Science.gov

Sample records for generation control room

  1. 12. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF GENERATOR ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF GENERATOR ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  2. SIG -- The Role of Human-Computer Interaction in Next-Generation Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Jacques Hugo; Christian Richard; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this CHI Special Interest Group (SIG) is to facilitate the convergence between human-computer interaction (HCI) and control room design. HCI researchers and practitioners actively need to infuse state-of-the-art interface technology into control rooms to meet usability, safety, and regulatory requirements. This SIG outlines potential HCI contributions to instrumentation and control (I&C) and automation in control rooms as well as to general control room design.

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Physiological Assessment For Next Generation Control Room Design

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P Hallbert; M. David Keller; Tessa M. Anderson

    2007-08-01

    Abstract - We propose using non-obtrusive physiological assessment (e.g., eye tracking,) to assess human information processing errors (e.g., loss of vigilance) and limitations (e.g., workload) for advanced energy systems early in the design process. This physiological approach for assessing risk will circumvent many limitations of current risk methodologies such as subjective rating (e.g., rater’s biases) and performance modeling (e.g., risk assessment is scripted and is based upon the individual modeler’s judgment). Key uses will be to evaluate (early in the design process) novel control room equipment and configurations as well as newly developed automated systems that will inevitably place a high information load on operators. The physiological risk assessment tool will allow better precision in pinpointing problematic design issues and will provide a “real-time” assessment of risk. Furthermore, this physiological approach would extend the state-of-the-art of human reliability methods from a “static” measure to more “dynamic.” This paper will discuss a broad range of the current popular online performance gauges as well as its advantages and disadvantages for use in next generation control room.

  4. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-10-09

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given.

  5. 4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, GOVERNORS AND CONTROL VALVES AT LEFT, AND EXCITERS AT BACK LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  6. Console Room, looking southwesterly into Highbay Generator Room Beale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Console Room, looking southwesterly into Highbay Generator Room - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  7. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-05-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort.

  8. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-05-01

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facility's 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week maintenance period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort.

  9. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Spata; Anthony Cuffe; Thomas Oren

    2005-03-22

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on work-flow processes and ergonomic attributes. The renovation was performed in two phases during the summer of 2004, with one phase occurring during machine operations and the latter, more extensive phase, occurring during our semi-annual shutdown period. The new facility takes advantage of advances in display technology, analog and video signal management, server technology, ergonomic workspace design, lighting engineering, acoustic ceilings and raised flooring solutions to provide a marked improvement in the overall environment of machine operations.

  10. 10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING ESCAPE HATCH. Looking north along east wall. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    DOEpatents

    Lamuro, Robert C.; Orr, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A control room 10 for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 are no less than four inches from walls 10.2. A ceiling 32 contains cooling fins 35 that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates 34. A concrete slab 33 is poured over the plates. Studs 36 are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete.

  12. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    DOEpatents

    Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

    1993-11-16

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures.

  13. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR NO. 1, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR NO. 1, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL BOX ABOVE GENERATOR - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  14. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR BAY, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING TURBINEGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR BAY, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING TURBINE-GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT IN FOREGROUND, ACCESS BULKHEAD TO TURBINE IN BACKGROUND - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  15. Software Support during a Control Room Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Michele Joyce; Michael Spata; Thomas Oren; Anthony Cuffe; Theo McGuckin; Isadoro Carlino; C. Higgins; Harry Fanning; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins

    2005-09-21

    In 2004, after 14 years of accelerator operations and commissioning, Jefferson Lab renovated its main control room. Changes in technology and lessons learned during those 14 years drove the control room redesign in a new direction, one that optimizes workflow and makes critical information and controls available to everyone in the control room. Fundamental changes in a variety of software applications were required to facilitate the new operating paradigm. A critical component of the new control room design is a large-format video wall that is used to make a variety of operating information available to everyone in the room. Analog devices such as oscilloscopes and function generators are now displayed on the video wall through two crosspoint switchers: one for analog signals and another for video signals. A new software GUI replaces manual configuration of the oscilloscopes and function generators and helps automate setup. Monitoring screens, customized for the video wall, now make important operating information visible to everyone, not just a single operator. New alarm handler software gives any operator, on any workstation, access to all alarm handler functionality, and multiple users can now contribute to a single electronic logbook entry. To further support the shift to distributed access and control, many applications have been redesigned to run on servers instead of on individual workstations.

  16. 141. Detail of east control panel in control room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. Detail of east control panel in control room, looking east. This panel contains electrical switches that were used to control valves at circular forebay. It also contains voltage regulators, synchroscope adjust field breaker, ammeters, wattmeters, temperature indicator of generator windings, and butterfly valve and governor controls. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. A preliminary user-friendly, digital console for the control room parameters supervision in old-generation Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Memmi, F.; Falconi, L.; Cappelli, M.; Palomba, M.; Santoro, E.; Bove, R.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    Improvements in the awareness of a system status is an essential requirement to achieve safety in every kind of plant. In particular, in the case of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), a progress is crucial to enhance the Human Machine Interface (HMI) in order to optimize monitoring and analyzing processes of NPP operational states. Firstly, as old-fashioned plants are concerned, an upgrading of the whole console instrumentation is desirable in order to replace an analog visualization with a full-digital system. In this work, we present a novel instrument able to interface the control console of a nuclear reactor, developed by using CompactRio, a National Instruments embedded architecture and its dedicated programming language. This real-time industrial controller composed by a real-time processor and FPGA modules has been programmed to visualize the parameters coming from the reactor, and to storage and reproduce significant conditions anytime. This choice has been made on the basis of the FPGA properties: high reliability, determinism, true parallelism and re-configurability, achieved by a simple programming method, based on LabVIEW real-time environment. The system architecture exploits the FPGA capabilities of implementing custom timing and triggering, hardware-based analysis and co-processing, and highest performance control algorithms. Data stored during the supervisory phase can be reproduced by loading data from a measurement file, re-enacting worthwhile operations or conditions. The system has been thought to be used in three different modes, namely Log File Mode, Supervisory Mode and Simulation Mode. The proposed system can be considered as a first step to develop a more complete Decision Support System (DSS): indeed this work is part of a wider project that includes the elaboration of intelligent agents and meta-theory approaches. A synoptic has been created to monitor every kind of action on the plant through an intuitive sight. Furthermore, another important

  18. Transition Flight Control Room Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which we feel can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: The Fuel Cell Monitoring System (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the Shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multi-threaded procedures which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL). AGCOMPL is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on Shuttle or Space Station telemetry and trajectory data. The design of a system which will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. A generic message management (GMM) system. GMM is being designed as a message management system for real-time applications which send advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occurs and in assisting the developer in devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, while determining the feasibility of a given approach, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application and tool building activities.

  19. Transition flight control room automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: (1) The fuel cell monitoring system (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multithreaded procedures, which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule-based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. (2) A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL) is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on shuttle or space station telemetry and trajectory data. (3) The design of a system will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. (4) A generic message management (GMM) system is being designed for real-time applications as a message management system which sends advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occur and to assist the developer in the devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application, and tool building activities, while determining the feasibility of a given approach.

  20. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Smokey Visits Station Flight Control Room

    NASA Video Gallery

    Smokey Bear celebrated his 68th birthday with a special visit to the International Space Station Flight Control Room at Johnson Space Center in Houston. On May 14, Smokey went where no bear had gon...

  2. CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES FOR THE VENTILATION SYSTEM AND A PLC SWITCH FOR AUTOMATIC CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) SYSTEM. THE AIR TESTING SYSTEM IS FREE STANDING AND THE FANS ARE COMPUTER-OPERATED. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  3. Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

  4. Interior of Right Powerhouse, generator room, looking east. The unit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Right Powerhouse, generator room, looking east. The unit in the foreground is turbine-generator No. 11. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. A New Control Room for SLAC Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Roger; Guerra, E.; Stanek, M.; Hoover, Z.Van; Warren, J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-04

    We are planning to construct a new control room at SLAC to unify and improve the operation of the LCLS, SPEAR3, and FACET accelerator facilities, and to provide the space and flexibility needed to support the LCLS-II and proposed new test beam facilities. The existing control rooms for the linac and SPEAR3 have been upgraded in various ways over the last decade, but their basic features have remained unchanged. We propose to build a larger modern Accelerator Control Room (ACR) in the new Research Support Building (RSB) which is currently under construction at SLAC. Shifting the center of control for the accelerator facilities entails both technical and administrative challenges. In this paper, we describe the history, concept, and status of this project.

  6. 7. VIEW OF SLC3W CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 105) FROM ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 105) FROM ITS SOUTHWEST CORNER. NOTE RAISED FLATFORM IN CENTER OF ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  8. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  9. Control room habitability system review models

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpin, H. )

    1990-12-01

    This report provides a method of calculating control room operator doses from postulated reactor accidents and chemical spills as part of the resolution of TMI Action Plan III.D.3.4. The computer codes contained in this report use source concentrations calculated by either TACT5, FPFP, or EXTRAN, and transport them via user-defined flow rates to the control room envelope. The codes compute doses to six organs from up to 150 radionuclides (or 1 toxic chemical) for time steps as short as one second. Supporting codes written in Clipper assist in data entry and manipulation, and graphically display the results of the FORTRAN calculations. 7 refs., 22 figs.

  10. 51. MAIN CONTROL ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE INSTRUMENT LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. MAIN CONTROL ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE INSTRUMENT LOCATED AT THE TOP CENTER IS A SYNCHROSCOPE USED TO ASCERTAIN PHASE OF A GENERATOR PRIOR TO CONNECTING IT ON THE LINE. WHEN THE OPERATOR DETERMINED THAT THE GENERATOR WAS SYNCHRONIZED WITH OTHER GENERATORS ON LINE, IT WOULD BE CONNECTED TO THE SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  11. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  12. Highbay Generator Room, looking northwest Beale Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Highbay Generator Room, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  13. Individual room temperature control: A peaceful solution to thermostat wars

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, C.A. )

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining thermal comfort in individual rooms using an individual room temperature control concept to provide greater occupant comfort and potentially reduce energy consumption. The topics of the article include occupant temperature control methods, multi-room zone control, HVAC system operation, computer simulation, and the results of using individual room temperature control.

  14. Electric control of magnetism at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liaoyu; Wang, Dunhui; Cao, Qingqi; Zheng, Yuanxia; Xuan, Haicheng; Gao, Jinlong; Du, Youwei

    2012-01-01

    In the single-phase multiferroics, the coupling between electric polarization (P) and magnetization (M) would enable the magnetoelectric (ME) effect, namely M induced and modulated by E, and conversely P by H. Especially, the manipulation of magnetization by an electric field at room-temperature is of great importance in technological applications, such as new information storage technology, four-state logic device, magnetoelectric sensors, low-power magnetoelectric device and so on. Furthermore, it can reduce power consumption and realize device miniaturization, which is very useful for the practical applications. In an M-type hexaferrite SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19, large magnetization and electric polarization were observed simultaneously at room-temperature. Moreover, large effect of electric field-controlled magnetization was observed even without magnetic bias field. These results illuminate a promising potential to apply in magnetoelectric devices at room temperature and imply plentiful physics behind them. PMID:22355737

  15. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  16. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  17. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  18. White Paper for Virtual Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, William; Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Control Room (VCR) Proof of Concept (PoC) project is the result of an award given by the Fourth Annual NASA T&I Labs Challenge Project Call. This paper will outline the work done over the award period to build and enhance the capabilities of the Augmented/Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to create the VCR.

  19. 13. CONTROL ROOM OF GENE PUMPING STATION. CONTROL CUBICLES ARRAYED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CONTROL ROOM OF GENE PUMPING STATION. CONTROL CUBICLES ARRAYED BEHIND MANAGER'S ART DECO-STYLE CONTROL DESK, WITH CONTROL CUBICLE 1 AT FAR RIGHT AND CONTROL CUBICLE 9 AT FAR LEFT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 6. VIEW OF SLC3W CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 105) FROM ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 105) FROM ITS SOUTHEAST CORNER - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 55. VIEW OF SLC3E CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 107) FROM ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 107) FROM ITS NORTHEAST CORNER - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 17. CONTROL ROOM, NORTH SIDE, WITH BRIDGE SWING CONTROLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CONTROL ROOM, NORTH SIDE, WITH BRIDGE SWING CONTROLS ON LEFT, SIGNAL CONTROLS ON RIGHT, WHISTLE PULL TOP. RADIO TELEPHONE IN CENTER BACK (Fred Small) - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautto, A.

    1984-11-01

    The organization and presentation of information in a pressurized water reactor control room is discussed. Design of the alert function so as to reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g., during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance, is considered. Validation of the Critical Function Monitoring System on a training simulator is described. Functional decomposition of information is shown to be helpful in designing displays. Criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system, and the main interactions are presented.

  4. 8. VIEW OF SLC3W CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 105) FROM ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM (ROOM 105) FROM ITS NORTHEAST CORNER. TELEMETRY ROOM VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOWS IN SOUTH WALL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Looking into Generator Room, showing electromagnetic pulse (EMP) filter boxes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking into Generator Room, showing electromagnetic pulse (EMP) filter boxes mounted above door - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  6. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control room management. 195.446 Section 195.446... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.446 Control room management. (a) General. This section applies to... written control room management procedures that implement the requirements of this section. The...

  7. 89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOUT THE CENTER, FEBRUARY 26, 1918, AFTER MICHIGAN NORTHERN HAD BROUGHT THE GENERATOR INSTALLATION UP TO FULL CAPACITY. THE NARROW PANEL WESTINGHOUSE SWITCHBOARD INSTALLED IN 1916-17 IS AT THE UPPER RIGHT. THE NEW GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATORS ARE BELOW THE GALLERY. NOTE THE D.C. EXCITER UNIT ON EXTENDED SHAFT ON THE UNIT IN THE FOREGROUND. A SIMILAR TYPE OF INSTALLATION WAS FOUND AT PENSTOCKS 45 THROUGH 48 AND 62 THROUGH 73. WHAT SEEM TO BE EXTENDED SHAFT UNITS IN THE BACKGROUND ARE MERELY THE OLD STANLEY ALTERNATORS BEFORE THEY HAD BEEN REMOVED FROM THE GENERATOR ROOM. (878) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. [Controlling systems for operating room managers].

    PubMed

    Schüpfer, G; Bauer, M; Scherzinger, B; Schleppers, A

    2005-08-01

    Management means developing, shaping and controlling of complex, productive and social systems. Therefore, operating room managers also need to develop basic skills in financial and managerial accounting as a basis for operative and strategic controlling which is an essential part of their work. A good measurement system should include financial and strategic concepts for market position, innovation performance, productivity, attractiveness, liquidity/cash flow and profitability. Since hospitals need to implement a strategy to reach their business objectives, the performance measurement system has to be individually adapted to the strategy of the hospital. In this respect the navigation system developed by Gälweiler is compared to the "balanced score card" system of Kaplan and Norton. PMID:15959742

  9. MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  11. Requirements for Control Room Computer-Based Procedures for use in Hybrid Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Joe, Jeffrey Clark

    2015-05-01

    Many plants in the U.S. are currently undergoing control room modernization. The main drivers for modernization are the aging and obsolescence of existing equipment, which typically results in a like-for-like replacement of analogue equipment with digital systems. However, the modernization efforts present an opportunity to employ advanced technology that would not only extend the life, but enhance the efficiency and cost competitiveness of nuclear power. Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are one example of near-term advanced technology that may provide enhanced efficiencies above and beyond like for like replacements of analog systems. Researchers in the LWRS program are investigating the benefits of advanced technologies such as CBPs, with the goal of assisting utilities in decision making during modernization projects. This report will describe the existing research on CBPs, discuss the unique issues related to using CBPs in hybrid control rooms (i.e., partially modernized analog control rooms), and define the requirements of CBPs for hybrid control rooms.

