort to test the representativeness of two of the sites, Victoria, and Caribou, colocated stations were established at Beeville, Texas and Presque Isle, Maine according to NADP protocol. Two-year data records are currently available for both of these new sites. It is the purpose of this paper to compare the data from the paired stations to determine whether or not the precipitation chemistry from the original stations is different from the new stations.

  17. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7164-7177]. The present paper builds on that study, exploring pollutant- and technology-specific aspects of population inhalation exposure from electricity generation. We compare California's existing CS-based system to one that is more reliant on DG units sited in urban areas. We use Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based exposure analysis to assess 25 existing CSs and 11 DG sources hypothetically located in the downtowns of California's most populous cities. We consider population intake of three pollutants—PM 2.5, NO x and formaldehyde—directly emitted by five DG technologies—natural gas (NG)-fired turbines, NG internal combustion engines (ICE), NG microturbines, diesel ICEs, and fuel cells with on-site NG reformers. We also consider intake of these pollutants from existing CS facilities, most of which use large NG turbines, as well as from hypothetical facilities located at these same sites but meeting California's best-available control technology standards. After systematically exploring the sensitivity of iF to pollutant decay rate, the iFs for each of the three pollutants for all DG and CS cases are estimated. To efficiently compare the pollutant- and technology-specific exposure potential on an appropriate common basis, a new metric is introduced and evaluated: the intake-to-delivered-energy ratio (IDER). The IDER expresses the mass of pollutant inhaled by an exposed population owing to emissions from an electricity generation unit per quantity of electric

  18. Is central station generation becoming a white elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1985-03-21

    Cost increases encourage the development of alternative sources of energy, and some of the alternatives currently under development lend themselves to moving the generation location back to load centers. In addition, some alternative sources have short lead times and minimal environmental impact, and are being subsidized through income tax policy. Alternative sources of energy have the potential for beginning to affect the usefulness of electric-generating plants and their high-voltage transmission networks before the end of this century. If this comes about, the electric utility industry may find its position similar to that of the telephone industry - with obsolete facilities not fully depreciated. The scenario discussed here would not come about all at once and may not come about at all. But it is the authors opinion that the chances are greater than fifty-fifty that it or something similar will affect the usefulness of bulk power supply systems sometime during the lifetime of generating units installed during the past ten years.

  19. 76 FR 75876 - Record of Decision for the Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Electric Power Cooperative (Basin Electric) to modify its Large Generator Interconnection Agreement (LGIA) with Basin Electric for the Groton Generation Station to eliminate current operating limits on the... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (74 FR 48067). On June 3, 2011, the Notice...

  20. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  1. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  2. Site selection for the future stations of the french permanent broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jérôme; Charade, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    RESIF (REseau SIsmologique et géodésique Français) is a new French research infrastructure dedicated to the observation of earth deformation based on seismic and geodetic instruments mainly located in France. One of its major component, called RESIF-CLB (Construction Large Bande), is devoted to the evolution of the permanent seismic broadband network in metropolitan France with the objective to complement the 45 existing stations with ~155 new stations within the next eight years. This network will be used for various scientific objectives including deep structures imaging and national seismicity monitoring. The chosen network topology consists in a backbone of homogeneously distributed stations (long wavelength array) completed by additional stations in seismically active regions. Management of the RESIF-CLB project is carried out by the technical division of INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) who will rely on eight regional observatories and the CEA-LDG for the construction and operation of the stations. To optimize the performance of the network, we put a strong emphasis on the standardization of the stations in term of vault types, scientific and technical instrumentation and operation procedures. We also set up a procedure for site selection requiring that every potential site has to be tested for at least 3 weeks with a minimalist installation. Analysis of the continuous ambient noise records is then included in a standardized report submitted to all committed partners for acceptance. During the last two years, about 60 potential new sites have been tested, spanning various places and environments. We present a review of the seismic noise measurements at these sites and discuss the influence of different types of noise sources depending on the frequency band of interest. For example, we show that regional population distribution can be used as a proxy to infer the noise level at frequencies higher than 1 Hz. Based on similar noise analyses

  3. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  4. 20-GHz bands receiving facilities at sub-earth-station for CS site diversity switching experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Kimura, S.; Katto, T.; Komuro, H.; Ouchi, C.; Ohbu, K.; Isobe, T.; Ouchi, E.; Nishino, T.; Hori, T.

    1982-09-01

    Site diversity switching experiments using CS (Medium-capacity Communications Satellite for Expperimental Purposes) were programmed. The satellite communication facilities used in the experiments both at the main- and the sub-earth-station have been constructed in the ECS project. In addition, receiving facilities at 20-GHz bands of CS down-link were newly installed at the sub-earth-station. They were composed of an antenna feed, a low-noise receiver, and a down converter. In the present paper, the outline and the performance of the facilities added at the sub-earth-station are described. The performance of these facilities has proved to be good enough to carry out the experiments.

  5. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  6. 76 FR 1197 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... additional 20 years of operation for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). Possible alternatives to the proposed action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources... renewal for energy planning decision makers would be unreasonable. This recommendation is based on:...

  7. Explosion site recognition; neural net discriminator using single three-component stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Ruud, Bent O.

    1999-06-01

    In monitoring of local seismicity, the occurrence of many chemical explosions poses sever practical problems of two kinds: (i) such recordings add significantly to the analyst workload and (ii) in extreme cases, pollute the seismicity data base to the extent of rendering it useless for serious scientific studies. In some countries, the local seismicity is equivalent to felt earthquakes but the problem remains since both earthquakes and explosions are and will be recorded by local stations. These events will therefore enter the network data center processing system, and thus, be subjected to further analysis. Source classification schemes are not always well suited for this kind of needed analysis at local distance ranges (not easily transportable). Besides, epicenter determinations may be less accurate in cases of few station reportings. The common denominator for failures is the modest usages of the information potential contained in seismic recordings being represented by a few time/amplitude parameters for the Pn- and Lg-phases. On the other hand, seismic waveform similarities for closely spaced earthquakes and explosions in particular are well established observationally. In this study period, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. To ensure adequate sampling, we used the nine different complex covariance time domain elements in combination with a suit of 12 bandpass filters equivalent to 108 observation pieces for a single event recording. We used a neural net scheme for teaching the computer to recognize new explosion recordings from a specific site through scanning of hundreds of detector segmented waveform files. No epicenter information was used in this analysis. The output was a single number between Zero and Four (log-scale) with an acceptance threshold (repeated explosion) of 1

  8. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  9. Effects of a clean coal-fired power generating station on four common Wisconsin lichen species

    SciTech Connect

    Will-Wolf, S.

    1980-01-01

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana Muell. Arg., P. caperata (L.) Ach., P. rudecta Ach., and Physcia millegrana Degel. were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO/sup 2/ levels were 389 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, maximum 1 hr level, and 5-9 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, annual averages. Parmelia bolliana and P. caperata showed evidence of morphological alterations near the station; P. rudecta and Physcia millegrana did not.

  10. Radwaste (DAW) volume reduction cost initiative at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generation Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wacha, A.H.

    1995-05-01

    Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station is a General Electric Mark 1, 620 MWe (Net) Boiling Water Reactor operated by GPU Nuclear Corporation and located in Forked River, New Jersey. The plant began commercial operation on December 23, 1969, and achieved its longest continuous run during cycle 14 (413 days) 2-16-93 to 9-11-94. As part of the industry-wide initiative to reduce nuclear plant O&M costs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was asked by GPU Nuclear to assist the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) in identifying opportunities for reducing the costs associated with its Radwaste Minimization Program for Dry Active Waste (DAW). The purpose of the project was to evaluate the existing generation, minimization, processing and disposal programs and to identify a wide variety of potential mechanisms for reducing waste volumes and associated costs.

  11. Siting of USArray Seismic Stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia: Experience of NC-1 Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Howard, J.; Horne, T.

    2012-12-01

    The USArray component of the EarthScope, a transportable array of 400 seismometers installed in a grid about 70 km apart, is in the next two years entering its final stage with station deployment along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Here, we present the experience of the student-faculty team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU) in finding and documenting the suitable sites for the twenty five USArray stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia. The ideal sites are easily accessible yet far from traffic and other sources of noise, with good cell phone coverage, sun exposure and out of flood-prone areas. Although the initial selection of potential locations was done using geospatial mapping and analysis software provided by EarthScope, finding and finalizing the sites involved driving more then 1,000 miles each week for over two months inspecting possible site locations. Aside from driving, the majority of time was spent talking about the EarthScope project and hosting of USArray stations to mostly reluctant landowners. In addition to facing various challenges in finding appropriate sites due to land use issues, such as suburban sprawl of central North Carolina, or topography factors, such as low lying flood prone coastal areas, by far the major challenge was finding the landowners willing to host the seismic station for the necessary three years. In addition to involving students from an HBCU in seismology related project and increasing the visibility of NCCU geophysics program in the University and local community through publicity releases in local media and on university web site, the project had an important outreach component. As North Carolina is located along the seismically quiet, passive Atlantic margin, most residents are not familiar with earthquakes and seismology and the siting experience provided students an opportunity to practice explaining the earthquake research to the general public. The dialog also highlighted science

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-D-3, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-033

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-09

    Decommissioning and demolition of the 132-D-3 site, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1986. Decommissioning included removal of equipment, water, and sludge for disposal as radioactive waste. The at- and below-grade structure was demolished to at least 1 m below grade and the resulting rubble buried in situ. The area was backfilled to grade with at least 1 m of clean fill and contoured to the surrounding terrain. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  13. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  14. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  18. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the "anti-wind" lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called "3G" technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its "2G" counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  19. Preliminary data on boulders at station 6, Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G. H.; Butler, P., Jr.; Simonds, C. H.; Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J.; Schmitt, H. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Pearce, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cluster of boulders at Station 6 (Apollo 17 landing site) consists of breccias derived from the North Massif. Three preliminary lithologic units were established, on the basis of photogeologic interpretations; all lithologies identified photogeologically were sampled. Breccia clasts and matrices studied petrographically and chemically fall into two groups by modal mineralogy: (1) low-K Fra Mauro or high basalt composition, consisting of 50-60% modal feldspar, approximately 45% orthopyroxene and 1-7% Fe-Ti oxide; (2) clasts consisting of highland basalt composition, consisting of 70% feldspar, 30% orthopyroxene and olivine and a trace of Fe-Ti oxide.

  20. Seismic risk assessment as applied to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.

    1984-08-01

    To assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its licensing and evaluation role, the NRC funded the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of developing tools and data bases to evaluate the risk of earthquake caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. This paper describes the SSMRP risk assessment methodology and the results generated by applying this methodology to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station. In addition to describing the failure probabilities and risk values, the effects of assumptions about plant configuration, plant operation, and dependence will be given.

  1. Urban air pollution monitoring and correlation properties between fixed-site stations.

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Scotto, Fabiana; Lauriola, Paolo; Galassi, Francesca; Montanari, Angela

    2004-10-01

    The rich regional air-monitoring network of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy has been used to quantify the spatial variability of the main pollutants within urban environments and to analyze the correlations between stations. The spatial variability of the concentrations of the majority of pollutants within the city was very high, making it difficult to differentiate and characterize the urban environments and to apply legal limits with uniform criteria. On the other hand, the correlations between the fixed-site monitoring stations were high enough for their data to be retained generally very appropriately for controlling temporal trends. Starting from the high correlation level, a procedure was proposed and tested to derive pollution levels, using short-term measurements, such as passive samplers and mobile-station data. The importance of long-term statistics in urban air pollution mapping was emphasized. Treatment of missing data in time series and quality assurance were indicated as possible fields for applications for the correlation properties.

  2. FluxSuite: a New Scientific Tool for Advanced Network Management and Cross-Sharing of Next-Generation Flux Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from

  3. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  4. Feasibility study for the Mariposa Generating Station. Unit 1 rehabilitation study. Venezuela. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-17

    The study addresses the rehabilitation of Mariposa Generating Station Unit 1. The Mariposa Generating Station consists of two units placed in operation in 1956. Each unit was designed to generate 37,500 kW. In 1982, the Unit 1 turbine generator was severely damaged under overspeed conditions. Unit 1 has been out of service since the 1982 overspeed incident. The study specifically evaluates returning Mariposa Generating Station Unit 1 to service. Several alternatives are addressed including repair of the existing Unit 1 turbine generator, replacement of the existing Unit 1 turbine generator with a machine of equivalent capacity, and replacement of the Unit 1 turbine generator with a machine of greater capacity. The study also addresses the repair, reassembly, and inspection required to return the Unit 1 balance-of-plant equipment to service. The report documents the results of the rehabilitation study.

  5. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  6. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  7. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  8. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  9. Status of the International Space Station Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Cloud, Dale

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc., while the UPA and PSM are developed in- house by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The assemblies have completed the manufacturing phase and are in various stages of testing and integration into the flight racks. This paper summarizes the status as of April 2005 and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  11. Hydrological modeling using a multi-site stochastic weather generator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weather data is usually required at several locations over a large watershed, especially when using distributed models for hydrological simulations. In many applications, spatially correlated weather data can be provided by a multi-site stochastic weather generator which considers the spatial correl...

  12. Environmental radiological studies in 1989 near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Wong, Kai M.; Jones, H.E.

    1990-11-01

    In December 1988, the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) asked the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Sciences Division (ENV) to collect sediment, water,and fish samples downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station for analysis of radionuclides to compare with results from earlier surveys in 1984 through 1987 (1--8). ENV was, however, asked to reduce the total number of sample collections to a minimum in this study because of financial constraints. The proposal ENV submitted for the 1989 Environmental Radiological Studies downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station reflected this reduction, but we believe, nevertheless, the 1989 efforts do allow us to make some meaningful comparisons with the previous studies. Cesium-137 is the most significant radionuclide still observed downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant. Only occasionally is {sup 134}Cs or {sup 60}CO observed. In 1989, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the water and fish decreased with distance from the plant to the same level that is was in 1987, and was lower than it had been from 1984 through 1986. The concentration ratio (CR) for {sup 137}Cs in fish is between 1000 and 1500, which is below the NRC default value of 2000. Physical mixing in the creek environment has moved the {sup 137}Cs deeper into the sediment column, thereby reducing the concentration in the top 12 cm relative to that in previous years. 8 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  14. Ecological risk screening to prioritize sites for cleanup at Yorktown Naval Weapons Station: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pehrman, D.G.; Rowles, L.K.; Thomson, R.

    1995-12-31

    Federal facilities pose a unique and difficult problem for the Superfund (CERCLA/SARA/NCP) process in that most Federal facilities have a large number of suspect areas that require some form of environmental investigation to determine the potential risk these areas present to human health and the environment. Because Federal facilities are, on the average, larger in comparison to private Superfund sites, not all of the identified suspect areas of contamination have gone through the PA/SI evaluation. Thus, some mechanism for evaluating the potential risk presented by these suspect areas is needed to determine which areas should continue in the risk assessment process, thereby allowing the remedial investigation process to focus on areas presenting the greatest threat to human health and/or the environment. Developing an ecological risk screening methodology for an areas with known or suspect contaminated media is an integral part in assessing and characterizing existing and potential overall threat presented to the environment. Sites which indicate risk in the screening phase may be prioritized and carried into the remedial investigation (RI) process. Alternately, sites which indicate risk in the screening process may be characterized for limited ecological investigation or possibly eliminated from further evaluation. This paper presents a case study of the ecological risk screening process used at the Naval Weapons Station, Yorktown, Virginia, a NPL site, to assess the effects of organic contamination to Accipitridae (eagles and hawks) and shorebirds with habitats encompassing Lee Pond, a freshwater pond tributary to the York River estuary. This discussion will include the use of the ecological risk screening process at the facility as a method of prioritizing and directing environmental restoration activities at those areas determined to have a potential threat to human health or the environment.

  15. Multi Station Frequency Response and Polarization of ELF/VLF Signals Generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, Ashanthi; Golkowski, Mark; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    ELF/VLF wave generation via HF modulated ionospheric heating has been practiced for many years as a unique way to generate waves in the ELF/VLF band (3 Hz - 30 kHz). This paper presents experimental results and associated theoretical modeling from work performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. An experiment was designed to investigate the modulation frequency dependence of the generated ELF/VLF signal amplitudes and polarization at multiple sites at distances of 37 km, 50 km and 99 km from the facility. While no difference is observed for X mode versus O mode modulation of the heating wave, it is found that ELF/VLF amplitude and polarization as a function of modulated ELF/VLF frequency is different for each site. An ionospheric heating code is used to determine the primary current sources leading to the observations.

  16. Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Kumar, Vimal; Kumar, Jaivender; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. The estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This paper describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) Nuclear Power Project site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman (Atmospheric Environment 28(4):713-721, 1994). Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analysed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics were studied for the NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at the NAPS site is observed to be 33.8, 19.5 and 34.7 % of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1 and 44.3 %) and recirculation (32.6 % of the summer season). The presence of more dispersed light winds during pre-winter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7 % of the pre-winter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent release from any nuclear industry during the pre-operational as well as operational phase.

  17. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  18. Levels of nonpolar organic compounds in the Columbia Generating Station cooling pond. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Andren, A.W.; Erickson, R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1970, plans to build a coal-fired generating station near Portage, Wisconsin and an interest by involved utilities in carrying out a preconstruction analysis of potential environmental changes created a unique opportunity for broadly based research on the impacts of coal-fired steam plants. Of particular concern to aquatic scientists are the potential problems associated with the 192-ha manmade cooling pond. The research presented in this report describes a survey of the types and levels of nonpolar xenobiotic organic compounds in sediments and fish from the cooling pond. Sediment and fish samples were analyzed for PCBs, Sigma DDT, and hexachlorobenzene using techniques developed at the Water Chemistry Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. It was hypothesized that polyaromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons would accumulate; however, results indicate that the microcontaminants do not concentrate in the cooling pond. Reasons for why there is no microcontaminant problem are presented.

  19. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  20. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-03-22

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the /sup 137/Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984.

  1. Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Appella, Ettore; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

  2. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  3. Fault identification using multidisciplinary techniques at the Mars/Uranus Station antenna sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santo, D. S.; Schluter, M. B.; Shlemon, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A fault investigation was performed at the Mars and Uranus antenna sites at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in the Mojave desert. The Mars/Uranus Station consists of two large-diameter reflector antennas used for communication and control of deep-space probes and other missions. The investigation included interpretation of Landsat thematic mapper scenes, side-looking airborne radar transparencies, and both color-infrared and black-and-white aerial photography. Four photolineaments suggestive of previously undocumented faults were identified. Three generally discrete morphostratigraphic alluvial-fan deposits were also recognized and dated using geomorphic and soil stratigraphic techniques. Fourteen trenches were excavated across the four lineaments; the trenches show that three of the photolineaments coincide with faults. The last displacement of two of the faults occurred between about 12,000 and 35,000 years ago. The third fault was judged to be older than 12,000 years before present (ybp), although uncertainty remains. None of the surface traces of the three faults crosses under existing antennas or structures; however, their potential activity necessitates appropriate seismic retrofit designs and loss-prevention measures to mitigate potential earthquake damage to facilities and structures.

  4. An astronomical site survey at the Barcroft Facility of the White Mountain Research Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvil, J.; Ansmann, M.; Childers, J.; Cole, T.; Davis, G. V.; Hadjiyska, E.; Halevi, D.; Heimberg, G.; Kangas, M.; Levy, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lubin, P.; Meinhold, P.; O'Neill, H.; Parendo, S.; Quetin, E.; Stebor, N.; Villela, T.; Williams, B.; Wuensche, C. A.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a distillation of weather and sky condition data collected from September 2001 to November 2004 at the University of California White Mountain Research Station, Barcroft Facility. Our conclusion is that Barcroft is an excellent site for microwave observation because of a cold microwave zenith temperature, low precipitable water, and a high percentage of clear days. The solar intensity was above 80% of the theoretical maximum 66% of the time. About 71% of the daytime, the cloud cover was acceptable for observing. Median precipitable water vapor was estimated to be 1.75 mm. We measure a median opacity at 225 GHz of 0.11, which corresponds to a transmission of 89.6%. Zenith sky temperatures were determined to be 9.0 ± 0.2 K and 10.0 ± 0.6 K in Q-band (38-46 GHz) and W-band (81-98 GHz), respectively. We also demonstrate a correlation between measurements of precipitable water vapor from a weatherstation and a 225 GHz radiometer.

  5. Geologic setting of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17 landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Boulder 1 at Station 2 is one of three boulders sampled by Apollo 17 at the base of the South Massif, which rises 2.3 km above the floor of a linear valley interpreted as a graben formed by deformation related to the southern Serenitatis impact. The boulders probably rolled from the upper part of the massif after emplacement of the light mantle. Orbital gravity data and photogeologic reinterpretation suggest that the Apollo 17 area is located approximately on the third ring of the southern Serenitatis basin, approximately 1.25 times larger than the analogous but fresher Orientale basin structure. The massif exposures are interpreted to represent the upper part of thick ejecta deposited by the southern Serenitatis impact near the rim of the transient cavity. Basin ring structure and the radial grabens that give the massifs definition were imposed on this ejecta at a slightly later stage in the basin-forming process. There is no clear-cut compositional, textural, or photogeologic evidence that Imbrium ejecta was collected at the Apollo 17 site. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  6. A Second-Generation Volatile Organic Analyzer for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Peters, Randy; James, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Early in the development of the Crew Health Care System (CHECS) for the International Space Station (ISS), it was recognized that detection of target volatile organic compounds would be a key component of the air monitoring strategy. Experiences during the NASA/Mir program supported the decision to include a real-time volatile organic analyzer (VOA) aboard ISS to help assess the impact of air quality events on crew health and determine the effectiveness of decontamination efforts. Toward this end, a joint development by the Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center and Graseby Dynamics produced a VOA that has been delivered and is ready for the first 5 years of ISS operation. The first-generation VOA selection criteria included minimizing size, weight, and power consumption while maintaining analytical performance. Measuring available technologies against these criteria, a VOA system based upon gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) was selected in the mid-90's. However, as NASA looks forward to later-stage ISS operations and to new frontiers such as human exploration of Mars, the ISS VOA (weighing 43 kg and consuming 160 watts) must be replaced by a smaller, less resource-intensive device. This paper will present a possible second-gene ration VOA based upon the same technology as the first-generation unit. Utilizing GC/IMS technology again will permit the instrumental data and experience gained during the initial phase of ISS to be applied to later ISS phases and advanced spacecraft missions. During the past 3 years, efforts to reduce the size of ion mobility spectrometers have been pursued by Graseby Dynamics, the manufacturer of the first-generation VOA. The concept of operation, expected analytical performance, and estimated size of a fully functional second-generation VOA based upon GC/mini-IMS technology will be presented. Furthermore, results of initial laboratory evaluations will be shown.

  7. Development of the Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Stinson, Richard G.; VanWie, Michael; Warren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The second generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer s (TOCA) function is to monitor concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in ISS water samples. TOC is one measurement that provides a general indication of overall water quality by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. The data generated from the TOCA is used as a hazard control to assess the quality of the reclaimed and stored water supplies on-orbit and their suitability for crew consumption. This paper details the unique ISS Program requirements, the design of the ISS TOCA, and a brief description of the on-orbit concept-of-operations. The TOCA schematic will be discussed in detail along with specific information regarding key components. The ISS TOCA was designed as a non-toxic TOC analyzer that could be deployed in a flight ready package. This basic concept was developed through laboratory component level testing, two moderate fidelity integrated system breadboard prototypes, a flight-like full scale prototype, as well as lessons learned from the inadequacies of the first unit. The result: a new TOCA unit that is robust in design and includes special considerations to microgravity and the on-orbit ISS environment. TOCA meets the accuracy needs of the ISS Program with a 1,000 to 25,000 g/L range, accurate to within +/-25%.

  8. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  9. Robotic camera for automatic localization of steam generator tubes in nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cers, Philippe; Garnero, Marie-Agnes

    1994-11-01

    Maintenance of steam generators occupies a substantial proportion of scheduled shutdowns at nuclear power stations. Maintenance operations are broken down into a number of distinct phases; these are performed separately to ensure accountability for the work carried out at each stage, thereby guaranteeing the quality of the maintenance process as a whole. One of these phases, known as `marking,' consists in locating certain tubes in the steam generator tube plate and marking them using a suitable system. The list of tubes for marking may be determined on the basis of prior tests. Marked tubes will undergo subsequent operations as required, such as plugging for example. Clearly, the quality of the marking process will have a significant impact on all subsequent maintenance operations on tubes in the secondary bundle. Present-day marking tools make little use of automation, and over-reliance on human judgement means that the marking phase is liable to error. Moreover, depending on the number of tubes to mark, this phase can be long and fastidious. With these considerations in mind, the EDF Research Division has developed a display system for locating steam generator tubes, with the main purpose of facilitating marking operations. Following an initialization phase, this system (named LUCANER) provides the operator with a simple, reliable and fully automatic method for locating tubes in the tube plate. Besides reducing the risk of error, the system also reduces the time required for the marking phase. The system can also be used for complementary phases involving checks on markings, checks on plugging, etc. In a wider context, it provides visual inspection capabilities over a large part of the bowl.

  10. Site 5 air sparging pilot test, Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Murray, W A; Lunardini, R C; Ullo, F J; Davidson, M E

    2000-02-25

    A 72-h air sparging pilot test was conducted at Site 5 (Operable Unit 2), Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, FL, to determine performance parameters necessary for full-scale design. The sparge well was completed to a depth of 29 ft, several feet below the groundwater plume contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Air flow rates supplied to the sparge well were 3 cubic feet/min (cfm) during the first day, 2 cfm during the second day, and 1 cfm during the third day. Water levels in monitoring wells initially rose approximately 2 ft during the first 4-5 h of the test, then receded back to pre-test equilibrium levels over the next 15 h, for a total duration of water mounding of about 20 h. A small (approximately 0.5 ft) water table drop, with subsequent recovery to equilibrium level, occurred each time the air sparging rate was decreased. Although there is considerable variation depending on direction from the sparge well, the average radius of influence varied from approximately 30 ft at 1 cfm to 50 ft at 3 cfm. The air sparge system was capable of increasing the dissolved oxygen from 0 to 6 or 7 mg/l within 12-15 h of air channels reaching a given location. A lag time of approximately 13 h was observed before air channels reached a radius of 30 ft and dissolved oxygen levels began to increase at that radius. CO(2) (stripped out of the groundwater by the sparging) decreased from a pre-test concentration of 150 to 20 mg/l at r=5 ft, and from 150 to 50 mg/l at r=30 ft, within a period of about 24 h. The rate of VOC mass removal during the pilot test was 0.06 lb/day at a sparge rate of 3 cfm, and it appears that air sparging will effect a rapid cleanup of the VOCs in the Site 5 groundwater plume.