  12. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  13. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL AT CENTER; BOXLIKE, RIVETED HOUSING AT TOP CENTER CONTAINED AUGER FOR COAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. 3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PRESENT CONTROL ROOM (ORIGINALLY THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PRESENT CONTROL ROOM (ORIGINALLY THE TRANSFORMER ROOM). - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  15. IET control building (TAN620). control room. facing east. windows on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). control room. facing east. windows on east end of control room with data room beyond. INEEL negative no. HD-21-3-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 124. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 2; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 2; looking east. This unit includes a Pelton wheel manufactured by Allis Chalmers, no. 262, type C-1, Breaking Horse Power 600, head 370 feet, and 360 rpm; and a General Electric DC generator, no. 1357610, type MPC 8, 340-350 form LD, 1360 amp, 350 rpm, 250 volts (no load), 250 volts (full load). Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. 10. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL ROOM OF THE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL ROOM OF THE CONTROL HOUSE LOCATED ON THE SOUTH END OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE CONTROL PANEL. - Big Tujunga Dam, Control House, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 11. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at Control and Recording Center, showing detail of switchboard and closed circuit television monitors. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 10. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking east. The control room is located in the center of the building and abuts the Test Cell 8, 9, and 10 and equipment room wings. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel operating rocket engine test controls and observer watching activity from observation room. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45020. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Main control room, showing original sixpane windows and doors to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main control room, showing original six-pane windows and doors to pump motor room at left. The main control cabinets and switchgear, visible on right, were replaced in 2003. View to the south - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1983-05-01

    The NUREG 0700 recommendations were assessed for implementation in the control rooms of Finnish nuclear power plants. Direct conclusions drawn from the American situation are misleading, because of differences in, for example, procurement of instruments or personnel training. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) is successful. It can also be used during planning to observe small discrepancies.

  4. 126. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 1; looking northwest. This unit includes a Pelton wheel manufactured by Allis Chalmers, no. 261, type C-1, Breaking Horse Power 600, head 370 feet, and 360 rpm; a General Electric DC generator, no. 1357609, type MPC 8, 340-350 form LD, 1360 amp, 350 rpm, 250 volts (no load), 250 volts (full load); and a General Electric induction motor, no. 4228863, type KT-4424, 20-500-360 form A, 60 cycles, 45 amp, 6,600 volts, 500 horsepower, continuous 50-degree centigrade rise, 350 rpm with full-load. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  5. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior of control room. Control console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior of control room. Control console in center of room. Indicator panels along walls. Window shown in ID-33-F-120 is between control panels at left. Camera facing northwest. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-7-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be reported pursuant to 49 CFR part 191 to determine if control room actions contributed to the... sufficient to achieve eight hours of continuous sleep; (2) Educate controllers and supervisors in...

  7. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be reported pursuant to 49 CFR part 191 to determine if control room actions contributed to the... sufficient to achieve eight hours of continuous sleep; (2) Educate controllers and supervisors in...

  8. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must be reported pursuant to 49 CFR part 191 to determine if control room actions contributed to the... sufficient to achieve eight hours of continuous sleep; (2) Educate controllers and supervisors in...

  9. 11. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF MECHANICAL ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF MECHANICAL ROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  10. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior of control room shows control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior of control room shows control console from direction facing visitors room and its observation window. Camera facing northeast. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-7-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 37. ENGINE ROOM, FROM PORT SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ENGINE ROOM, FROM PORT SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, PORT ENGINE AT RIGHT, STARBOARD ENGINE AT LEFT, BOTH ARE DIESEL ENGINES, IN BACKGROUND IS STAIRS UP TO CREWS' BERTHING, BEYONE THE STAIRS IS THE DOOR TO AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Design of a multisystem remote maintenance control room

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Kring, C.T.; Kawatsuma, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Remote Systems Development Section of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) recently collaborated in the development of a control room concept for remote operations. This report describes design methods and the resulting control room concept. The design project included five stages. The first was compilation of a complete function list; functions are tasks performed by operators in the control room while operating equipment located in the remote area. The second step was organization of the function list into ''function groups;'' function groups are sets of functions that operate one piece of equipment. The third stage was determination of crew size and requirements for supervision. The fourth stage was development of conceptual designs of displays and controls. The fifth stage was development of plans for placement of crew stations within the control room. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Aircraft Simulation Role in Improving Flight Safety Through Control Room Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shy, Karla S.; Hageman, Jacob J.; Le, Jeanette H.; Sitz, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center uses its six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) fixed-base simulations for mission control room training to improve flight safety and operations. This concept is applied to numerous flight projects such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS), the X-38 Actuator Control Test (XACT), and X-43A (Hyper-X). The Dryden 6-DOF simulations are typically used through various stages of a project, from design to ground tests. The roles of these simulations have expanded to support control room training, reinforcing flight safety by building control room staff proficiency. Real-time telemetry, radar, and video data are generated from flight vehicle simulation models. These data are used to drive the control room displays. Nominal static values are used to complete information where appropriate. Audio communication is also an integral part of training sessions. This simulation capability is used to train control room personnel and flight crew for nominal missions and emergency situations. Such training sessions are also opportunities to refine flight cards and control room display pages, exercise emergency procedures, and practice control room setup for the day of flight. This paper describes this technology as it is used in the X-43A and F-15 IFCS and XACT projects.

  14. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2012-05-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

  15. 16. View of Building 100 control room. 1987. On file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of Building 100 control room. 1987. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 38. ENGINE ROOM, FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. ENGINE ROOM, FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, DETAIL OF PORT ENGINE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 11. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT MODEL AIRCRAFT CONTROL ROOM; MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT MODEL AIRCRAFT CONTROL ROOM; MODEL OF BOEING 737 AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH IN FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL. - NASA Langley Research Center, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 224 Hunting Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  20. 133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 137. VALVES ON SOUTH WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. VALVES ON SOUTH WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. VIEW OUT WINDOW OF CONTROL ROOM IN THE TOWER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OUT WINDOW OF CONTROL ROOM IN THE TOWER OF BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTH, WITH PIER 9 VISIBLE - Roosevelt Base, Administration & Brig Building, Bounded by Nevada & Colorado Streets, Reeves & Richardson Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 73. LOOKING EAST INSIDE THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM FOR DOROTHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. LOOKING EAST INSIDE THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH SNORT WHEEL IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 36. HEADQUARTERS AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING, MAIN CONTROL ROOM FOR ALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. HEADQUARTERS AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING, MAIN CONTROL ROOM FOR ALL VENTILATION, MECHANICAL, AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  6. 18. Historic plan of Building 100 control room. March 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic plan of Building 100 control room. March 21, 1956. NASA GRC drawing number CE-101736. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  8. 4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST FROM THE CONTROL ROOM, TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST FROM THE CONTROL ROOM, TOWARD THE GREY IRON CUPOLA WITH CUPOLA TENDER (LEFT) MAKING CERTAIN MOLTEN IRON FLOWS UNIMPEDED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 5. VIEW TO SOUTH IN CONTROL ROOM ABOVE PUMP CHAMBER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO SOUTH IN CONTROL ROOM ABOVE PUMP CHAMBER, SHOWING PUMP MOTOR AND STEEL BULKHEADS IN FLOOR FOR ACCESS TO PUMPS - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Reservoir Avenue Pumping Station, Reservoir & Pontiac Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  11. 15. Interior view of unoccupied controlled computer room looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of unoccupied controlled computer room looking at exit door and office; northwest corner of unoccupied portion; view to south. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 2279 Risner Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  12. 68. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING DOWN FROM THE CONTROL ROOM INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING DOWN FROM THE CONTROL ROOM INTO TURBINE HALL AT UNITS 3, 5, AND 2) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  13. Overview of curtain walls at Control Room. Backup exciter in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of curtain walls at Control Room. Backup exciter in foreground. View to west-southwest - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, Along West Rosebud Creek, 1 3/4 miles northeast of Mystic Lake Dam, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  14. 38. VAL, DETAIL OF PANEL AT SECONDARY CONTROL ROOM INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VAL, DETAIL OF PANEL AT SECONDARY CONTROL ROOM INSIDE CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 14. GENE PUMPING STATION CONTROL ROOM AS SEEN FROM MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENE PUMPING STATION CONTROL ROOM AS SEEN FROM MAIN STATION MANAGER'S CONTROL DESK. ELECTRICAL CONTROL INDICATORS AND CONTROLS FOR REGULATING ELECTRICITY INTO PLANT AS WELL AS SYNCHRONIZING STARTUP OF PUMPS. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 143. ARAIII Control building (ARA607) Floor plan. Shows control room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. ARA-III Control building (ARA-607) Floor plan. Shows control room, contaminated work area, counting and computer room, health physics room, instrument repair room, offices, and other rooms. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-607-A-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0607-00-013-102546. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Control room concept for remote maintenance in high radiation areas

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design of a control room concept for an operator interface with remote maintenance equipment consisting of force-reflecting manipulators, tools, hoists, cranes, cameras, and lights. The design development involved two major activities. First, detailed requirements were defined for foreseeable functions that will be performed by the control room operators. Second, concepts were developed, tested, and refined to meet these requirements. 6 references, 3 figures.

  18. Control room concept for remote maintenance in high radiation areas

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design of a control room concept for an operator interface with remote maintenance equipment consisting of force-reflecting manipulators, tools, hoists, cranes, cameras, and lights. The design development involved two major activities. First, detailed requirements were defined for foreseeable functions that will be performed by the control room operators. Second, concepts were developed, tested, and refined to meet these requirements. Each of these activities is summarized below. 6 references, 3 figures.

  19. Control Room Training for the Hyper-X Program Utilizing Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux-Baumann, Jessica R.; Dees, Ray A.; Fratello, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center flew two Hyper-X Research Vehicles and achieved hypersonic speeds over the Pacific Ocean in March and November 2004. To train the flight and mission control room crew, the NASA Dryden simulation capability was utilized to generate telemetry and radar data, which was used in nominal and emergency mission scenarios. During these control room training sessions, personnel were able to evaluate and refine data displays, flight cards, mission parameter allowable limits, and emergency procedure checklists. Practice in the mission control room ensured that all primary and backup Hyper-X staff were familiar with the nominal mission and knew how to respond to anomalous conditions quickly and successfully. This paper describes the technology in the simulation environment and the mission control center, the need for and benefit of control room training, and the rationale and results of specific scenarios unique to the Hyper-X research missions.

  20. Control Room Training for the Hyper-X Project Utilizing Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux-Baumann, Jesica; Dees, Ray; Fratello, David

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center flew two Hyper-X research vehicles and achieved hypersonic speeds over the Pacific Ocean in March and November 2004. To train the flight and mission control room crew, the NASA Dryden simulation capability was utilized to generate telemetry and radar data, which was used in nominal and emergency mission scenarios. During these control room training sessions personnel were able to evaluate and refine data displays, flight cards, mission parameter allowable limits, and emergency procedure checklists. Practice in the mission control room ensured that all primary and backup Hyper-X staff were familiar with the nominal mission and knew how to respond to anomalous conditions quickly and successfully. This report describes the technology in the simulation environment and the Mission Control Center, the need for and benefit of control room training, and the rationale and results of specific scenarios unique to the Hyper-X research missions.

  1. Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2012-01-01

    The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

  2. 21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room (also known as scrubber room) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. IET control building (TAN620). control room. facing north. control consoles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). control room. facing north. control consoles have been removed. Openings in floor were communication and control conduits. Periscope controls at center left (see also HAER No. ID-33-E-20). INEEL negative no. HD-21-3-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Controlled synthesis of pentagonal gold nanotubes at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yingpu; Lu, Gongxuan

    2008-07-01

    Large quantities of pentagonal gold nanotubes have been synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with silver nanowires in an aqueous solution of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at room temperature. These gold nanotubes possess perfect structures, smooth surfaces, highly crystalline walls, and similar cross-sections to that of the silver template. In this process, the CTAB participation was found to be crucial for shape-controlled synthesis of pentagonal gold nanotubes. In the absence of CTAB, loose and hollow gold structures were routinely generated, while bundled gold nanotubes with rough surfaces were obtained by replacing the CTAB with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The possible formation mechanism of pentagonal gold nanotubes has also been discussed on the basis of various growth stages studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images. In addition, the catalytic properties of these hollow nanostructures for hydrogen generation reaction from HCHO solution have also been investigated. They showed higher activity than that of spherical gold nanoparticles. PMID:21828702

  5. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television monitoring of tests and personnel operating rocket engine test controls. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45021. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape tunnel. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. THE BUILDING 371/374 COMPLEX WAS DESIGNED TO EMPHASIZE AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED, REMOTELY OPERATED PROCESSES. (1/80) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance and inner blast door. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration.

  11. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration. PMID:22317419

  12. 75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Register published April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals with Disabilities... by November 5, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 3, 2009, (74 FR 63310) PHMSA issued a... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Control Room...

  13. 36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  14. 130. VIEW OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770), FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. VIEW OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770), FROM WEST. HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT (HPU) IN CENTER OF PHOTO, FACING NORTH. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL (LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO); RELAY BOX FOR HPU ON SOUTH WALL BEHIND HPU. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 144. VIEW OF EAST WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    144. VIEW OF EAST WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751). PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL ON LEFT; NITROGEN AND HELIUM PIPING AT TOP; PURGE PANEL AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 16. NBS TOPSIDE CONTROL ROOM, THE NBS HYPERBARIC CHAMBER IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. NBS TOPSIDE CONTROL ROOM, THE NBS HYPERBARIC CHAMBER IS VERY CLOSE TO THE WATER'S EDGE AND HERE FOR DIVER EMERGENCY SUPPORT. A MEDICAL STAFF IS LOCATED ON THE MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER (MSFC) AND SUPPORTS THE NBS PERSONNEL WHEN HYPERBARIC CHAMBER OPERATION IS NECESSARY. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES CRITICAL FOR THE FIRST TIME. COMPARE CEILING FIXTURES IN THIS PHOTO AND PHOTO ID-33-G-212 FOR COMMON PERSPECTIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4517. Unknown Photographer, 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR CONTROL ROOM OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR CONTROL ROOM OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING SOUTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-19-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 14. Historic view of engineer in Building 100 control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic view of engineer in Building 100 control room examining data printout. 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-46210. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. 15. Historic view of engineer in Building 100 control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view of engineer in Building 100 control room examining data printout. August 28, 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-61500. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 13. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel with data recording instrumentation. 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-46211. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 101. ARAIII. View of control room with operators during attempted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. ARA-III. View of control room with operators during attempted 500-hour run of ML-1 reactor. April 21, 1964. Ineel photo no. 64-2185. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. VIEW OF HISTORIC SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN THE CONTROL ROOM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HISTORIC SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN THE CONTROL ROOM OF THE ELWHA POWERHOUSE, INCLUDING: METERS, PROTECTIVE RELAYS, AND SWITCHES. NOTE ADDITION OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS FOR POWER METERING AND OPERATIONS. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  5. 11. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking north. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Roediger et al.

    2001-11-26

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of the logbook.

  8. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS... § 192.7) whenever a SCADA system is added, expanded or replaced, unless the operator demonstrates that... must be reported pursuant to 49 CFR part 191 to determine if control room actions contributed to...

  9. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS... SCADA system is added, expanded or replaced, unless the operator demonstrates that certain provisions of... must be reported pursuant to 49 CFR part 191 to determine if control room actions contributed to...

  10. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  11. 7. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW (INTERIOR) OF CONTROL ROOM PANEL INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW (INTERIOR) OF CONTROL ROOM PANEL INSIDE BUNKER. SHOWS OPENING TO CABLE CHASE, FOUR PULLEY DEVICES, POWER OUTLET, CONDUIT, AND EAST END WALL OF BUNKER. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5441, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 18. NORTH SIDE OF CONTROL ROOM SHOWING MAIN ELECTRIC PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. NORTH SIDE OF CONTROL ROOM SHOWING MAIN ELECTRIC PANEL ON LEFT, SIGNAL SWITCH BOX IN CENTER, AND SIGNAL RELAYS ON RIGHT. RESISTOR BANK BEHIND ON RIGHT. BRIDGE TENDER'S DESK BEHIND ON SOUTH SIDE. (Fred Small) - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  14. 149. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. 751), WITH SKID 2 IN FOREGROUND; FUEL LINE TO LAUNCH VEHICLE ENTERING WALL ON LEFT BEHIND SKID 2 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  16. 14. NBS REMOTE MANIPULATOR SIMULATOR (RMS) CONTROL ROOM. THE RMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. NBS REMOTE MANIPULATOR SIMULATOR (RMS) CONTROL ROOM. THE RMS CONTROL PANEL IS IDENTICAL TO THE SHUTTLE ORBITER AFT FLIGHT DECK WITH ALL RMS SWITCHES AND CONTROL KNOBS FOR INVOKING ANY POSSIBLE FLIGHT OPERATIONAL MODE. THIS INCLUDES ALL COMPUTER AIDED OPERATIONAL MODES, AS WELL AS FULL MANUAL MODE. THE MONITORS IN THE AFT FLIGHT DECK WINDOWS AND THE GLASSES THE OPERATOR WEARS PROVIDE A 3-D VIDEO PICTURE TO AID THE OPERATOR WITH DEPTH PERCEPTION WHILE OPERATING THE ARM. THIS IS REQUIRED BECAUSE THE RMS OPERATOR CANNOT VIEW RMS MOVEMENTS IN THE WATER WHILE AT THE CONTROL PANEL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Code System for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability.

    2002-04-11

    Version: 01 HABIT 1.1 is a suite of computer codes designed for evaluating control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. EXTRAN 1.2, CHEM, TACT5, FPFP_2, and CONHAB are included in the system. HABIT was used in the verification and validation of RADTRAD, which NRC now uses to assess radiation exposure, typically in the control room, as well as site boundary doses, and to estimate dose attenuationmore » due to modification of a facility or accident sequence. RADTRAD does not assess chemical exposure, so HABIT is retained in the RSICC collection for this purpose. RADTRAD is available from Alion Science http://radtrad.com/.« less

  18. 3. Credit BG. The interior of the control room appears ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Credit BG. The interior of the control room appears in this view, looking north (0°). The control console in the room center permitted remote control of various propellant grinders and mixers in surrounding buildings. Television monitors (absent from their mounts in this view) permitted direct viewing of operating machinery. From foreground to background: Panel (1) contains OGAR warning light switches for Curing Buildings E-39, E-40, E-41 and E-86; (O=off, G=green safe, A=amber caution, R=red danger) Panel (2) E-85 Oxidizer Dryer Building console: OGAR switch Panel (3) E-84 Oxidizer Grinder Building console: controls for vibrator, feed, and hammer; Panel (4) E-36 Oxidizer Grinder Building console: controls for vibrator, feed, hammer, attritor, and SWECO ("SWECO" undefined) Panels (5) & (6) blank Panel (7) E-38 Mixer & Casting Building console: vacuum pump, blender, heating and cooling controls Panel (8) E-37 Mixer & Casting Building console: motor controls for 1 pint, 1 gallon, 5 gallon and 30 gallon mixers; vacuum pump, deluge (fire suppression), pot up/down, vibrator, feed, and SWECO. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Weigh & Control Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U. Mohanan; Chelvane, J. Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between “open” (zero conductance) and “closed” (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature. PMID:26323326

  20. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U. Mohanan; Chelvane, J. Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between “open” (zero conductance) and “closed” (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature.

  1. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jammalamadaka, S Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U Mohanan; Chelvane, J Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between "open" (zero conductance) and "closed" (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature. PMID:26323326

  2. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald; Lau, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  3. 11. CENTRAL ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC3W CONTROL ROOM. COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CENTRAL ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. COMMUNICATIONS HEADSETS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 83. DETAIL OF HONEYWELL AIRCONDITIONING CONTROLS IN SLC3E CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. DETAIL OF HONEYWELL AIR-CONDITIONING CONTROLS IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. IET control building (TAN620). interior service room. general electric control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). interior service room. general electric control panel and related piping. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. A demonstrated method for upgrading existing control room interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.M. ); Terrill, D. ); Brice, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main control room (MCR) of any nuclear power plant can justifiably be called the most important area staffed by personnel in the entire facility. The interior workstation configuration, equipment arrangement, and staff placement all affect the efficiency and habitability of the room. There are many guidelines available that describe various human factor principles to use when upgrading the environment of the MCR. These involve anthropometric standards and rules for placement of peripheral equipment. Due to the variations in plant design, however, hard-and-fast rules have not and cannot be standardized for retrofits in any significant way. How then does one develop criteria for the improvement of a MCR The purpose of this paper is to discuss, from the designer's point of view, a method for the collection of information, development of criteria, and creation of a final design for a MCR upgrade. This method is best understood by describing the successful implementation at Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah nuclear plant.

  7. The NuStart AP1000 Compact Control Room Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Daryl

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in the United States is experiencing renewed optimism that new nuclear power plants may be constructed in the foreseeable future. Presently a number of utilities in the U.S. are considering new nuclear plant construction. Among the reasons supporting the industry's optimism is the formation of the NuStart Energy Consortium. This consortium of leading energy companies, including Westinghouse Electric Company, is working with the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and test the new licensing process for obtaining a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) for an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). One ALWR design for which the NuStart Energy Consortium is pursuing a COL application is Westinghouse's passive AP1000. AP1000 received its Final Design Approval from the USNRC in the Fall of 2004 and was granted Design Certification by the NRC on December 30, 2005. A key element of the AP1000 COL application will be to close out Design Certification COL items related to the Main Control Room (MCR) and Human System Interface (HSI) design. During the AP1000 design certification licensing efforts, a control room and HSI design process was submitted and approved. Realizing that Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and HSI technology changes rapidly, Westinghouse chose to defer the detailed design of the control room and operator interfaces. This allows the latest technology to be used when a plant is actually going to be built. To fulfill the COL items for the upcoming application Westinghouse is performing a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering program in conjunction with development of an advanced set of HSI resources for a compact control room. This paper will discuss human factors program elements completed to date and the efforts currently in progress to complete the remaining elements. It will also describe the design progress for each HSI resource including a Wall Panel Information System, computerized procedure system

  8. Ultrabright continuously tunable terahertz-wave generation at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Nawata, Kouji; Taira, Takunori; Shikata, Jun-Ichi; Kawase, Kodo; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2014-06-01

    The hottest frequency region in terms of research currently lies in the `frequency gap' region between microwaves and infrared: terahertz waves. Although new methods for generating terahertz radiation have been developed, most sources cannot generate high-brightness terahertz beams. Here we demonstrate the generation of ultrabright terahertz waves (brightness ~0.2 GW/sr.cm2, brightness temperature of ~1018 K, peak power of >50 kW) using parametric wavelength conversion in a nonlinear crystal; this is brighter than many specialized sources such as far-infrared free-electron lasers (~1016 K, ~2 kW). We revealed novel parametric wavelength conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in LiNbO3 without stimulated Brillouin scattering using recently-developed microchip laser. Furthermore, nonlinear up-conversion techniques allow the intense terahertz waves to be visualized and their frequency determined. These results are very promising for extending applied research into the terahertz region, and we expect that this source will open up new research fields such as nonlinear optics in the terahertz region.

  9. Ultrabright continuously tunable terahertz-wave generation at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Nawata, Kouji; Taira, Takunori; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Kawase, Kodo; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The hottest frequency region in terms of research currently lies in the ‘frequency gap' region between microwaves and infrared: terahertz waves. Although new methods for generating terahertz radiation have been developed, most sources cannot generate high-brightness terahertz beams. Here we demonstrate the generation of ultrabright terahertz waves (brightness ~0.2 GW/sr·cm2, brightness temperature of ~1018 K, peak power of >50 kW) using parametric wavelength conversion in a nonlinear crystal; this is brighter than many specialized sources such as far-infrared free-electron lasers (~1016 K, ~2 kW). We revealed novel parametric wavelength conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in LiNbO3 without stimulated Brillouin scattering using recently-developed microchip laser. Furthermore, nonlinear up-conversion techniques allow the intense terahertz waves to be visualized and their frequency determined. These results are very promising for extending applied research into the terahertz region, and we expect that this source will open up new research fields such as nonlinear optics in the terahertz region. PMID:24898269

  10. Capturing Control Room Simulator Data with the HERA Database

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; April Whaley; Bruce Hallbert; Karin Laumann; Per Oivind Braarud; Andreas Bye; Erasmia Lois; Yung Hsien James Chang

    2007-08-01

    The Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA) system has been developed as a tool for classifying and recording human performance data extracted from primary data sources. This paper reviews the process of extracting data from simulator studies for use in HERA. Simulator studies pose unique data collection challenges, both in types and quality of data measures, but such studies are ideally suited to gather operator performance data, including the full spectrum of performance shaping factors used in a HERA analysis. This paper provides suggestions for obtaining relevant human performance data for a HERA analysis from a control room simulator study and for inputting those data in a format suitable for HERA.

  11. D0 Control Room Argon Test Cell Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-04-01

    Due to the need of maintaining and providing high purity argon for the D0 experiment. it is necessary to have a purity verifying device readUy aVailable. The testing eqUipment used by the D0 cryo group is called the Argon Test Cell (ATC). It operates by taking a sample of the argon to be tested and running it through a test cell for purity determination. LiqUid nitrogen cooling loops are used to to keep the argon cold during the testing. The initial placement of the ATC was outside of the D0 Cryo Control Room. This was not a favorable place. mainly because of exposure to the elements on the operators and the device. A plan was made to move the ATe from outside to inside the control room. This would allow security. favorable environment conditions. and general overall improved access and operability. Havtng the ATC inside causes some concern over some issues. It is true that the ATC employs cryogenic piping components. so there is an ODH possibility ifthose components were to faU and leak. However. there are ways by which we can determine the ODH class fairly easily. Using the methods outlined in D0 EN-229. the components of the cryogenic pipelines are summed and grouped according to failure possibility and likely leakage upon failure. (Note that this is the reason that one type of component may be listed a multiple number of times in the appendix spreadsheet, as the different components have different possible leak rates. depending on position or size. etc.). The result is an ODH class 0. since the fatality rate has to be above 10{sup -7} for a hazard condition to be present. The fatality rates in this analysis only come within an order of magnitude of this safety limit due to using conservative estimates. Note that the 130 scfm fan must be active for the ODH status to remain O. The control room ventilation is on emergency power. An alarm attached to the fan will notify the operators of fan failure. but both the fan and the alarm can be turned off when they are not

  12. 1. VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE XY RETRIEVER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE X-Y RETRIEVER. USING THE X-Y RETRIEVER, OPERATORS RETRIEVED PLUTONIUM METAL FROM THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULTS (IN MODULE K) AND CONVEYED IT TO THE X-Y SHUTTLE AREA WHERE IT WAS CUT AND WEIGHED. FROM THE SHUTTLE AREA THE PLUTONIUM WAS CONVEYED TO MODULES A, J OR K FOR CASTING, OR MODULE B FOR ROLLING AND FORMING. (5/17/71) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  14. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  15. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety..., 2010, PHMSA published a Control Room Management/Human Factors notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... to expedite the program implementation deadlines of the Control Room Management/Human Factors rule...

  16. 15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE IS USED TO CONTROL AIR FLOW AND WATER FLOW TO THE UNDERWATER SPACE SUIT DURING THE TEST. THE SUIT SYSTEMS ENGINEER MONITORS AIR FLOW ON THE PANEL TO THE LEFT, AND SUIT DATA ON THE COMPUTER MONITOR JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS LEFT. WATER FLOW IS MONITORED ON THE PANEL JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS RIGHT AND TEST VIDEO TO HIS FAR RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF MONITORS THE DIVER'S DIVE TIMES ON THE COMPUTER IN THE UPPER RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF LOGS THEM IN AS THEY ENTER THE WATER, AND LOGS THEM OUT AS THEY EXIT THE WATER. THE COMPUTER CALCULATES TOTAL DIVE TIME. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Current Approaches for Control Room I and C Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Alberto; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2002-07-01

    In general, instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants were made using analogic systems and relays, since this was the only technology available by the time these systems were designed. This fact impacts on the operational and maintenance capabilities required to these systems. For this reason, nuclear power plants are facing nowadays two challenges: on one hand, the obsolescence of these systems contributes to the increase in the operation and maintenance costs - due to the difficulties for getting spare parts and support from the system vendors -. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the utilities competitiveness due to the electric power market liberalization. All this, of course, along with the commitment to maintain the current safety levels and meet the new requirements and standards that may arise in the near future. The application of current technologies, especially digital technology, solves the obsolescence problems and allows for a more functional and updated human-machine interface. Nevertheless, the cost associated to these modifications makes it necessary to develop strategies to determine which systems need to be modified and how to implement modifications effectively, so that these systems can work jointly with others using different technologies. Other issues inherent to digital technology must be considered, such as verification and validation of the software and of the human-machine interface, which are required for its licensing. This presentation describes the current approaches for I and C modernization, the main reasons, technologies and implementation plans, focusing on the control room and on the impact on operations. The main issues to be considered for developing a specific modernization plan are analysed. The goals and status of the 'Feasibility Study of the Control Room I and C Modernization' are described. This study is currently being developed by Endesa, Iberdrola and Tecnatom, and is included

  18. IET control building (TAN620). control room. facing east. instrument racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). control room. facing east. instrument racks along north wall. glazing on east wall. Layout of control consoles evident by openings in floor. INEEL negative no. HD-21-4-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. LOFT. Interior, control room in control building (TAN630). Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Interior, control room in control building (TAN-630). Camera facing north. Sign says "This control console is partially active. Do not operate any switch handle without authorization." Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-14-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  1. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binek, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Voltage-controlled spintronics is of particular importance to continue progress in information technology through reduced power consumption, enhanced processing speed, integration density, and functionality in comparison with present day CMOS electronics. Almost all existing and prototypical solid-state spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism, enabling spin-selective transmission or scattering of electrons. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is a key challenge to better spintronics. Currently, most attempts to electrically control magnetism focus on potentially large magnetoelectric effects of multiferroics. We report on our interest in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O3 (chromia). Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias is achieved at room temperature in perpendicular anisotropic Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd exchange bias heterostructures. This discovery promises significant implications for potential spintronics. From the perspective of basic science, our finding serves as macroscopic evidence for roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable equilibrium boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. The latter evolves at chromia (0001) surfaces and interfaces when chromia is in one of its two degenerate antiferromagnetic single domain states selected via magnetoelectric annealing. Theoretical insight into the boundary magnetization and its role in electrically controlled exchange bias is gained from first-principles calculations and general symmetry arguments. Measurements of spin-resolved ultraviolet photoemission, magnetometry at Cr 2 O3 (0001) surfaces, and detailed investigations of the unique exchange bias properties of Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd including its electric controllability provide macroscopically averaged information about the boundary magnetization of chromia. Laterally resolved X-ray PEEM and temperature dependent MFM reveal detailed microscopic information of the chromia

  2. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior detail of control room's severe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior detail of control room's severe fuel damage instrument panel. Indicators provided real-time information about test underway in PBF reactor. Note audio speaker. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no, HD-41-7-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. PBF Control Building (PER619). Inside control room facing west. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Inside control room facing west. Photographer has closed venetian blinds at window to block bright sunlight from outside. Date: 1980. INEEL negative no. 80-2549 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Vescovo, E.; Wang, Y.; Caruso, A.N.; Belashchenko, K.D.; Dowben, P.A.; Binek, C.

    2010-06-20

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Neel temperature.

  5. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ning; Caruso, Anthony N; Vescovo, Elio; Belashchenko, Kirill D; Dowben, Peter A; Binek, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3) has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr(2)O(3) single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Néel temperature.

  6. Wavelet analysis application for remote control room operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg I.; Semenov, Igor B.

    2003-03-01

    Compression algorithm for data transfer from tokamak installation to remote control room was developed on the basis of wavelet analyses. The algorithm is useful in the case of low speed Internet channel (˜20 kbytes/s) for real time express analysis of row noisy data between shots (i.e., ˜5-10 times compression of the initial row data array (˜50-100 Mbytes), transmission, restoration, and analysis in time interval ˜15 min). The developed algorithm is based on some amount of data losses so that the amplitude and phase difference between the initial and restored data were less then 5% to signal amplitude. The algorithm was tested for Mirnov signal transmission in the case of disruption instability. It was shown that the error of restoration does not depend on form of the signal, i.e., applied method has good characteristics both in the case of the spikes and smooth functions. Experiments show that the coefficient of compression 5-15 could be achieved if the errors are in 0.5%-5%.

  7. Power generation controls emerging trends

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, B.J.; Moskal, J.J.; Schuss, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Advances in microtechnology and intelligent control systems will continue to impact all phases of power generation controls and provide new options. This paper discusses an automatic sequential control system for automatic start-up and shutdown of the entire power plant. The system accesses the individual steam generator, turbine and BOP systems to enable a little manual intervention. Also covered are diagnostic on-line performance systems and the projected work on expert technology t integrate diagnostics with controls for optimum economics and plant availability. Control features such as increased microprocessor scan rate, storage capability, high data transmission throughput rates, etc. will play a significant role in achieving these objectives. Discussion also covers control integration requirements in the background of the expected impact of emerging data communication standards.