  11. 75 FR 67784 - STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Water Act Section 402(p) Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (TPDES) general permit for... surface water quality. BMPs would be ] described in a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) that... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and...

  12. Niobate-based microwave dielectrics suitable for third generation mobile phone base stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, H.; Iddles, D. M.; Reaney, I. M.

    2001-10-01

    High unloaded quality factor (Qu), zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and high relative permittivity (ɛr) microwave dielectric ceramics have been fabricated based on BaZn1/3Nb2/3O3. Properties have been optimized for the composition, 0.9Ba([Zn0.60Co0.40]1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1Ba(Ga0.5Ta0.5)O3 for which Qu=32 000 @ 3.05 GHz, ɛr=35, and τf=0. The new compounds are disordered according to x-ray diffraction (XRD) and may be indexed using a simple perovskite unit cell, a=4.09 Å. Small peaks (e.g., d≈3.01 Å, relative intensity, 4.5) attributed to a barium niobate second phase are also present in XRD patterns. These ceramics are suitable in terms of cost and performance for base stations supporting third generation architecture.

  13. Elimination of redundant thermoluminescent dosemeter monitoring at Oyster Creek nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Oyster Creek direct radiation monitoring network has long been operating using several time-scale measurements. This network is used to assess the radiation levels during normal plant operations as well as to set the background radiation levels used to determine the radiological impact of a nonroutine release of radioactivity from the plant. Through analysis of the behavior of the monthly and quarterly activity of several types of direct radiation monitoring, the successful elimination of redundant and artificially high measurement techniques has been done in concert with providing the community with most efficient direct radiation monitoring methods. Dose rates from external radiation sources are measured around licensed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) facilities using passive detectors known as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These detectors provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the are in which they are placed. The detected radiation could be the result of cosmic or naturally occurring origin in the air and on the ground, prior nuclear weapons testing, and activity from a nuclear facility. This paper describes the TLD network placed around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) and the comparisons between TLDs of different manufacturers and of different resident times and the successful elimination of the less accurate monthly TLD for the purpose of cost containment.

  14. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  15. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  16. Single-station and Small Source Regions GMPE for Site-specific PSHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. C.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modern ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are based on datasets of ground-motion parameters recorded at multiple stations and different earthquakes in various source regions. This would cause excessive ground-motion variability and lead to overestimate of exceedance probability in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Recent efforts on decomposition for aleatory and epistemic variabilities and moving of the epistemic uncertainty to logic tree reveal that hazard level remains unchanged. To reduce the epistemic uncertainty so that the total variability is reduced in a GMPE becomes critical in the PSHA. In the present study, a total of 30,602 strong-motion records from TSMIP in Taiwan are selected and used to accomplish the regression analysis of a regional GMPE at the first step. Then, 9 stations in different part of Taiwan, each contains at least 55 records, are selected to complete a single-station GMPE, respectively, at the second step. The results reveal that the sigma of the regional GMPE is 0.626 in ln unit and the sigma of single-station GMPE is ranging 0.416 to 0.567. The single-station sigma is about 9% to 33% reduction from the regional one. At last, source zones are further divided in GMPEs, the sigma of single-station and small source regions GMPEs can be reduced 16% to 36% relative to the regional one. When PSHA is performed by adopting the single-station sigma, the hazard is 11% to 48% smaller then that regional sigma is used. The result of a PSHA may be further reduced, if this single-station to small source region attenuation relationship is used.

  17. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Glasius, Marianne; Sørensen, Lise L.; Jensen, Bjarne; Skov, Henrik; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kristensson, Adam; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Massling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS), northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3) might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10-30 nm) in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those events.

  18. Systematic Site Characterization at Seismic Stations combined with Empirical Spectral Modeling: critical data for local hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Clotaire; Hobiger, Manuel; Edwards, Benjamin; Poggi, Valerio; Burjanek, Jan; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Fäh, Donat

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service operates one of the densest national seismic networks in the world, still rapidly expanding (see http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/monitor/index_EN). Since 2009, every newly instrumented site is characterized following an established procedure to derive realistic 1D VS velocity profiles. In addition, empirical Fourier spectral modeling is performed on the whole network for each recorded event with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Besides the source characteristics of the earthquakes, statistical real time analyses of the residuals of the spectral modeling provide a seamlessly updated amplification function w.r. to Swiss rock conditions at every station. Our site characterization procedure is mainly based on the analysis of surface waves from passive experiments and includes cross-checks of the derived amplification functions with those obtained through spectral modeling. The systematic use of three component surface-wave analysis, allowing the derivation of both Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves, also contributes to the improved quality of the retrieved profiles. The results of site characterisation activities at recently installed strong-motion stations depict the large variety of possible effects of surface geology on ground motion in the Alpine context. Such effects range from de-amplification at hard-rock sites to amplification up to a factor of 15 in lacustrine sediments with respect to the Swiss reference rock velocity model. The derived velocity profiles are shown to reproduce observed amplification functions from empirical spectral modeling. Although many sites are found to exhibit 1D behavior, our procedure allows the detection and qualification of 2D and 3D effects. All data collected during the site characterization procedures in the last 20 years are gathered in a database, implementing a data model proposed for community use at the European scale through NERA and EPOS (www.epos-eu.org). A web stationbook derived from it

  19. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  20. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  1. Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to stations in Eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Coastal tide-gauges play a very important role in a Tsunami Warning System, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat and the tsunami arrival has to be recognised as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetime, if not any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, that is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA for two stations, namely Tremestieri and Catania, in eastern Sicily, Italy, that have been recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

  2. Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to coastal tide-gauge stations in eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal tide gauges play a very important role in a tsunami warning system, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat, and the tsunami arrival has to be recognized as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection, they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetimes, if any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, which is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm) for two stations (namely Tremestieri and Catania) in eastern Sicily, Italy, which were recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

  3. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  4. Target Site Recognition by a Diversity-Generating Retroelement

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huatao; Tse, Longping V.; Nieh, Angela W.; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Williams, Steven; Oukil, Sabrina; Liu, Vincent B.; Miller, Jeff F.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are in vivo sequence diversification machines that are widely distributed in bacterial, phage, and plasmid genomes. They function to introduce vast amounts of targeted diversity into protein-encoding DNA sequences via mutagenic homing. Adenine residues are converted to random nucleotides in a retrotransposition process from a donor template repeat (TR) to a recipient variable repeat (VR). Using the Bordetella bacteriophage BPP-1 element as a prototype, we have characterized requirements for DGR target site function. Although sequences upstream of VR are dispensable, a 24 bp sequence immediately downstream of VR, which contains short inverted repeats, is required for efficient retrohoming. The inverted repeats form a hairpin or cruciform structure and mutational analysis demonstrated that, while the structure of the stem is important, its sequence can vary. In contrast, the loop has a sequence-dependent function. Structure-specific nuclease digestion confirmed the existence of a DNA hairpin/cruciform, and marker coconversion assays demonstrated that it influences the efficiency, but not the site of cDNA integration. Comparisons with other phage DGRs suggested that similar structures are a conserved feature of target sequences. Using a kanamycin resistance determinant as a reporter, we found that transplantation of the IMH and hairpin/cruciform-forming region was sufficient to target the DGR diversification machinery to a heterologous gene. In addition to furthering our understanding of DGR retrohoming, our results suggest that DGRs may provide unique tools for directed protein evolution via in vivo DNA diversification. PMID:22194701

  5. Target site recognition by a diversity-generating retroelement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huatao; Tse, Longping V; Nieh, Angela W; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Williams, Steven; Oukil, Sabrina; Liu, Vincent B; Miller, Jeff F

    2011-12-01

    Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are in vivo sequence diversification machines that are widely distributed in bacterial, phage, and plasmid genomes. They function to introduce vast amounts of targeted diversity into protein-encoding DNA sequences via mutagenic homing. Adenine residues are converted to random nucleotides in a retrotransposition process from a donor template repeat (TR) to a recipient variable repeat (VR). Using the Bordetella bacteriophage BPP-1 element as a prototype, we have characterized requirements for DGR target site function. Although sequences upstream of VR are dispensable, a 24 bp sequence immediately downstream of VR, which contains short inverted repeats, is required for efficient retrohoming. The inverted repeats form a hairpin or cruciform structure and mutational analysis demonstrated that, while the structure of the stem is important, its sequence can vary. In contrast, the loop has a sequence-dependent function. Structure-specific nuclease digestion confirmed the existence of a DNA hairpin/cruciform, and marker coconversion assays demonstrated that it influences the efficiency, but not the site of cDNA integration. Comparisons with other phage DGRs suggested that similar structures are a conserved feature of target sequences. Using a kanamycin resistance determinant as a reporter, we found that transplantation of the IMH and hairpin/cruciform-forming region was sufficient to target the DGR diversification machinery to a heterologous gene. In addition to furthering our understanding of DGR retrohoming, our results suggest that DGRs may provide unique tools for directed protein evolution via in vivo DNA diversification.

  6. Launching the Next Generation IODP Site Survey Data Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Helly, J.; Clark, D.; Eakins, B.; Sutton, D.; Weatherford, J.; Thatch, G.; Miville, B.; Zelt, B.

    2005-12-01

    The next generation all-digital Site Survey Data Bank (SSDB) became operational on August 15, 2005 as an online resource for Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) proponents, reviewers, panels and operations, worldwide. There are currently 123 active proposals for drilling at sites distributed across the globe, involving nearly 1000 proponents from more than 40 countries. The goal is to provide an authoritative, persistent, secure, password-controlled and easily-used home for contributed data objects, as proposals evolve through their life cycle from preliminary phases to planned drilling expeditions. Proposal status can be monitored graphically by proposal number, data type or date. A Java SSDBviewer allows discovery of all proposal data objects, displayed over a basemap of global topography, crustal age or other custom maps. Data can be viewed or downloaded under password control. Webform interfaces assist with the uploading of data and metadata. Thirty four different standard data types are currently supported. The system was designed as a fully functioning digital library, not just a database or a web archive, drawing upon the resources of the SIOExplorer Digital Library project. Blocks of metadata are organized to support discovery and use, as appropriate for each data type. The SSDB has been developed by a UCSD team of researchers and computer scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the San Diego Supercomputer Center, under contract with IODP Management International Inc., supported by NSF OCE 0432224.

  7. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    microzonation map based on generalized velocity profiles, where the amplifications were computed using Shake (Schnable and others, 1972), along with an assumed input ground motion. The velocities were constrained by only a few local measurements associated with the Central Artery/Tunnel project. The additional VS measurements presented in this report provide a number of benefits. First, these measurements provide improved spatial coverage. Second, the larger sample size provides better constraints on the mean and variance of the VS distribution for each layer, which may be paired with a three-dimensional (3D) model of the stratigraphy to generate one-dimensional (1D) profiles for use in a standard site-response analysis (for example, Britton, 2003). Third, the velocity profiles may also be used, along with a 3D model of the stratigraphy, as input into a 3D simulation of the ground motion to investigate the effects of basin-generated surface waves and the potential focusing of seismic waves.This report begins with a short review of the geology of the study area and the field methods that we used to estimate the velocity profiles. The raw data, processed data, and the interpreted VS profiles are given in appendix 1. Photographs and descriptions of the sites are provided in appendix 2.

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

  9. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  10. The installation campaign of 9 seismic stations around the KTB site to test anisotropy detection by the Receiver Function Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Gribovski, K.; Bokelmann, G.

    2015-09-01

    The project at hand is a field test around the KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz, Southeastern Germany, at the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif. The region has been extensively studied through the analysis of several seismic reflection lines deployed around the drilling site. The deep borehole had been placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and it descended down to a depth of 9101 m. In our experiment, we aim to recover structural information as well as anisotropy of the upper crust using the receiver function technique. This retrieved information is the basis for comparing the out-coming anisotropy amount and orientation with information of rock samples from up to 9 km depth, and with high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. For that purpose, we installed 9 seismic stations, and recorded seismicity continuously for two years from June 2012 to July 2014.

  11. 12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOMRCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOM-RCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM WAS ORIGINALLY A MOTOR GENERATOR FACILITY AND SUPPLIED DC POWER TO AN EARLIER GENERATION OF POINT-TO-POINT RECEIVERS ON SECOND FLOOR). VIEW SHOWS TRANSMITTER CONTROL STATION AND AUDIO CONTROL STATION (LEFT, WATKINS-JOHNSON WJ-8718-23. HP RECEIVERS AND KENWOOD R-5000 COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS (220 DEGREES). - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  12. Progress in energy generation for Canadian remote sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Y.; Younes, R.; Abboudi, S.; Ilinca, A.; Nohra, C.

    2016-07-01

    Many remote areas around the world are isolated, for various reasons, from electricity networks. They are usually supplied with electricity through diesel generators. The cost of operation and transportation of diesel fuel in addition to its price have led to the procurement of a more efficient and environmentally greener method of supply. Various studies have shown that a wind-diesel hybrid system with compressed air storage (WDCAS) seems to be one of the best solutions, and presents itself as an optimal configuration for the electrification of isolated sites. This system allows significant fuel savings to be made because the stored compressed air is used to supercharge the engine. In order to optimize system performance and minimize fuel consumption, installation of a system for recovering and storing the heat of compression (TES) seems necessary. In addition, the use of hydro-pneumatic energy storage systems that use the same machine as the hydraulic pump and turbine allow us to store energy in tight spaces and, if possible, contribute to power generation. The scrupulous study of this technical approach will be the focus of our research which will validate (or not) the use of such a system for the regulation of frequency of electrical networks. In this article we will skim through the main research that recently examined the wind-diesel hybrid system which addressed topics such as adiabatic compression and hydro-pneumatic storage. Instead, we will offer (based on existing studies) a new ACP-WDCAS (wind-diesel hybrid system with adiabatic air compression and storage at constant pressure), which combines these three concepts in one system for the optimization of wind-diesel hybrid system.

  13. The Next Generation of Transcription Factor Binding Site Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2013-01-01

    Finding where transcription factors (TFs) bind to the DNA is of key importance to decipher gene regulation at a transcriptional level. Classically, computational prediction of TF binding sites (TFBSs) is based on basic position weight matrices (PWMs) which quantitatively score binding motifs based on the observed nucleotide patterns in a set of TFBSs for the corresponding TF. Such models make the strong assumption that each nucleotide participates independently in the corresponding DNA-protein interaction and do not account for flexible length motifs. We introduce transcription factor flexible models (TFFMs) to represent TF binding properties. Based on hidden Markov models, TFFMs are flexible, and can model both position interdependence within TFBSs and variable length motifs within a single dedicated framework. The availability of thousands of experimentally validated DNA-TF interaction sequences from ChIP-seq allows for the generation of models that perform as well as PWMs for stereotypical TFs and can improve performance for TFs with flexible binding characteristics. We present a new graphical representation of the motifs that convey properties of position interdependence. TFFMs have been assessed on ChIP-seq data sets coming from the ENCODE project, revealing that they can perform better than both PWMs and the dinucleotide weight matrix extension in discriminating ChIP-seq from background sequences. Under the assumption that ChIP-seq signal values are correlated with the affinity of the TF-DNA binding, we find that TFFM scores correlate with ChIP-seq peak signals. Moreover, using available TF-DNA affinity measurements for the Max TF, we demonstrate that TFFMs constructed from ChIP-seq data correlate with published experimentally measured DNA-binding affinities. Finally, TFFMs allow for the straightforward computation of an integrated TF occupancy score across a sequence. These results demonstrate the capacity of TFFMs to accurately model DNA

  14. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the Space Station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, H. K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the low earth orbital environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low earth orbital environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the Space Station with the desired life are also summarized.

  15. ECOSTRESS: NASA'S Next-Generation Mission to Measure Evapotranspiration from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Hook, S. J.; Allen, R. G.; Anderson, M. C.; French, A. N.; Hain, C.; Hulley, G. C.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, NASA selected the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) as part of the call for Earth Venture Instruments. Built and led out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), ECOSTRESS will produce Land Surface Temperature, Evapotranspiration, Water Use Efficiency, and Evaporative Stress Index data products at 38x57 m spatial resolution every few days from the International Space Station. Moreover, because of the shifting orbit of the Space Station, ECOSTRESS will be able to construct a diurnal cycle of measurements enabling detection of, for example, afternoon stomatal closure in water stressed areas; detection is further enhanced in heterogeneous environments (e.g., mixed-species forests, agricultural areas) by the high spatial resolution. ECOSTRESS is scheduled for launch in 2017.

  16. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  17. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  18. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies SPS comparative assessment. Volume 2: Central-station technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives are described. The alternatives are: conventional coal-fired powerplants; conventional light water reactors; combined cycle powerplants with low-Btu gasifiers; liquid metal fast breeder reactors; photovoltaic systems without storage; and fusion reactors.

  19. Analysis of broadband seismic noise at the German Regional Seismic Network and search for improved alternative station sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, P.; Wylegalla, K.; Klinge, K.

    The German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) comprizes now 16 digital broadband stations equipped with Wieland-Streckeisen STS-2 seismometers, 24-bit dataloggers and a seismological data center at Erlangen. It covers the whole territory of Germany with station-spacings between 80 km to 240 km. The stations are sited in very different environments ranging from near shore at the Baltic Sea coast up to distances of about 700 km from the coast, both within cities and up to about 10 km away from any major settlement, industry or traffic roads. The underground varies from outcropping hard rocks in Hercynian mountain areas, sedimentary rocks in areas of Mesozoic platform cover to up to 1.5 km unconsolidated Quarternary and Tertiary subsoil. Accordingly, seismic background noise varies in a wide range between the upper and lower bounds of the new global noise model. The noise conditions at the GRSN have been investigated systematically by means of displacement power spectral analysis within the frequency range 10-2 5 for RUE and > 10 for BSEG have been confirmed for frequencies between about 0.6 Hz 3 Hz. Strong lateral velocity and impedance contrasts between the outcropping Triassic/Permian sedimentary rocks and the surrounding unconsolidated Quarternary/Tertiary sediments are shown to be the main cause for the strong noise reduction and signal-to-noise ratio improvement at RUE and can account for about 50% of the noise reduction at BSEG.

  20. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.J.; Fusegni, L.J.; McFarland, W.J.; Andreone, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ``Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment`` to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG`s at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-01-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-07-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 321 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 22, and consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This CAS contains a fuel storage area approximately 325 by 540 feet, which was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historical Camp Desert Rock facility, which was operational from 1951 to 1958. The corrective action investigation conducted in February 1999 found the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels to be total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics at two sample locations. During this investigation, the two corrective action objectives identified were (1) to prevent or mitigate exposure to near-surface soil containing contaminants of concern, and (2) to prevent spread of contaminants of concern beyond the corrective action unit. Based on the corrective action objectives, the two corrective action alternatives developed for consideration were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. The two alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors, and the preferred corrective action alternative chosen on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety was Alternative 2. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Weather Station Fuel Storage site.

  3. Full scale remediation of an explosives-contaminated site at Yorktown Naval Weapons Station using the SABRE{trademark} process

    SciTech Connect

    Kaake, R.H.; Bono, J.; Yergovich, T.

    1997-12-31

    Characterization of a former weapons loading and assembly facility identified soil contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). The site contains of a variety of discrete soil types that include clay, sand, and humus. A portion of the site is also periodically submerged due to tidal action. Treatability studies were performed in conjunction with the Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. Studies indicated the SABRE Process could successfully treat the soil to the specified treatment goals. A full scale demonstration of the Simplot Anaerobic Biological Remediation (SABRE{trademark}) Process was carried out at the Yorktown, Virginia Naval Weapons Station. Over 650 yd{sup 3} of soil was treated to less than 2.5 mg/kg TNT in approximately 30 days. Initial concentrations were estimated to be 450 mg/kg. The soil was screened and placed into an in-ground, double-lined biocell using a soil fluidizing system.

  4. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  5. Goal-driven Automation of a Deep Space Communications Station: A Case Study in Knowledge Engineering for Plan Generation and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R. W., Jr.; Chien, S. A.; Fayyad, K. V.; Chien, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques for plan generation, plan execution, and plan monitoring to automate a Deep Space Communication Station. This automation allows a Communication station to respond to a set of tracking goals by appropriately reconfiguring the communications hardware and software to provide the requested communications services.

  6. Radiocarbon-depleted CO2 evidence for fuel biodegradation at the Naval Air Station North Island (USA) fuel farm site.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Thomas J; Pound, Michael J; Lohr, Daniel; Coffin, Richard B

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved CO(2) radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured in groundwater from a fuel contaminated site at the North Island Naval Air Station in San Diego, CA (USA). A background groundwater sampling well and 16 wells in the underground fuel contamination zone were evaluated. For each sample, a two end-member isotopic mixing model was used to determine the fraction of CO(2) derived from fossil fuel. The CO(2) fraction from fossil sources ranged from 8 to 93% at the fuel contaminated site, while stable carbon isotope values ranged from -14 to +5‰VPDB. Wells associated with highest historical and contemporary fuel contamination showed the highest fraction of CO(2) derived from petroleum (fossil) sources. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicated sub-regions on-site with recycled CO(2) (δ(13)CO(2) as high as +5‰VPDB) - most likely resulting from methanogenesis. Ancillary measurements (pH and cations) were used to determine that no fossil CaCO(3), for instance limestone, biased the analytical conclusions. Radiocarbon analysis is verified as a viable and definitive technique for confirming fossil hydrocarbon conversion to CO(2) (complete oxidation) at hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater sites. The technique should also be very useful for assessing the efficacy of engineered remediation efforts and by using CO(2) production rates, contaminant mass conversion over time and per unit volume.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  8. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  9. Building the Next Generation of Scientific Explorers through Active Engagement with STEM Experts and International Space Station Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.; Stefanov, W. L.; Rampe, E.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity for all. These experts can share the benefits and utilization of resources from the International Space Station (ISS) while sharing and "translating" exciting science being conducted by professional scientists. Active engagement with these STEM experts involves students in the journey of science and exploration in an enthralling and understandable manner. This active engagement, connecting classrooms with scientific experts, helps inspire and build the next generation of scientific explorers in academia, private industry, and government.

  10. Inspiring the Next Generation: Student Experiments and Educational Activities on the International Space Station, 2000-2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Donald A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    One important objective of NASA has always been to inspire the next generation. NASA and human space flight have a unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers. The presence of humans onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for more than five years now has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing the interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet even before the Expedition 1 crew arrived at station in November 2000, experiments with student participation were being conducted onboard ISS in support of NASA missions. One of NASA's protein crystal growth experiments had been delivered to station by the shuttle Atlantis during STS-106 in September 2000 and was returned to Earth six weeks later aboard the shuttle Discovery during the STS-92 mission. From very early on it was recognized that students would have a strong interest in the ISS, and that this would provide a unique opportunity for them to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects on ISS. It should be noted that participation is not limited to U.S. students but involves the 16 International Partner countries and various other countries under special commercial agree

  11. A preliminary study on the effects of combined halogenation and thermal recirculation at a coal-fired generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schnelle, R.C.; Strimple, P.D.

    1995-06-01

    East Bend Station is a single-unit, 650 megawatt, coal-fired generating station, located at Ohio River mile 510, near Rabbit Hash, Kentucky. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers were first detected at East Bend on 23 July 1992. Since then, the station has adopted a plan for preventing the settlement of zebra mussel veligers, by utilizing a combined halogenation and thermal recirculation treatment regime. A backflush pipeline was constructed, allowing 100% of the heated service water to be recycled through the intake well. During weekly treatments, the service water return to the river is valved out and water temperature is ramped up to between 31{degrees} - 35{degrees}C. HTH (calcium hypochlorite @65% available chlorine) is then slug-fed directly into the intake well. The temperature is maintained until the chlorine residual is below detectable limits. In addition to the weekly combined treatments, the service water system is also brominated for two hours, three times weekly, to 0.5 mg/1 TRO. Treatment efficacy is monitored, using a plexiglas biobox, seeded with adult mussels obtained from a substrate monitor attached to a barge cell and submerged to a depth of 3 meters. Preliminary results show both treatments to be ineffective for adult kill, however, it is believed that any newly-settle juveniles are being killed. Intake and equipment inspections during an upcoming unit outage will provide further verification. Additional testing, using various halogenation techniques, will be conducted during 1995.

  12. Application of index of biotic integrity (IBI) to fixed station water quality monitoring sites

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Biological monitoring aspects of Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (SWMS) Fixed Station Ambient Monitoring Network include sampling and analysis of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The principal objective of the biological monitoring portions of SWMS is to assess the health'' or quality of the aquatic environment in given stream reaches. This report deals with two aspects of biological monitoring, structural and physical characteristics of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. These are considered relative to physical and chemical aquatic environmental conditions in an attempt to identify likely causes of any recognizable perturbations of the aquatic biological communities. Specifically, fish are sampled to measure species richness, species composition, trophic structure, fish abundance, and condition. Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled to allow an assessment of species richness, taxonomic composition, and community structure. Biological monitoring, incorporated into SWMS in 1986, was continued for the third year in 1988 with a repeat of 1986 sampling. This report presents 1988 findings and discusses differences between 1988 and 1987 findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  13. Potential availability of diesel waste heat at Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy consumption at the Goldstone Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12) is predicted and quantified for a future station configuration which will involve implementation of proposed energy conservation modifications. Cogeneration by the utilization of diesel waste-heat to satisfy site heating and cooling requirements of the station is discussed. Scenarios involving expanded use of on-site diesel generators are presented.