  8. Self-generated Local Heating Induced Nanojoining for Room Temperature Pressureless Flexible Electronic Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng; Hu, Anming; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Liu, Yangai; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2015-01-01

    Metallic bonding at an interface is determined by the application of heat and/or pressure. The means by which these are applied are the most critical for joining nanoscale structures. The present study considers the feasibility of room-temperature pressureless joining of copper wires using water-based silver nanowire paste. A novel mechanism of self-generated local heating within the silver nanowire paste and copper substrate system promotes the joining of silver-to-silver and silver-to-copper without any external energy input. The localized heat energy was delivered in-situ to the interfaces to promote atomic diffusion and metallic bond formation with the bulk component temperature stays near room-temperature. This local heating effect has been detected experimentally and confirmed by calculation. The joints formed at room-temperature without pressure achieve a tensile strength of 5.7 MPa and exhibit ultra-low resistivity in the range of 101.3 nOhm·m. The good conductivity of the joint is attributed to the removal of organic compounds in the paste and metallic bonding of silver-to-copper and silver-to-silver. The water-based silver nanowire paste filler material is successfully applied to various flexible substrates for room temperature bonding. The use of chemically generated local heating may become a potential method for energy in-situ delivery at micro/nanoscale. PMID:25788019

  9. Comparison of hospital room surface disinfection using a novel ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator.

    PubMed

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2016-09-01

    The estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the United States have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable UVGI generator (the TORCH, ChlorDiSys Solutions, Inc., Lebanon, NJ) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Each surface type was placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room and treated by 10-min ultraviolet-C (UVC) exposures using the TORCH with doses ranging from 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites. Organism reductions were compared with untreated surface coupons as controls. Overall, UVGI significantly reduced MRSA by an average of 4.6 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 77% inactivation, p < 0.0001) and VRE by an average of 3.9 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 65% inactivation, p < 0.0001). MRSA on bedrail was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) less than on other surfaces, while VRE was reduced significantly less on chrome (p = 0.0004) and stainless steel (p = 0.0012) than porcelain tile. Organisms out of direct line of sight of the UVC generator were reduced significantly less (p < 0.0001) than those directly in line of sight. UVGI was found an effective method to inactivate nosocomial pathogens on surfaces evaluated within the hospital environment in direct line of sight of UVGI treatment with variation between organism and surface types. PMID:27028152

  10. Comparison of hospital room surface disinfection using a novel ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator.

    PubMed

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2016-09-01

    The estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the United States have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable UVGI generator (the TORCH, ChlorDiSys Solutions, Inc., Lebanon, NJ) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Each surface type was placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room and treated by 10-min ultraviolet-C (UVC) exposures using the TORCH with doses ranging from 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites. Organism reductions were compared with untreated surface coupons as controls. Overall, UVGI significantly reduced MRSA by an average of 4.6 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 77% inactivation, p < 0.0001) and VRE by an average of 3.9 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 65% inactivation, p < 0.0001). MRSA on bedrail was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) less than on other surfaces, while VRE was reduced significantly less on chrome (p = 0.0004) and stainless steel (p = 0.0012) than porcelain tile. Organisms out of direct line of sight of the UVC generator were reduced significantly less (p < 0.0001) than those directly in line of sight. UVGI was found an effective method to inactivate nosocomial pathogens on surfaces evaluated within the hospital environment in direct line of sight of UVGI treatment with variation between organism and surface types.

  11. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Katya; Boring, Ronald; Joe, Jeffrey; Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  12. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647, INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM, CONTEXTUAL VIEW. INSTRUMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647, INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM, CONTEXTUAL VIEW. INSTRUMENT PANELS AT REAR OF OPERATOR'S CONSOLE GAVE OPERATOR STATUS OF REACTOR PERFORMANCE, COOLANT-WATER CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER INDICATORS. WINDOWS AT RIGHT LOOKED INTO ETR BUILDING FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. View of Medical Support Room in Mission Control Center during Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Dr. J.F. Zieglschmid, M.D., Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) White Team Surgeon, is seated in the Medical Support Room in the Mission Control Center as he monitors crew biomedical data being received from the Apollo 16 spacecraft on the third day of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission.

  14. OVERVIEW OF A RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATOR FOR MAIN CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plant modernization in the U.S. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  15. 8. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF DINING/RECREATION ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF DINING/RECREATION ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  16. Rapid and controllable covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rubí, Yadienka; Guan, Jingwen; Lin, Shuqiong; Scriver, Christine; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Simard, Benoit

    2007-12-28

    We report a rapid and efficient procedure to functionalize SWNT where free radicals generated at room temperature by a redox reaction between reduced SWNT and diacyl peroxide derivatives were covalently attached to the SWNT wall. PMID:18060123

  17. 5. "UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND 1A, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. "UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND 1-A, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB, 15 JAN 58, 3097.58." Two men working in the control room. Photo no. "3097 58; G-AFFTC 15 JAN 58, T.S. 1-A Control". - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Optical sideband generation up to room temperature with mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Houver, S; Cavalié, P; St-Jean, M Renaudat; Amanti, M I; Sirtori, C; Li, L H; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Pereira, T A S; Lebreton, A; Tignon, J; Dhillon, S S

    2015-02-23

    Mid-infrared (MIR) sideband generation on a near infrared (NIR) optical carrier is demonstrated within a quantum cascade laser (QCL). By employing an externally injected NIR beam, E(NIR), that is resonant with the interband transitions of the quantum wells in the QCL, the nonlinear susceptibility is enhanced, leading to both frequency mixing and sideband generation. A GaAs-based MIR QCL (E(QCL) = 135 meV) with an aluminum-reinforced waveguide was utilized to overlap the NIR and MIR modes with the optical nonlinearity of the active region. The resulting difference sideband (E(NIR) - E(QCL)) shows a resonant behavior as a function of NIR pump wavelength and a maximum second order nonlinear susceptibility, χ((2)), of ~1 nm/V was obtained. Further, the sideband intensity showed little dependence with the operating temperature of the QCL, allowing sideband generation to be realized at room temperature.

  19. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  20. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  1. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, Kaushik; Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata; McMullen, Steven Robert; Raibert, Robert Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  2. Intensity control in experimental rooms of the GANIL accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, C.; Jamet, C.; Le Coz, W.; Ledu, G.

    2014-12-01

    The safety re-examination of existing GANIL (the French national heavy-ion accelerator facility) installations requires the implementation of a safety system which makes possible the monitoring of beam intensities sent in the experimental rooms. The aim is to demonstrate that beam intensities stay below the authorized limits. The required characteristics should enable the measurement, by a non-interceptive method, of beam intensities from 5 nA to 5 μA with a maximum uncertainty of ±5%, independently of the frequency and the beam energy. After a comparative study, two high frequency diagnostics were selected: the capacitive Pick-Up (PU) and the Fast Current Transformer (FCT). Based on results of simulation, laboratory tests and machine studies, this paper discusses all the considerations required to deliver accurate results from PU and FCT measurement of ion beams.

  3. 28. Pump Room interiorMain valve control panel with status indicators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Pump Room interior-Main valve control panel with status indicators for main flooding/dewatering valves and gates. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF PROPELLER STAND CONTROL ROOM. WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF PROPELLER STAND CONTROL ROOM. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 20A, Propeller Test Complex, Seventh Street, from E to G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  5. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  6. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT CENTER OF VIEW. SIGN ABOVE DOOR SAYS "HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM." SIGN IN WINDOW SAYS "EATING AREA." "EVACUATION AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION" IS POSTED ON CABINET AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... method of recording controller shift-changes and any hand-over of responsibility between controllers. (c... added or moved and when other changes that affect pipeline safety are made to field equipment or SCADA... calibrated or changed and at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months;...

  8. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... method of recording controller shift-changes and any hand-over of responsibility between controllers. (c... added or moved and when other changes that affect pipeline safety are made to field equipment or SCADA... calibrated or changed and at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months;...

  9. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... method of recording controller shift-changes and any hand-over of responsibility between controllers. (c... added or moved and when other changes that affect pipeline safety are made to field equipment or SCADA... calibrated or changed and at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months;...

  10. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... method of recording controller shift-changes and any hand-over of responsibility between controllers. (c... added or moved and when other changes that affect pipeline safety are made to field equipment or SCADA... calibrated or changed and at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months;...

  11. Teleoperated control system for underground room and pillar mining

    SciTech Connect

    Mayercheck, William D.; Kwitowski, August J.; Brautigam, Albert L.; Mueller, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A teleoperated mining system is provided for remotely controlling the various machines involved with thin seam mining. A thin seam continuous miner located at a mining face includes a camera mounted thereon and a slave computer for controlling the miner and the camera. A plurality of sensors for relaying information about the miner and the face to the slave computer. A slave computer controlled ventilation sub-system which removes combustible material from the mining face. A haulage sub-system removes material mined by the continuous miner from the mining face to a collection site and is also controlled by the slave computer. A base station, which controls the supply of power and water to the continuous miner, haulage system, and ventilation systems, includes cable/hose handling module for winding or unwinding cables/hoses connected to the miner, an operator control module, and a hydraulic power and air compressor module for supplying air to the miner. An operator controlled host computer housed in the operator control module is connected to the slave computer via a two wire communications line.

  12. Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazuue; Hitaka, Masahiro; Ito, Akio; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Dougakiuchi, Tatsuo; Edamura, Tadataka

    2016-07-25

    We present ultra-broadband room temperature monolithic terahertz quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources based on intra-cavity difference frequency generation, emitting continuously more than one octave in frequency between 1.6 and 3.8 THz, with a peak output power of ~200 μW. Broadband terahertz emission is realized by nonlinear mixing between single-mode and multi-mode spectra due to distributed feedback grating and Fabry-Perot cavity, respectively, in a mid-infrared QCL with dual-upper-state active region design. Besides, at low temperature of 150 K, the device produces a peak power of ~1.0 mW with a broadband THz emission centered at 2.5 THz, ranging from 1.5 to 3.7 THz.

  13. Room-Temperature Fabrication of a Flexible Thermoelectric Generator Using a Dry-Spray Deposition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae-Seob; Choi, Jung-Oh; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    We present a flexible thermoelectric (TE) generator with titanium dioxide (TiO2), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te) powders fabricated by a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS). NPDS is a novel low-energy consumption dry-spray method that enables the deposition of inorganic materials on substrates at room temperature and under low vacuum. TiO2 nanopowders were dispersed on a TE powder for improved adhesion between TE films and the substrate. Film morphologies were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and the phase structure was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. A TE leg, deposited with 3 wt.% TiO2 content, had the largest Seebeck coefficient of approximately 160 μV/K. The prototype TE generator consisted of 16 TE legs linked by silver interconnects over an area of 20 mm × 60 mm. The prototype produced a voltage of 48.91 mV and a maximum power output of 0.18 μW from a temperature gradient of 20 K. The values are comparable to that of conventional methods. These results suggest that flexible TE generators can be fabricated by energy efficient methods, although internal and contact resistances must be decreased.

  14. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed.

  15. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed.

  16. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  17. Maximum performance synergy: A new approach to recording studio control room design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, Jeff D.

    2003-10-01

    Popular recording studio control room designs include LEDE(tm), RFZ(tm), and nonenvironment rooms. The common goal of all of these is to create an accurate acoustical environment that does not distort or otherwise color audio reproduction. Also common to these designs is the frequent need to have multiple ancillary recording rooms, often adjacent to the main control room, where group members perform. This approach, where group members are physically separated from one another, can lead to lack of ensemble in the finished recordings. New twists on old acoustical treatment techniques have been implemented at a studio in Nashville, Tennessee, which minimize the need for multiple ancillary recording rooms, thus creating an environment where talent, producer and recording professionals can all occupy the same space for maximum performance synergy. Semi-separated performance areas are designed around a central, critical listening area. The techniques and equipment required to achieve this separation are reviewed, as are advantages and disadvantages to this new control room design approach.

  18. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  19. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  20. Use of 2.5-D and 3-D technology to evaluate control room upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L. F.; Naser, J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) study in which 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology was applied to evaluate the design of a nuclear power plant control room upgrade. The study involved converting 3-D CAD flies of a planned upgrade into a photo-realistic appearing virtual model, and evaluating the value and usefulness of the model. Nuclear utility and EPRI evaluators viewed and interacted with the control room virtual model with both 2.5-D and 3-D representations. They identified how control room and similar virtual models may be used by utilities for design and evaluation purposes; assessed potential economic and other benefits; and identified limitations, potential problems, and other issues regarding use of visualization technology for this and similar applications. In addition, the Halden CREATE (Control Room Engineering Advanced Tool-kit Environment) Verification Tool was applied to evaluate features of the virtual model against US NRC NUREG 0700 Revision 2 human factors engineering guidelines (NUREG 0700) [1]. The study results are very favorable for applying 2.5-D visualization technology to support upgrading nuclear power plant control rooms and other plant facilities. Results, however, show that today's 3-D immersive viewing systems are difficult to justify based on cost, availability and value of information provided for this application. (authors)

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  2. 28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS23G ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS-23G DETECTING-RANGING SET, MARK & CONTROL PANEL, CAN-55134 RECORDER, SPEED INDICATOR, VARIOUS ALARMS AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE has

  4. Is function-based control room design human-centered?

    SciTech Connect

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2006-07-01

    Function-based approaches to system interface design appears an appealing possibility in helping designers and operators to cope with the vast amount of information needed to control complex processes. In this paper we provide evidence of operator performance analyses showing that outcome-centered performance measures may not be sufficiently informative for design. We need analyses indicating habitual patterns of using information, operator practices. We argue that practices that portray functional orienting to the task support mastery of the process. They also create potential to make use of function-based information presentation. We see that functional design is not an absolute value. Instead, such design should support communication of the functional significance of the process information to the operators in variable situations. Hence, it should facilitate development of practices that focus to interpreting this message. Successful function-based design facilitates putting operations into their contexts and is human-centered in an extended sense: It aids making sense in the complex, dynamic and uncertain environment. (authors)

  5. EARLY-STAGE DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew

    2015-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate operator performance with these systems as part of a verification and validation process. While there is regulatory and industry guidance for some modernization activities, there are no well defined standard processes or predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages. This paper proposes a framework defining the design process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The process and metrics are generalizable to other applications and serve as a guiding template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  6. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  7. Vortex generator for flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor); Marner, Wilbur J. (Inventor); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Fluidics flow control of a multiphase supply using a cylindrical chamber is achieved by introducing the supply flow radially into the chamber. The supply flow exits through a port in the center at the chamber. A control fluid is then introduced tangentially about 90.degree. upstream from the supply port. A second control fluid port may be added about 90.degree. upstream from the first control fluid port, but preferably two sets of supply and control ports are added with like ports diametrically opposite each other. The control fluid flows against the circular wall of the control chamber, which introduces a vortex in the flow of the supply flow that decays into a spiral path to the exit port in the center of the chamber. The control flow rate may thus be used to control the spiral path, and therefore the supply flow rate through the exit port.

  8. Waterford SES unit No. 3 control room design review/audit technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.

    1981-06-01

    As part of the NRC staff actions following the TMI-2 accident (Item I.D.1, NUREG-0660, Vol. 1, May 1980), it is required that all licensees and applicants for operating licenses conduct a Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) to identify and correct human factors design deficiencies. Louisiana Power and Light Co. (LP and L) performed a preliminary assessment of the Waterford SES Unit No. 3 control room and submitted its findings to the NRC in a report dated April 15, 1981, for review and evaluation. The Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) performed an interim review of the LP and L preliminary assessment report.

  9. PHYSICAL FIDELITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR NRC ADVANCED REACTOR CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATORS USED FOR INSPECTOR/EXAMINER TRAINING

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Miller, Mark; Cochrum, Steven

    2010-11-07

    This paper describes research into the physical fidelity requirements of control room simulators to train U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff for their duties as inspectors and license examiners for next-generation nuclear power plants. The control rooms of these power plants are expected to utilize digital instrumentation and controls to a much greater extent than do current plants. The NRC is assessing training facility needs, particularly for control room simulators, which play a central role in NRC training. Simulator fidelity affects both training effectiveness and cost. Research has shown high simulation fidelity sometimes positively affects transfer to the operational environment but sometimes makes no significant difference or actually impedes learning. The conditions in which these different effects occur are often unclear, especially for regulators (as opposed to operators) about whom research is particularly sparse. This project developed an inventory of the tasks and knowledges, skills, and abilities that NRC regulators need to fulfill job duties and used expert panels to characterize the inventory items by type and level of cognitive/behavioral capability needed, difficulty to perform, importance to safety, frequency of performance, and the importance of simulator training for learning these capabilities. A survey of current NRC staff provides information about the physical fidelity of the simulator on which the student trained to the control room to which the student was assigned and the effect lack of fidelity had on learning and job performance. The study concludes that a high level of physical fidelity is not required for effective training of NRC staff.