  14. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  15. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION POWER UNITS AT MARGINAL OIL WELL SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Carl

    2003-10-29

    The CEC approved funding on April 9, 2003 for $1,000,000.00 instead of the $1,500,000.00 COPE requested for the project. A kickoff meeting with the California Energy Commission (CEC) was held on Monday, April 14, 2003, in their Sacramento, CA offices. Mark Carl, IOGCC project manager for the DOE grant, attended this meeting, along with Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu, Mike Merlo and CEC officials. The change in funding by the CEC required a modification in the scope of work and an amended form DOE F 4600.1. The modifications were completed and the IOGCC received approval to commence work on the project on May 9, 2003. On May 29, 2003, Virginia Weyland with DOE/NETL, Mark Carl with IOGCC, and Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu and Mike Merlo, consultants with COPE, participated in a teleconference kick-off meeting. During May, 2003, COPE canvassed its membership for potential locations for the four test sites. They received a very good response and have identified at least two potential sites for each of the four test sites. COPE has been obtaining gas samples from the various potential lease sites for analyses to verify the chemical properties analyses which the oil and gas producers provided during the initial contact period. The St. James project located at 814 W. 23 rd Street in Los Angeles, California, was selected as the first test site for the project. A Project Advisory Committee (PAC) was established in May, 2003. The following representatives from each of the following areas of expertise comprise the PAC membership. Acquisition of permits for the initial test site has required drawn out negotiations with CEC which has hindered progress on the technical aspects of the project. The technical aspects will begin aggressively beginning in October, 2003. The Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) donated three Capstone micro-turbines to the project. These micro-turbines will be utilized at the St. James Project site located in Los Angeles

  16. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  17. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health. PMID:24289020

  18. A multi-site stochastic weather generator of daily precipitation and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stochastic weather generators are used to generate time series of climate variables that have statistical properties similar to those of observed data. Most stochastic weather generators work for a single site, and can only generate climate data at a single point, or independent time series at sever...

  19. Principal facts of gravity stations with gravity and magnetic profiles from the Southwest Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, as of January, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jansma, P.E.; Snyder, D.B.; Ponce, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Three gravity profiles and principal facts of 2,604 gravity stations in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site are documented in this data report. The residual gravity profiles show the gravity measurements and the smoothed curves derived from these points that were used in geophysical interpretations. The principal facts include station label, latitude, longitude, elevation, observed gravity value, and terrain correction for each station as well as the derived complete Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, reduced at 2.67 g/cm 3. Accuracy codes, where available, further document the data.

  20. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  1. Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard Arden

    1972-01-01

    The Nuclear Rocket Development Station, in Jackass Flats, occupies about 123 square miles in the southwestern part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. Jackass Flats, an intermontane valley bordered by highlands on all sides except for a drainage outlet in the southwestern corner, has an average annual rainfall of 4 inches. Jackass Flats is underlain by alluvium, colluvium, and volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and, at greater depth, by sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The alluvium and the colluvium lie above the saturated zone throughout nearly all of Jackass Flats. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks contain limestone and dolomite units that are excellent water producers elsewhere ; however, these units are too deep in Jackass Flats to be economic sources of water. The only important water-producing unit known in the vicinity of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is a welded-tuff aquifer, the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, which receives no significant recharge. This member contains about 500 feet of highly fractured rock underlying an area 11 miles long and 3 miles wide in western Jackass Flats. Permeability of the aquifer is derived mostly from joints and fractures; however, some permeability may be derived from gas bubbles in the upper part of the unit. Transmissivity, obtained from pumping tests, ranges from 68,000 to 488,000 gallons per day per foot. Volume of the saturated part of the aquifer is about 3.5 cubic miles, and the average specific yield probably ranges from 1 to 5 percent. The volume of ground water in storage is probably within the range of 37-187 billion gallons. This large amount of water should be sufficient to supply the needs of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station for many years. Water at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is used for public supply, construction, test-cell coolant, exhaust cooling, and thermal shielding during nuclear reactor and engine testing, and washdown. Present (1967) average

  2. Dig-and-mix bioventing enhances hydrocarbon degradation at service station site

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.; Martinson, M. ); Smith, G. ); McCain, L.

    1993-12-01

    Oil venting has been used for many years as a cost-effective, in situ treatment for volatile hydrocarbons, such as gasoline. The process involves flushing contaminated soils with air to remove the hydrocarbons. Treatment rate depends on air flow through the soils and how effectively the hydrocarbon contaminants partition into the mobile air phase. Because contaminants must volatilize and partition into air undergoing removal, fuels containing significant amounts of low-volatility hydrocarbons--such as diesel fuel, fuel oils or jet fuels--often are not targeted for remediation by soil venting. Sites having soil heterogeneities that result in uneven air permeability also can prevent effective treatment using conventional soil venting.

  3. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  4. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  5. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  6. Mapping Homing Endonuclease Cleavage Sites Using In Vitro Generated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the precise position of endonucleolytic cleavage sites is a fundamental experimental technique used to describe the function of a homing endonuclease. However, these proteins are often recalcitrant to cloning and over-expression in biological systems because of toxicity induced by spurious DNA cleavage events. In this chapter we outline the steps to successfully express a homing endonuclease in vitro and use this product in nucleotide-resolution cleavage assays. PMID:24510259

  7. Space Station Power Generation in Support of the Beta Gimbal Anomaly Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Propp, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex spacecraft ever assembled and operated in orbit. The first U.S. photovoltaic (PV) module, containing two solar arrays, was launched, installed, and activated in early December 2000. After the first week of continuously rotating the U.S. solar arrays, engineering personnel in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) observed higher than expected electrical currents on the drive motor in one of the Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA), the mechanism used to maneuver a U.S. solar array. The magnitude of the motor currents continued to increase over time on both BGA's, creating concerns about the ability of the gimbals to continue pointing the solar arrays towards the sun, a function critical for continued assembly of the ISS. A number of engineering disciplines convened in May 2001 to address this on-orbit hardware anomaly. This paper reviews the ISS electrical power system (EPS) analyses performed to develop viable operational workarounds that would minimize BGA use while maintaining sufficient solar array power to continue assembly of the ISS. Additionally, EPS analyses performed in support of on-orbit BGA troubleshooting exercises is reviewed. EPS capability analyses were performed using SPACE, a computer code developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the ISS program office.

  8. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Modica, Catherine; Bodkin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up ]mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that there is a wide variability with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, therefore baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  9. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia; Aber, Gregory; Adam, Niklas; Clements, Anna; Modica, Catherine; Younker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems which are less dependent on hardware that would need to be launched on a regular basis. Three systems for electrochemical production of potable water disinfectants are being assessed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). Since there is a wide variability in the literature with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, there is a need to establish baseline efficacy values. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to determine whether these electrochemical disinfection devices are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  10. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Adams, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Botkin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle Program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up-mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that a wide variability exists with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants; therefore, baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on the ISS.

  11. Program helps pick site for renewable energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-11-13

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald - excerpt pasted below: Sunshine and wind are two things we know well in the Tri-Cities area and beyond. My own backyard is a perpetual vortex of breezy fun, for example, to the point that it almost seems silly not to harness it for something useful. But I recently learned that when we're talking about building renewable energy generation capacity, it's not quite as simple as 'If you build it, they will come.' In fact, according to renewable energy expert and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researcher John DeSteese, there are several criteria that make a piece of property suitable for this kind of development. DeSteese and his team recently completed an assessment regarding the use of specific land for renewable power generation through PNNL's Technology Assistance Program.

  12. Development of a quick-reaction commercial launch site at the Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.; O'Connor, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a description of a project which will provide a launch complex for several launch vehicles and sounding rockets. A design requirement for the complex is that it be a quick-reaction facility capable of supporting a launch within as short as six hours from notification of the need to launch. The paper describes the organization of a state and federal effort to accomplish this so as to enhance the capability of the Cape Canaveral launch site to support commercial space launch activity. The study effort envisions commercial launches as the driving need, however scientific launches will also benefit from this capability and they are also addressed. Quick-reaction missions in the fields of space commerce-termed ``Business Express''-and in the fields of science-termed ``Science Express''-are identified. The Spaceport Florida Authority is undertaking the development of this launch capability. The Spaceport Florida Authority together with its past programs as well as future efforts is described, as is the proposed quick-reaction launch complex.

  13. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment associated with coal and ash... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment associated with coal and ash... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment associated with coal and ash... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b)...

  16. Development of a System to Generate Near Real Time Tropospheric Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor in situ at Geodetic GPS Stations, to Improve Forecasting of Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. W.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Morris, T.; Offield, D. G.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a system under development for generating ultra-low latency tropospheric delay and precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates in situ at a prototype network of geodetic GPS sites in southern California, and demonstrating their utility in forecasting severe storms commonly associated with flooding and debris flow events along the west coast of North America through infusion of this meteorological data at NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Offices and the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The first continuous geodetic GPS network was established in southern California in the early 1990s and much of it was converted to real-time (latency <1s) high-rate (1Hz) mode over the following decades. GPS stations are multi-purpose and can also provide estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV using collocated pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology (Bevis et al. 1992, 1994; Duan et al. 1996) as implemented by NOAA with a nationwide distribution of about 300 GPS-Met stations providing PW estimates at subhourly resolution currently used in operational weather forecasting in the U.S. We improve upon the current paradigm of transmitting large quantities of raw data back to a central facility for processing into higher-order products. By operating semi-autonomously, each station will provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of the narrow communications bandwidth that often occurs in the aftermath of natural disasters. The onsite ambiguity-resolved precise point positioning solutions are enabled by a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS and a low-cost MEMS meteorological sensor package. The decreased latency (~5 minutes) PW estimates will provide the detailed knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of PW that NWS forecasters require to monitor and predict severe winter

  17. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-06-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment.

  18. Remote-site power generation opportunities for Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working with the Federal Energy Technology Center in Morgantown, West Virginia, to assess options for small, low-cost, environmental acceptable power generation for application in remote areas of Alaska. The goal of this activity was to reduce the use of fuel in Alaskan villages by developing small, low-cost power generation applications. Because of the abundance of high-quality coal throughout Alaska, emphasis was placed on clean coal applications, but other energy sources, including geothermal, wind, hydro, and coalbed methane, were also considered. The use of indigenous energy sources would provide cheaper cleaner power, reduce the need for PCE (Power Cost Equalization program) subsidies, increase self-sufficiency, and retain hard currency in the state while at the same time creating jobs in the region. The introduction of economical, small power generation systems into Alaska by US equipment suppliers and technology developers aided by the EERC would create the opportunities for these companies to learn how to engineer, package, transport, finance, and operate small systems in remote locations. All of this experience would put the US developers and equipment supply companies in an excellent position to export similar types of small power systems to rural areas or developing countries. Thus activities in this task that relate to determining the generic suitability of these technologies for other countries can increase US competitiveness and help US companies sell these technologies in foreign countries, increasing the number of US jobs. The bulk of this report is contained in the two appendices: Small alternative power workshop, topical report and Global market assessment of coalbed methane, fluidized-bed combustion, and coal-fired diesel technologies in remote applications.

  19. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  20. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  1. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

  2. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

  3. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1986-02-06

    Information compiled in 1985 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides previously discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant is presented. In October 1984, the quantities of gamma-emitting radionuclides in water discharged to Clay Creek from the plant were reduced below operationally defined detection limits for liquid effluents. However, radionuclides previously discharged persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of different fish, crayfish, and frogs. Coefficients for exponential equations are generated, from a least square analysis, that relate the change in concentration of /sup 137/Cs in fish to distance downstream and time between March and October 1985. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in surface creek sediments also decreased in the downstream direction much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. However, there was no significant difference in the radiocesium concentrations in surface sediements collected from comparable locations during both 1984 and 1985.

  4. 75 FR 13801 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order Extending the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Company, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order Extending the Effectiveness of the Approval... holder of licenses DPR-39 and DPR-48, for the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (Zion...

  5. Technical evaluation of the adequacy of station electric distribution system voltages for the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Unit No. 1: selected issues program (Docket No. 50-312)

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. L.

    1981-11-10

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the adequacy of the station electric distribution system voltages for the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station, Unit No. 1. The evaluation is to determine if the onsite distribution system, in conjunction with the offsite power sources, has sufficient capacity to automatically start and operate all Class 1E loads within the equipment voltage ratings under certain conditions established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The licensee demonstrates with the analysis that with certain modifications the guidelines and requirements of the NRC will be met.

  6. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  7. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  9. Metal amounts in the lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not. ) Bagl. transplanted at biomonitoring sites around a new coal-fired power station after 1 year of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.

    1987-06-01

    The lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. was transplanted to 22 biomonitoring sites for 1 year (1981-1982). The amounts of Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe in the lichen material were measured at the end of the transplantation period and the data were compared with the amounts of five of these metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb) which were detected in the same lichen species transplanted in the same study area during the 1979-1980 period. The differences between the amounts of the five metals detected during the two periods are discussed. The increase in amounts of some of the metals in the 1981-1982 lichen material (Pb, Ni, and probably Cr) reflects the increase in the total number of motor vehicles between the two periods within the study area. The decrease of Zn in the lichen after the second period reflects a decrease in the use of Zn as a constituent of foliar nutrients in agriculture used for crop spraying. The increase of Cr and Ni in the transplanted lichen after the 1981-1982 period probably also reflects, apart from vehicle pollution, a certain emission from the 250-m-high stacks of a new coal-fired electricity-generating power station.

  10. Candidate wind turbine generator site: annual data summary, January 1981-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.

    1982-07-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 34 candidate and wind turbine generator sites for calendar year 1981 are presented. These data are collected for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, wind speed, direction, and distribution data are given in eight tables. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

  11. Candidate wind turbine generator site annual data summary for January 1979 through December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for fifteen candidate and wind turbine generator sites are presented in this report. These data are collected for the Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, data are given in eight tables and one figure. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

  12. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  13. Spaceflight effects on consecutive generations of peas grown onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Gostimsky, Sergey A.; Bingham, Gail E.; Podolsky, Igor G.

    2007-02-01

    In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations. According to our results, pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis (from seed to seed) taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants. In addition, four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds. Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the "space" and "ground" seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of chromosomal aberrations count and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (molecular method). No genetic polymorphism was found either in the experimental or control crops. This can serve as a sound argument for the supposition that the genetic apparatus of plants is not impacted by exposure of several successive generations to the conditions of space flight.

  14. A Three Corner Hat-based analysis of station position time series for the assessment of inter-technique precision at ITRF co-located sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Hurst, K. J.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.; Altamimi, Z.

    2012-12-01

    to the data set used for generating the ITRF2008 realization: GPS, DORIS, VLBI and SLR solutions have been rigorously re-analyzed in order to obtain consistent and comparable non-linear-residual time series of station positions at ITRF co-locations. Particular emphasis is put on the analysis of the limiting factors which might affect the application of TCH to the space-geodetic positioning, i.e. poorness of the current co-locations resulting in a scarce number of sites having sufficient observations, dissimilar performances varying over time of the four space-geodetic techniques, different time resolution of the four techniques and effects of the data interpolation (especially on daily VLBI data), presence of non-Gaussian and time-correlated noise for which TCH is not specifically designed.

  15. Privacy and Generation Y: Applying Library Values to Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Librarians face many challenges when dealing with issues of privacy within the mediated space of social networking sites. Conceptually, social networking sites differ from libraries on privacy as a value. Research about Generation Y students, the primary clientele of undergraduate libraries, can inform librarians' relationship to this important…

  16. Investigation of Historic Seismic and Infrasound Records from Events Occurred at the Region of Novaya Zemplya Test Site by the USSR Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Located in the north the Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used in Soviet time for conducting unique nuclear weapon tests in different mediums. 130 nuclear explosions with total yield 265 megatons were conducted at the Test Site for the period 1955-1990. During this period the following nuclear explosions were conducted: 1 surface explosion, 85 air explosions, 2 above water explosions, 3 underwater explosions and 39 underground explosions (in boreholes and tunnels). In addition, tectonic earthquakes and induced earthquakes caused by multi-megatons UNE occur near the Test Site. Unfortunately, only few seismic events occurred on the territory of the Test Site were recorded by digital stations. However, the archives of different seismological organizations of the USSR contain huge amount of analogue seismograms recorded by permanent and temporary stations. Historical seismograms of nuclear explosions and earthquakes from Novaya Zemlya Test site territory were digitized by the Complex Seismological Expedition IPE RAS and by the Institute of Geophysical Researches RK; a database of the events from the Test Site containing 470 seismograms at epicentral distance 2100-3800 was created. The database includes seismic records of air, underground nuclear explosions, and records of underwater nuclear explosion conducted within "Korall" exercise. In addition, infrasound records of waves from multi-megatons air nuclear explosions recorded by a microbarograph installed at Talgar seismic station at distance ~3600 km from the Test Site were digitized. Kinematic and dynamic parameters of nuclear explosions records conducted in different mediums (air, under water and underground) were investigated by the digitized records from events at Novaya Zemlya Test Site; specific features of wave pattern for each class of events were found.

  17. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

  18. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

  19. Preliminary analysis of site effects at the stations located in the landslide-prone area in the western part of Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcinkaya, Esref; Ozel, Oguz; Bigarre, Pascal; Pabuccu, Zumer; Tan, Onur

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of an EU-FP7 project titled as MARsite, a work package with the number of 6 (WP6) aims the characterization and modeling of landslides founding in the western part of Istanbul metropolitan area. In the first stage, we analyzed site effects at 8 stations located in the area by using weak motion earthquake data. The stations were deployed by TUBITAK in 2009 and two of them are still in the field. The largest distance among the stations is about 20 km. The instruments were equipped with Lennartz 1Hz sensors and RefTek 130 dataloggers. The stations work online and are acquiring 100 Hz data. Between 2009 and 2013, 36 earthquakes ranging from M3.4 to M5.2 were recorded by the instruments. Their epicenter distances range from 40 km to 150 km. The study area takes place between Kucukcekmece and Buyukcekmece lakes. It is bordered by the Marmara Sea in the south. While the topography sharply increases from the sea coast to 50-100 m elevation in the south, it has plateau character elevated gently toward to the north. This plateau is incised and dissected by river channels flowing to the Marmara Sea. Both river slopes and coastal slopes are active landslide areas. The materials attached loosely on steep slopes flow downward. While the youngest geological units take place on the top of the plateau, it is possible to see the older units on the bottom of river channels and the coastal slopes. Site response functions at each site were analyzed by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) methods. The two methods show a general agreement in the estimation of the fundamental resonance frequencies including in some cases their amplitudes as well. On the other hand, the results of the HVSR method show less scattering than those of the SSR method. Two resonance frequencies on the spectral ratios attract attention especially at the stations close to the Marmara Sea corresponding to the deep and shallow transitions. We also

  20. Use of a combined personal computer and Rock-Eval in an integrated petroleum evaluation work station to estimate volumes of hydrocarbons generated and migrated in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Lafargue, E.; Drouet, S.

    1989-09-01

    A petroleum evaluation work station consisting in a modified Rock-Eval apparatus connected to an IBM personal computer has been designed at Institut Francais du petrole to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon generated and migrated in sedimentary basins. The work-station is provided with specific software for Rock-Eval data analysis, quick determination of kinetic parameters (Optim model), and quantitative hydrocarbon generation (Matoil model). Along with the classical Rock-Eval parameters (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, S{sub 2}, TOC, and T{sub max}), new parameters concerning the source rocks, such as the transformation efficiency ratio (TER), the migration efficiency ration (MER), and the initial generation capacity (IGC), are defined. These new parameters combined with geological data give access to a rapid volumetric estimation (in 10{sup 6}MT/km{sup 2}) of hydrocarbon generation and migration in the studied area. These data can be displayed on different specific maps for rapid visualization. This work station has been successfully used in the Paris and Aquitaine basins, making possible a better assessment of their petroleum potential. The petroleum evaluation work station appears to be a very valuable tool that can be used in the different phases of exploration in a sedimentary basin.

  1. Structural review of the San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station Unit 1 containment structure under combined loads. Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.Y.

    1982-05-01

    This report is a structural assessment of the containment structure of the San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station Unit 1, performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The San Onofre assessment focused on the overall structural integrity of the containment structure under a safe shutdown earthquake an a postulated design basis accident. The safe shutdown earthquake was represented by the Housner Spectra, scaled to 0.67 g peak ground acceleration. The postulated design basis accident was either a loss of coolant accident or a main steam line break. Several combined stresses were evaluated for their adherence to the 1980 edition of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code allowables. All the calculated stress intensities were found to be acceptable according to this code except the general primary membrane stress due to combined dead and pressure loads under level A service limits. Because the containment structure was previously tested under combined dead and pressure loads for a higher peak pressure than the one used here, this study concluded that it was acceptable.

  2. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-02-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

  4. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-04-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

  5. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility of using the data collection system to operate a network of hydrological and climatological stations at sites remote from normal communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The General Electric DCP has proven to be a versatile, rugged piece of hardware and has surpassed original expectation; it is very simple to use and does not require skilled staff for its use, installation, and operation. It is well suited for use in remote sites where no power is available. From this experience, it is concluded that the data collection system will be very useful in operating a network of hydrometeorological stations situated in sites remote from normal communication links.

  7. DAC-3 Pointing Stability Analysis Results for SAGE 3 and Other Users of the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Attachment Sites (PAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Rombado, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide final results of a pointing stability analysis for external payload attachment sites (PAS) on the International Space Station (ISS). As a specific example, the pointing stability requirement of the SAGE III atmospheric science instrument was examined in this paper. The instrument requires 10 arcsec stability over 2 second periods. SAGE 3 will be mounted on the ISS starboard side at the lower, outboard FIAS. In this engineering analysis, an open-loop DAC-3 finite element model of ISS was used by the Microgravity Group at Johnson Space Flight Center to generate transient responses at PAS to a limited number of disturbances. The model included dynamics up to 50 Hz. Disturbance models considered included operation of the solar array rotary joints, thermal radiator rotary joints, and control moment gyros. Responses were filtered to model the anticipated vibration attenuation effects of active control systems on the solar and thermal radiator rotary joints. A pointing stability analysis was conducted by double integrating acceleration transient over a 2 second period. Results of the analysis are tabulated for ISS X, Y, and Z Axis rotations. These results indicate that the largest excursions in rotation during pointing occurred due to rapid slewing of the thermal radiator. Even without attenuation at the rotary joints, the resulting pointing error was limited to less than 1.6 arcsec. With vibration control at the joints, to a maximum 0.5 arcsec over a 2 second period. Based on this current level of model definition, it was concluded that between 0 - 50 Hz, the pointing stability requirement for SAGE 3 will not be exceeded by the disturbances evaluated in this study.

  8. The effects of scrubber installation at the Navajo Generating Station on particulate sulfur and visibility levels in the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark; Farber, Rob; Lien, Nghi; Gebhart, Kristi; Molenar, John; Iyer, Hari; Eatough, Delbert

    2005-11-01

    Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a mandatory Class I federal area that is afforded visibility protection under the Federal Clean Air Act. In this paper, we have examined the effects on visibility and particulate sulfur (Sp) at GCNP as a result of reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 90% from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS). Scrubbers were retrofitted to each of the three units at NGS during 1997, 1998, and 1999. The Inter-agency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments aerosol network database affords us an opportunity to examine trends in Sp and extinction both prescrubber and postscrubber. The NGS impacts GCNP primarily during the winter (December to February). During winter, at times, there are fogs, stratus, and high-relative humidity in the Grand Canyon. When the NGS plume interacts with these fogs and stratus, rapid conversion of SO2 to Sp can occur. A variety of analytical techniques were used, including cumulative frequency plots of Sp and extinction, and chemical mass balance and tracer source apportionment analysis. We also deployed P value statistical analysis of "extreme" Sp values. Before scrubbers were installed, values of Sp approaching 2 microg/m3 were occasionally observed. Because scrubbers have been installed, high levels of Sp have been markedly reduced. Statistical P value analysis suggests that these reductions were significant. Furthermore, we have also observed that Sp has been reduced throughout the cumulative frequency curve during winter by approximately 33% since scrubbers were installed. By contrast, during summer when the NGS impact on the Canyon is minimal, there has been only a relatively small decrease in Sp.

  9. The effects of scrubber installation at the Navajo Generating Station on particulate sulfur and visibility levels in the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark; Farber, Rob; Lien, Nghi; Gebhart, Kristi; Molenar, John; Iyer, Hari; Eatough, Delbert

    2005-11-01

    Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a mandatory Class I federal area that is afforded visibility protection under the Federal Clean Air Act. In this paper, we have examined the effects on visibility and particulate sulfur (Sp) at GCNP as a result of reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 90% from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS). Scrubbers were retrofitted to each of the three units at NGS during 1997, 1998, and 1999. The Inter-agency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments aerosol network database affords us an opportunity to examine trends in Sp and extinction both prescrubber and postscrubber. The NGS impacts GCNP primarily during the winter (December to February). During winter, at times, there are fogs, stratus, and high-relative humidity in the Grand Canyon. When the NGS plume interacts with these fogs and stratus, rapid conversion of SO2 to Sp can occur. A variety of analytical techniques were used, including cumulative frequency plots of Sp and extinction, and chemical mass balance and tracer source apportionment analysis. We also deployed P value statistical analysis of "extreme" Sp values. Before scrubbers were installed, values of Sp approaching 2 microg/m3 were occasionally observed. Because scrubbers have been installed, high levels of Sp have been markedly reduced. Statistical P value analysis suggests that these reductions were significant. Furthermore, we have also observed that Sp has been reduced throughout the cumulative frequency curve during winter by approximately 33% since scrubbers were installed. By contrast, during summer when the NGS impact on the Canyon is minimal, there has been only a relatively small decrease in Sp. PMID:16350365

  10. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  11. Comparison of salinity and temperature at continuous monitoring stations and nearby monthly measurement sites in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, L.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Salinity and temperature are crucial state variables affecting estuarine habitat an d, thus, are measured by various San Francisco Estuary programs. This article presents a comparison of salinity and temperature data collected at seven continuo us monitoring stations throughout San Francisco Bay (Figure 1) with data collected monthly by the US Geological Survey (USGS) research vessel ( RV ) Polaris . The data comparison was done to determine if the continuous monitoring stations, which mostly are located near shore and always on structures in the water, are representative of water conditions in the main channel of the estuary where the RV Polaris collects measurements.

  12. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Distillation of Used Solvents Generated by Health Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ching-San; Ciesla, John

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the sources of contaminants found in used solvents generated by the histopathological laboratories at health care facilities and the technical problems, corrective measures, and economic analysis associated with the on-site recycling and reusing of these solvents. An appendix contains an economic analysis for a used-solvent recycling…

  13. What is the benefit of driving a hydrological model with data from a multi-site weather generator compared to data from a simple delta change approach?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Keller, Denise; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In 2011 the Swiss national consortium C2SM providednew climate change scenarios were released in Switzerland that came with a comprehensive data set of temperature and precipitation changes under climate change conditions for every a large network of meteorological stations, and for aggregated as well as regions in across Switzerland. These climate change signals were generated for three emission scenarios and three different future time-periods and designed to be used asbased on a delta change factors approach. This data set proved to be very successful in Switzerland as many different users, researchers, private companies, and societal users were able to use and interpret the climate data set. Thus, a range of applications that are all based on the same climate data set enabled a comparable view on climate change impact in several disciplines. The main limitation and criticism to this data set was the usage of the delta change approach for downscaling as it comes with severe limitations such as underestimatinges changes in extreme values and neglecting changes in variability and changes in temporal sequencesneglecting changes in variability, be it year-to-year or day-to-day, and changes in temporal sequences . lacks a change in the day-to-day-variability. One way to overcome this the latter limitation is the usage of stochastic weather generators in a downscaling context. Weather generators are known to be one suitable downscaling technique, but A common limitation of most weather generators is the absence of spatial consistency rrelation in the generated daily time-series, resulting in an underestimation of areal means over several stations that are often low-biased. refer to one point scale (single-site) and lacks the spatial representation of weather. The latter A realistic representation of the inter-station correlation in the downscaled time-series This is of high particular importance in some impact studies, especially infor any hydrological impact studiesy

  14. Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina

    2004-11-30

    While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.

  15. Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangde; Dong, Xiaolin; Shu, Benshui; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Qiongbo; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation.

  16. Solid radioactive waste management facility design for managing CANDU{sup R} 600 MW nuclear generating station re-tube/refurbishment Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pontikakis, N.; Hopkins, J.; Scott, D.; Bajaj, V.; Nosella, L.

    2007-07-01

    The main design features of the re-tube canisters, waste handling equipment and waste containers designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL{sup R}) and implemented in support of the re-tube/refurbishment activities for Candu 600 MW nuclear generating stations are described in this paper. The re-tube/refurbishment waste characterization and the waste management principles, which form the basis of the design activities, are also briefly outlined. (authors)

  17. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.

    2011-01-01

    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  18. Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) Verification Testing and On-Orbit Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Thomas, Evan A.; VanWie, Michael; Morrison, Chad; Stinson, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOGA) is designed to autonomously determine recovered water quality as a function of TOC. The current TOGA has been on the International Space Station since November 2008. Functional checkout and operations revealed complex operating considerations. Specifically, failure of the hydrogen catalyst resulted in the development of an innovative oxidation analysis method. This method reduces the activation time and limits the hydrogen produced during analysis, while retaining the ability to indicate TOC concentrations within 25% accuracy. Subsequent testing and comparison to archived samples returned from the Station and tested on the ground yield high confidence in this method, and in the quality of the recovered water.

  19. Adapting a GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach for Evaluating New Power Generating Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Blevins, Brandon R; Jochem, Warren C; Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Neish, Bradley S; Rose, Amy N

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need to site new power generating plants that use cleaner energy sources due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. To assist utility and energy companies as well as policy-makers in evaluating potential areas for siting new plants in the contiguous United States, a geographic information system (GIS)-based multicriteria decision analysis approach is presented in this paper. The presented approach has led to the development of the Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion (OR-SAGE) tool. The tool takes inputs such as population growth, water availability, environmental indicators, and tectonic and geological hazards to provide an in-depth analysis for siting options. To the utility and energy companies, the tool can quickly and effectively provide feedback on land suitability based on technology specific inputs. However, the tool does not replace the required detailed evaluation of candidate sites. To the policy-makers, the tool provides the ability to analyze the impacts of future energy technology while balancing competing resource use.

  20. Candidate wind turbine generator site, Culebra, Puerto Rico. Annual data summary, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes wind speed and direction data collected on meteorological towers at 14 candidate and wind turbine generator installation sites from October 1978 through September 1979. The basic method of data collection is by digital data cassette recording systems. For the digital data reported, an instantaneous sample is recorded every 2 minutes. An explanation is provided for each data summary table as well as information on how specific values were computed. The rest of the report presents the annual summarized data for each site.

  1. Optimized Energy Management for Large Organizations Utilizing an On-Site PHEV fleet, Storage Devices and Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dashora, Yogesh; Barnes, J. Wesley; Pillai, Rekha S; Combs, Todd E; Hilliard, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the daily electricity management problem for organizations with a large number of employees working within a relatively small geographic location. The organization manages its electric grid including limited on-site energy generation facilities, energy storage facilities, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging stations installed in the parking lots. A mixed integer linear program (MILP) is modeled and implemented to assist the organization in determining the temporal allocation of available resources that will minimize energy costs. We consider two cost compensation strategies for PHEV owners: (1) cost equivalent battery replacement reimbursement for utilizing vehicle to grid (V2G) services from PHEVs; (2) gasoline equivalent cost for undercharging of PHEV batteries. Our case study, based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus, produced encouraging results and substantiates the importance of controlled PHEV fleet charging as opposed to uncontrolled charging methods. We further established the importance of realizing V2G capabilities provided by PHEVs in terms of significantly reducing energy costs for the organization.

  2. Elimination of a ligand gating site generates a supersensitive olfactory receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kanika; Ahuja, Gaurav; Hussain, Ashiq; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction poses one of the most complex ligand-receptor matching problems in biology due to the unparalleled multitude of odor molecules facing a large number of cognate olfactory receptors. We have recently deorphanized an olfactory receptor, TAAR13c, as a specific receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine. Here we have modeled the cadaverine/TAAR13c interaction, exchanged predicted binding residues by site-directed mutagenesis, and measured the activity of the mutant receptors. Unexpectedly we observed a binding site for cadaverine at the external surface of the receptor, in addition to an internal binding site, whose mutation resulted in complete loss of activity. In stark contrast, elimination of the external binding site generated supersensitive receptors. Modeling suggests this site to act as a gate, limiting access of the ligand to the internal binding site and thereby downregulating the affinity of the native receptor. This constitutes a novel mechanism to fine-tune physiological sensitivity to socially relevant odors. PMID:27323929

  3. Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled “Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation” held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Objectives Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Discussion Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention. PMID:21205582

  4. Generation of site-specific mutations in the rat genome via CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yuting; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat is a valuable model organism for basic biological studies and drug development. However, due to the lack of genetic tools for site-specific genetic modification in the rat genome, more and more researchers chose the mouse as their favored mammalian models due to the sophisticated embryonic stem cell-based gene-targeting techniques available. Recently, engineered nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems, have been adapted to generate knockout rats efficiently. The purpose of this section is to provide detailed procedures for the generation of site-specific mutations in the rat genome through injection of Cas9/sgRNA into one-cell embryos.

  5. Installation of Ohio's First Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Fueling Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Brianne T.; Lively, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes progress made towards the installation of a hydrogen fueling station in Northeast Ohio. In collaboration with several entities in the Northeast Ohio area, the NASA Glenn Research Center is installing a hydrogen fueling station that uses electrolysis to generate hydrogen on-site. The installation of this station is scheduled for the spring of 2012 at the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority s Hayden bus garage in East Cleveland. This will be the first electrolysis-based hydrogen fueling station in Ohio.

  6. Feasibility Evaluation of an On-site Generator Network by the Cooperative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    On-site generator, such as CGS (cogeneration system), is allegedly considered to be an effective end-use energy system in order to accomplish primary energy conservation, CO2 emission mitigation and system cost reduction, which characteristics eventually improve the whole performance of an existing energy system for the future. Considering the drawback of installing an end-use CGS into the customer with small or middle scale floor space, however, it is difficult to achieve those distinctive features because the thermal-electricity ratio of CGS does not always be in agreement with that of customer energy demand. In order to overcome that matching deficiency, it is hence better to organize an on-site generator network based on mutual electricity and heating transmission. But focusing on some cogenerators underlying their behaviors on maximizing their own profits, this on-site network, which situation corresponds to a grand coalition, is not necessarily established because of each cogenerator’s motivation to form a partial coalition and acquire its own profit as much as possible. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the optimal operation of an on-site generator network and identify by applying the nucleolus of the cooperative game theory the optimal benefit allocation strategy in order for the cogenerators to construct the network. Regarding the installation site of this network, the center of Tokyo area is assumed, which locational information includes floor space and so forth through a GIS (geographic information system) database. The results from the nucleolus suggest that all districts should impartially obtain the benefit from organizing network for the purpose of jointly attaining the system total cost reduction.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site-generated radiological waste handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

  9. What is the benefit of driving a hydrological model with data from a multi-site weather generator compared to data from a simple delta change approach?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Keller, Denise; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In 2011 the Swiss national consortium C2SM providednew climate change scenarios were released in Switzerland that came with a comprehensive data set of temperature and precipitation changes under climate change conditions for every a large network of meteorological stations, and for aggregated as well as regions in across Switzerland. These climate change signals were generated for three emission scenarios and three different future time-periods and designed to be used asbased on a delta change factors approach. This data set proved to be very successful in Switzerland as many different users, researchers, private companies, and societal users were able to use and interpret the climate data set. Thus, a range of applications that are all based on the same climate data set enabled a comparable view on climate change impact in several disciplines. The main limitation and criticism to this data set was the usage of the delta change approach for downscaling as it comes with severe limitations such as underestimatinges changes in extreme values and neglecting changes in variability and changes in temporal sequencesneglecting changes in variability, be it year-to-year or day-to-day, and changes in temporal sequences . lacks a change in the day-to-day-variability. One way to overcome this the latter limitation is the usage of stochastic weather generators in a downscaling context. Weather generators are known to be one suitable downscaling technique, but A common limitation of most weather generators is the absence of spatial consistency rrelation in the generated daily time-series, resulting in an underestimation of areal means over several stations that are often low-biased. refer to one point scale (single-site) and lacks the spatial representation of weather. The latter A realistic representation of the inter-station correlation in the downscaled time-series This is of high particular importance in some impact studies, especially infor any hydrological impact studiesy

  10. CD9 tetraspanin generates fusion competent sites on the egg membrane for mammalian fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jégou, Antoine; Ziyyat, Ahmed; Barraud-Lange, Virginie; Perez, Eric; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Pincet, Frédéric; Gourier, Christine

    2011-01-01

    CD9 tetraspanin is the only egg membrane protein known to be essential for fertilization. To investigate its role, we have measured, on a unique acrosome reacted sperm brought in contact with an egg, the adhesion probability and strength with a sensitivity of a single molecule attachment. Probing the binding events at different locations of wild-type egg we described different modes of interaction. Here, we show that more gamete adhesion events occur on Cd9 null eggs but that the strongest interaction mode disappears. We propose that sperm–egg fusion is a direct consequence of CD9 controlled sperm–egg adhesion properties. CD9 generates adhesion sites responsible for the strongest of the observed gamete interaction. These strong adhesion sites impose, during the whole interaction lifetime, a tight proximity of the gamete membranes, which is a requirement for fusion to take place. The CD9-induced adhesion sites would be the actual location where fusion occurs. PMID:21690351

  11. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  12. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-04-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

  13. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  14. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  15. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  16. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  17. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  18. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  19. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  20. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  1. Use of indigenous small mammal populations to assess a National Priority List site: A case study at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island

    SciTech Connect

    Hummell, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Prior disposal activities at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island resulted in the release of heavy metals and organic chemicals into the environment resulting in the site being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. This presentation reports an ecotoxicological study of indigenous populations of voles on the NPL site. The study attempted to provide three endpoints: (1) exposure, (2) individual effects, (3) population effects. Exposure was quantified during the study by comparing chemical concentrations in the tissues of voles live captured on site to tissue concentrations of mammals captured at site specific reference locations. Live trapped voles were also aged according to eye lens weights. Effects exerted on individuals were evaluated based on physiological measurements of the liver, kidney, and whole body as they correlated with age and chemical concentrations. Capture-recapture techniques and age structure analyses were used to develop survivorship curves and evaluate population stability and fitness. The study provides data that can be used to support ecological risk assessments required for CIRCLE investigations.

  2. Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-30

    This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

  3. Environmental Stewardship at the Savannah River Site: Generations of Success - 13212

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Bergren, Christopher L.; Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Guevara, Karen C.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Hennessey, Brian T.; Mills, Gary L.; Blake, John I.

    2013-07-01

    Approximately sixty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. SRS production operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology, and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a commitment to environmental stewardship. The Site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major Department of Energy (DOE) facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early generation of work set the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS pro-actively identified environmental problems and developed and implemented effective and efficient environmental management and remediation solutions. This second generation, spanning the 1980's through the 2000's, is exemplified by numerous large and small cleanup actions to address metals and radionuclides, solvents and hydrocarbons, facility and area decommissioning, and ecological restoration. Recently, a third generation of environmental management was initiated as part of Enterprise SRS. This initiative to 'Develop and Deploy Next Generation Cleanup Technologies' formalizes and organizes the major technology matching, development, and implementation processes associated with historical SRS cleanup success as a resource to support future environmental management missions throughout DOE. The four elements of the current, third generation, effort relate to: 1) transition from active to passive cleanup, 2) in situ decommissioning of large nuclear facilities, 3) new long term monitoring paradigms, and 4) a major case study related to support for recovery and restoration of the Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant and surrounding environment. (authors)

  4. Data quality control of ADSN Broadband stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alili, Azouaou; Yelles-chaouche, Abd el karim; Allili, Toufik; Messemen, Walid

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present the analysis of continuous waveform of the Algerian digital seismic network recorded during five years from 2008 to 2013 for twenty broadband stations using the power spectral densities (PSDs) and their corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) algorithm of McNamara, and Buland (2004). ADSN Broadband stations data quality is one main concern and interest of ADSN technical team. Indeed, the quality of the data from broadband stations is continuously controlled in quasi-realtime using "PQLX" (Pascal Quick Look eXtended) software to compute the PDFs and PSDs during the operation of the stations at different frequency range. At each station the level of noise is shown, which we can see diurnal and seasonal variation. From the data analysis, most of the ADSN Broadband stations display good records in the several frequency domains in relation with their site installation. However some of stations near the urban areas could present some noisy disturbances. This led sometimes to generate some ghost events. In the low frequency, some stations could be still influenced by the temperature variations. This long period of records from 2008 to 2013, led us to analyze and control the several stations year by year taking into account the seasons and to know about their work during five years. This analysis is also very important to improve in the future quality of station installation and choose the optimal station design in aim to reduce cultural noise and large fluctuation of temperature and pressure. Key words: PQLX, PDFs, PSDs, Broad Band

  5. 78 FR 66965 - In the Matter of Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Dresden Nuclear Power Station Confirmatory Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing... attempted to recruit him in their plans to commit a violent crime off-site. 2. A SRO, who had unescorted... attempted to recruit him in his plans to commit a violent crime off-site. 3. A SRO, who had...

  6. Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangde; Dong, Xiaolin; Shu, Benshui; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Qiongbo; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation. PMID:25257538

  7. Off-Gas Generation Rate during Chemical Cleaning Operations at the Savannah River Site - 12499

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Subramanian, Karthik H.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    The enhanced chemical cleaning process (ECC) is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove the residual radioactive sludge heel that remains in a liquid waste storage tank. Oxalic acid is the chemical agent utilized for this purpose. However, the acid also corrodes the carbon steel tank wall and cooling coils. If the oxalic acid has little interaction with the sludge, hydrogen gas could conceivably evolve at cathodic areas due to the corrosion of the carbon steel. Scenarios where hydrogen evolution could occur during ECC include the initial filling of the tank prior to agitation and near the end of the process when there is little or no sludge present. The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate for the hydrogen generation rate during the ECC process. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. The tests were performed with polished ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. This steel is representative of the Type I and II waste tanks at SRS. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 deg. C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the maximum

  8. 75 FR 71467 - Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC, Early Site Permit Application for the Victoria County Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ..., BWR Projects Branch, Division of New Reactor Licensing, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC, Early Site Permit Application for the Victoria County...

  9. Satellite laser station Helwan status 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, M.; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Novotny, Antonin; Prochazka, Ivan; Baghos, B. B.; Helali, Y.; Tawadros, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Laser Station Helwan has been operated jointly by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in Helwan, Egypt and the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czechslovakia. The station components have been carefully tuned to increase the systems overall stability and reliability critical for the remote location. The mount correction model based on the Gaussian smoothing has been implemented to simplify the blind satellite acquisition and tracking. The on-site normal points generation algorithm has been implemented, the station has been connected to the international information network. The ERS-1 satellite has been included into the tracking schedule. The station range capability has been verified by experimental Etalon 1 ranging by April 1992. The ranging precision of 2-3 centimeters is obtained when ranging to ERS-1, Starlette, and Lageos satellites.

  10. A case for bone canaliculi as the anatomical site of strain generated potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowin, S. C.; Weinbaum, S.; Zeng, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We address the question of determining the anatomical site that is the source of the experimentally observed strain generated potentials (SGPs) in bone tissue. There are two candidates for the anatomical site that is the SGP source, the collagen-hydroxyapatite porosity and the larger size lacunar-canalicular porosity. In the past it has been argued, on the basis of experimental data and a reasonable model, that the site of the SGPs in bone is the collagen-hydroxyapatite porosity. The theoretically predicted pore radius necessary for the SGPs to reside in this porosity is 16 nm, which is somewhat larger than the pore radii estimated from gas adsorption data where the preponderance of the pores were estimated to be in the range 5-12.5 nm. However, this pore size is significantly larger than the 2 nm size of the small tracer, microperoxidase, which appears to be excluded from the mineralized matrix. In this work a similar model, but one in which the effects of fluid dynamic drag of the cell surface matrix in the bone canaliculi are included, is used to show that it is possible for the generation of SGPs to be associated with the larger size lacunar-canalicular porosity when the hydraulic drag and electrokinetic contribution of the bone fluid passage through the cell coat (glycocalyx) is considered. The consistency of the SGP data with this model is demonstrated. A general boundary condition is introduced to allow for current leakage at the bone surface. The results suggest that the current leakage is small for the in vitro studies in which the strain generated potentials have been measured.

  11. A business case for on-site generation: The BD biosciences pharmingen project

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Creighton, Charles; Bailey, Owen; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Deregulation is haltingly changing the United States electricity markets. The resulting uncertainty and/or rising energy costs can be hedged by generating electricity on-site and other benefits, such as use of otherwise wasted heat, can be captured. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 first invited relatively small-scale generators ({ge} 1 MW) into the electricity market. The advent of efficient and reliable small scale and renewable equipment has spurred an industry that has, in recent years, made even smaller (business scale) electricity generation an economically viable option for some consumers. On-site energy capture and/or conversion, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as economic savings and price predictability, improved reliability, control over power quality, and emissions reductions. Despite these benefits, DER adoption can be a daunting move to a customer accustomed to simply paying a monthly utility bill. San Diego is in many ways an attractive location for DER development: It has high electricity prices typical of California and a moderate climate i.e. energy loads are consistent throughout the year. Additionally, the price shock to San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) customers during the summer of 2000 has interested many in alternatives to electricity price vulnerability. This report examines the business case for DER at the San Diego biotechnology supply company, BD Biosciences Pharmingen, which considered DER for a building with 200-300 kW base-load, much of which accommodates the refrigerators required to maintain chemicals. Because of the Mediterranean climate of the San Diego area and the high rate of air changes required due to on-site use of chemicals, modest space heating is required throughout the year. Employees work in the building during normal weekday business hours, and daily peak loads are typically about 500 kW.

  12. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    1998-11-16

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. Generation and use of site-directed chromosomal cyaA' translational fusions in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Morales, Francisco; Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Cordero-Alba, Mar; Baisón-Olmo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    CyaA from Bordetella pertussis is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Fusions to the catalytic domain of CyaA (CyaA') are useful tools to detect translocation of type III secretion system effectors from gram-negative pathogens like Salmonella enterica. These fusions are usually generated using plasmids with strong promoters. Here, we describe a protocol to insert the CyaA'-encoding sequence in a specific site in the bacterial chromosome in order to get a monocopy fusion whose expression is driven by the native promoter. We also describe the procedure to detect translocation of a CyaA' fusion into mammalian cells.

  15. 76 FR 45301 - PSEG Nuclear LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... generation, natural gas combined-cycle generation, combined alternative, and the no-action alternative. The....'' HCGS is a boiling water reactor located in Lower Alloways Creek Township, Salem County, New Jersey. The... published in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54856). For further details with respect...

  16. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  17. Selective catalytic reduction performance project at Public Services Electric and Gas Company`s Mercer Generating Station Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.J.; Gibbons, F.X.; Knell, E.W.; Johnson, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    PSE&G, Wahlco, and Siemens have successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of a Post Combustion NO{sub x} Reduction System on a 321 MW net coal-fired utility boiler at PSE&G`s Mercer Station Unit 2. The program featured a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor in a horizontal flue gas duct and an air heater SCR (AHSCR). Predicted performance of the In-Duct SCR was confirmed. The AHSCR was shown to be an effective means to enhance overall system performance as compared to an In-Duct SCR alone. Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) was also tested in combination with the SCR/AHSCR system using aqueous ammonia as a common reduction agent. Ammonia based jet mixing SNCR and the use of an ammonia injection grid was found to be the operation of choice in the NH{sub 3} based SNCR/SCR Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction system.

  18. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  19. Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-11-03

    This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives and be included in the revised CADD.

  20. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst, Inc., Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Monthly and year long data on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant are presented. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194.401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months.

  1. Using a third tone to probe the physiological generation site of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has been summarized using a two-mechanism theory consisting of nonlinear distortion and linear coherent reflection. However, the precise generation site in the cochlea is still unclear. The current study in gerbils used a third tone in different cochlear regions to probe the cochlear origin site of DPOAEs. DPOAEs and their intracochlear sources, distortion products (DPs), were simultaneously measured. Our results suggest that the major generation site of DPOAEs evoked by an f2/f1 ratio of 1.25 extends basal to the primary f2 place, which is consistent with notions about the location of the cochlear amplifier.

  2. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  3. Chirally modified platinum generated by adsorption of cinchonidine ether derivatives: towards uncovering the chiral sites.

    PubMed

    Bonalumi, Norberto; Vargas, Angelo; Ferri, Davide; Baiker, Alfons

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of O-methyl and O-trimethylsilyl derivatives of cinchonidine (CD), employed as chiral modifiers for heterogeneous enantioselective hydrogenations on supported Pt catalysts, has been investigated by using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations. The ATR-IR spectroscopic investigation provided detailed insight of the adsorbed modifiers under conditions close to those employed during catalytic processes, and electronic structure calculations were used as a complement to the experiments to uncover the implications of conformational changes in generating the topology of the surface chiral site. The structural investigation of the adsorbed modifiers revealed a relationship between the spatial positions of the ether substituents and the enantiodifferentiation induced by the modified catalyst observed in the hydrogenation of alpha-activated ketones. Experiments and calculations corroborate a model, according to which the addition of a bulky ether group to CD reshapes the chiral sites, thus generating catalytic chiral surfaces with different and, in some cases (e.g. hydrogenation of ketopantolactone), even opposite enantioselective properties to those obtained with CD without altering the absolute configuration of the modifier. The study also confirms that active surface conformations of cinchona modifiers are markedly different from those existing in vacuum and in solution, thus underlying the necessity of investigating the surface-modifier interaction in order to understand enantioselectivity.

  4. Virus-induced type I IFN stimulates generation of immunoproteasomes at the site of infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eui-Cheol; Seifert, Ulrike; Kato, Takanobu; Rice, Charles M.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Rehermann, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    IFN-γ is known as the initial and primary inducer of immunoproteasomes during viral infections. We now report that type I IFN induced the transcription and translation of immunoproteasome subunits, their incorporation into the proteasome complex, and the generation of an immunoproteasome-dependent CD8 T cell epitope in vitro and provide in vivo evidence that this mechanism occurs prior to IFN-γ responses at the site of viral infection. Type I IFN–mediated generation of immunoproteasomes was initiated by either poly(I:C) or HCV RNA in human hepatoma cells and was inhibited by neutralization of type I IFN. In serial liver biopsies of chimpanzees with acute HCV infection, increases in immunoproteasome subunit mRNA preceded intrahepatic IFN-γ responses by several weeks, instead coinciding with intrahepatic type I IFN responses. Thus, viral RNA–induced innate immune responses regulate the antigen-processing machinery, which occurs prior to the detection of IFN-γ at the site of infection. This mechanism may contribute to the high effectiveness (95%) of type I IFN–based therapies if administered early during HCV infection. PMID:17039255

  5. Station descriptions and availability of discharge and water-quality data through 1985 for eastern Montana stream sites not included in the National Water Data Exchange Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groskinsky Link, B. L.; Cary, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Stations were selected to monitor water discharge and water quality of streams in eastern Montana. This report describes the stations and indicates the availability of hydrologic data through 1985. Included are stations that are operated by organizations that do not belong to the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) program operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each station description contains a narration of the station 's history including location, drainage area, elevation, operator, period of record, type of equipment and instruments used at the station, and data availability. The data collected at each station have been identified according to type: water discharge, chemical quality, and suspended sediment. Descriptions are provided for 113 stations. These data have potential uses in characterizing small hydrologic basins, as well as other uses. A map of eastern Montana shows the location of the stations selected. (USGS)

  6. Protein Conformational Changes Are Detected and Resolved Site Specifically by Second-Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Moree, Ben; Connell, Katelyn; Mortensen, Richard B; Liu, C Tony; Benkovic, Stephen J; Salafsky, Joshua

    2015-08-18

    We present here a straightforward, broadly applicable technique for real-time detection and measurement of protein conformational changes in solution. This method is based on tethering proteins labeled with a second-harmonic generation (SHG) active dye to supported lipid bilayers. We demonstrate our method by measuring the conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding with three well-characterized proteins labeled at lysine residues: calmodulin (CaM), maltose-binding protein (MBP), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We also create a single-site cysteine mutant of DHFR engineered within the Met20 catalytic loop region and study the protein's structural motion at this site. Using published x-ray crystal structures, we show that the changes in the SHG signals upon ligand binding are the result of structural motions that occur at the labeled sites between the apo and ligand-bound forms of the proteins, which are easily distinguished from each other. In addition, we demonstrate that different magnitudes of the SHG signal changes are due to different and specific ligand-induced conformational changes. Taken together, these data illustrate the potential of the SHG approach for detecting and measuring protein conformational changes for a wide range of biological applications.