  10. Method of installing a control room console in a nuclear power plant

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  11. Designing an Easy-to-use Executive Conference Room Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Maribeth; Golovchinsky, Gene; Qvarfordt, Pernilla; van Melle, William; Boreczky, John; Dunnigan, Tony; Carter, Scott

    The Usable Smart Environment project (USE) aims at designing easy-to-use, highly functional, next-generation conference rooms. Our first design prototype focuses on creating a “no wizards” room for an American executive; that is, a room the executive could walk into and use by himself, without help from a technologist. A key idea in the USE framework is that customization is one of the best ways to create a smooth user experience. As the system needs to fit both with the personal leadership style of the executive and the corporation’s meeting culture, we began the design process by exploring the work flow in and around meetings attended by the executive.

  12. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor. PMID:15850119

  13. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor.

  14. Controllable laser ion beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyama, D.; Takano, M.; Nagashima, T.; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.

    2016-05-01

    In intense-laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for a future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a bunching of ion beam, which is preaccelerated by a strong electric field generated in a laser plasma interaction. In this study, a nearcritical-density plasma target is illuminated by an intense short laser pulse. A moving strong inductive electric field is generated inside of the target. We have successfully obtained a bunched ion beam in our particle-in-cell simulations in this paper.

  15. GUIDANCE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM AND HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Morris, G.

    2004-10-06

    Several nuclear power plants in the United States are starting instrumentation and control (I&C) modernization programs using digital equipment to address obsolescence issues and the need to improve plant performance while maintaining high levels of safety. As an integral part of the I&C modernization program at a nuclear power plant, the control room and other human-system interfaces (HSIs) are also being modernized. To support safe and effective operation, it is critical to plan, design, implement, train for, operate, and maintain the control room and HSI changes to take advantage of human cognitive processing abilities. A project, jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program, is developing guidance for specifying and designing control rooms, remote shut-down panels, HSIs etc. The guidance is intended for application by utilities and suppliers of control room and HSI modernization. The guidance will facilitate specification, design, implementation, operations, maintenance, training, and licensing activities. This guidance will be used to reduce the likelihood of human errors and licensing risk, to gain maximum benefit of implemented technology, and to increase performance. The guidance is of five types. The first is planning guidance to help a utility develop its plant-specific control room operating concepts, its plant-specific endpoint vision for the control room, its migration path to achieve that endpoint vision, and its regulatory, licensing, and human factors program plans. The second is process guidance for general HSI design and integration, human factors engineering analyses, verification and validation, in-service monitoring processes, etc. The third is detailed human factors engineering guidance for control room and HSI technical areas. The fourth is guidance for licensing. The fifth is guidance for special topics related to

  16. IET. Control and equipment building (TAN620). Details and room finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Control and equipment building (TAN-620). Details and room finish schedule. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-620-A 322. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0629-00-693-106907 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. MTR, TRA603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, USHAPED CONSOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, U-SHAPED CONSOLE, INSTRUMENT PANELS, GLASS DOOR, ASPHALT TILE FLOOR AND COLORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-11, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100570, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... on December 3, 2009, in 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446 (74 FR 63310), as corrected February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must....631 and 195.446 (75 FR 56972). The NPRM proposed to expedite the deadline for implementing all...

  19. PBF Reactor Building (PER620) as seen from control room window ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620) as seen from control room window in PER-619. Photographer stood just outside window. Note exposed communication cables on desert surface. Date: July 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-9-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. LOFT. Interior of visitors' room in control building (TAN630), typically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Interior of visitors' room in control building (TAN-630), typically occupied during tests. Indicator display allowed observers to watch progress of experiment. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-14-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  2. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior in data acquisition room showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior in data acquisition room showing data racks. The system recorded multiple channels of data during tests. INEEL negative no. HD-41-8-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. The Ground Control Room as an Enabling Technology in the Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gear, Gary; Mace, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of the ground control room as an required technology for the use of an Unmanned Aerial system. The Unmanned Aerial system is a strategic component of the Global Observing System, which will serve global science needs. The unmanned aerial system will use the same airspace as manned aircraft, therefore there will be unique telemetry needs.

  4. IET control building (TAN620). interior personnel service room. sign next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). interior personnel service room. sign next to shower stall says, "fight athlete's foot with sani-mist." INEEL negative no. HD-21-1-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Room closure response to gas generation and mechanical strength of different waste forms in a bedded salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, F.T.; Stone, C.M.

    1993-05-01

    Finite element calculations of the porosity history of a nuclear waste disposal room in a bedded salt formation have been completed. The analyses include an elastic/secondary creep model for the host halite and a nonlinear consolidation model for the crushed salt backfill. Separate gas generation and constitutive models were used for three distinct waste forms, (1) unaltered defense related CH-TRU waste, (2) shredded and cemented CH-TRU waste, and (3) incinerated and vitrified CH-TRU waste. Solutions were determined for a 2000 year time period starting from the decommissioning of the repository. The resulting room porosities varied from roughly 55% to less than 10%.

  6. Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in TiO2 Nanocrystals Synthesized by the Controlled Hydrolysis Procedure.

    PubMed

    Gu, Deen; Sun, Zhanhong; Zhou, Lv; Hu, Yongda; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by a controlled hydrolysis procedure at room temperature. The effect of V-doping, N-doping and V/N codoping on the lattice parameters and magnetic properties of TiO2 nanocrystals was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Doping performed at room temperature causes the expansion of lattice parameters. Undoped and doped TiO2 nanocrystals show room-temperature ferromagnetism. A monotonic correlation between saturation magnetization and the ratio of the lattice parameter c to a (c/a) was observed. Saturation magnetization of TiO2 nanocrystals increases with the value of c/a.

  7. Technical and regulatory challenges for digital instrumentation and control and control room systems in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, R.; Naser, J.; Harris, T.; Keithline, K.

    2006-07-01

    There are several unsettled technical and licensing issues in the areas of instrumentation and control (I and C), human factors, and updated control room designs that need coordinated, proactive industry attention. Some of these issues are already causing protracted regulatory reviews for existing plants, and left untreated, may cause substantial delays and increased costs for new plant combined construction and operating license approvals. Both industry and the NRC will have roles in resolving the key issues and addressing them in future design efforts and regulatory reviews. Where action is needed, the industry will want to minimize costs and risks by defining industry consensus solutions with corresponding technical bases. NEI has formed a working group to coordinate industry efforts and communications with NRC staff. The working group will also help determine priorities and coordinate both new and existing plant resources. EPRI will provide technical input and guidance for the working group. In order to be able to conduct reviews in a timely fashion, the NRC will likely need to enhance and expand staff resources as existing plants are upgraded and new plant reviews become more active. The industry initiative began with a workshop sponsored by EPRI and NEI on March 28-29, 2006, which led to the creation of the NEI working group. The working group has now identified and prioritized important generic issues, established resolution paths and schedules, and identified the roles of various stakeholders including utility companies, EPRI, NEI, vendors and the NRC. Through the course of this initiative I and C issues for both existing and new plants are being addressed. This paper describes the key I and C related technical and regulatory issues and their implications for new and operating plants, and provides a status report on the efforts to resolve them. (authors)

  8. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Katya; Joe, Jeffrey; Rice, Brandon; Ulrich, Thomas; Boring, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  9. Design and Validation of Control Room Upgrades Using a Research Simulator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-11-01

    Since 1981, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) [1] requires a plant- specific simulator facility for use in training at U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These training simulators are in near constant use for training and qualification of licensed NPP operators. In the early 1980s, the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLab) at the Halden Reactor Project (HRP) in Norway first built perhaps the most well known set of research simulators. The HRP offered a high- fidelity simulator facility in which the simulator is functionally linked to a specific plant but in which the human-machine interface (HMI) may differ from that found in the plant. As such, HAMMLab incorporated more advanced digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) than the plant, thereby giving it considerable interface flexibility that researchers took full advantage of when designing and validating different ways to upgrade NPP control rooms. Several U.S. partners—the U.S. NRC, the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) – as well as international members of the HRP, have been working with HRP to run control room simulator studies. These studies, which use crews from Scandinavian plants, are used to determine crew behavior in a variety of normal and off-normal plant operations. The findings have ultimately been used to guide safety considerations at plants and to inform advanced HMI design—both for the regulator and in industry. Given the desire to use U.S. crews of licensed operators on a simulator of a U.S. NPP, there is a clear need for a research simulator facility in the U.S. There is no general-purpose reconfigurable research oriented control room simulator facility in the U.S. that can be used for a variety of studies, including the design and validation of control room upgrades.

  10. Guidelines for the modernization of nuclear power plant control room and human-system interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Fink, B.; O'Hara, J.; Hill, D.

    2006-07-01

    Several nuclear power plants are implementing instrumentation and control (I and C) modernization programs using digital equipment to address obsolescence issues and the need to improve plant performance, while maintaining high levels of safety. As an integral part of the I and C modernization program, the control room and other human-system interfaces (HSIs) are also being modernized. Utilities identified the need for guidance for control rooms and HSIs to support and improve personnel performance, reduce the likelihood of human errors, increase the productivity of the plant, and take effective advantage of the benefits that can be achieved with the new technology being implemented. A project, initially jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) and the U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) and later by EPRI alone, has developed guidance that will facilitate planning, specification, design, implementation, operations, maintenance, training, and licensing activities for control rooms and HSIs. Although this guidance was developed for modernization of operating plants, most of the guidelines apply to new plants as well. (authors)

  11. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  12. Seismometer reading viewed in ALSEP Room in Misson Control during Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The seismometer readings from the impact made by the Apollo 17 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface are viewed in the ALSEP Room in the Misson Control Center at Houston by Dr. Maurice Ewing, professor of geophysics of the Universtiy of Texas at Galveston. The seismic tracings are from sensings made by seismometers of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages left on the Moon during earlier Apollo lunar landing missions.

  13. Fire environment determination in the LaSalle NPP control room

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J.L.; Boccio, J.L.; Singhal, A.K.; Tam, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    One objective of NRC's Fire Protection Research Program (FPRP) is to improve the modeling of environments caused by fires in typical nuclear power plant enclosures. A three-dimensional fluid dynamics computer code (PHOENICS) has been adapted as a field-model fire code (SAFFIRE) for this purpose. The model has been applied to simulate two distinct fires in the control room of the LaSalle County power plant. The environments determined illustrate hazardous potential for both personnel and equipment.

  14. Human factors engineering verification and validation for APR1400 computerized control room

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y. C.; Moon, H. K.; Kim, J. H.

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) HFE V and V activities the Korea Hydro Nuclear Plant Co. LTD. (KHNP) has performed for the last 10 years and some of the lessons learned through these activities. The features of APR1400 main control room include large display panel, redundant compact workstations, computer-based procedure, and safety console. Several iterations of human factors evaluations have been performed from small scale proof of concept tests to large scale integrated system tests for identifying human engineering deficiencies in the human system interface design. Evaluations in the proof of concept test were focused on checking the presence of any show stopper problems in the design concept. Later evaluations were mostly for finding design problems and for assuring the resolution of human factors issues of advanced control room. The results of design evaluations were useful not only for refining the control room design, but also for licensing the standard design. Several versions of APR1400 mock-ups with dynamic simulation models of currently operating Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP) have been used for the evaluations with the participation of operators from KSNP plants. (authors)

  15. Stray currents -- Generation, interference effects and control

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolakakos, S.

    1998-12-31

    Stray currents, mostly known for their detrimental corrosion affects on the underground structures, can be effectively controlled by the implementation of specific measures at both the source of generation and at the affected structure(s). This paper discusses the most serious sources of stray current generation, the resulting problems and the numerous control methods that can be utilized to minimize corrosion and safety problems. Safety concerns associated with dc power systems are also discussed.

  16. Human factor engineering based design and modernization of control rooms with new I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larraz, J.; Rejas, L.; Ortega, F.

    2012-07-01

    Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems of the latest nuclear power plants are based on the use of digital technology, distributed control systems and the integration of information in data networks (Distributed Control and Instrumentation Systems). This has a repercussion on Control Rooms (CRs), where the operations and monitoring interfaces correspond to these systems. These technologies are also used in modernizing I and C systems in currently operative nuclear power plants. The new interfaces provide additional capabilities for operation and supervision, as well as a high degree of flexibility, versatility and reliability. An example of this is the implementation of solutions such as compact stations, high level supervision screens, overview displays, computerized procedures, new operational support systems or intelligent alarms processing systems in the modernized Man-Machine Interface (MMI). These changes in the MMI are accompanied by newly added Software (SW) controls and new solutions in automation. Tecnatom has been leading various projects in this area for several years, both in Asian countries and in the United States, using in all cases international standards from which Tecnatom own methodologies have been developed and optimized. The experience acquired in applying this methodology to the design of new control rooms is to a large extent applicable also to the modernization of current control rooms. An adequate design of the interface between the operator and the systems will facilitate safe operation, contribute to the prompt identification of problems and help in the distribution of tasks and communications between the different members of the operating shift. Based on Tecnatom experience in the field, this article presents the methodological approach used as well as the most relevant aspects of this kind of project. (authors)

  17. NASA researchers in gold control room during an F-15 HiDEC flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA researchers monitor equipment in the mission control Gold room at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during a flight of an F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) research aircraft. The system was developed on the F-15 to investigate and demonstrate methods of obtaining optimum aircraft performance. The major elements of HIDEC were a Digital Electronic Flight Control System (DEFCS), a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC), an on-board general purpose computer, and an integrated architecture to allow all components to 'talk to each other.' Unlike standard F-15s, which have a mechanical and analog electronic flight control system, the HIDEC F-15 also had a dual-channel, fail-safe digital flight control system programmed in Pascal. It was linked to the Military Standard 1553B and a H009 data bus which tied all the other electronic systems together.

  18. Quantum Process Tomography of a Room Temperature Optically-Controlled Phase Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Figueroa, Eden; Stony Brook University Team

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a room temperature setup capable of optically controlled phase shifts on a weak probe field. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency utilizing a N-type energy level scheme coupled by three optical fields. By varying the power of the signal field, we can control the size of an optical phase shift experienced by weak coherent state pulses of < n > ~ 1 , propagating through the vapor. We quantify the optical phase shift by measuring the process output via balanced homodyne tomography which provides us with the complete quadrature and phase information of the output states. Furthermore, we measure the output for a set of states over a subspace of the coherent state basis and gain the information to completely reconstruct our phase shift procedure by coherent state quantum process tomography. The reconstruction yields a rank-4 process superoperator which grants the ability to predict how our phase shift process will behave on an arbitrary quantum optical state in the mode of the reconstruction. Our results demonstrate progress towards room temperature systems for possible quantum gates; a key component of a future quantum processor designed to operate at room temperature. US-Navy Office of Naval Research N00141410801, National Science Foundation PHY-1404398, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  19. Designing the next generation of robotic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of scenario-based, object-oriented software engineering methodologies in the next generation of robotic controllers is discussed. The controllers are intended to supplant the decades old technology currently embraced by the manufacturing industry of the United States.

  20. Digitally controlled twelve-pulse firing generator

    SciTech Connect

    Berde, D.; Ferrara, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Control System Studies for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that accurate thyristor firing in the AC-to-DC conversion system is required in order to achieve good regulation of the various field currents. Rapid update and exact firing angle control are required to avoid instabilities, large eddy currents, or parasitic oscillations. The Prototype Firing Generator was designed to satisfy these requirements. To achieve the required /plus or minus/0.77/degree/firing accuracy, a three-phase-locked loop reference was designed; otherwise, the Firing Generator employs digital circuitry. The unit, housed in a standard CAMAC crate, operates under microcomputer control. Functions are performed under program control, which resides in nonvolatile read-only memory. Communication with CICADA control system is provided via an 11-bit parallel interface.