  7. Geochemical information and isotopic ratios in pinpointing the rates of contamination processes generated at mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Kittilä, Anniina; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti; Hendriksson, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic composition of water is an important fingerprinting method for tracing recharge sources, distribution processes and possible hydraulic connections of mine waters. However, since, the isotopes alone do not indicate the contamination derived from mining activities; also a set of geochemical analysis of harmful substance in water is acquired. This complex approach will allow a detailed insight in migration of potentially harmful substances, their reactions, mixing and dilution in ground and surface waters. The data can be applied also when comparing geogenic and anthropogenic emissions. Isotopic methods are rather new approach to estimate mining related emissions in Finland and thus, a novel approach of isotopic methods for investigation and monitoring of migration of harmful substances from mine sites are tested in two mine sites in Finland. The aim of this study is to assess the emission sources, flow paths and interaction between mine waters, groundwater and surface waters. A set of isotopic data, including S, Li, Mg, U, Sr, Pb, O, and H, will be combined with chemical information and physical parameters of water in order to assess the source and extent of possible contamination as well as the rates of processes that generate or at best attenuate the contamination. The results obtained from water analyses and field measurements will be used in hydrogeochemical modelling for the prediction of chemical transformation and long-term impacts of mining at study site and its surroundings.

  8. Communication across 300 generations: deterring human interference with waste deposit sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, P.H.

    1984-04-01

    The conditions attendant on the deep land burial of nuclear waste products raise a number of possible scenarios to cover the necessary 10,000 years of burial. However, no matter what kind of futuristic scenario obtains, it is desirable to develop an information system indicating the locale and nature of the deposit site and the types of materials stored, along with forewarnings not to interefere with the sites. A variety of such informational sites are suggested. Attention then turns to the recipients of such messages, recognizing from the outset that the psychological/perceptual makeup of individuals across the next 300 or so generations is virtually impossible to predict, particularly since new technologies may well alter that makeup in the furture. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that certain human characteristics may be considered universal, and that these suggest the incorporation of selected sign signification into the message system. There are other such characteristics that, while probably not intrinsic, can probably be acquired with a minimum of formal training. That still leaves much of the message content to be deliberately created and, hence, learned. The common trefoil or other developed biohazardous signs emerge as the best candidates for a generic base symbol for the buried material.

  9. Protein Conformational Changes Are Detected and Resolved Site Specifically by Second-Harmonic Generation

    PubMed Central

    Moree, Ben; Connell, Katelyn; Mortensen, Richard B.; Liu, C. Tony; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Salafsky, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We present here a straightforward, broadly applicable technique for real-time detection and measurement of protein conformational changes in solution. This method is based on tethering proteins labeled with a second-harmonic generation (SHG) active dye to supported lipid bilayers. We demonstrate our method by measuring the conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding with three well-characterized proteins labeled at lysine residues: calmodulin (CaM), maltose-binding protein (MBP), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We also create a single-site cysteine mutant of DHFR engineered within the Met20 catalytic loop region and study the protein’s structural motion at this site. Using published x-ray crystal structures, we show that the changes in the SHG signals upon ligand binding are the result of structural motions that occur at the labeled sites between the apo and ligand-bound forms of the proteins, which are easily distinguished from each other. In addition, we demonstrate that different magnitudes of the SHG signal changes are due to different and specific ligand-induced conformational changes. Taken together, these data illustrate the potential of the SHG approach for detecting and measuring protein conformational changes for a wide range of biological applications. PMID:26287632

  10. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  11. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW - Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribas, M.; de La Morena, B. A.; Wehner, B.; López, J. F.; Prats, N.; Mogo, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2011-11-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm-3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm-3, 4110 cm-3 and 1720 cm-3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm-3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3

  12. 77 FR 12885 - Millstone Power Station, Units 1, 2 and 3, Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ..., ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20-30, 1992... hurricane force winds at the Millstone site. A subsequent response to requests for additional information... hurricane response organization (HRO). The exemption request states that the station HRO typically...

  13. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  14. Nonlinear site effects in real time shakemap generation as part of risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Constantin, Ionescu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen; Danet, Anton; Florentina Manea, Elena

    2014-05-01

    There are well known the ground motion uncertainties:(i)-aleatory uncertainties in random effects and ,(ii)-epistemic uncertainties in knowledge. The fundamental understanding about both uncertainties in ground motion comes from the large scatter in observations, even when they are normalized by magnitude, distance, and other parameters. One is never sure of having the "correct" functional form of a ground motion equations. This is first part of analysis. Function of that we have the peak ground acceleration in site and later by transforming it in intensities we get in real time the shake map. Ground motions are converted to color-coded seismic intensity to show potential damage and perceived shaking level at all locations. Additional maps provide information on specific frequencies of shaking waves, that can be used to anticipate the response of different types of buildings to the ground motion. These are useful for estimating which areas are most likely to have damaged buildings and utility and transportation lifelines. After a damaging earthquake, emergency managers must quickly find answers to important questions: Where is the most serious damage? The next uncertainties are in connection to nonlinear soil behavior during of strong and deep Vrancea earthquakes in cities and metropolitan areas where thick Quaternary sediments exist in all extra-Carpathian area . The real evidence of site effects from source to freefield analysis is conducted by using spectral amplification factors for last strong and deep Vrancea earthquakes (March 04,1977;MW =7.5;h=94.5 km; August 30,1986;MW=7.1;h=134.5km; May 30 1009; MW= 6.0;h=90.9 km; May 31, 1990; MW=6.4; h=86.9 km). The amplification factors decrease with increasing the magnitudes of strong Vrancea earthquakes and these values are far of that given by Regulatory Guide 1.60 of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission and IAEA Vienna. A characteristic of the nonlinearity is a systematic decrease in variability of peak ground

  15. Assessment of the scale effect on statistical downscaling quality at a station scale using a weather generator-based model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resolution of General Circulation Models (GCMs) is too coarse to assess the fine scale or site-specific impacts of climate change. Downscaling approaches including dynamical and statistical downscaling have been developed to meet this requirement. As the resolution of climate model increases, it...

  16. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  17. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  18. Clarke Stations and mercurian mass-drivers: energy for large-scale transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three-week voyages across 1 AU could be made in large sailing craft propelled by microwaves generated at power stations operating at 0.1 AU from the sun. The power stations could be built of mercurian materials launched by mass driver to building sites in solar orbit. A Clarke Station 28 km in radius could generate 64 TW of microwaves and support the operation of a 1000-tonne, 1000-passenger vessel. The ability to build near-sun power stations of mercurian materials would not only support high-speed transport but solar system development in general.

  19. NASA Education Activities on the International Space Station: A National Laboratory for Inspiring, Engaging, Educating and Employing the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severance, Mark T.; Tate-Brown, Judy; McArthur, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of students with clear educational metrics of accomplishments. This paper provides an overview of several recent ISS educational payloads and activities. The expected outcomes of the project, consistent with those of the NASA Office of Education, are also described. NASA performs numerous education activities as part of its ISS program. These cover the gamut from formal to informal educational opportunities in grades Kindergarten to grade 12, Higher Education (undergraduate and graduate University) and informal educational venues (museums, science centers, exhibits). Projects within the portfolio consist of experiments performed onboard the ISS using onboard resources which require no upmass, payloads flown to ISS or integrated into ISS cargo vehicles, and ground based activities that follow or complement onboard activities. Examples include ground based control group experiments, flight or experiment following lesson plans, ground based activities involving direct interaction with ISS or ground based activities considering ISS resources in their solution set. These projects range from totally NASA funded to projects which partner with external entities. These external agencies can be: other federal, state or local government agencies, commercial entities, universities, professional organizations or non-profit organizations. This paper will describe the recent ISS education activities and discuss the approach, outcomes and metrics associated with the projects.

  20. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-10-09

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given.

  1. Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

  2. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  3. Molecular docking sites designed for the generation of highly crystalline covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascherl, Laura; Sick, Torben; Margraf, Johannes T.; Lapidus, Saul H.; Calik, Mona; Hettstedt, Christina; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Döblinger, Markus; Clark, Timothy; Chapman, Karena W.; Auras, Florian; Bein, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) formed by connecting multidentate organic building blocks through covalent bonds provide a platform for designing multifunctional porous materials with atomic precision. As they are promising materials for applications in optoelectronics, they would benefit from a maximum degree of long-range order within the framework, which has remained a major challenge. We have developed a synthetic concept to allow consecutive COF sheets to lock in position during crystal growth, and thus minimize the occurrence of stacking faults and dislocations. Hereby, the three-dimensional conformation of propeller-shaped molecular building units was used to generate well-defined periodic docking sites, which guided the attachment of successive building blocks that, in turn, promoted long-range order during COF formation. This approach enables us to achieve a very high crystallinity for a series of COFs that comprise tri- and tetradentate central building blocks. We expect this strategy to be transferable to a broad range of customized COFs.

  4. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).

  5. Fly ash leachate generation and qualitative trends at Ohio test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Foster, H.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, the environmental impact and potential contamination from landfilled fly ash (coal conversion solid residues - CCSRs) have been studied at field sites in Ohio. The progressive increase of moisture content within pilot cells over depth and time facilitated intensive chemical processes and generation of highly alkaline (pH of 10 to 12) leachate. Chemistry of pore water from lysimeters and ASTM leachate from fly ash and soil cores indicate the leachate potential to migrate out of deposit and impact the pore water quality of surrounding soils. Na, SO{sub 4} and, particularly, K, Cl, pH, and EC appeared to be valuable indicator parameters for tracking potential leachate transport both within the cells and below the ash/soil interface.

  6. A Study on the Wind Power Generation Fluctuation of Multiple Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Yoshio; Ueda, Tomoyuki; Kanao, Norikazu; Komami, Shintaro

    The use of renewable energy sources such as the sun and wind is increasing steadily. High penetration of wind power may affect electric power system frequency, because the fluctuations in wind power generation are much larger than that of conventional power plants. To evaluate wind power fluctuation and its effect on the power systems, it is important to acquire actual fluctuation data of wind farm power. In this paper, the authors report the results of an analysis of wind power fluctuation and smoothing effect from data measured at existing wind power sites in the Hokuriku region. A novel index is proposed to evaluate the smoothing effect, and impacts of high wind penetration are estimated using this index. This paper also proposes a control strategy of battery storage system for stabilizing wind farm output.

  7. Analysis of populations of boring and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report No. 12, Jun-Aug 79

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-07-01

    The growth, distribution, and species composition of marine borers (primarily shipworms) and fouling organisms are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 18 localities. Our most recent findings covering June-August, 1979, are that at least one subtropical species of the borer family Teredinidae, Teredo bartschi, continues to live in Oyster Creek and can breed in Forked River, although many die off in winter in Forked River and the species may have to recolonize. A few of the subtropical T. furcifera also survive in Oyster Creek but cause negligible damage at present, compared with T. bartschi. The summer, 1979, outbreak of T. bartschi in Oyster Creek was severe, causing nearly total destruction to wood panels. The breeding season for T. bartschi was the same as in 1978. Some fouling organisms were present in Oyster Creek that are absent in control creek stations due to low salinity.

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1983-10-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

  9. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

  10. Field testing of behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at cooling-water intake systems, Central Hudson Gas and Electric Company Roseton Generating Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matousek, J.A.; Wells, A.W.; McGroddy, P.M.

    1988-09-01

    A seasonal field testing program was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral barriers at Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporations's Roseton Generating Station located in the euryhaline section of the Hudson River. This station was selected as representative of power plants with shoreline riverine/estuarine intake systems. Three commercially available devices (air bubble curtain, pneumatic gun, and underwater strobe light) were tested alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in reducing impingement. The primary testing method incorporated three or four 6-h impingement collections during each test date, each consisting of two randomly assigned 3-h samples: one was an experimental test with a behavioral device in operation, the other a control test with no device operating. The effectiveness of the devices at excluding fish was determined by comparing impingement data from experimental and control periods. Results of the program do not establish that the deployment of underwater strobe lights, pneumatic guns, an air bubble curtain, or various combinations of the three devices will effectively lower fish impingement at power plants similar in design and location to the Roseton plant. Deterrent effectiveness was found to be species-specific and related to time of day. 51 refs., 67 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  12. Effect of wind turbine generator model and siting on wind power changes out of large WECS arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleuter, R. A.; Park, G. L.; Lotfalian, M.; Dorsey, J.; Shayanfar, H.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls are discussed. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

  13. Comparison of hourly solar radiation from ground-based station, remote sensing sensors and weather forecast models: A preliminary study, in a coastal site of South Italy (Lamezia Terme).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Feudo, Teresa; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel; Federico, Stefano; Sempreviva, Annamaria; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2015-04-01

    The solar radiation is a very complex parameter to cope with due to its random and nonlinear characteristics depending on changeable weather conditions and complex orography. Therefore it is a critical input parameter to address many climatic, meteorological, and solar energy issues. In this preliminary study we made an intercomparison between the hourly solar MSG SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data product DSSF(Down-welling Surface Short-wave Flux) developed by LSA SAF( Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility), a pyranometer sensor (CNR 4 Net Radiometer - Kipp&Zonen) and two weather forecast models. The solar radiation datasets were obtained from a pyranometer sensor situated in Weather Station of CNR ISAC Lamezia Terme(38,88 LAT 16,24 LON), a satellite based product DSSF with spatial resolution of 3km and outputs of two weather forecast models. Models adopted are WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) and Rams( Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)running operatively with a 3Km horizontal resolution. Both DSSF and model outputs are extracted at Latitude and Longitude previously defined. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions clear and cloudy sky, and both conditions, additionally, for a quantitative analysis the exact acquisition times of satellite measurements was taken into account. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly, daily and monthly - averaged solar radiation are estimated including clear and sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Comparison between DSSF product, Solar Radiation ground based pyranometer measurements and output of two weather forecast models, made over the period June2013-December2013, showed a good agreement in this costal site and we demonstrated that the forecast models generally overestimate solar radiation respect the ground based sensor and DSSF product. As results in general the RMSE monthly-averaged are

  14. An Algorithm for Finding Candidate Synaptic Sites in Computer Generated Networks of Neurons with Realistic Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    van Pelt, Jaap; Carnell, Andrew; de Ridder, Sander; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    Neurons make synaptic connections at locations where axons and dendrites are sufficiently close in space. Typically the required proximity is based on the dimensions of dendritic spines and axonal boutons. Based on this principle one can search those locations in networks formed by reconstructed neurons or computer generated neurons. Candidate synapses are then located where axons and dendrites are within a given criterion distance from each other. Both experimentally reconstructed and model generated neurons are usually represented morphologically by piecewise-linear structures (line pieces or cylinders). Proximity tests are then performed on all pairs of line pieces from both axonal and dendritic branches. Applying just a test on the distance between line pieces may result in local clusters of synaptic sites when more than one pair of nearby line pieces from axonal and dendritic branches is sufficient close, and may introduce a dependency on the length scale of the individual line pieces. The present paper describes a new algorithm for defining locations of candidate synapses which is based on the crossing requirement of a line piece pair, while the length of the orthogonal distance between the line pieces is subjected to the distance criterion for testing 3D proximity. PMID:21160548

  15. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

  16. [Russian oxygen generation system "Elektron-VM": hydrogen content in electrolytically produced oxygen for breathing by International Space Station crews].

    PubMed

    Proshkin, V Yu; Kurmazenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the particulars of hydrogen content in electrolysis oxygen produced aboard the ISS Russian segment by oxygen generator "Elektron-VM" (SGK) for crew breathing. Hydrogen content was estimated as in the course of SGK operation in the ISS RS, so during the ground life tests. According to the investigation of hydrogen sources, the primary path of H2 appearance in oxygen is its diffusion through the porous diaphragm separating the electrolytic-cell cathode and anode chambers. Effectiveness of hydrogen oxidation in the SGK reheating unit was evaluated.

  17. [Russian oxygen generation system "Elektron-VM": hydrogen content in electrolytically produced oxygen for breathing by International Space Station crews].

    PubMed

    Proshkin, V Yu; Kurmazenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the particulars of hydrogen content in electrolysis oxygen produced aboard the ISS Russian segment by oxygen generator "Elektron-VM" (SGK) for crew breathing. Hydrogen content was estimated as in the course of SGK operation in the ISS RS, so during the ground life tests. According to the investigation of hydrogen sources, the primary path of H2 appearance in oxygen is its diffusion through the porous diaphragm separating the electrolytic-cell cathode and anode chambers. Effectiveness of hydrogen oxidation in the SGK reheating unit was evaluated. PMID:25035898

  18. Multiple cryptic splice sites can be activated by IDS point mutations generating misspliced transcripts.

    PubMed

    Lualdi, Susanna; Pittis, Maria G; Regis, Stefano; Parini, Rossella; Allegri, Anna E; Furlan, Francesca; Bembi, Bruno; Filocamo, Mirella

    2006-08-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) were reported as the cause of the X-linked recessive lysosomal disease, mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II). Amongst the different mutations, it emerges that nearly 10% are nucleotide substitutions causing splicing mutations. We now report the molecular characterisation of three MPS II patients with multiple aberrant transcripts due to three different point mutations. The c.418+1G>C that occurred in the invariant splice-site motif, produced only aberrantly spliced transcripts. Whilst the mutations affecting variant motifs (c.419G>T) or coding regions (c.245C>T) led to aberrantly spliced transcripts in addition to correctly spliced transcripts with the respective predicted missense mutation, p.G140V or p.A82V. A combination of experimental tests and computational approaches were used to understand the molecular basis underlying the altered transcription patterns. In addition, by using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the reduction of mRNA amount in two patients observed was likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Overall, our results further emphasised the importance of cloning and sequencing independent transcripts to reveal less abundant, aberrant products, which often could not be detected by direct sequencing. Moreover, the different splicing patterns observed in the three patients as a consequence of point mutations show how sensitive the balance is between constitutive and cryptic splice sites in the IDS gene. The generation of such diverse transcripts, together with their level of expression, could contribute to the profound phenotypic variability reported in MPS II.

  19. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  20. Modeling municipal solid waste collection: A generalized vehicle routing model with multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows.

    PubMed

    Son, Le Hoang; Louati, Amal

    2016-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection is a necessary process in any municipality resulting in the quality-of-life, economic aspects and urban structuralization. The intrinsic nature of MSW collection relates to the development of effective vehicle routing models that optimize the total traveling distances of vehicles, the environmental emission and the investment costs. In this article, we propose a generalized vehicle routing model including multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows for MSW collection. It takes into account traveling in one-way routes, the number of vehicles per m(2) and waiting time at traffic stops for reduction of operational time. The proposed model could be used for scenarios having similar node structures and vehicles' characteristics. A case study at Danang city, Vietnam is given to illustrate the applicability of this model. The experimental results have clearly shown that the new model reduces both total traveling distances and operational hours of vehicles in comparison with those of practical scenarios. Optimal routes of vehicles on streets and markets at Danang are given. Those results are significant to practitioners and local policy makers.

  1. Modeling municipal solid waste collection: A generalized vehicle routing model with multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows.

    PubMed

    Son, Le Hoang; Louati, Amal

    2016-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection is a necessary process in any municipality resulting in the quality-of-life, economic aspects and urban structuralization. The intrinsic nature of MSW collection relates to the development of effective vehicle routing models that optimize the total traveling distances of vehicles, the environmental emission and the investment costs. In this article, we propose a generalized vehicle routing model including multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows for MSW collection. It takes into account traveling in one-way routes, the number of vehicles per m(2) and waiting time at traffic stops for reduction of operational time. The proposed model could be used for scenarios having similar node structures and vehicles' characteristics. A case study at Danang city, Vietnam is given to illustrate the applicability of this model. The experimental results have clearly shown that the new model reduces both total traveling distances and operational hours of vehicles in comparison with those of practical scenarios. Optimal routes of vehicles on streets and markets at Danang are given. Those results are significant to practitioners and local policy makers. PMID:27036996

  2. Environmental radiological studies conducted during 1986 in the vicinity of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1986 for our assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant. In October 1984, a liquid-effluent control program was initiated that significantly reduced the quantities of radionuclides discharged with liquid waste from the plant. However, results from our sampling program in 1986 indicate that previously discharged radionuclides persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components although at concentrations much lower than those measured in 1984 and 1985. The greatly reduced activities in the dietary components from the aquatic environment attest to the effectiveness of the liquid-effluent control program. Concentrations in the flesh of fish from the creeks have decreased over time and with distance from the plant outfall. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in fish collected from Laguna Creek at locations more than 7.5 km from Rancho Seco is now comparable to the concentration determined in fresh-water fish randomly selected from Chicago, Illinois, markets. By August 1986, the mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in the flesh of bluegill had fallen to 7% of the concentration measured in fish from comparable locations in 1984 and was 30% of the mean concentration measured in these fish during August 1985. Stable potassium in the water plays a major role in the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by fish. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in the surface sections of creek sediments also declined between the end of 1984 and 1986 with an effective half-life of approximately 2 y. Surface soils collected around a perimeter 11 km from Rancho Seco and from ranchlands closer to the plant showed only concentrations of /sup 137/Cs originating from global fallout. Soils previously irrigated with Clay Creek water retain levels of both /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs.

  3. Field testing of behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at cooling-water intake systems: Ontario Hydro Pickering Nuclear Generating Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, R.S.; Patrick, P.H.; Matousek, J.A.; Wells, A.W.

    1989-03-01

    A field sampling program was conducted during the spring--summer of 1985 and 1986 at a test facility located offshore of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) on Lake Ontario. The objective of the field program was to evaluate the effectiveness of selected behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at generating facilities located on large freshwater lakes or impoundments. Three commercially available devices (air bubble curtain, pneumatic gun, and underwater strobe lights) were tested alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in reducing impingement. Sampling was conducted at two identical structures with the behavioral barrier devices installed on one of the structures and the other structure acting as a control. The effectiveness of the devices at excluding alewife (the dominant local species) was determined by comparing net catches covering 2-h test periods between the two structures. All of the behavioral barrier devices or combinations of devices tested exhibited effectiveness index values greater than 50%. The greatest deterrent capability was associated with the pneumatic gun; the least with the air bubble curtain. Device combinations that included the pneumatic gun were generally less effective than the pneumatic gun alone. The underwater strobe light was only marginally effective at excluding alewife. The air bubble curtain and underwater strobe light combination was more effective than each device separately, but the results were variable. 48 refs., 41 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Seismic evaluation of a diesel generator system at the Savannah River Site using earthquake experience data

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J.; Tong, Wen H.; Rawls, G.B.

    1990-12-31

    New equipment and systems have been seismically qualified traditionally by either two methods, testing or analysis. Testing programs are generally expensive and their input loadings are conservative. It is generally recognized that standard seismic analysis techniques produce conservative results. Seismic loads and response levels for equipment that are typically calculated exceed the values actually experienced in earthquakes. An alternate method for demonstrating the seismic adequacy of equipment has been developed which is based on conclusions derived from studying the performance of equipment that has been subjected to actual earthquake excitations. The conclusion reached from earthquake experience data is that damage or malfunction to most types of equipment subjected to earthquakes is less than that predicted by traditional testing and analysis techniques. The use of conclusions derived from experience data provides a realistic approach in assessing the seismic ruggedness of equipment. By recognizing the inherently higher capacity that exists in specific classes of equipment, commercial ``off-the-shelf`` equipment can be procured and qualified without the need to perform expensive modifications to meet requirements imposed by traditional conservative qualification analyses. This paper will present the seismic experience data methodology applied to demonstrate the seismic adequacy of several commercially supplied 800KW diesel powered engine driven generator sets with peripheral support components installed at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  5. Seismic evaluation of a diesel generator system at the Savannah River Site using earthquake experience data

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J.; Tong, Wen H. ); Rawls, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    New equipment and systems have been seismically qualified traditionally by either two methods, testing or analysis. Testing programs are generally expensive and their input loadings are conservative. It is generally recognized that standard seismic analysis techniques produce conservative results. Seismic loads and response levels for equipment that are typically calculated exceed the values actually experienced in earthquakes. An alternate method for demonstrating the seismic adequacy of equipment has been developed which is based on conclusions derived from studying the performance of equipment that has been subjected to actual earthquake excitations. The conclusion reached from earthquake experience data is that damage or malfunction to most types of equipment subjected to earthquakes is less than that predicted by traditional testing and analysis techniques. The use of conclusions derived from experience data provides a realistic approach in assessing the seismic ruggedness of equipment. By recognizing the inherently higher capacity that exists in specific classes of equipment, commercial off-the-shelf'' equipment can be procured and qualified without the need to perform expensive modifications to meet requirements imposed by traditional conservative qualification analyses. This paper will present the seismic experience data methodology applied to demonstrate the seismic adequacy of several commercially supplied 800KW diesel powered engine driven generator sets with peripheral support components installed at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 3, Appendix H. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report is a continuation of the Installation Restoration Program site investigation report for IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 at the Air National Guard, Rosyln, New York. The Sample Delivery Group (SDG) narratives and quality assurance/quality control analytical results of eighteen samples are reported.

  7. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  8. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joseph Owen; Mosey, Gail

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  10. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  11. Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

  12. Next Generation Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip System for On-Site Detection in Oral Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulides, Nicolaos; De La Garza, Richard; Simmons, Glennon W; McRae, Michael P; Wong, Jorge; Newton, Thomas F; Kosten, Thomas R.; Haque, Ahmed; McDevitt, John T

    2016-01-01

    Current on-site drug of abuse detection methods involve invasive sampling of blood and urine specimens, or collection of oral fluid, followed by qualitative screening tests using immunochromatographic cartridges. Test confirmation and quantitative assessment of a presumptive positive are then provided by remote laboratories, an inefficient and costly process decoupled from the initial sampling. Recently, a new noninvasive oral fluid sampling approach that is integrated with the chip-based Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) platform has been developed for the rapid (~ 10 minutes), sensitive detection (~ ng/ml) and quantitation of 12 drugs of abuse. Furthermore, the system can provide the time-course of select drug and metabolite profiles in oral fluids. For cocaine, we observed three slope components were correlated with cocaine-induced impairment using this chip-based p-BNC detection modality. Thus, this p-BNC has significant potential for roadside drug testing by law enforcement officers. Initial work reported on chip-based drug detection was completed using ‘macro’ or “chip in the lab” prototypes, that included metal encased “flow cells”, external peristaltic pumps and a bench-top analyzer system instrumentation. We now describe the next generation miniaturized analyzer instrumentation along with customized disposables and sampling devices. These tools will offer real-time oral fluid drug monitoring capabilities, to be used for roadside drug testing as well as testing in clinical settings as a non-invasive, quantitative, accurate and sensitive tool to verify patient adherence to treatment. PMID:26925466

  13. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  14. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Steele, John W.; Van Keuren, Steven P.; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell resistance resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid cathode feed electrolyzer cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  15. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  18. Lac operator repeats generate a traceable fragile site in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Ariana; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2011-10-01

    One limitation for the study of chromosomal fragile sites is that they must be studied on metaphase spreads, after the breakage. We show here that bacterial lac operator (lacO) repeats are prone to spontaneous breakage, which when combined with a fluorescent lac repressor (lacR) has allowed us to track a fragile site through the cell cycle. By using this system, we show that Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) is already present at fragile sites during interphase, suggesting roles for this helicase beyond mitosis. In addition, we report that the oncogene Myc promotes the formation of anaphase bridges and micronuclei containing fragile-site sequences. PMID:21836640

  19. Implementation and validation of a Wilks-type multi-site daily precipitation generator over a typical Alpine river catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D. E.; Fischer, A. M.; Frei, C.; Liniger, M. A.; Appenzeller, C.; Knutti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Many climate impact assessments require high-resolution precipitation time series that have a spatio-temporal correlation structure consistent with observations, for simulating either current or future climate conditions. In this respect, weather generators (WGs) designed and calibrated for multiple sites are an appealing statistical downscaling technique to stochastically simulate multiple realisations of possible future time series consistent with the local precipitation characteristics and their expected future changes. In this study, we present the implementation and validation of a multi-site daily precipitation generator re-built after the methodology described in Wilks (1998). The generator consists of several Richardson-type WGs run with spatially correlated random number streams. This study aims at investigating the capabilities, the added value and the limitations of the precipitation generator for a typical Alpine river catchment in the Swiss Alpine region under current climate. The calibrated multi-site WG is skilful at individual sites in representing the annual cycle of the precipitation statistics, such as mean wet day frequency and intensity as well as monthly precipitation sums. It reproduces realistically the multi-day statistics such as the frequencies of dry and wet spell lengths and precipitation sums over consecutive wet days. Substantial added value is demonstrated in simulating daily areal precipitation sums in comparison to multiple WGs that lack the spatial dependency in the stochastic process. Limitations are seen in reproducing daily and multi-day extreme precipitation sums, observed variability from year to year and in reproducing long dry spell lengths. Given the performance of the presented generator, we conclude that it is a useful tool to generate precipitation series consistent with the mean climatic aspects and likely helpful to be used as a downscaling technique for climate change scenarios.

  20. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  1. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  2. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  3. 24. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, c.1960 GENERAL SITE PLAN OF STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  5. Size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at a high-altitude site on the central Tibetan Plateau (Nam Co Station, 4730 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yuhong; Wen, Tianxue; Zhang, Guoshuai; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition and size distribution characteristics of atmospheric aerosols have important effects on the environment, human health and climate change. In this paper, we study the size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at the remote and pristine site, Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, in the inland Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on collected size-segregated aerosols during 2012. The samples were quantified using the thermal/optical (TOR) method. The overall average concentrations of OC and EC in TSP, PM9.0, PM2.1, and PM1.0 were 4.61 μg m- 3 and 0.19 μg m- 3, 4.52 μg m- 3 and 0.18 μg m- 3, 2.72 μg m- 3 and 0.11 μg m- 3, and 2.11 μg m- 3 and 0.09 μg m- 3, respectively. Generally, the highest concentration of OC and EC in different aerosol size occurred during winter. The low level of EC indicated that direct anthropogenic disturbances in the interior of the TP still remain insignificant. The size distributions of OC and EC concentrations presented bimodal variations. In winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, the peaks for OC were in droplet mode (0.43-0.65 μm) and coarse mode (4.7-5.8 μm); while in the monsoon period, the coarse mode shifted to a smaller size bin (3.3-4.7 μm). The coarse mode may be due to dust particles while the droplet mode may be due to the growth process of particles. For EC, the peaks variations in coarse mode were as same as OC, while the other peaks were complicated: the peaks during winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons exhibited in droplet mode (1.1-2.1 μm, 0.65-1.1 μm, and 0.43-0.65 μm, respectively), and in post-monsoon period, the peak located in condensation mode. The highest peak concentrations for OC and EC occurred in winter and the pre-monsoon period, while the lowest peak values in the monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The size distribution variations may be caused by deposition, gas/particles exchange, hygroscopic growth, external mixing

  6. The potential and realistic hazards after a solar-driven chemical treatment of benzene using a health risk assessment at a gas station site in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Chang, Soon-Woong

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential use for ex situ remediation, a solar-driven, photocatalyzed reactor system was constructed and applied for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene using selected advanced oxidation processes (AOP) processes, such as H(2)O(2)/solar light, TiO(2) slurry/solar light and immobilized TiO(2)/solar light. However; to date, there have been few attempts to characterize the potential impact of residual levels of benzene on human health after treatment. Some papers have focused on the application of treatment methods of benzene, but most have not considered the effects of realistic hazards and human health. Therefore, potential and realistic hazards of benzene to human health were investigated at a gas station site using a risk-based assessment approach. Among the different remediation actions, the solar light/TiO(2) slurry/H(2)O(2) system (Action 5) showed higher removal efficiency than the solar light/TiO(2) slurry (Action 3) and the solar light/immobilized TiO(2) (Action 2) systems for the treatment of benzene. The Action 5 remediation method achieved 98% degradation, and lead to a substantial increase in the removal of benzene due to the synergetic effect of TiO(2) with the oxidant, H(2)O(2). Also, using the realistic and potential hazard assessment instead of the point estimation of concentration after benzene treatment, the total health risk exceeded the target risk value (1 x 10(-6)). However, the 95th percentile target cancer risk, found using a probabilistic analysis (Monte Carlo method), was around 1 x 10(-6), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk. Therefore, it was concluded that no adverse health risk was unlikely to be posed if the Action 5 system, which included the addition of TiO(2) and H(2)O(2), or if an increased reaction time was applied. In addition, continuous efforts and proper actions must be taken on the "Soil and Groundwater Remediation Action" based on the risk assessment in Korea.

  7. 5. Conveyors 'C' through 'K' (built 1940) south of Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Conveyors 'C' through 'K' (built 1940) south of Station, looking northeast from hurricane barrier. - Manchester Street Generating Station, Conveyors, 460 Eddy Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  8. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B. G.

    1997-11-25

    This document provides guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste. Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The program documentation is intended to demonstrate generator compliance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as well as state and Federal regulations.

  9. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  10. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    Phase I Due to the growing interest in establishing a domestic hydrogen infrastructure, several hydrogen fueling stations already have been established around the country as demonstration units. While these stations help build familiarity with hydrogen fuel in their respective communities, hydrogen vehicles are still several years from mass production. This limited number of hydrogen vehicles translates to a limited demand for hydrogen fuel, a significant hurdle for the near-term establishment of commercially viable hydrogen fueling stations. By incorporating a fuel cell and cogeneration system with a hydrogen fueling station, the resulting energy station can compensate for low hydrogen demand by providing both hydrogen dispensing and combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The electrical power generated by the energy station can be fed back into the power grid or a nearby facility, which in turn helps offset station costs. Hydrogen production capacity not used by vehicles can be used to support building heat and power loads. In this way, an energy station can experience greater station utility while more rapidly recovering capital costs, providing an increased market potential relative to a hydrogen fueling station. At an energy station, hydrogen is generated on-site. Part of the hydrogen is used for vehicle refueling and part of the hydrogen is consumed by a fuel cell. As the fuel cell generates electricity and sends it to the power grid, excess heat is reclaimed through a cogeneration system for use in a nearby facility. Both the electrical generation and heat reclamation serve to offset the cost of purchasing the equivalent amount of energy for nearby facilities and the energy station itself. This two-phase project assessed the costs and feasibility of developing a hydrogen vehicle fueling station in conjunction with electricity and cogenerative heat generation for nearby Federal buildings. In order to determine which system configurations and operational

  11. Orion Navigation Sensitivities to Ground Station Infrastructure for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getchius, Joel; Kukitschek, Daniel; Crain, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans to the International Space Station and back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. As in the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of the CEV. In the case of lunar missions, the ground station infrastructure consisting of approximately twelve stations distributed about the Earth and known as the Apollo Manned Spaceflight Network, no longer exists. Therefore, additional tracking resources will have to be allocated or constructed to support mission operations for Orion lunar missions. This paper examines the sensitivity of Orion navigation for lunar missions to the number and distribution of tracking sites that form the ground station infrastructure.

  12. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  13. DNA-AP sites generation by Etoposide in whole blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Etoposide is currently one of the most commonly used antitumor drugs. The mechanisms of action proposed for its antitumor activity are based mainly on its interaction with topoisomerase II. Etoposide effects in transformed cells have been described previously. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of this drug in non-transformed whole blood cells, such as occurs as collateral damage induced by some chemotherapies. Methods To determine etoposide genotoxicity, we employed Comet assay in two alkaline versions. To evaluate single strand breaks and delay repair sites we use pH 12.3 conditions and pH >13 to evidence alkali labile sites. With the purpose to quantified apurinic or apyrimidine (AP) sites we employed a specific restriction enzyme. Etoposide effects were determined on whole blood cells cultured in absence or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) treated during 2 and 24 hours of cultured. Results Alkaline (pH > 13) single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay experiments revealed etoposide-induced increases in DNA damage in phytohemaglutinine (PHA)-stimulated blood and non-stimulated blood cells. When the assay was performed at a less alkaline pH, 12.3, we observed DNA damage in PHA-stimulated blood cells consistent with the existence of alkali labile sites (ALSs). In an effort to elucidate the molecular events underlying this result, we applied exonuclease III (Exo III) in conjunction with a SCGE assay, enabling detection of DNA-AP sites along the genome. More DNA AP-sites were revealed by Exo III and ALSs were recognized by the SCGE assay only in the non-stimulated blood cells treated with etoposide. Conclusion Our results indicate that etoposide induces DNA damage specifically at DNA-AP sites in quiescent blood cells. This effect could be involved in the development of secondary malignancies associated with etoposide chemotherapy. PMID:19917085

  14. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  15. Preserving spatial linear correlations between neighboring stations in simulating daily precipitation using extended Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababaei, Behnam; Sohrabi, Teymour; Mirzaei, Farhad

    2014-10-01

    Most stochastic weather generators have their focus on precipitation because it is the most important variable affecting environmental processes. One of the methods to reproduce the precipitation occurrence time series is to use a Markov process. But, in addition to the simulation of short-term autocorrelations in one station, it is sometimes important to preserve the spatial linear correlations (SLC) between neighboring stations as well. In this research, an extension of one-site Markov models was proposed to preserve the SLC between neighboring stations. Qazvin station was utilized as the reference station and Takestan (TK), Magsal, Nirougah, and Taleghan stations were used as the target stations. The performances of different models were assessed in relation to the simulation of dry and wet spells and short-term dependencies in precipitation time series. The results revealed that in TK station, a Markov model with a first-order spatial model could be selected as the best model, while in the other stations, a model with the order of two or three could be selected. The selected (i.e., best) models were assessed in relation to preserving the SLC between neighboring stations. The results depicted that these models were very capable in preserving the SLC between the reference station and any of the target stations. But, their performances were weaker when the SLC between the other stations were compared. In order to resolve this issue, spatially correlated random numbers were utilized instead of independent random numbers while generating synthetic time series using the Markov models. Although this method slightly reduced the model performances in relation to dry and wet spells and short-term dependencies, the improvements related to the simulation of the SLC between the other stations were substantial.

  16. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  17. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections

    PubMed Central

    Mingo, Janire; Erramuzpe, Asier; Luna, Sandra; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Amo, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Schepens, Jan T. G.; Hendriks, Wiljan J. A. J.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis. PMID:27548698

  18. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Janire; Erramuzpe, Asier; Luna, Sandra; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Amo, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Schepens, Jan T G; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Cortés, Jesús M; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis. PMID:27548698

  19. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.

  20. Mitigation/remediation concepts for Hanford Site flammable gas generating waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Deichman, J.L. ); Johnson, B.M.; Lemon, D.K.; Strachan, D.M. )

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of concepts for the mitigation and/or remediation of the hydrogen gas generation, storage, and periodic release in Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) and 22 other tanks. The 22 other tanks exhibit much less hydrogen generation (volume and concentration of released flammable gases) than Tank 101-SY and have not had the focus nor attention that has been given to Tank 101-SY. These tanks have been listed as potential hydrogen gas-generating tanks from analysis of tank performance and data from flowsheets and Track Radioactive Constituents Reports (TRAC). These lesser hydrogen-generating tanks will also need to be revisited and revalidated. Of the 23 hydrogen class tanks, 5 are double-shell tanks (DST) and 18 are single-shell tanks (SST). Options for mitigation or remediation are different for the two types of tanks because of age, configuration, and waste form. While this document principally focuses on Tank 101-SY, the information presented has been useful to address other tanks containing hydrogen-generating waste.

  1. Leachate generated by an oil-and-gas brine pond site in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, E.C.; Kehew, A.E.; Groenewold, G.H.; Beal, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlined ponds were used for holding and evaporation of brines produced with oil and gas at a well site in north-central North Dakota. The brine-evaporation ponds were in use from 1959 up to the late 1970s when they were backfilled and leveled. Continued salt-water migration at this site since closure has decreased crop yields in surrounding fields and has killed trees in a shelterbelt within an area of approximately 10 acres. An apparent resistivity survey delineated a 360,000-ha area of extremely low resistivity. Isoconcentration maps indicate that a highly saline leachate plume extends laterally in a 500-foot radius around the ponds and vertically to a depth of 70 feet below the surface. Ground-water recharge at this site is low because of the semiarid climate and the low hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface sediments and, as a result, very little flushing of the brine from the sediment beneath the ponds has occurred. Pore water within the unsaturated zone beneath the reclaimed ponds contain essentially the same ionic concentrations as that of brine impounded in these pits 10 to 25 years ago. Based upon the results of this research, we estimate that brine leachate will continue to migrate at slow rates from this site for tens and possibly hundreds of years if no action is taken. The construction of a mound over the site and/or an infiltration gallery around the perimeter would minimize the spread of brine and make it possible to return this land to production in the foreseeable future.

  2. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1998-04-13

    Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  3. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-07-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  4. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  5. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  6. Active site diversification of P450cam with indole generates catalysts for benzylic oxidation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Herter, Susanne; Kranz, David C; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are useful biocatalysts for C–H activation, and there is a need to expand the range of these enzymes beyond what is naturally available. A panel of 93 variants of active self-sufficient P450cam[Tyr96Phe]-RhFRed fusion enzymes with a broad diversity in active site amino acids was developed by screening a large mutant library of 16,500 clones using a simple, highly sensitive colony-based colorimetric screen against indole. These mutants showed distinct fingerprints of activity not only when screened in oxidations of substituted indoles but also for unrelated oxidations such as benzylic hydroxylations. PMID:26664590

  7. Active site diversification of P450cam with indole generates catalysts for benzylic oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul P; Eichler, Anja; Herter, Susanne; Kranz, David C; Turner, Nicholas J; Flitsch, Sabine L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are useful biocatalysts for C-H activation, and there is a need to expand the range of these enzymes beyond what is naturally available. A panel of 93 variants of active self-sufficient P450cam[Tyr96Phe]-RhFRed fusion enzymes with a broad diversity in active site amino acids was developed by screening a large mutant library of 16,500 clones using a simple, highly sensitive colony-based colorimetric screen against indole. These mutants showed distinct fingerprints of activity not only when screened in oxidations of substituted indoles but also for unrelated oxidations such as benzylic hydroxylations.

  8. Active site diversification of P450cam with indole generates catalysts for benzylic oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul P; Eichler, Anja; Herter, Susanne; Kranz, David C; Turner, Nicholas J; Flitsch, Sabine L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are useful biocatalysts for C-H activation, and there is a need to expand the range of these enzymes beyond what is naturally available. A panel of 93 variants of active self-sufficient P450cam[Tyr96Phe]-RhFRed fusion enzymes with a broad diversity in active site amino acids was developed by screening a large mutant library of 16,500 clones using a simple, highly sensitive colony-based colorimetric screen against indole. These mutants showed distinct fingerprints of activity not only when screened in oxidations of substituted indoles but also for unrelated oxidations such as benzylic hydroxylations. PMID:26664590

  9. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  10. Manganese ions induce H2O2 generation at the ubiquinone binding site of mitochondrial complex II.

    PubMed

    Bonke, Erik; Zwicker, Klaus; Dröse, Stefan

    2015-08-15

    Manganese-induced toxicity has been recently associated with an increased ROS generation from mitochondrial complex II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). To achieve a deeper mechanistic understanding how divalent manganese ions (Mn(2+)) could stimulate mitochondrial ROS production we performed investigations with bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP). In succinate fueled SMP, the Mn(2+) induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was blocked by the specific complex II ubiquinone binding site (IIQ) inhibitor atpenin A5 while a further downstream block at complex III increased the rate markedly. This suggests that site IIQ was the source of the reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Mn(2+) ions also accelerated the rate of superoxide dismutation, explaining the general increase in the measured rates of H2O2 production and an attenuation of direct superoxide detection.

  11. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 1: New data, classification, and re-evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    New data are reported from five previously unanalyzed Apollo 12 mare basalts that are incorporated into an evaluation of previous petrogenetic models and classification schemes for these basalts. This paper proposes a classification for Apollo 12 mare basalts on the basis of whole-rock Mg# (molar 100*(Mg/(Mg+Fe))) and Rb/Sr ratio (analyzed by isotope dilution), whereby the ilmenite, olivine, and pigeonite basalt groups are readily distinguished from each other. Scrutiny of the Apollo 12 feldspathic 'suite' demonstrates that two of the three basalts previously assigned to this group (12031, 12038, 12072) can be reclassified: 12031 is a plagioclase-rich pigeonite basalt; and 12072 is an olivine basalt. Only basalt 12038 stands out as a unique sample to the Apollo 12 site, but whether this represents a single sample from another flow at the Apollo 12 site or is exotic to this site is equivocal. The question of whether the olivine and pigeonite basalt suites are co-magmatic is addressed by incompatible trace-element chemistry: the trends defined by these two suites when Co/Sm and Sm/Eu ratios are plotted against Rb/Sr ratio demonstrate that these two basaltic types cannot be co-magmatic. Crystal fractionation/accumulation paths have been calculated and show that neither the pigeonite, olivine, or ilmenite basalts are related by this process. Each suite requires a distinct and separate source region. This study also examines sample heterogeneity and the degree to which whole-rock analyses are representative, which is critical when petrogenetic interpretation is undertaken. Sample heterogeneity has been investigated petrographically (inhomogeneous mineral distribution) with consideration of duplicate analyses, and whether a specific sample (using average data) plots consistently upon a fractionation trend when a number of different compostional parameters are considered. Using these criteria, four basalts have been identified where reported analyses are not

  12. 1995 Annual report on waste generation and waste mainization progress as required by DOE order 5400.1, Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.

    1996-09-24

    While waste generation numbers are important, the true measure of success is waste minimized. Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition as pollution prevention, as they have become part of a culture of best management practices. As an example, the success of the excess and reuse program, both informal and formal, documents the Wmin/P2 culture that exists in the pollution prevention representatives and employees at the facilities.

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Adak Naval Air Station, Operable Unit 1, (Sites 11 and 13), Adak Island, AK, March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This decision document presents the selected interim remedial actions (IRAs) for Sites 11 and 13 (Palisades Landfill and Metals Landfill), which are part of Operable Unit A at the Naval Air facility (NAF) Adak, Adak Island, Alaska. The selected IRAs at Palisades and Metals Landfills, at NAF Adak, Adak Island, Alaska, address the potential chemical exposures and associated risk to human health and the environment by minimizing the potential for exposures to site contaminants and off-site contaminant migration.

  14. Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Biofilms from Three Dogs with Postoperative Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    König, L. M.; Klopfleisch, R.; Höper, D.; Gruber, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of biofilms in chronic wound infections of dogs is unclear. In the present study, histologically identified biofilms attached to sutures in chronically infected wounds of three dogs were examined by next generation sequencing of total DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The analysis identified an inhomogeneous bacterial composition in three tissues containing biofilms. Some of the identified bacterial families such as Staphylococci and Streptococci have been found before in biofilms associated with human and canine wounds but in this study were quantitatively in the minority. The majority of the reads classified as bacterial sequences had the highest identity with sequences belonging to the Porphyromonadaceae, Deinococcaceae, Methylococcaceae, Nocardiaceae, Alteromonadaceae, and Propionibacteriaceae and thus taxons of so far minor relevance in veterinary medicine. PMID:27355023

  15. Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Biofilms from Three Dogs with Postoperative Surgical Site Infection.

    PubMed

    König, L M; Klopfleisch, R; Höper, D; Gruber, A D

    2014-01-01

    The composition of biofilms in chronic wound infections of dogs is unclear. In the present study, histologically identified biofilms attached to sutures in chronically infected wounds of three dogs were examined by next generation sequencing of total DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The analysis identified an inhomogeneous bacterial composition in three tissues containing biofilms. Some of the identified bacterial families such as Staphylococci and Streptococci have been found before in biofilms associated with human and canine wounds but in this study were quantitatively in the minority. The majority of the reads classified as bacterial sequences had the highest identity with sequences belonging to the Porphyromonadaceae, Deinococcaceae, Methylococcaceae, Nocardiaceae, Alteromonadaceae, and Propionibacteriaceae and thus taxons of so far minor relevance in veterinary medicine.

  16. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  17. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  18. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  19. Inflammatory mediators generated at the site of inoculation of Loxosceles gaucho spider venom.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Katia C; Lira, Marcela S; Araújo, Claudia A; Pareja-Santos, Alessandra; Távora, Bianca C L F; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Kimura, Louise F; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2010-11-01

    Patients bitten by Loxosceles spiders generally manifest marked local inflammatory reaction and dermonecrosis. This report evaluated edema formation, leukocyte infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators at the injection site of Loxosceles gaucho venom. BALB/c mice were i.d. injected with venom and thereafter paws were disrupted and homogenized to obtain differential counts of migrated cells, as well to assay the levels of cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. Increased footpad thickness was detected as soon as 30 min after venom injection, and 24h later was similar to that of the control group. Loxosceles venom mildly augmented the recruitment of leukocytes to the footpad in comparison with PBS-injected mice. Moreover, it stimulated the release of IL-6, MCP-1 and KC at 2 and 24h after venom injection. In addition, higher levels of PGE(2) were detected 30 min after venom injection in comparison with control group. However, the venom failed to increase levels of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, TXB(2) and LTB(4). Our results demonstrate that L. gaucho venom evokes an early complex inflammatory reaction, stimulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators (PGE(2)), and recruiting leukocytes to the footpad which contribute to the local reaction induced by L. gaucho venom.

  20. Surface-wave site characterization at 53 strong-motion recording stations affected by the Parkfield, California, M6.0 earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We present one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles at 52 strong-motion sites that recorded the 28 September 2004 Magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, Calif., earthquake. We estimate the VS profiles with the Spectral Analysis of Surface-Waves (SASW) method. The SASW method is a noninvasive method that indirectly estimates the VS at depth from variations in the Rayleigh wave phase velocity at the surface. To address the uncertainty associated with these measurements, we compare the SASW profiles to surface-source downhole-receiver (SSDR) profiles at four sites. Three of the four SSDR sites are in close agreement with the adjacent SASW site, while the SASW profile is considerably slower than the SSDR profile at one site.

  1. On-site measurement of trace-level sulfide in natural waters by vapor generation and microchannel collection.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Kuwahara, Haruka; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2011-07-01

    Aqueous sulfide plays an important role in the environment even at low concentrations. However, it is unstable, which means field samples cannot be transported to the laboratory for analysis without fixation. In this work, a novel method was developed to determine trace levels of sulfide on site. This method is based on vapor generation and collection in a special microchannel device followed by fluorescence measurement (VG-μGAS). The microchannel scrubber gave a high enrichment factor, and a high sensitivity was achieved, which allowed measurement of nanomolar (nM) levels of sulfide. The theoretical approach to vapor generation for several compounds is discussed to evaluate the applicability of the method to these analytes, and compounds having a low Henry's law constant (<1 M atm(-1)) are suitable to measure by VG-μGAS. Under optimized conditions, concentrations of 1.0-100 nM of sulfide could be measured. The sulfide contents of hot spring, aquarium, pond, and seawater were successfully measured by this method. Nanomolar levels of sulfide could be measured on site without loss of analyte, and results were obtained instantly in the field, both of which are advantageous for effective field surveys. The method was also applied to field measurements of aqueous sulfide in the Ariake Sea and Lake Baikal.

  2. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  3. Site Selection & Characterization Status Report for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2007-09-01

    In the near future, the US Department of Energy (DOE) will need to make important decisions regarding design and construction of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). One part of making these decisions is considering the potential environmental impacts that this facility may have, if constructed here at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 provides DOE decision makers with a process to systematically consider potential environmental consequences of agency decisions. In addition, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Title VI, Subtitel C, Section 644) states that the 'Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) shall have licensing and regulatory authority for any reactor authorized under this subtitle.' This stipulates that the NRC will license the NGNP for operation. The NRC NEPA Regulations (10 CFR Part 51) require tha thte NRC prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a permit to construct a nuclear power plant. The applicant is required to submit an Environmental report (ER) to aid the NRC in complying with NEPA.

  4. Automatic generation of bioinformatics tools for predicting protein–ligand binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Masaki; Ueki, Kokoro; Saad, Gul; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Predictive tools that model protein–ligand binding on demand are needed to promote ligand research in an innovative drug-design environment. However, it takes considerable time and effort to develop predictive tools that can be applied to individual ligands. An automated production pipeline that can rapidly and efficiently develop user-friendly protein–ligand binding predictive tools would be useful. Results: We developed a system for automatically generating protein–ligand binding predictions. Implementation of this system in a pipeline of Semantic Web technique-based web tools will allow users to specify a ligand and receive the tool within 0.5–1 day. We demonstrated high prediction accuracy for three machine learning algorithms and eight ligands. Availability and implementation: The source code and web application are freely available for download at http://utprot.net. They are implemented in Python and supported on Linux. Contact: shimizu@bi.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26545824

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0. UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DOE /NV

    1999-02-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

  6. Late-onset spastic paraplegia: Aberrant SPG11 transcripts generated by a novel splice site donor mutation.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Mori, Atsuko; Oki, Ryosuke; Tsukamoto-Miyashiro, Ai; Matsui, Naoko; Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Orlacchio, Antonio; Izumi, Yuishin; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-12-15

    We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site donor (SSD) of intron 30 (c.5866+1G>A) in consanguineous Japanese SPG11 siblings showing late-onset spastic paraplegia using the whole-exome sequencing. Phenotypic variability was observed, including age-at-onset, dysarthria and pes cavus. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that the mutation affected the recognition of the constitutive SSD of intron 30, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSD in exon 30. The use of constitutive splice sites of intron 29 was confirmed by sequencing. The mutant transcripts are mostly subject to degradation by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay system. SPG11 transcripts, escaping from the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, would generate a truncated protein (p.Tyr1900Phefs5X) containing the first 1899 amino acids and followed by 4 aberrant amino acids. This study showed a successful clinical application of whole-exome sequencing in spastic paraplegia and demonstrated a further evidence of allelic heterogeneity in SPG11. The confirmation of aberrant transcript by splice site mutation is a prerequisite for a more precise molecular diagnosis.