  1. Room-temperature single-photon generation from solitary dopants of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuedan; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Baldwin, Jon K S; Doorn, Stephen K; Htoon, Han

    2015-08-01

    On-demand single-photon sources capable of operating at room temperature and the telecom wavelength range of 1,300-1,500 nm hold the key to the realization of novel technologies that span from sub-diffraction imaging to quantum key distribution and photonic quantum information processing. Here, we show that incorporation of undoped (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes into a SiO2 matrix can lead to the creation of solitary oxygen dopant states capable of fluctuation-free, room-temperature single-photon emission in the 1,100-1,300 nm wavelength range. We investigated the effects of temperature on photoluminescence emission efficiencies, fluctuations and decay dynamics of the dopant states and determined the conditions most suitable for the observation of single-photon emission. This emission can in principle be extended to 1,500 nm by doping of smaller-bandgap single-walled carbon nanotubes. This easy tunability presents a distinct advantage over existing defect centre single-photon emitters (for example, diamond defect centres). Our SiO2-encapsulated sample also presents exciting opportunities to apply Si/SiO2-based micro/nano-device fabrication techniques in the development of electrically driven single-photon sources and integration of these sources into quantum photonic devices and networks. PMID:26167766

  2. Control apparatus for hydraulically driven generator

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, S.

    1985-08-06

    Apparatus for controlling a hydraulically driven generator for supplying electrical power to power mains. The generator is coupled to a turbine driven by a fluid flow through a duct. The duct has a one-fourth turn butterfly valve controlled by a fluid-actuated operator and the operator receives fluid from the duct by way of a normally closed valve which, when energized, creates water pressure on the operator for opening the butterfly valve. A second, normally open solenoid provides an emergency exit for the water from the operator to relieve the water pressure thereon and thereby close the butterfly valve when certain conditions exist, such as sudden loss of line voltage, overvoltage or deviation in frequency of the line voltage. A differential pressure switch across the turbine rotor also controls the starting of the system to assure proper flow of fluid through the duct before commencing operation of the generator itself.

  3. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve; Vita, Corinne

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  4. Controlled generation of double emulsions in air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Chen, Xudong; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T

    2013-07-01

    This Letter describes the controlled generation of double emulsions in the gas phase, which was carried out using an integrated emitter in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip. The integrated emitter was formed using a molding approach, in which metal wires with desirable diameters were used as emitter molds. The generation of double emulsions in air was achieved with electrohydrodynamics actuation, which offers controllable force exerting on the double emulsions. We developed this capability for future integration of droplet microfluidics with mass spectrometry (MS), where each aqueous droplet in the microchannel is introduced into the gas phase as a double emulsion for subsequent ionization and MS analysis. PMID:23767768

  5. Investigation of the impact of main control room digitalization on operators cognitive reliability in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Mu, Haiying; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a trend in nuclear power plants (NPPs) toward introducing digital and computer technologies into main control rooms (MCRs). Safe generation of electric power in NPPs requires reliable performance of cognitive tasks such as fault detection, diagnosis, and response planning. The digitalization of MCRs has dramatically changed the whole operating environment, and the ways operators interact with the plant systems. If the design and implementation of the digital technology is incompatible with operators' cognitive characteristics, it may have negative effects on operators' cognitive reliability. Firstly, on the basis of three essential prerequisites for successful cognitive tasks, a causal model is constructed to reveal the typical human performance issues arising from digitalization. The cognitive mechanisms which they impact cognitive reliability are analyzed in detail. Then, Bayesian inference is used to quantify and prioritize the influences of these factors. It suggests that interface management and unbalanced workload distribution have more significant impacts on operators' cognitive reliability.

  6. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O'Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  7. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    SciTech Connect

    BLanc, Katya Le; Powers, David; Joe, Jeffrey; Spielman, Zachary; Rice, Brandon; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  8. Room-temperature quantum cloning machine with full coherent phase control in nanodiamond.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  9. Room-Temperature Quantum Cloning Machine with Full Coherent Phase Control in Nanodiamond

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  10. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  11. Control System for Bearingless Motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  12. Control system for bearingless motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  13. Digital gate pulse generator for cycloconverter control

    DOEpatents

    Klein, Frederick F.; Mutone, Gioacchino A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital gate pulse generator which controls the output of a cycloconverter used for electrical power conversion applications by determining the timing and delivery of the firing pulses to the switching devices in the cycloconverter. Previous gate pulse generators have been built with largely analog or discrete digital circuitry which require many precision components and periodic adjustment. The gate pulse generator of the present invention utilizes digital techniques and a predetermined series of values to develop the necessary timing signals for firing the switching device. Each timing signal is compared with a reference signal to determine the exact firing time. The present invention is significantly more compact than previous gate pulse generators, responds quickly to changes in the output demand and requires only one precision component and no adjustments.

  14. ATLAS Virtual Visits: Bringing the World into the ATLAS Control Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, S.

    2012-12-01

    The newfound ability of Social Media to transform public communication back to a conversational nature provides HEP with a powerful tool for Outreach and Communication. By far, the most effective component of nearly any visit or public event is that fact that the students, teachers, media, and members of the public have a chance to meet and converse with real scientists. While more than 30,000 visitors passed through the ATLAS Visitor Centre in 2011, nearly 7 billion did not have a chance to make the trip. Clearly this is not for lack of interest. Rather, the costs of travel, in terms of time and money, and limited parking, put that number somewhat out of reach. On the other hand, during the LHC “First Physics” event of 2010, more than 2 million visitors joined the experiment control rooms via webcast for the celebration. This document presents a project developed for the ATLAS Experiment's Outreach and Education program that complements the webcast infrastructure with video conferencing and wireless sound systems, allowing the public to interact with hosts in the control room with minimal disturbance to the shifters. These “Virtual Visits” have included high school classes, LHC Masterclasses, conferences, expositions and other events in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, to name a few. We discuss the technology used, potential pitfalls (and ways to avoid them), and our plans for the future.

  15. Frequency-agile THz-wave generation and detection system using nonlinear frequency conversion at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruixiang; Ikar'i, Tomofumi; Zhang, Jun; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-08-01

    A surface-emitting THz parametric oscillator is set up to generate a narrow-linewidth, nanosecond pulsed THz-wave radiation. The THz-wave radiation is coherently detected using the frequency up-conversion in MgO: LiNbO(3) crystal. Fast frequency tuning and automatic achromatic THz-wave detection are achieved through a special optical design, including a variable-angle mirror and 1:1 telescope devices in the pump and THz-wave beams. We demonstrate a frequency-agile THz-wave parametric generation and THz-wave coherent detection system. This system can be used as a frequency-domain THz-wave spectrometer operated at room-temperature, and there are a high possible to develop into a real-time two-dimensional THz spectral imaging system.

  16. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  17. Subnatural linewidth in room-temperature Rb vapor using a control laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapol, Umakant D.; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate two ways of obtaining subnatural linewidth for probe absorption through room-temperature Rb vapor. Both techniques use a control laser that drives the transition from a different ground state. The coherent drive splits the excited state into two dressed states (Autler-Townes doublet), which have asymmetric linewidths when the control laser is detuned from resonance. In the first technique, the laser has a large detuning of 1.18 GHz to reduce the linewidth to 5.1 MHz from the Doppler width of 560 MHz. In the second technique, we use a counterpropagating pump beam to eliminate the first-order Doppler effect. The unperturbed probe linewidth is about 13 MHz, which is reduced below 3 MHz (0.5Γ) at a detuning of 11.5 MHz.

  18. DHM simulation in virtual environments: a case-study on control room design.

    PubMed

    Zamberlan, M; Santos, V; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Cury, R; Negri, T; Pastura, F; Guimarães, C; Cid, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present the workflow developed for the application of serious games in the design of complex cooperative work settings. The project was based on ergonomic studies and development of a control room among participative design process. Our main concerns were the 3D human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. Using Unity3D platform to design the virtual environment, the virtual human model can be controlled by users on dynamic scenario in order to evaluate the new work settings and simulate work activities. The results obtained showed that this virtual technology can drastically change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users and, managers and human factors team. PMID:22317048

  19. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETAILED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,W.; O'HARA,J.M.

    2004-09-19

    As part of the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute's hybrid control room project, detailed human factors engineering guidance was developed for designing human-system interfaces that may be affected by introduction of additional digital technology during modernization of nuclear power plants. The guidance addresses several aspects of human-system interaction: information display, interface management, soft controls, alarms, computer-based procedures, computerized operator support systems, communications, and workstation/workplace design. In this paper, the ways in which digital upgrades might affect users' interaction with systems in each of these contexts are briefly described, and the contents of the guidance developed for each of the topics is also described.

  1. DHM simulation in virtual environments: a case-study on control room design.

    PubMed

    Zamberlan, M; Santos, V; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Cury, R; Negri, T; Pastura, F; Guimarães, C; Cid, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present the workflow developed for the application of serious games in the design of complex cooperative work settings. The project was based on ergonomic studies and development of a control room among participative design process. Our main concerns were the 3D human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. Using Unity3D platform to design the virtual environment, the virtual human model can be controlled by users on dynamic scenario in order to evaluate the new work settings and simulate work activities. The results obtained showed that this virtual technology can drastically change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users and, managers and human factors team.

  2. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, A.L.R.; Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  3. Perceived Parental Care and Control among Israeli Female Adolescents Presenting to Emergency Rooms after Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Didner, Hila; Waniel, Ariela; Priel, Beatriz; Asherov, Jack; Arbel, Shosh

    2005-01-01

    Levels of perceived parental care and control among 24 female Israeli adolescents presenting at emergency rooms after a self-poisoning act of low lethality were compared to those found among 23 non-self-harming, community controls. Adolescents' perceived levels of parental care and control were measured via both adolescents' self-report and…

  4. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  5. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes. PMID:27620096

  6. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  7. Trajectory generation and constrained control of quadrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tule, Carlos Alberto

    Unmanned Aerial Systems, although still in early development, are expected to grow in both the military and civil sectors. As part of the UAV sector, the Quadrotor helicopter platform has been receiving a lot of interest from various academic and research institutions because of their simplistic design and low cost to manufacture, yet remaining a challenging platform to control. Four different controllers were derived for the trajectory generation and constrained control of a quadrotor platform. The first approach involves the linear version of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm to solve the state constrained optimization problem. The second approach uses the State Dependent Coefficient (SDC) form to capture the system non-linearities into a pseudo-linear system matrix, which is used to derive the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) based optimal control. For the third approach, the SDC form is exploited for obtaining a nonlinear equivalent of the model predictive control. Lastly, a combination of the nonlinear MPC and SDRE optimal control algorithms is used to explore the feasibility of a near real-time nonlinear optimization technique.

  8. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology. PMID:25437256

  9. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Toquam, J.; Gaddy, C.

    1991-09-01

    Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.

  10. Using micro saint to predict performance in a nuclear power plant control room

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, M.T.; Laughery, K.R.; Persenky, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires a technical basis for regulatory actions. In the area of human factors, one possible technical basis is human performance modeling technology including task network modeling. This study assessed the feasibility and validity of task network modeling to predict the performance of control room crews. Task network models were built that matched the experimental conditions of a study on computerized procedures that was conducted at North Carolina State University. The data from the {open_quotes}paper procedures{close_quotes} conditions were used to calibrate the task network models. Then, the models were manipulated to reflect expected changes when computerized procedures were used. These models` predictions were then compared to the experimental data from the {open_quotes}computerized conditions{close_quotes} of the North Carolina State University study. Analyses indicated that the models predicted some subsets of the data well, but not all. Implications for the use of task network modeling are discussed.

  11. Electrical control of antiferromagnetic domains in multiferroicBiFeO3 film at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, T.; Scholl, A.; Zavaliche, F.; Lee, K.; Barry, M.; Doran,A.; Cruz, M.P.; Chu, Y.H.; Ederer, C.; Spaldin, N.A.; Das, R.R.; Kim,D.M.; Baek, S.H.; Eom, C.B.; Ramesh, R.

    2006-09-11

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility ofmanipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, areof great current interest. In this work, we demonstrate the firstobservation of electrical control of antiferromagnetic domain structurein a single-phase multiferroic material at room temperature.High-resolution images of both antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric domainstructures of (001)-oriented multiferroic BiFeO3 filmsrevealed a cleardomain correlation, indicating a strong coupling between the two types oforder. The ferroelectric structure was measured using piezo forcemicroscopy, whereas X-ray photoemission electron microscopy as well asits temperature dependence was used to detect the antiferromagneticconfiguration. Antiferromagnetic domainswitching induced by ferroelectricpolarization switching was observed, in agreement with theoreticalpredictions.

  12. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K.

    1996-03-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study.

  13. Accurate Lineshapes from Sub-1 cm-1 Resolution Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of α-Pinene at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mifflin, Amanda L.; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Ho, Junming; Psciuk, Brian; Negre, Christian; Ebben, Carlena J.; Upshur, Mary Alice; Lu, Zhou; Strick, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan; Batista, Victor; Wang, Hongfei; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-02-26

    Room temperature sub-wavenumber high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation (HR-BB-SFG) spectra of the common terpene (+)-α-pinene reveal ten peaks in the C–H stretching region. The spectral resolution exceeds that of Fourier transform infrared, femtosecond stimulated Raman, and traditional BB-SFG and scanning SFG spectroscopy of the same molecule. Experiment and simulation show the spectral lineshapes to be accurate. Homogeneous vibrational decoherence lifetimes of up to 1.7 psec are assigned to specific oscillators and compare favorably to lifetimes computed from density functional tight binding molecular dynamics calculations, while phase-resolved spectra yield orientation information for them. We propose the new spectroscopy as an attractive alternative to time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy or heterodyne-detection schemes for studying vibrational energy relaxation and vibrational coherences in molecules.

  14. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  16. Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) Mission Control Gold Room During X-29 Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The mission control Gold room is seen here during a research flight of the X-29 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. All aspects of a research mission are monitored from one of two of these control rooms at Dryden. Dryden and its control rooms are part of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). The WATR consists of a highly automated complex of computer controlled tracking, telemetry, and communications systems and control room complexes that are capable of supporting any type of mission ranging from system and component testing, to sub-scale and full-scale flight tests of new aircraft and reentry systems. Designated areas are assigned for spin/dive tests; corridors are provided for low, medium, and high-altitude supersonic flight; and special STOL/VSTOL facilities are available at Ames Moffett and Crows Landing. Special use airspace, available at Edwards, covers approximately twelve thousand square miles of mostly desert area. The southern boundary lies to the south of Rogers Dry Lake, the western boundary lies midway between Mojave and Bakersfield, the northern boundary passes just south of Bishop, and the eastern boundary follows about 25 miles west of the Nevada border except in the northern areas where it crosses into Nevada. Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, flew at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) from 1984 to 1992. The fighter-sized X-29 technology demonstrators explored several concepts and technologies including: the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable-camber wing surfaces; a unique forward- swept wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strakes; close-coupled canards; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system used to maintain control of the otherwise unstable aircraft. Research results showed that the configuration of forward-swept wings, coupled with movable canards, gave

  17. Coherent control of single spins in a silicon carbide pn junction device at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Widmann, Matthias; Booker, Ian; Niethammer, Matthias; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Joerg

    Spins in single defects have been studied for quantum information science and quantum metrology. It has been proven that spins of the single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond can be used as a quantum bit, and a single spin sensor operating at ambient conditions. Recently, there has been a growing interest in a new material in which color centers similar to NV centers can be created and whose electrical properties can also be well controlled, thus existing electronic devices can easily be adapted as a platform for quantum applications. We recently reported that single spins of negatively charged silicon vacancies in SiC can be coherently controlled and long-lived at room temperature. As a next step, we isolated single silicon vacancies in a SiC pn junction device and investigated how the change in Fermi level, induced by applying bias, alters the charge state of silicon vacancies, thus affects the spin state control. This study will allow us to envision quantum applications based on single defects incorporated in modern electronic devices.

  18. DC Motor control using motor-generator set with controlled generator field

    DOEpatents

    Belsterling, Charles A.; Stone, John

    1982-01-01

    A d.c. generator is connected in series opposed to the polarity of a d.c. power source supplying a d.c. drive motor. The generator is part of a motor-generator set, the motor of which is supplied from the power source connected to the motor. A generator field control means varies the field produced by at least one of the generator windings in order to change the effective voltage output. When the generator voltage is exactly equal to the d.c. voltage supply, no voltage is applied across the drive motor. As the field of the generator is reduced, the drive motor is supplied greater voltage until the full voltage of the d.c. power source is supplied when the generator has zero field applied. Additional voltage may be applied across the drive motor by reversing and increasing the reversed field on the generator. The drive motor may be reversed in direction from standstill by increasing the generator field so that a reverse voltage is applied across the d.c. motor.