  7. Micro-grid for on-site wind-and-hydrogen powered generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suskis, P.; Andreiciks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.; Kleperis, J.

    2014-02-01

    The authors propose a micro-grid for autonomous wind-and-hydrogen power generation thus replacing such traditional fossil-fuelled equipment as domestic diesel generators, gas micro-turbines, etc. In the proposed microgrid the excess of electrical energy from a wind turbine is spent on electrolytic production of hydrogen which is then stored under low-pressure in absorbing composite material. The electrolyser has a non-traditional feeding unit and electrode coatings. The proposed DC/DC conversion topologies for different micro-grid nodes are shown to be well-designed. The prototypes elaborated for the converters and hydrogen storage media were tested and have demonstrated a good performance. Rakstā piedāvātā mikrotīkla izpēte ir veikta ar mērķi izstrādāt autonomu, uz vēja un ūdeņraža enerģiju balstītu elektroapgādes sistēmu, kas varētu aizvietot tradicionālās fosilā kurināmā sistēmas, piemēram, mājsaimniecību dīzeļa ģeneratorus, gāzes mikroturbīnas u.c. Mikrotīkla elektroapgādes sistēmā vēja agregāta saražotā elektroenerģija tiek pārveidota atbilstoši standarta maiņsprieguma elektroapgādes parametriem un piegādāta slodzei. Pārpalikusī enerģija tiek pārveidota un uzkrāta ūdeņraža formā, izmantojot elektrolīzes iekārtu un kompozītmateriālu uzkrājēju. Ja pieejamā vēja enerģija nenosedz slodzes enerģijas patēriņu, elektroenerģijas padeves funkciju ar atbilstoša energoelektronikas pārveidotāja palīdzību pārņem ūdeņraža degvielas elements. Ja, savukārt, slodzei nav nepieciešama enerģija, no vēja saražoto enerģiju izmanto elektrolīzes iekārta un tā tiek uzkrāta ūdeņraža formā, atbilstoši uzkrājēja ietilpībai. Piedāvātajā mikrotīklā ir izmantota elektrolīzes iekārta ar netradicionāliem elektrodu pārklājumiem un barošanas bloku, kā arī zemspiediena kompozītmateriālu ūdeņraža uzkrājējs. Galvenie mikrotīkla elektriskās enerģijas pārveidošanas mezgli ir

  8. Probabilistic Inference on Multiple Normalized Signal Profiles from Next Generation Sequencing: Transcription Factor Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    With the prevalence of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technology, massive ChIP-Seq data has been accumulated. The ChIP-Seq technology measures the genome-wide occupancy of DNA-binding proteins in vivo. It is well-known that different DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being regulated in different conditions (e.g. different cell types). To fully understand a gene's function, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles for deciphering the gene transcription causalities. In this work, we propose and describe two probabilistic models. Assuming the conditional independence of different DNA-binding proteins' occupancies, the first method (SignalRanker) is developed as an intuitive method for ChIP-Seq genome-wide signal profile inference. Unfortunately, such an assumption may not always hold in some gene regulation cases. Thus, we propose and describe another method (FullSignalRanker) which does not make the conditional independence assumption. The proposed methods are compared with other existing methods on ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets, demonstrating its regression and classification ability. The results suggest that FullSignalRanker is the best-performing method for recovering the signal ranks on the promoter and enhancer regions. In addition, FullSignalRanker is also the best-performing method for peak sequence classification. We envision that SignalRanker and FullSignalRanker will become important in the era of next generation sequencing. FullSignalRanker program is available on the following website: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~wkc/FullSignalRanker/.

  9. Probabilistic Inference on Multiple Normalized Signal Profiles from Next Generation Sequencing: Transcription Factor Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    With the prevalence of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technology, massive ChIP-Seq data has been accumulated. The ChIP-Seq technology measures the genome-wide occupancy of DNA-binding proteins in vivo. It is well-known that different DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being regulated in different conditions (e.g. different cell types). To fully understand a gene's function, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles for deciphering the gene transcription causalities. In this work, we propose and describe two probabilistic models. Assuming the conditional independence of different DNA-binding proteins' occupancies, the first method (SignalRanker) is developed as an intuitive method for ChIP-Seq genome-wide signal profile inference. Unfortunately, such an assumption may not always hold in some gene regulation cases. Thus, we propose and describe another method (FullSignalRanker) which does not make the conditional independence assumption. The proposed methods are compared with other existing methods on ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets, demonstrating its regression and classification ability. The results suggest that FullSignalRanker is the best-performing method for recovering the signal ranks on the promoter and enhancer regions. In addition, FullSignalRanker is also the best-performing method for peak sequence classification. We envision that SignalRanker and FullSignalRanker will become important in the era of next generation sequencing. FullSignalRanker program is available on the following website: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~wkc/FullSignalRanker/. PMID:26671811

  10. Construction of a high-density genetic map for grape using next generation restriction-site associated DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic mapping and QTL detection are powerful methodologies in plant improvement and breeding. Construction of a high-density and high-quality genetic map would be of great benefit in the production of superior grapes to meet human demand. High throughput and low cost of the recently developed next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have resulted in its wide application in genome research. Sequencing restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) might be an efficient strategy to simplify genotyping. Combining NGS with RAD has proven to be powerful for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker development. Results An F1 population of 100 individual plants was developed. In-silico digestion-site prediction was used to select an appropriate restriction enzyme for construction of a RAD sequencing library. Next generation RAD sequencing was applied to genotype the F1 population and its parents. Applying a cluster strategy for SNP modulation, a total of 1,814 high-quality SNP markers were developed: 1,121 of these were mapped to the female genetic map, 759 to the male map, and 1,646 to the integrated map. A comparison of the genetic maps to the published Vitis vinifera genome revealed both conservation and variations. Conclusions The applicability of next generation RAD sequencing for genotyping a grape F1 population was demonstrated, leading to the successful development of a genetic map with high density and quality using our designed SNP markers. Detailed analysis revealed that this newly developed genetic map can be used for a variety of genome investigations, such as QTL detection, sequence assembly and genome comparison. PMID:22908993

  11. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

  12. Toward Non-Ergodic and Site-Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment: Requirements for the Next Generation of Strong Motion Network and Databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, F.; Ktenidou, O. J.; Derras, B.; Roumelioti, Z.; Pierre-Yves, B.; Hollender, F.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-motion models used in engineering seismology are usually calibrated on global databases that are usually created by mixing data from different regions. These models also assume that the ground-motion variability observed in a global dataset is the same as the variability in ground motion at a single site-source combination. This assumption is referred to as the ergodic assumption. New data give a unique opportunity to remove the ergodic assumption and take into account regional source, path and site specificities. Using recent data analysis performed on the EUROSEISTEST valley (Greece) and global ground-motion datasets (Kiknet, Knet, NGA2 and the European strong-motion databases) we will show the impact of source parameters, site monitoring and site-characterisation on the uncertainty of the ground motion estimates and associated hazard curves. Our results suggest that future strong-motion networks should use higher sampling rates (to better evaluate site-specific high frequency attenuations) and record both strong and weak motions (to evaluate single-station sigma). These results also quantify the impact of a better characterisation of source parameters (depth, fault maturity, source to site distances) ans site parameters on ground-motion models. We finally will show how new networks and high-level strong-motion databases may help to built consistent ergodic PSHA at a regional scale and non-ergodic, site specific, PSHA.

  13. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of

  14. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  15. Shear Wave Velocity and Site Amplification Factors for 25 Strong-Motion Instrument Stations Affected by the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Carkin, Bradley; Corbett, Skye; Zangwill, Aliza; Estevez, Ivan; Lai, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles are presented for 25 strong-motion instrument sites along the Mid-Atlantic eastern seaboard, Piedmont region, and Appalachian region, which surround the epicenter of the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011. Testing was performed at sites in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, the District of Columbia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS,30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VS,Z), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The Vs profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. A large trailer-mounted active source was used to shake the ground during the testing and produce the surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  16. 47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case of a non-U.S.-licensed space station, prior to commencing operation with U.S. earth stations. (1... earth station(s) communicating with the space station from any site in the United States. (3) The location, by city and country, of any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station that communicates...

  17. A rapid, efficient, and economical inverse polymerase chain reaction-based method for generating a site saturation mutant library.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pankaj C; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-03-15

    With the development of deep sequencing methodologies, it has become important to construct site saturation mutant (SSM) libraries in which every nucleotide/codon in a gene is individually randomized. We describe methodologies for the rapid, efficient, and economical construction of such libraries using inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We show that if the degenerate codon is in the middle of the mutagenic primer, there is an inherent PCR bias due to the thermodynamic mismatch penalty, which decreases the proportion of unique mutants. Introducing a nucleotide bias in the primer can alleviate the problem. Alternatively, if the degenerate codon is placed at the 5' end, there is no PCR bias, which results in a higher proportion of unique mutants. This also facilitates detection of deletion mutants resulting from errors during primer synthesis. This method can be used to rapidly generate SSM libraries for any gene or nucleotide sequence, which can subsequently be screened and analyzed by deep sequencing.

  18. Isospecific propylene polymerization with in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine)zirconium and hafnium single site catalysts.

    PubMed

    Makio, Haruyuki; Prasad, Aitha Vishwa; Terao, Hiroshi; Saito, Junji; Fujita, Terunori

    2013-07-01

    Bis(phenoxy-imine) Zr and Hf complexes were activated with (i)Bu3Al or (i)Bu2AlH in conjunction with Ph3CB(C6F5)4 and tested as catalysts for propylene polymerization with emphasis on the enantioselectivity of the isospecific species and the single site polymerization characteristics. The isoselective species was identified as the in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine) complex whose isoselectivity was sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. By employing specific substituents at certain key positions the isotacticity reached an extremely high level comparable to high-end commercial isotactic polypropylenes (Tm > 160 °C). Single site polymerization characteristics depended upon the efficiency and selectivity of the in situ imine reduction which is sensitive to the substituent on the imine nitrogen and the reaction conditions. By using (i)Bu2AlH as a reducing agent, quantitative imine reduction can be achieved with a stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent. This lower alkylaluminum loading is beneficial for the catalyst and significantly enhances the polymerization activity and the molecular weight of the resultant polymer.

  19. Comparison of site effect values obtained by HVSR and HVSRN methods for single-station measurements in Tarnówek, South-Western Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendecki, Maciej J.; Bieta, Barbara; Mateuszów, Mateusz; Suszka, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio), based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise) using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2) and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98) respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

  20. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  1. Application of Spatial Data Modeling and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for Identification of Potential Siting Options for Various Electrical Generation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Blevins, Brandon R; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Jochem, Warren C; Neish, Bradley S; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Rose, Amy N

    2012-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated an internal National Electric Generation Siting Study, which is an ongoing multiphase study addressing several key questions related to our national electrical energy supply. This effort has led to the development of a tool, OR-SAGE (Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion), to support siting evaluations. The objective in developing OR-SAGE was to use industry-accepted approaches and/or develop appropriate criteria for screening sites and employ an array of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data sources at ORNL to identify candidate areas for a power generation technology application. The initial phase of the study examined nuclear power generation. These early nuclear phase results were shared with staff from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which formed the genesis and support for an expansion of the work to several other power generation forms, including advanced coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS), solar, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). Wind generation was not included in this scope of work for EPRI. The OR-SAGE tool is essentially a dynamic visualization database. The results shown in this report represent a single static set of results using a specific set of input parameters. In this case, the GIS input parameters were optimized to support an economic study conducted by EPRI. A single set of individual results should not be construed as an ultimate energy solution, since US energy policy is very complex. However, the strength of the OR-SAGE tool is that numerous alternative scenarios can be quickly generated to provide additional insight into electrical generation or other GIS-based applications. The screening process divides the contiguous United States into 100 x 100 m (1-hectare) squares (cells), applying successive power generation-appropriate site selection and evaluation criteria (SSEC) to each cell. There are just under 700 million cells representing the

  2. 47 CFR 73.1530 - Portable test stations [Definition].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test station is one that is moved from place to place for making field strength and ground conductivity measurements, for selecting station transmitter sites, and conducting other specialized propagation...

  3. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  4. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  5. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  6. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  7. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:15 Miscellaneous Pipelines Associated with the 132-F-6, 1608-F Waste Water Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-031

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-18

    The 100-F-26:15 waste site consisted of the remnant portions of underground process effluent and floor drain pipelines that originated at the 105-F Reactor. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of postulated energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Dickinson, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of postulated energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was postulated for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion postulated in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. A ligand field chemistry of oxygen generation by the oxygen-evolving complex and synthetic active sites

    PubMed Central

    Betley, Theodore A; Surendranath, Yogesh; Childress, Montana V; Alliger, Glen E; Fu, Ross; Cummins, Christopher C; Nocera, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen–oxygen bond formation and O2 generation occur from the S4 state of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Several mechanistic possibilities have been proposed for water oxidation, depending on the formal oxidation state of the Mn atoms. All fall under two general classifications: the AB mechanism in which nucleophilic oxygen (base, B) attacks electrophilic oxygen (acid, A) of the Mn4Ca cluster or the RC mechanism in which radical-like oxygen species couple within OEC. The critical intermediate in either mechanism involves a metal oxo, though the nature of this oxo for AB and RC mechanisms is disparate. In the case of the AB mechanism, assembly of an even-electron count, high-valent metal-oxo proximate to a hydroxide is needed whereas, in an RC mechanism, two odd-electron count, high-valent metal oxos are required. Thus the two mechanisms give rise to very different design criteria for functional models of the OEC active site. This discussion presents the electron counts and ligand geometries that support metal oxos for AB and RC O–O bond-forming reactions. The construction of architectures that bring two oxygen functionalities together under the purview of the AB and RC scenarios are described. PMID:17971328

  12. Investigation of the Ice-Binding Site of an Insect Antifreeze Protein Using Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L C; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Voets, Ilja K; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-04-01

    We study the ice-binding site (IBS) of a hyperactive antifreeze protein from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP-1) using vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. We find that DAFP-1 accumulates at the air-water interface due to the hydrophobic character of its threonine-rich IBS while retaining its highly regular β-helical fold. We observe a narrow band at 3485 cm(-1) that we assign to the O-H stretch vibration of threonine hydroxyl groups of the IBS. The narrow character of the 3485 cm(-1) band suggests that the hydrogen bonds between the threonine residues at the IBS and adjacent water molecules are quite similar in strength, indicating that the IBS of DAFP-1 is extremely well-ordered, with the threonine side chains showing identical rotameric confirmations. The hydrogen-bonded water molecules do not form an ordered ice-like layer, as was recently observed for the moderate antifreeze protein type III. It thus appears that the antifreeze action of DAFP-1 does not require the presence of ordered water but likely results from the direct binding of its highly ordered array of threonine residues to the ice surface. PMID:26262966

  13. Accelerating skin wound healing by M-CSF through generating SSEA-1 and -3 stem cells in the injured sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunyuan; Jalili, Reza Baradar; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complicated process requiring the collaborative efforts of different cell lineages. Our recent studies have found that one subset of hematopoietic cells can be induced to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem cells by means of a proliferating fibroblast releasable factor, M-CSF. Understanding the importance of stem cells on skin wound healing, here we evaluate the biological significance of M-CSF on skin wound healing. In an in vivo mouse skin excisional wound model, we found that SSEA-positive stem cells were present in wounded but not normal skin. After isolating skin cells from either normal or wounded skin by collagenase digestion, and analyzing the SSEA-1 positive cells by flow cytometry, we found a significant increase in the number of SSEA-1 positive cells in wounded skin. Topical application of M-CSF in skin wounds accelerated healing remarkably, while application of M-CSF-neutralizing antibody slowed wound healing. Furthermore, injection of EGFP-labeled hematopoietic cell-derived stem cells generated from M-CSF treated splenocytes resulted in EGFP-labeled cells being enriched in the skin wound site and further differentiated into functional organ-specific cells. Together, these data demonstrated that M-CSF makes a significant contribution to the healing process by inducing hematopoietic cell dedifferentiation into stem cells. PMID:27363517

  14. Progressive failure site generation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress: Weibull statistics and temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Huarui Bajo, Miguel Montes; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin

    2015-01-26

    Gate leakage degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress is investigated using a combination of electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The generation of leakage “hot spots” at the edge of the gate is found to be strongly temperature accelerated. The time for the formation of each failure site follows a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter in the range of 0.7–0.9 from room temperature up to 120 °C. The average leakage per failure site is only weakly temperature dependent. The stress-induced structural degradation at the leakage sites exhibits a temperature dependence in the surface morphology, which is consistent with a surface defect generation process involving temperature-associated changes in the breakdown sites.

  15. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Muhammed Hasanato, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26580639

  16. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Hasanato, Rana Muhammed

    2015-11-13

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Hasanato, Rana Muhammed

    2015-11-01

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26580639

  18. Boxberg III-2 x 500 MW units: Refurbishing and environmental protection measures on the 815 T/H steam generator of works II in Boxberg Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Cossman, R.; Fritz, M.; Bauchmueller, R.

    1995-12-01

    The object of the upgrading measures on the steam generators is: (1) To comply with the requirements of the German antipollution law, which imposes a permissible NO{sub x} content in the flue gas of less than 200 Mg/m{sup 3} STP and a CO content of less than 250 Mg/m{sup 3} STP. (2) To increase the boiler efficiency and availability and the efficiency of the water/steam cycle.

  19. Report to the NRC on guidance for preparing scenarios for emergency preparedness exercises at nuclear generating stations. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.F.; Hickey, E.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Schultz, D.H.; Bethke, G.W.

    1986-03-01

    A scenario guidance handbook was prepared to assist emergency planners in developing scenarios for emergency preparedness exercises at nuclear power plants. The handbook provides guidance for the development of the objectives of an exercise, the descriptions of scenario events and responses, and the instructions to the participants. Information concerning implementation of the scenario, critiques and findings, and generation and format of scenario data are also included. Finally, examples of manual calculational techniques for producing radiological data are included as an appendix.

  20. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  1. Strict site-occupation constraint in two-dimensional Heisenberg models and dynamical mass generation in QED{sub 3} at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dillenschneider, Raoul; Richert, Jean

    2006-06-01

    We study the effect of site occupation in two-dimensional quantum spin systems at finite temperature in a {pi}-flux state description at the mean-field level. We impose each lattice site to be occupied by a single SU(2) spin. This is realized by means of a specific prescription. We consider the low-energy Hamiltonian which is mapped into a QED{sub 3} Lagrangian of spinons. We compare the dynamically generated mass to the one obtained by means of an average site occupation constraint.

  2. 50. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Contractor/ draftsman unknown, c.1930 THE TYPICAL COMPONENTS OF A STEAM GENERATED TURBINE SET - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF REACTOR VESSELS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.

    2010-11-10

    The R- and P-reactor vessels at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of physically isolating and stabilizing the reactor vessel by filling it with a grout material. The reactor vessels contain aluminum alloy materials, which pose a concern in that aluminum corrodes rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout. A product of the corrosion reaction is hydrogen gas and therefore potential flammability issues were assessed. A model was developed to calculate the hydrogen generation rate as the reactor is being filled with the grout material. Three options existed for the type of grout material for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options included ceramicrete (pH 6-8), a calcium aluminate sulfate (CAS) based cement (pH 10), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.4). Corrosion data for aluminum in concrete were utilized as input for the model. The calculations considered such factors as the surface area of the aluminum components, the open cross-sectional area of the reactor vessel, the rate at which the grout is added to the reactor vessel, and temperature. Given the hydrogen generation rate, the hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of the reactor vessel above the grout was calculated. This concentration was compared to the lower flammability limit for hydrogen. The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the CAS grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters did not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. Therefore, it was recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. On the other hand, the R-reactor vessel

  4. Analysis of Background Seismic Noise Recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Aster, R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.

    2006-12-01

    A small array of high frequency seismometers was recently placed around the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in order to characterize seismic noise generated by the station during operations. This week long experiment, titled, "South Pole Analysis of Machines" or SPAM was conducted in January of 2006 using equipment provided by IRIS PASSCAL to sample the high frequency noise sources generated at the NSF's research base. These data will be correlated to those observed at the ultra quiet GSN seismic station (QSPA) located 5 miles from the base. The purpose of the experiment is to show that although the QSPA sensors are 5 miles away and nearly 1000 feet deep in the ice, there is still a risk of contamination of the signals by cultural noise from the South Pole research base. A Quiet Sector was established around the QSPA station in order to minimize vibrational noise sources, but there is interest in moving some experiments out into the Quiet Sector. Characterizing the noise sources will help us determine the potential reduction in data quality expected at the QSPA station as experiments move closer to the site. Sensors were placed next to the power generators, aircraft taxiway, large antenna towers, as well as at the base of the new station itself. Sensors were also placed between the research base and the QSPA station to get an idea of the propagation of the noise toward the QSPA station. Several high frequency noise sources are clearly seen on all array elements with a number of very clear spectral lines above 1 Hz. These are primarily associated with snow moving tractors and power generators. Smaller signals are seen that may be related to wind loading on the new South Pole elevated station along with harmonics that appear to be correlated with large air handling equipment in the station. Also evident are air operations with landings, takeoffs, taxi and idling C-130's evident. Although greatly attenuated, almost all of these signals are observed at the QSPA

  5. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  6. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  7. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  8. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-06-21

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymer is given.

  9. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-06-21

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymer is given. PMID:25900042

  10. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

  11. A method to establish seismic noise baselines for automated station assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.; Benz, H.M.; Buland, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for quantifying station noise baselines and characterizing the spectral shape of out-of-nominal noise sources. Our intent is to automate this method in order to ensure that only the highest-quality data are used in rapid earthquake products at NEIC. In addition, the station noise baselines provide a valuable tool to support the quality control of GSN and ANSS backbone data and metadata. The procedures addressed here are currently in development at the NEIC, and work is underway to understand how quickly changes from nominal can be observed and used within the NEIC processing framework. The spectral methods and software used to compute station baselines and described herein (PQLX) can be useful to both permanent and portable seismic stations operators. Applications include: general seismic station and data quality control (QC), evaluation of instrument responses, assessment of near real-time communication system performance, characterization of site cultural noise conditions, and evaluation of sensor vault design, as well as assessment of gross network capabilities (McNamara et al. 2005). Future PQLX development plans include incorporating station baselines for automated QC methods and automating station status report generation and notification based on user-defined QC parameters. The PQLX software is available through the USGS (http://earthquake. usgs.gov/research/software/pqlx.php) and IRIS (http://www.iris.edu/software/ pqlx/).

  12. IMPACT OF NOBLE METALS AND MERCURY ON HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING HIGH LEVEL WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T; David Koopman, D

    2009-03-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The pretreatment process in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) consists of two process tanks, the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as a melter feed tank. During SRAT processing, nitric and formic acids are added to the sludge to lower pH, destroy nitrite and carbonate ions, and reduce mercury and manganese. During the SME cycle, glass formers are added, and the batch is concentrated to the final solids target prior to vitrification. During these processes, hydrogen can be produced by catalytic decomposition of excess formic acid. The waste contains silver, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury, but silver and palladium have been shown to be insignificant factors in catalytic hydrogen generation during the DWPF process. A full factorial experimental design was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%, as shown in Table 1. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), three duplicate midpoint runs, and one additional replicate run to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing was used to identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge

  13. Extrapolation of electrical breakdown currents from the laboratory to Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Carruth, Melvin R., Jr.; Katz, Ira; Mandell, Myron J.; Jongeward, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments conducted in a plasma chamber at NASA/MSFC on anodized aluminum coatings representative of Space Station Freedom design show that if the aluminum used as a thermal control coating is biased more than 80 V negative with respect to the plasma, the anodization will experience dielectric breakdown. As the thin anodization layer creates a capacitive charge buildup, large currents are observed during the arc. How plasma generation at the arc site can support large currents and discharge the surface charge layer is investigated. The importance for Space Station Freedom is that currents similar to those observed in the laboratory can be observed on orbit.

  14. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  15. 17. VIEW OF RCA COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVING STATION DOWN AVENUE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF RCA COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVING STATION DOWN AVENUE OF MONTEREY CYPRESS. THE TREES WERE CAREFULLY CULTIVATED TO FORM A LANDSCAPED APPROACH TO THE STATION. NOTE ANTENNA FIELD AT LEFT VIEW 312 DEGREES NORTHWEST. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  16. 25. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, c.1939 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE HISTORIC SITE, SHOWS THE LOCATION OF THE TURBINES AND BOILERS WITHIN THE BUILDINGS OF STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. First-generation site-response maps for the Los Angeles region based on earthquake ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Michael, J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-motion records from aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake and mainshock records from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, and 1994 Northridge earthquakes are used to estimate site response relative to a rock site for the urban Los Angeles area. Site response is estimated at 232 mainshock and 201 aftershock sites relative to a low-amplitude site in the Santa Monica Mountains. Average amplification values are calculated for the frequency bands: 1 to 3, 3 to 5, and 5 to 7 Hz. These bands are chosen based on limitations in aftershock recording equipment at lower frequencies and reduced significance to the building inventory at higher frequencies. Site amplification factors determined at the instrumented locations are grouped by the surficial geology and contoured to produce a continuous spatial estimation of amplification. The maps in this article represent the first attempt to produce estimates of site amplification based on observations of ground motion for such a large areal extent of the Los Angeles region. These maps are expected to evolve as more data become available and more analysis is done.

  18. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  19. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  20. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  2. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs, Aquifer-Isolation Tests, and Water-Quality Data for Sites 1, 3, and 5 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, borehole television surveys, and aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in 2005 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in support of hydrogeological investigations to address ground-water contamination. Data collected for this study are valuable for understanding ground-water flow in the Stockton Formation at the local and regional scale. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB is underlain by the Stockton Formation, which consists of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The rocks of the Stockton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer with partially connected zones of high permeability. Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and borehole television surveys made in seven boreholes ranging from 70 to 350 ft deep were used to identify potential water-producing fractures and fracture zones and to select intervals for aquifer-isolation tests. An upward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in one borehole, a downward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in four boreholes, both an upward and a downward vertical hydraulic gradient were measured in one borehole, and no flow was measurable in one borehole. The aquifer-isolation tests isolated 30 discrete fractures in the seven boreholes for collection of depth-discrete hydraulic and water-quality data. Of the 30 fractures identified as potentially water producing, 26 fractures (87 percent) produced more than 1 gallon per minute of water. The specific capacity of the isolated intervals producing more than 1 gallon per minute ranged from 0.02 to 5.2 gallons per minute per foot. There was no relation between specific capacity and depth of the fracture. Samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds were collected from each isolated zone. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the most

  3. Reactor coolant seal testing under station blackout conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Marsi, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Failures of reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals that could result in a significant loss-of-coolant inventory are of current concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Particular attention is being focused on seal behavior during station blackout conditions, when failure of on-site emergency diesel generators occurs simultaneously with loss of all off-site alternating current power. Under these conditions, both seal injection flow and component cooling water flow are lost, and the RCP seals are exposed to full reactor coolant temperature. Overheating of elastomeric components and flashing of coolant across the sealing faces can cause unacceptably high leakage rates, with potential catastrophic consequences. A test program has been conducted that subjects full-scale seal cartridges to typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant system steady-state and transient operation conditions including associated dynamic shaft motions. A special test segment was developed to evaluate seal operation under station blackout conditions. The test program successfully mirrored the severity of an actual loss-of-seal cooling water event under station blackout conditions, and the Byron Jackson{reg sign} N-9000 seal cartridge maintained its integrity.

  4. A sliding-bulge structure at the Dicer processing site of pre-miRNAs regulates alternative Dicer processing to generate 5'-isomiRs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongming; Wu, Yonggan; Niu, Qi; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Gengxiang; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2016-09-01

    5'-isomiRs expand the repertoire of miRNA targets. However, how they are generated is not well understood. Previously, we showed that for some miRNAs in mammalian cells, Drosha cleaves at multiple sites to generate multiple pre-miRNAs that give rise to multiple 5'-isomiRs. Here, we showed that for some other miRNAs, 5'-isomiRs are generated by alternative Dicer processing. In addition, we showed that in miR-203, alternative Dicer processing is regulated by a conserved sliding-bulge structure at the Dicer processing site, which allows the pre-miRNA molecule to fold into two different structures that are processed differently by Dicer. So far no RNA motif that slides to change conformation and alter a protein-RNA interaction has been reported. Thus, our study revealed a novel RNA motif that regulates 5'-isomiR generation in some miRNAs. It might also contribute to regulating protein-RNA interactions in other biological processes, since it takes only one point mutation to generate the sliding bulge, and there are a large number of different RNAs in the cell. PMID:27656682

  5. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that space station planning at NASA began when NASA was created in 1958. However, the initiation of the program for a lunar landing delayed the implementation of plans for a space station. The utility of a space station was finally demonstrated with Skylab, which was launched in 1972. In May 1982, the Space Station Task Force was established to provide focus and direction for space station planning activities. The present paper provides a description of the planning activities, giving particular attention to the power system. The initial space station will be required to supply 75 kW of continuous electrical power, 60 kW for the customer and 15 kW for space station needs. Possible alternative energy sources for the space station include solar planar or concentrator arrays of either silicon or gallium arsenide.

  6. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  7. HIV Integration Site Analysis of Cellular Models of HIV Latency with a Probe-Enriched Next-Generation Sequencing Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sunshine, Sara; Kirchner, Rory; Amr, Sami S.; Mansur, Leandra; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Kim, Michelle; Bosque, Alberto; Siliciano, Robert F.; Planelles, Vicente; Hofmann, Oliver; Ho Sui, Shannan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is successful in the suppression of HIV but cannot target and eradicate the latent proviral reservoir. The location of retroviral integration into the human genome is thought to play a role in the clonal expansion of infected cells and HIV persistence. We developed a high-throughput targeted sequence capture assay that uses a pool of HIV-specific probes to enrich Illumina libraries prior to deep sequencing. Using an expanded clonal population of ACH-2 cells, we demonstrate that this sequence capture assay has an extremely low false-positive rate. This assay assessed four cellular models commonly used to study HIV latency and latency-reversing agents: ACH-2 cells, J-Lat cells, the Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ model, and the cultured TCM (central memory) CD4+ model. HIV integration site characteristics and genes were compared between these cellular models and to previously reported patient data sets. Across these cellular models, there were significant differences in integration site characteristics, including orientation relative to that of the host gene, the proportion of clonally expanded sites, and the proportion located within genic regions and exons. Despite a greater diversity of minority integration sites than expected in ACH-2 cells, their integration site characteristics consistently differed from those of the other models and from the patient samples. Gene ontology analysis of highly represented genes from the patient samples found little overlap with HIV-containing genes from the cell lines. These findings show that integration site differences exist among the commonly used cellular models of HIV latency and in comparison to integration sites found in patient samples. IMPORTANCE Despite the success of ART, currently there is no successful therapy to eradicate integrated proviruses. Cellular models of HIV latency are used to test the efficacy of latency-reversing agents, but it is unclear how well these models reflect

  8. Pacific area data collection stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The installation of environmental data collection systems at several remotely located sites in islands in the Pacific Ocean is summarized. The effort was designed to enhance the ability to collect hydrological information. The data collection station consists of a data acquisition system for handling data, a transmitter for uplinking information to the GOES-W geostationary satellite, and a variety of environmental sensors for data accumulation. Each system was assembled, tested, and deployed on designated islands. The concept of using microprocessors for handling data at remote sites and relaying it via a satellite link is a cost effective approach. Such systems require high reliability and proven performance in the field.

  9. 49. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawings, 1930 FLOW DIAGRAM OF THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS AT STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  11. Mesopelagic respiration near the ESTOC (European Station for Time-Series in the Ocean, 15.5°W, 29.1°N) site inferred from a tracer conservation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Castro, B.; Arístegui, J.; Anderson, L.; Montero, M. F.; Hernández-León, S.; Marañón, E.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2016-09-01

    Remineralization of organic matter in the mesopelagic zone (ca. 150-700 m) is a key controlling factor of carbon export to the deep ocean. By using a tracer conservation model applied to climatological data of oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrate, we computed mesopelagic respiration near the ESTOC (European Station for Time-Series in the Ocean, Canary Islands) site, located in the Eastern boundary region of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. The tracer conservation model included vertical Ekman advection, geostrophic horizontal transport and vertical diffusion, and the biological remineralization terms were diagnosed by assuming steady state. Three different approaches were used to compute reference velocities used for the calculation of geostrophic velocities and flux divergences: a no-motion level at 3000 m, surface geostrophic velocities computed from the averaged absolute dynamic topography field, and surface velocities optimized from the temperature model. Mesopelagic respiration rates computed from the model were 2.8-8.9 mol O2 m2 y-1, 2.0-3.1 mol C m2 y-1 and 0.6-1.0 mol N m2 y-1, consistent with remineralization processes occurring close to Redfield stoichiometry. Model estimates were in close agreement with respiratory activity, derived from electron transport system (ETS) measurements collected in the same region at the end of the winter bloom period (3.61±0.48 mol O2 m-2 y-1). According to ETS estimates, 50% of the respiration in the upper 1000 m took place below 150 m. Model results showed that oxygen, DIC and nitrate budgets were dominated by lateral advection, pointing to horizontal transport as the main source of organic carbon fuelling the heterotrophic respiration activity in this region.

  12. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  13. Rotifer rDNA-specific R9 retrotransposable elements generate an exceptionally long target site duplication upon insertion.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Eugene A; Arkhipova, Irina R

    2009-12-15

    Ribosomal DNA genes in many eukaryotes contain insertions of non-LTR retrotransposable elements belonging to the R2 clade. These elements persist in the host genomes by inserting site-specifically into multicopy target sites, thereby avoiding random disruption of single-copy host genes. Here we describe R9 retrotransposons from the R2 clade in the 28S RNA genes of bdelloid rotifers, small freshwater invertebrate animals best known for their long-term asexuality and for their ability to survive repeated cycles of desiccation and rehydration. While the structural organization of R9 elements is highly similar to that of other members of the R2 clade, they are characterized by two distinct features: site-specific insertion into a previously unreported target sequence within the 28S gene, and an unusually long target site duplication of 126 bp. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of bdelloid genome organization and the mechanisms of target-primed reverse transcription.

  14. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  16. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  17. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  18. MERCURY-NITRITE-RHODIUM-RUTHENIUM INTERACTIONS IN NOBLE METAL CATALYZED HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM FORMIC ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136C

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Chemical pre-treatment of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is performed to prepare the waste for vitrification into a stable waste glass form. During pre-treatment, compounds in the waste become catalytically active. Mercury, rhodium, and palladium become active for nitrite destruction by formic acid, while rhodium and ruthenium become active for catalytic conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Nitrite ion is present during the maximum activity of rhodium, but is consumed prior to the activation of ruthenium. Catalytic hydrogen generation during pre-treatment can exceed radiolytic hydrogen generation by several orders of magnitude. Palladium and mercury impact the maximum catalytic hydrogen generation rates of rhodium and ruthenium by altering the kinetics of nitrite ion decomposition. New data are presented that illustrate the interactions of these various species.

  19. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-01-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  20. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-06-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  1. Overview of Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gierszewski, P.

    2008-07-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste is being proposed by Ontario Power Generation at the Bruce site near Kincardine, Ontario. The DGR would be located at a depth of approximately 680 m within a 200 m thick layer of low-permeability Ordovician argillaceous limestone, which is below a 200 m layer of low permeability Ordovician shale. The repository would have the capacity for approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} of as-disposed waste, sufficient for the current fleet of 20 OPG-owned nuclear reactors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the project. In summary: Site-specific studies to confirm the suitability of the site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. These studies include site characterization, environmental assessment, facility engineering and safety assessment. The preliminary results of this work, which is ongoing, continue to confirm our expectations that the site is suitable. (authors)

  2. Floridas Miami Tequesta Indian Site, Its Calusa Indian Locations, the Matacumbe Keys, and Orlandos Wikiwa Springs Generate Environmentally Significant EMFs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    Florida purchased the Tequesta ([Langue] doc Christ Spirit-signal) Indian site along the Miami River site that vigorously pulsates with even minor rainstorms entering or leaving the area. Although there is a laughable chimera of a fountain of youth associated with Ponce de Leons discovery of the Florida peninsula in about AD 1513, the Calusa (Royal Christ Jesus Spirit-signal) Indian Nation has an associated significance with EMF signals they possibly monitored throughout their area of activity. Our efforts have also led to the investigation of cultural and other influences implied by the Matacumbe Keys that indicate a shared commonality of awareness with Native Americans of the northeast such as Metacomet, or regions like Maines Grand Lake Matagamon and its associated electromagnetic Spirit Signal. Wikiwa Springs near Orlando shares much with Massachusetts (adherent of serpent Jesus Christ Spirit-signal) Natick, and New Hampshires Naticook Island. These are the locales of environmentally sensitive instrumentation.

  3. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Engle, Nancy L.; Keever, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Talanov, Vladimir S.; Gibson, Harry W.; Jones, Jason W.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2002-06-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste.

  4. A new Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for a Space Station power system is proposed which reduces the drag effect of the solar panels and eliminates eclipsing by the Earth. The solar generator is physically separated from the Space Station, and power transmitted to the station by a microwave beam. The power station can thus be placed high enough that drag is not a significant factor. For a resonant orbit where the ratio of periods s:p is a ratio of odd integers, and the orbital planes nearly perpendicular, an orbit can be chosen such that the line of sight is never blocked if the lower orbit has an altitude greater than calculatable mininum. For the 1:3 resonance, this minimum altitude is 0.5 r(e). Finally, by placing the power station into a sun-synchronous orbit, it can be made to avoid shadowing by the Earth, thus providing continuous power.

  5. Sortase Enzyme-Mediated Generation of Site-Specifically Conjugated Antibody Drug Conjugates with High In Vitro and In Vivo Potency

    PubMed Central

    Beerli, Roger R.; Hell, Tamara; Merkel, Anna S.; Grawunder, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) have recently been proven to be highly potent anti-tumor drugs, typically exceeding the efficacy of conventional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). ADCs are currently produced by chemical conjugation of a small-molecule toxin to the mAb through lysine or cysteine side chains. This leads to heterogeneous mixtures of ADCs in which variable numbers of drugs are conjugated to individual antibodies and in which the site of conjugation cannot be defined. Consequently, there is currently significant interest in further development of drug conjugation technologies, with a particular focus on site-specific payload conjugation. Here, we present an enzymatic conjugation platform based on the S. aureus sortase A-mediated transpeptidation reaction, allowing the efficient generation of ADCs with toxins conjugated to pre-defined sites at pre-defined drug-to-antibody ratios. For this, two modifications were introduced: first, immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chains were modified at their C-termini by addition of the sortase A recognition motif LPETG, and second, the small molecule tubulin polymerization inhibitors monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) and maytansine were modified by addition of a pentaglycine peptide, thus making them suitable substrates for sortase A-mediated transpeptidation. We demonstrate efficient generation and characterization of the anti-CD30 ADC Ac10-vcPAB-MMAE, an enzymatically conjugated counterpart of brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris), as well as several anti-HER-2 ADCs including trastuzumab-maytansine, the counterpart of trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla). ADCs generated in this manner were found to display in vitro cell killing activities indistinguishable from the classic conjugates. Further, when tested in vivo in a HER-2-overexpressing ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model, enzymatically generated trastuzumab-maytansine was found to lead to complete regression of established tumors, similar to Kadcyla. PMID:26132162

  6. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  7. Space station molecular sieve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  8. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND CERTIFICATION OF REMOTE-HANDLED TRANSURANIC WASTE GENERATOR/STORAGE SITES FOR SHIPMENT TO THE WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, L.R.; Most, Wm.A.; Kehrman, R.F.; Gist, C.S.

    2003-02-27

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is operating to receive and dispose of contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is seeking approval from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) of the remote-handled (RH) TRU characterization plan to allow disposal of RH TRU waste in the WIPP repository. In addition, the DOE-CBFO has received approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use two shipping casks for transporting RH TRU waste. Each regulatory agency (i.e., EPA, NMED, and NRC) has different requirements that will have to be met through the use of information collected by characterizing the RH TRU waste. Therefore, the DOE-CBFO has developed a proposed characterization program for obtaining the RH TRU waste information necessary to demonstrate that the waste meets the applicable regulatory requirements. This process involved the development of a comprehensive set of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) comprising the various regulatory requirements. The DOE-CBFO has identified seven DQOs for use in the RH TRU waste characterization program. These DQOs are defense waste determination, TRU waste determination, RH TRU determination, activity determination, RCRA physical and chemical properties, prohibited item determination, and EPA physical and chemical properties. The selection of the DQOs were based on technical, legal and regulatory drivers that assure the health and safety of the workers, the public, to protect the environment, and to comply with the requirements of the regulatory agencies. The DOE-CBFO also has the responsibility for the certification of generator/storage sites to ship RH TRU mixed waste to the WIPP for disposal. Currently, thirteen sites across the DOE complex are generators of RH TRU waste or store the waste at their location for other generators. Generator/storage site certification involves review and approval of site

  10. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  11. Model for second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers based on asymmetric photoelectron emission from defect sites.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Z; Mizrahi, V; Sipe, J E

    1991-06-01

    We present a self-consistent calculation of anomalous second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers. Quantum interference between multiphoton absorption processes leads to asymmetric photoelectric emission from defects, creating a spatially periodic space-charge electric field. The second harmonic is found to grow exponentially along the fiber, then saturate to a maximum value proportional to the square of the fundamental intensity. The predicted conversion efficiency is in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  12. Alternative strategies for space station financing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walklet, D. C.; Heenan, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    The attributes of the proposed space station program are oriented toward research activities and technologies which generate long term benefits for mankind. Unless such technologies are deemed of national interest and thus are government funded, they must stand on their own in the market place. Therefore, the objectives of a United States space station should be based on commercial criteria; otherwise, such a project attracts no long term funding. There is encouraging evidence that some potential space station activities should generate revenues from shuttle related projects within the decade. Materials processing concepts as well as remote sensing indicate substantial potential. Futhermore, the economics and thus the commercial feasibility of such projects will be improved by the operating efficiencies available with an ongoing space station program.

  13. The SCEDC Seismic Station Information System software: Database for Populating, Archiving, and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, F. R.; Yu, E.; Hauksson, E.; Given, D.; Thomas, V. I.; Clayton, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Station Information System (SIS) is a database-driven system used by the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) to store and distribute station metadata. This abstract concerns the User Interface portion of SIS. The User Interface (UI) is a web application that enables authenticated users to view and edit the station metadata. New features have recently been added to SIS in order to facilitate station upgrades for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). In particular, SIS now stores an extended range of metadata that encompasses not only station/channel response information but also operations and telemetry information. Typical activities for stations operation that are handled by SIS include powersystem upgrades, and inventory management such as tracking ownership and firmware settings. The UI also enables users to track and report instrumentation problems that may affect the station/channel response. In addition, progress has been made in developing a framework for storing station telemetry path information. The accelerated ARRA station upgrade schedule requires SCSN operators to log more than one response change per day in SIS; the updated station metadata is automatically generated and available for use by the ANSS Quake Monitoring System (AQMS).

  14. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term.

  15. H2FIRST Reference Station Design Task: Project Deliverable 2-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Joseph; Terlip, Danny; Ainscough, Chris; Kurtz, Jennifer; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-04-20

    This report presents near-term station cost results and discusses cost trends of different station types. It compares various vehicle rollout scenarios and projects realistic near-term station utilization values using the station infrastructure rollout in California as an example. It describes near-term market demands and matches those to cost-effective station concepts. Finally, the report contains detailed designs for five selected stations, which include piping and instrumentation diagrams, bills of materials, and several site-specific layout studies that incorporate the setbacks required by NFPA 2, the National Fire Protection Association Hydrogen Technologies Code. This work identified those setbacks as a significant factor affecting the ability to site a hydrogen station, particularly liquid stations at existing gasoline stations. For all station types, utilization has a large influence on the financial viability of the station.

  16. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  17. Space station, 1959 to . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  18. An Analytical Planning Model to Estimate the Optimal Density of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongjun; Yeo, Hwasoo

    2015-01-01

    The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC) stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive adoption of electric

  19. An Analytical Planning Model to Estimate the Optimal Density of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongjun; Yeo, Hwasoo

    2015-01-01

    The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC) stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive adoption of electric

  20. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Delmau, Latitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Keever, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Tomkins, Bruce A.

    2004-06-30

    General project objectives. This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed pertain to cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit cleanup projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to treat and dispose of high-level radioactive wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Hanford site, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory.1 The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high level tank waste.2 This technology owes its development in part to fundamental results obtained in this program.

  1. Contamination of optical surfaces. [Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Graham S.; Hall, David F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of molecular contamination on Space Station optical surfaces is examined. In particular, contamination of solar voltaic power sources and optical solar reflectors for thermal control or solar dynamic power generation is addressed. The published Space Station requirements for molecular contamination accretion and for the monitoring of such accretion is discussed in the context of the historical performance of space systems. Specific reference is made to the results from the Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA) ML12 experiment.

  2. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  3. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  4. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  5. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  6. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  7. Niobium-silica catalysts for the selective epoxidation of cyclic alkenes: the generation of the active site by grafting niobocene dichloride.

    PubMed

    Tiozzo, Cristina; Bisio, Chiara; Carniato, Fabio; Gallo, Alessandro; Scott, Susannah L; Psaro, Rinaldo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2013-08-28

    Niobium-containing silica materials obtained by deposition via liquid-phase grafting or dry impregnation of niobocene(iv) dichloride are active and selective catalysts in the epoxidation of alkenes in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The generation of the catalytically-active Nb species was followed step-by-step, and investigated using a combined DR-UV-Vis, NIR, Raman, XRD, XANES and EXAFS analyses. At the end of the grafting procedure, the nature of the surface active species can be described as an oxo-Nb(v) site, tripodally grafted onto the silica surface in close proximity to other Nb(v) centres. The liquid-phase methodology provides a better dispersion of the metal sites onto the siliceous support than the dry-impregnation approach. The niobium-silica catalysts were then tested in the epoxidation of cyclohexene and 1-methylcyclohexene, as model substrates.

  8. On Site Generation Of Low Level Odorous Standards For Validation Of FTICR-MS Gas Detector In Ambient Air

    SciTech Connect

    Mestdagh, Helene; Lemaire, Joeel; Heninger, Michel; Leprovost, Julien; Cardella, Carine; Courthaudon, Laurent; Bouton, Nicolas

    2009-05-23

    Gas sensors and analyzers can be externally calibrated with standard gases. These gas cylinders are usually difficult to obtain when it comes to low concentration standards, and their lifetime may be questionable. Starting from high concentration and diluting on site to desired lower concentrations allows to set up multi-point calibrations of the analytical device, such as an electronic nose. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), including odorous chemicals, have been analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC) often coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), or specific olfactometric sensors. Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) coupled with Fourier Transorm Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) MS is proposed to analyse low level of VOCs in air. FTICR MS is the most accurate and has the highest mass resolution of the MS techniques. B-Trap is a miniaturized FTICR instrument meant for real time VOCs analysis.

  9. A literature review of waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to wastes generated at fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, V.M.

    1990-10-01

    Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand agricultural chemical dealers (dealers) in the United States. incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and improperdisposal and management practices are another source of contamination. As dealers continue their efforts to contain, collect, and recycle their wastes and spills, there will be an increasing need for safe, efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment technologies to treat that portion of the wastes and spills that cannot be recycled. The National Fertilizer Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has initiated an effort to modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment technologies for dealers. This report supports this effort by providing a review of the literature concerning several physical and chemical waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to the wastes generated by dealers. Applicable waste treatment technologies identified in the literature search include carbon adsorption, UV-ozonation with biological degradation, wet-air oxidation, solar photooxidation, supercritical water oxidation, or microwave plasma destruction. Waste minimization and management technologies, such as recycling, are discussed in this report. The current regulatory environment concerning wastes generated by dealers is also reviewed. Finally, the issues discussed at several national and regional conferences on pesticide waste treatment and disposal technologies are reviewed and conclusions drawn from this information are presented.

  10. A literature review of waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to wastes generated at fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, V.M.

    1990-10-01

    Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand agricultural chemical dealers (dealers) in the United States. incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and improperdisposal and management practices are another source of contamination. As dealers continue their efforts to contain, collect, and recycle their wastes and spills, there will be an increasing need for safe, efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment technologies to treat that portion of the wastes and spills that cannot be recycled. The National Fertilizer & Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has initiated an effort to modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment technologies for dealers. This report supports this effort by providing a review of the literature concerning several physical and chemical waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to the wastes generated by dealers. Applicable waste treatment technologies identified in the literature search include carbon adsorption, UV-ozonation with biological degradation, wet-air oxidation, solar photooxidation, supercritical water oxidation, or microwave plasma destruction. Waste minimization and management technologies, such as recycling, are discussed in this report. The current regulatory environment concerning wastes generated by dealers is also reviewed. Finally, the issues discussed at several national and regional conferences on pesticide waste treatment and disposal technologies are reviewed and conclusions drawn from this information are presented.

  11. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  12. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  13. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  14. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  15. Genetic diversity in HIV-1 subtype C LTR from Brazil and Mozambique generates new transcription factor-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Boullosa, José; Bachu, Mahesh; Bila, Dulce; Ranga, Udaykumar; Süffert, Theodoro; Sasazawa, Tomoko; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2014-06-23

    The HIV-1 subtype C has been substituting the subtype B population in southern Brazil. This phenomenon has been previously described in other countries, suggesting that subtype C may possess greater fitness than other subtypes. The HIV-1 long-terminal repeat (LTR) is an important regulatory region critical for the viral life cycle. Sequence insertions immediately upstream of the viral enhancer are known as the most frequent naturally occurring length polimorphisms (MFNLP). Previous reports demonstrated that the MFNLP could lead to the duplication of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) enhancing the activity of the HIV-1 subtype C LTR. Here, we amplified and sequenced the LTR obtained from proviral DNA samples collected from patients infected with subtype C from the Southern Region of Brazil (naïve or treatment failure) and Mozambique (only naïve). We confirm the presence of different types of insertions in the LTR sequences of both the countries leading to the creation of additional TFBS. In the Brazilian clinical samples, the frequency of the sequence insertion was significantly higher in subjects experiencing treatment failure than in antiretroviral naïve patients.

  16. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H; Ditto, Mary E; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna G; Haverlock, Tamara J; Levitskaia, Taiana G; Bartsch, Richard A; Surowiec, Malgorzata A; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and "switch off" when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.

  17. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Ditto, Mary E.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and ''switch off'' when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.

  18. Science on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Plans for space science activities on the International Space Station are reviewed from a NASA perspective. The present Station reference configuration is based on a dual-keel core unit (one habitation module and three laboratory modules supplied by NASA, ESA, and Japan) and provides for five attached systems (with up to four payloads each to be exposed to space) and several free-flying platforms (both polar orbiters and coorbiters). Particular attention is given to the space science aspects of the primary Station objectives defined by NASA (servicing and repair, platforms, pressurized modules, and attached payloads). Also discussed are the work of the Task Force on Scientific Uses of Space Station, the need for operational flexibility, the value of a continuous manned presence for experimental science, and the skills needed from the Station crew.

  19. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Site Energies and Their Fluctuations of Pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson Complex with an Efficient Method for Generating a Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Masahiro; Saito, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    We develop an efficient method to generate an accurate semiglobal potential energy surface of a molecule in condensed phases with low computational cost. We apply the method to the calculation of the site energies and their fluctuations of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex using the density functional properly describing the ground and excited states of BChl a in solutions in our previous work (J. Phys. Chem. B 2014, 118, 10906-10918). The errors of the potential energies calculated from the present and QM/MM methods are small: ∼1 kcal/mol for both the ground and excited states. The calculated site energies are in good agreement with the experimentally fitted results. The calculated spectral density also agrees with the experimentally available data. The spectral densities of BChl 2 and BChl 5 are much larger than those of the other five sites. The present method is expected to provide new insights into the efficient excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting antennas. PMID:27385191