  19. Room-Temperature and Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Plasmonic Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Enhanced Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiayuan; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Wen, Meicheng; Navlani-García, Miriam; Mori, Kohsuke; An, Taicheng; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    A straightforward aqueous synthesis of MoO3-x nanoparticles at room temperature was developed by using (NH4 )6 Mo7 O24 ⋅4 H2 O and MoCl5 as precursors in the absence of reductants, inert gas, and organic solvents. SEM and TEM images indicate the as-prepared products are nanoparticles with diameters of 90-180 nm. The diffuse reflectance UV-visible-near-IR spectra of the samples indicate localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties generated by the introduction of oxygen vacancies. Owing to its strong plasmonic absorption in the visible-light and near-infrared region, such nanostructures exhibit an enhancement of activity toward visible-light catalytic hydrogen generation. MoO3-x nanoparticles synthesized with a molar ratio of Mo(VI) /Mo(V) 1:1 show the highest yield of H2 evolution. The cycling catalytic performance has been investigated to indicate the structural and chemical stability of the as-prepared plasmonic MoO3-x nanoparticles, which reveals its potential application in visible-light catalytic hydrogen production. PMID:27555123

  20. Room-Temperature and Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Plasmonic Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Enhanced Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiayuan; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Wen, Meicheng; Navlani-García, Miriam; Mori, Kohsuke; An, Taicheng; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    A straightforward aqueous synthesis of MoO3-x nanoparticles at room temperature was developed by using (NH4 )6 Mo7 O24 ⋅4 H2 O and MoCl5 as precursors in the absence of reductants, inert gas, and organic solvents. SEM and TEM images indicate the as-prepared products are nanoparticles with diameters of 90-180 nm. The diffuse reflectance UV-visible-near-IR spectra of the samples indicate localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties generated by the introduction of oxygen vacancies. Owing to its strong plasmonic absorption in the visible-light and near-infrared region, such nanostructures exhibit an enhancement of activity toward visible-light catalytic hydrogen generation. MoO3-x nanoparticles synthesized with a molar ratio of Mo(VI) /Mo(V) 1:1 show the highest yield of H2 evolution. The cycling catalytic performance has been investigated to indicate the structural and chemical stability of the as-prepared plasmonic MoO3-x nanoparticles, which reveals its potential application in visible-light catalytic hydrogen production.

  1. Microbial electricity generation via microfluidic flow control.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; LeDuc, Philip R; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2011-09-01

    Next generation battery technology is rapidly evolving to meet the demand for higher power densities and smaller footprints through novel catalysts and battery architecture. We present a µ-scale, biological fuel cell which utilizes microbial electricity generation enabled by microfluidic flow control to produce power. The new fuel cell, the smallest of its kind, with a total volume of 0.3 µL, produces scalable and controllable electrical energy from organic matter which is sustained through microbial respiration and laminar flow separation of the electrolytes. Electrical currents are dependent on specific biofilm formation on the anode, the concentration of electron donor, and a diffusion-limited flow regime. A maximum current density of 18.40 ± 3.48 mA m(-2) (92 ± 17 A m(-3)) was produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, and 25.42 mA m(-2) (127 A m(-3)) by Shewanella oneidensis. The µ-scale biological fuel cell introduces the necessary small size and fuel flexibility for applications in vivo and in situ sensors which may be remotely deployed and self-powered. PMID:21495007

  2. Microbial electricity generation via microfluidic flow control.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; LeDuc, Philip R; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2011-09-01

    Next generation battery technology is rapidly evolving to meet the demand for higher power densities and smaller footprints through novel catalysts and battery architecture. We present a µ-scale, biological fuel cell which utilizes microbial electricity generation enabled by microfluidic flow control to produce power. The new fuel cell, the smallest of its kind, with a total volume of 0.3 µL, produces scalable and controllable electrical energy from organic matter which is sustained through microbial respiration and laminar flow separation of the electrolytes. Electrical currents are dependent on specific biofilm formation on the anode, the concentration of electron donor, and a diffusion-limited flow regime. A maximum current density of 18.40 ± 3.48 mA m(-2) (92 ± 17 A m(-3)) was produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, and 25.42 mA m(-2) (127 A m(-3)) by Shewanella oneidensis. The µ-scale biological fuel cell introduces the necessary small size and fuel flexibility for applications in vivo and in situ sensors which may be remotely deployed and self-powered.

  3. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  4. Using virtual reality to support multi-participant human-centered design processes for control room design

    SciTech Connect

    Louka, M. N.; Gustavsen, M. A.; Edvardsen, S. T.

    2006-07-01

    We present an overview of a method of applying interactive 3D visualization techniques to support control room design activities, and summarize studies that supports it. In particular, we describe the software tools that we have developed and how these support a human-centered design (HCD) work-flow. We present some lessons learnt from using our tools in control room design projects, and outline our plans for extending the scope of our approach to support concurrent design and later phases of a plant's life-cycle. (authors)

  5. A virtual control room with an embedded, interactive nuclear reactor simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Markidis, S.; Rizwan, U.

    2006-07-01

    The use of virtual nuclear control room can be an effective and powerful tool for training personnel working in the nuclear power plants. Operators could experience and simulate the functioning of the plant, even in critical situations, without being in a real power plant or running any risk. 3D models can be exported to Virtual Reality formats and then displayed in the Virtual Reality environment providing an immersive 3D experience. However, two major limitations of this approach are that 3D models exhibit static textures, and they are not fully interactive and therefore cannot be used effectively in training personnel. In this paper we first describe a possible solution for embedding the output of a computer application in a 3D virtual scene, coupling real-world applications and VR systems. The VR system reported here grabs the output of an application running on an X server; creates a texture with the output and then displays it on a screen or a wall in the virtual reality environment. We then propose a simple model for providing interaction between the user in the VR system and the running simulator. This approach is based on the use of internet-based application that can be commanded by a laptop or tablet-pc added to the virtual environment. (authors)

  6. REVIEW Of COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURE GUIDELINES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOMS

    SciTech Connect

    David I Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring

    2011-09-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are recognized as an emerging alternative to paper-based procedures for supporting control room operators in nuclear power plants undergoing life extension and in the concept of operations for advanced reactor designs. CPs potentially reduce operator workload, yield increases in efficiency, and provide for greater resilience. Yet, CPs may also adversely impact human and plant performance if not designed and implemented properly. Therefore, it is important to ensure that existing guidance is sufficient to provide for proper implementation and monitoring of CPs. In this paper, human performance issues were identified based on a review of the behavioral science literature, research on computerized procedures in nuclear and other industries, and a review of industry experience with CPs. The review of human performance issues led to the identification of a number of technical gaps in available guidance sources. To address some of the gaps, we developed 13 supplemental guidelines to support design and safety. This paper presents these guidelines and the case for further research.

  7. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for making well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.

  8. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Duscher, Gerd; et al

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for makingmore » well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.« less

  9. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step solution processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. A high-temperature thermal annealing treatment was applied to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into a compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. However, thermal annealing for extended periods led to degraded device performance owing to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. A controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method was used to grow "bilayer" CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple air exposure at room temperature for making well-oriented, highly crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ca. 800 nm and a high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to values reported for thermally annealed perovskite films.

  10. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step solution processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. A high-temperature thermal annealing treatment was applied to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into a compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. However, thermal annealing for extended periods led to degraded device performance owing to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. A controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method was used to grow "bilayer" CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple air exposure at room temperature for making well-oriented, highly crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ca. 800 nm and a high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to values reported for thermally annealed perovskite films. PMID:26486584

  11. Room temperature coherent control of defect spin qubits in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Koehl, William F; Buckley, Bob B; Heremans, F Joseph; Calusine, Greg; Awschalom, David D

    2011-11-01

    Electronic spins in semiconductors have been used extensively to explore the limits of external control over quantum mechanical phenomena. A long-standing goal of this research has been to identify or develop robust quantum systems that can be easily manipulated, for future use in advanced information and communication technologies. Recently, a point defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy centre has attracted a great deal of interest because it possesses an atomic-scale electronic spin state that can be used as an individually addressable, solid-state quantum bit (qubit), even at room temperature. These exceptional quantum properties have motivated efforts to identify similar defects in other semiconductors, as they may offer an expanded range of functionality not available to the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre. Notably, several defects in silicon carbide (SiC) have been suggested as good candidates for exploration, owing to a combination of computational predictions and magnetic resonance data. Here we demonstrate that several defect spin states in the 4H polytype of SiC (4H-SiC) can be optically addressed and coherently controlled in the time domain at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 kelvin. Using optical and microwave techniques similar to those used with diamond nitrogen-vacancy qubits, we study the spin-1 ground state of each of four inequivalent forms of the neutral carbon-silicon divacancy, as well as a pair of defect spin states of unidentified origin. These defects are optically active near telecommunication wavelengths, and are found in a host material for which there already exist industrial-scale crystal growth and advanced microfabrication techniques. In addition, they possess desirable spin coherence properties that are comparable to those of the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre. This makes them promising candidates for various photonic, spintronic and quantum information applications that merge quantum degrees of freedom with classical

  12. Operating Room Time Savings with the Use of Splint Packs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Tyler A.; Bluman, Eric M.; Palms, David; Smith, Jeremy T.; Chiodo, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR) is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP) contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS) splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB) prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p<0.001) in the SP group compared with the BS group. There was no significant difference in application time between the SP group and BS group. Conclusion: The use of SP made the process of splinting more lean. This has resulted in an average of 2 minutes 52 seconds saved in total splinting time compared to BS, making it an effective cost-cutting and time saving technique. For high volume ORs, use of splint packs may contribute to substantial time and cost savings without impacting patient safety. PMID:26894212

  13. Human factors aspects of control room design: Guidelines and annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.; Stewart, L. J.; Bocast, A. K.; Murphy, E. D.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis of the workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite mission operation room is discussed. The relevance of anthropometry, design rules, environmental design goals, and the social-psychological environment are discussed.

  14. Operating room practices for the control of infection in U. S. hospitals, October 1976 to July 1977.

    PubMed

    Garner, J S; Emori, T G; Haley, R W

    1982-12-01

    We estimated the frequency of selected infection control practices in the operating room from a nationwide survey of hospitals. Our survey confirmed that, in many hospitals, practices which have not received scientific or budgetary scrutiny have become part of the perioperative routine. Almost half of the hospitals reported using nonrecommended tacky, or disinfectant, mats at the entrance to operating rooms, and more than three-fourths were performing nonrecommended environmental cultures in the operating room at a cost ranging from $2,000 to $20,000 per year. When routine nose and throat cultures were taken of operating room personnel, we found an obvious pecking order, rather than a scientific rationale for culturing. In almost all instances, we found wide variations in practice among hospitals. This nonuniformity may be due to such factors as lack of a convincing scientific basis for evaluating the relative efficacy of alternative practices, the strong influence of industry marketing, the individual preferences of surgeons and operating room supervisors and the lack of completeness and agreement of statements from various scientific and professional organizations.

  15. Output Power Control of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control using Minimum Variance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Higa, Hiroki; Uezato, Katsumi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, there have been problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuels, e. g., coal and oil, and environmental pollution resulting from consumption. Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuating components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades of the windmill. In this paper, output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using an adaptive control is proposed. A self-tuning regulator is used in adaptive control. The control input is determined by the minimum variance control. It is possible to compensate control input to alleviate generating power fluctuation with using proposed controller. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  16. Design of dilute magnetic semiconductors with room temperature ferromagnetism by controlling spinodal decompostion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazunori

    2008-03-01

    Owing to the recent development of the first-principles method for calculating magnetic properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), it has been recognized that the magnetic percolation effect is disastrous to the high temperature ferromagnetism in DMS in particular for low concentrations [1]. The exchange interactions calculated from first-principles are strong for nearest neighbors, but those interactions are short ranged and can not play an important role for realizing high- TC because the solubility of magnetic impurities into DMS is too low to achieve magnetic percolation. To overcome this difficulty and realize room temperature ferromagnetism, we focus on the spinodal decomposition in DMS, and suggest that by controlling the spinodal decomposition high blocking temperature can be realized leading to ferromagnetic behaviour at high temperature [2]. We calculate electronic structure of DMS from first-principles by using the Korringa- Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method. Then, chemical pair interactions and magnetic exchange interactions between magnetic are calculated. We use the Monte Carlo techniques to simulate spinodal decomposition of DMS and to estimate the magnetic properties of them [3]. The computer simulations for the magnetization process of the decomposition phases indicate that we can control super-paramagnetic blocking temperature by optimizing the size of the clusters by changing the crystal growth condition. This simulation suggests the material design of high blocking temperature DMS by controlling the spinodal decomposition [2].As another approach for realizing high-Tc DMS we propose co-doping method to increase solubility limit of transition metal impurities in DMS [4]. This work is based on the collaboration with H. Katayama-Yoshida and T. Fukushima. [1] L. Bergqvist et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137202 (2004), K. Sato et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 201202 (2004) [2] K. Sato et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L682

  17. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  18. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  19. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  20. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  1. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-02-03

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours.

  2. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  3. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Laurids Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  4. Institutional Tuberculosis Transmission. Controlled Trial of Upper Room Ultraviolet Air Disinfection: A Basis for New Dosing Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Mphaphlele, Matsie; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Jensen, Paul A.; Rudnick, Stephen N.; van Reenen, Tobias H.; Pagano, Marcello A.; Leuschner, Wilhelm; Sears, Tim A.; Milonova, Sonya P.; van der Walt, Martie; Stoltz, Anton C.; Weyer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Transmission is driving the global tuberculosis epidemic, especially in congregate settings. Worldwide, natural ventilation is the most common means of air disinfection, but it is inherently unreliable and of limited use in cold climates. Upper room germicidal ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection with air mixing has been shown to be highly effective, but improved evidence-based dosing guidelines are needed. Objectives: To test the efficacy of upper room germicidal air disinfection with air mixing to reduce tuberculosis transmission under real hospital conditions, and to define the application parameters responsible as a basis for proposed new dosing guidelines. Methods: Over an exposure period of 7 months, 90 guinea pigs breathed only untreated exhaust ward air, and another 90 guinea pigs breathed only air from the same six-bed tuberculosis ward on alternate days when upper room germicidal air disinfection was turned on throughout the ward. Measurements and Main Results: The tuberculin skin test conversion rates (>6 mm) of the two chambers were compared. The hazard ratio for guinea pigs in the control chamber converting their skin test to positive was 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.8–8.6), with an efficacy of approximately 80%. Conclusions: Upper room germicidal UV air disinfection with air mixing was highly effective in reducing tuberculosis transmission under hospital conditions. These data support using either a total fixture output (rather than electrical or UV lamp wattage) of 15–20 mW/m3 total room volume, or an average whole-room UV irradiance (fluence rate) of 5–7 μW/cm2, calculated by a lighting computer-assisted design program modified for UV use. PMID:25928547

  5. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOEpatents

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  6. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  7. 18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view of remaining control panels VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  8. Application of the revised DBA source term to a non-charcoal-filtered control room ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Radvansky, M.S.; Metcalf, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    An outstanding licensing issue at GPU Nuclear`s Oyster Creek plant had been the question of thyroid dose to a control room operator following the Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 100 (10 CFR 100) design basis accident (DBA). Oyster Creek is a 620-MW boiling water reactor (BWR), located in New Jersey, that began commercial operation in December 1969. The calculational problem was complicated by the fact that the 28-yr-old unit was one of the few plants that did not incorporate charcoal filtration into the control room ventilation system. The main contributor to the thyroid dose in a control room habitability calculation for a BWR is main steam isolation valve (MSIV) leakage. The technical specification limit for MSIV leakage at Oyster Creek is 15.9 SCFH (maximum) for each isolation valve. The work ongoing in the development of NUREG-1465, the revised DBA source term document, provided a potential method to calculate a more realistic dose compared with the current TID-14844 source term and Regulatory Guide 1.3 input data and accident propagation assumptions. Preliminary calculations using TID-14844 suggested that expensive modifications be made to the plant. Such modifications could have economically challenged the plant`s viability.

  9. Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the main floor and on the mezzanine are visible behind and above the generators. - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. Instituting a filtration/pressurization system to reduce dust concentrations in a control room at a mineral processing plant

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.; Cecala, A.; Hummer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has observed that many control rooms and operator compartments in the U.S. mining industry do not have filtration systems capable of maintaining low dust concentrations in these areas. In this study at a mineral processing plant, to reduce respirable dust concentrations in a control room that had no cleaning system for intake air, a filtration and pressurization system originally designed for enclosed cabs was modified and installed. This system was composed of two filtering units: one to filter outside air and one to filter and recirculate the air inside the control room. Eighty-seven percent of submicrometer particles were reduced by the system under static conditions. This means that greater than 87 percent of respirable dust particles should be reduced as the particle-size distribution of respirable dust particles is greater than that of submicrometer particles, and filtration systems usually are more efficient in capturing the larger particles. A positive pressure near 0.02 inches of water gauge was produced, which is an important component of an effective system and minimizes the entry of particles, such as dust, into the room. The intake airflow was around 118 cfm, greater than the airflow suggested by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) for acceptable indoor air quality. After one year, the loading of the filter caused the airflow to decrease to 80 cfm, which still produces acceptable indoor air quality. Due to the loading of the filters, the reduction efficiency for submicrometer particles under static conditions increased to 94 percent from 87 percent. PMID:26834293

  11. NASA researchers in gold control room during an F-15 HiDEC flight, John Orme and Gerard Schkolnik

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA researchers Gerard Schkolnik (left) and John Orme monitor equipment in the control room at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during a flight of an F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) research aircraft. The system was developed on the F-15 to investigate and demonstrate methods of obtaining optimum aircraft performance. The major elements of HIDEC were a Digital Electronic Flight Control System (DEFCS), a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC), an on-board general purpose computer, and an integrated architecture to allow all components to 'talk to each other.' Unlike standard F-15s, which have a mechanical and analog electronic flight control system, the HIDEC F-15 also had a dual-channel, fail-safe digital flight control system programmed in Pascal. It was linked to the Military Standard 1553B and a H009 data bus which tied all the other electronic systems together.

  12. Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.

  13. Resilient Control Systems: Next Generation Design Research

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Rieger

    2009-05-01

    Since digital control systems were introduced to the market more than 30 years ago, the operational efficiency and stability gained through their use have fueled our migration and ultimate dependence on them for the monitoring and control of critical infrastructure. While these systems have been designed for functionality and reliability, a hostile cyber environment and uncertainties in complex networks and human interactions have placed additional parameters on the design expectations for control systems.

  14. Digital Full-Scope Simulation of a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Control Room, Phase 2: Installation of a Reconfigurable Simulator to Support Nuclear Plant Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Kirk Fitzgerald; Jacques Hugo; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program has developed a control room simulator in support of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. This report highlights the recent completion of this reconfigurable, full-scale, full-scope control room simulator buildout at the Idaho National Laboratory. The simulator is fully reconfigurable, meaning it supports multiple plant models developed by different simulator vendors. The simulator is full-scale, using glasstop virtual panels to display the analog control boards found at current plants. The present installation features 15 glasstop panels, uniquely achieving a complete control room representation. The simulator is also full-scope, meaning it uses the same plant models used for training simulators at actual plants. Unlike in the plant training simulators, the deployment on glasstop panels allows a high degree of customization of the panels, allowing the simulator to be used for research on the design of new digital control systems for control room modernization. This report includes separate sections discussing the glasstop panels, their layout to mimic control rooms at actual plants, technical details on creating a multi-plant and multi-vendor reconfigurable simulator, and current efforts to support control room modernization at U.S. utilities. The glasstop simulator provides an ideal testbed for prototyping and validating new control room concepts. Equally importantly, it is helping create a standardized and vetted human factors engineering process that can be used across the nuclear industry to ensure control room upgrades maintain and even improve current reliability and safety.

  15. Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, Najmedin

    2006-01-01

    All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented.

  16. Deployment of a Full-Scope Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulator at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Julius Persensky; Kenneth Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The INL operates the HSSL to conduct research in the design and evaluation of advanced reactor control rooms, integration of intelligent support systems to assist operators, development and assessment of advanced human performance models, and visualizations to assess advanced operational concepts across various infrastructures. This advanced facility consists of a reconfigurable simulator and a virtual reality capability (known as the Computer-Aided Virtual Environment (CAVE)) (Figure 2). It supports human factors research, including human-in-the-loop performance, HSI, and analog and digital hybrid control displays. It can be applied to the development and evaluation of control systems and displays for complex systems such as existing and advanced NPP control rooms, command and control systems, and advance emergency operations centers. The HSSL incorporates a reconfigurable control room simulator, which is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a joint venture of the DOE and the Idaho University System. The simulator is a platform- and plant-neutral environment intended for full-scope and part-task testing of operator performance in various control room configurations. The simulator is not limited to a particular plant or even simulator architecture. It can support engineering simulator platforms from multiple vendors using digital interfaces. Due to its ability to be reconfigured, it is possible to switch the HSI - not just to digital panels but also to different control modalities such as those using greater plant automation or intelligent alarm filtering. The simulator currently includes three operator workstations, each capable of driving up to eight 30-inch monitors. The size and number of monitors varies depending on the particular front-end simulator deployed for a simulator study. These operator workstations would typically be used for the shift supervisor or senior reactor operator, reactor operator, and assistant reactor

  17. 17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  18. 14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator Building, general view VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  19. 15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS AT LEFT, HISTORIC CONTROL PANEL AT RIGHT. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Generation of licensee-controlled specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, B.; McLeod, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the nuclear industry have worked jointly towards redeveloping plant standard technical specifications (STS) through inception of the Technical Specification Improvement Project. Through application of objective screening criteria coupled with an NRC generic letter authorized to remove requirements from STS, former STS requirements would be relocated to programs controlled by the licensee. This paper discusses the orderly and accountable transfer of these requirements, and the promulgation of additional desired licensee requirements to the new licensee-controlled specifications.

  1. Room temperature formation of Hf-silicate layer by pulsed laser deposition with Hf-Si-O ternary reaction control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Yasushi; Ueoka, Satoshi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Arafune, Koji; Ogura, Atsushi; Satoh, Shin-ichi

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the room temperature growth of HfO2 layers on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The laser fluence (LF) during HfO2 layer growth was varied as a growth parameter in the experiments. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to observe the interface chemical states of the HfO2/Si samples produced by various LFs. The XPS results indicated that an interface Hf-silicate layer formed, even at room temperature, and that the thickness of this layer increased with increasing pulsed LF. Additionally, Hf-Si bonds were increasingly formed at the interface when the LF was more than 2 J/cm2. This bond formation process was related to decomposition of HfO2 to its atomic states of Hf and O by multiphoton photochemical processes for bandgap excitation of the HfO2 polycrystalline target. However, the Hf-Si bond content of the interface Hf-silicate layer is controllable under high LF conditions. The results presented here represent a practical contribution to the development of room temperature processing of Hf-compound based devices.

  2. Summary Report on Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D. F.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  3. System for generating timing and control signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, M.; Rousey, W. J.; Messner, A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A system capable of generating every possible data frame subperiod and delayed subperiod of a data frame of length of M clock pulse intervals (CPIs) comprised of parallel modulo-m sub i counters is presented. Each m sub i is a prime power divisor of M and a cascade of alpha sub i identical modulo-p sub i counters. The modulo-p sub i counters are feedback shift registers which cycle through p sub i distinct states. Every possible nontrivial data frame subperiod and delayed subperiod is derived and a specific CPI in the data frame is detected. The number of clock pulses required to bring every modulo-p sub i counter to a respective designated state or count is determined by the Chinese remainder theorem. This corresponds to the solution of simultaneous congruences over relatively prime moduli.

  4. Integrated control of next generation power system

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  5. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  6. Coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching for TiO{sub 2} film at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shaoqing; Qin, Hongwei; Bu, Jianpei; Zhu, Gengchang; Xie, Jihao; Hu, Jifan E-mail: hu-jf@vip.163.com

    2015-08-10

    The Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device exhibits the coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching at room temperature. The bipolar resistive switching in Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device may be dominated by the modulation of Schottky-like barrier with the electron injection-trapped/detrapped process at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}. We suggest that the electric field-induced magnetization modulation originates mainly from the creation/annihilation of lots of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}.

  7. Gesture-Controlled Interface for Contactless Control of Various Computer Programs with a Hooking-Based Keyboard and Mouse-Mapping Technique in the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ben Joonyeon; Jang, Taekjin; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    We developed a contactless interface that exploits hand gestures to effectively control medical images in the operating room. We developed an in-house program called GestureHook that exploits message hooking techniques to convert gestures into specific functions. For quantitative evaluation of this program, we used gestures to control images of a dynamic biliary CT study and compared the results with those of a mouse (8.54 ± 1.77 s to 5.29 ± 1.00 s; p < 0.001) and measured the recognition rates of specific gestures and the success rates of tasks based on clinical scenarios. For clinical applications, this program was set up in the operating room to browse images for plastic surgery. A surgeon browsed images from three different programs: CT images from a PACS program, volume-rendered images from a 3D PACS program, and surgical planning photographs from a basic image viewing program. All programs could be seamlessly controlled by gestures and motions. This approach can control all operating room programs without source code modification and provide surgeons with a new way to safely browse through images and easily switch applications during surgical procedures. PMID:26981146

  8. Algebraic grid generation with control points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Choo, Yung K.; Smith, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The control-point form (CPF) formulation is an algebraically defined class of coordinate transformations by means of which the interior form of the coordinates can be manipulated in the local fashion, and any boundary can be either specified or manipulated in a similar manner. Currently, the most intense activity involving CPF is with such graphic interactive codes as TurboI and TurboT, for which detailed illustrative examples are given; these have furnished experience on whose basis future interactive strategies can be developed.

  9. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  10. Optimal Control via Self-Generated Stochasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    The problem of global maxima of functionals has been examined. Mathematical roots of local maxima are the same as those for a much simpler problem of finding global maximum of a multi-dimensional function. The second problem is instability even if an optimal trajectory is found, there is no guarantee that it is stable. As a result, a fundamentally new approach is introduced to optimal control based upon two new ideas. The first idea is to represent the functional to be maximized as a limit of a probability density governed by the appropriately selected Liouville equation. Then, the corresponding ordinary differential equations (ODEs) become stochastic, and that sample of the solution that has the largest value will have the highest probability to appear in ODE simulation. The main advantages of the stochastic approach are that it is not sensitive to local maxima, the function to be maximized must be only integrable but not necessarily differentiable, and global equality and inequality constraints do not cause any significant obstacles. The second idea is to remove possible instability of the optimal solution by equipping the control system with a self-stabilizing device. The applications of the proposed methodology will optimize the performance of NASA spacecraft, as well as robot performance.

  11. [Domestic and family violence against women: a case-control study with victims treated in emergency rooms].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with treatment of victims of domestic and family violence in emergency rooms in Brazil. This is a case-control study based on the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), 2011. Women ≥ 18 years who were victims of family and domestic violence were selected as cases and compared to accident victims (controls). Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. 623 cases and 10,120 controls were included. Risk factors according to the adjusted analysis were younger age (18-29 years), low schooling, lack of paid work, alcohol consumption, having sought treatment in a different health service, and violence on weekends or at night or in the early morning hours. The study concludes that domestic and family violence shows alcohol consumption as a strongly associated factor. Days and hours with the highest ocurrence reveal the need to adjust emergency services to treat victims. PMID:27096297

  12. Fast, all-optical logic gates and transistor functionalities using a room-temperature atomic controlled Kerr gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. B.; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate all-optical multilogic gate operations and transistor functionalities using a Kerr phase gate method in a room-temperature 85Rb vapor. Two symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers are constructed in the same vapor cell in which a Raman gain medium is established. We show three basic logic gates (and, or, and not) by controlling the output combinations from the two interferometers. With one weakly driven interferometer acting as the phase control light for a strongly driven interferometer, we further demonstrate optical field-effect transistor functionalities. More complex combinations of this Kerr phase gate method and scheme allow all eight basic logic gate operations including the controlled-not gate to be constructed and implemented.

  13. 12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOMRCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOM-RCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM WAS ORIGINALLY A MOTOR GENERATOR FACILITY AND SUPPLIED DC POWER TO AN EARLIER GENERATION OF POINT-TO-POINT RECEIVERS ON SECOND FLOOR). VIEW SHOWS TRANSMITTER CONTROL STATION AND AUDIO CONTROL STATION (LEFT, WATKINS-JOHNSON WJ-8718-23. HP RECEIVERS AND KENWOOD R-5000 COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS (220 DEGREES). - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  14. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    DOEpatents

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  15. Control of large wind turbine generators connected to utility networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    This is an investigation of the control requirements for variable pitch wind turbine generators connected to electric power systems. The requirements include operation in very small as well as very large power systems. Control systems are developed for wind turbines with synchronous, induction, and doubly fed generators. Simulation results are presented. It is shown how wind turbines and power system controls can be integrated. A clear distinction is made between fast control of turbine torque, which is a peculiarity of wind turbines, and slow control of electric power, which is a traditional power system requirement.

  16. Understanding the effects of nurses, patients' hospital rooms, and patients' perception of control on the perceived quality of a hospital.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, J B

    2000-01-01

    Service marketing researchers suggest that the physical environment, the people, and the process strongly affect consumers' judgements when they evaluate services. Previous research has rarely applied this general framework to help identify specific hospital variables that affect the perceived quality of a hospital. This article presents a proposed model and empirical evidence that is based upon this general framework. That is, this article reports the results of a study which found that the physical environment (i.e., patients' perception of their hospital rooms) and people (i.e., patients' perception of nurses) affected patients' perception of hospital quality. The process (i.e., patients' perception of control over the process) did not directly affect their perception of hospital quality. However, patients' perception of control over the process and their perception of their hospital rooms affected their perception of their nurses. Consequently, this research suggests that the general framework identified by service marketing researchers can be applied to help understand how patients develop their perception of hospital quality. PMID:11184431

  17. Understanding the effects of nurses, patients' hospital rooms, and patients' perception of control on the perceived quality of a hospital.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, J B

    2000-01-01

    Service marketing researchers suggest that the physical environment, the people, and the process strongly affect consumers' judgements when they evaluate services. Previous research has rarely applied this general framework to help identify specific hospital variables that affect the perceived quality of a hospital. This article presents a proposed model and empirical evidence that is based upon this general framework. That is, this article reports the results of a study which found that the physical environment (i.e., patients' perception of their hospital rooms) and people (i.e., patients' perception of nurses) affected patients' perception of hospital quality. The process (i.e., patients' perception of control over the process) did not directly affect their perception of hospital quality. However, patients' perception of control over the process and their perception of their hospital rooms affected their perception of their nurses. Consequently, this research suggests that the general framework identified by service marketing researchers can be applied to help understand how patients develop their perception of hospital quality.

  18. Parent misperception of control in childhood/adolescent asthma: the Room to Breathe survey.

    PubMed

    Carroll, W D; Wildhaber, J; Brand, P L P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine how often asthma control is achieved in children and adolescents, and how asthma affects parents' and children's daily lives. Interviews, including the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), were conducted with 1,284 parents of asthmatic children (aged 4-15 yrs), as well as with the children themselves (aged 8-15 yrs; n=943), in Canada, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, South Africa and the UK. Parents reported mild asthma attacks at least weekly in 11% of children, and serious attacks (requiring oral corticosteroids or hospitalisation) at least annually in 35%. Although 73% of parents described their child's asthma as mild or intermittent, 40% of children/adolescents had C-ACT scores ≤ 19, indicating inadequate control, and only 14.7% achieved complete Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-defined control and just 9.2% achieved Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)/British Thoracic Society (BTS)-defined control. Guideline-defined asthma control was significantly less common than well-controlled asthma using the C-ACT (p<0.001). Asthma restricted the child's activities in 39% of families and caused lifestyle changes in 70%. Complete asthma control is uncommon in children worldwide. Guideline-defined control measures appear to be more stringent than those defined by C-ACT or families. Overall, parents underestimate their child's asthma severity and overestimate asthma control. This is a major potential barrier to successful asthma treatment in children.

  19. Is single room hospital accommodation associated with differences in healthcare-associated infection, falls, pressure ulcers or medication errors? A natural experiment with non-equivalent controls

    PubMed Central

    Maben, Jill; Murrells, Trevor; Griffiths, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A wide range of patient benefits have been attributed to single room hospital accommodation including a reduction in adverse patient safety events. However, studies have been limited to the US with limited evidence from elsewhere. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on safety outcomes of the move to a newly built all single room acute hospital. Methods A natural experiment investigating the move to 100% single room accommodation in acute assessment, surgical and older people’s wards. Move to 100% single room accommodation compared to ‘steady state’ and ‘new build’ control hospitals. Falls, pressure ulcer, medication error, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile rates from routine data sources were measured over 36 months. Results Five of 15 time series in the wards that moved to single room accommodation revealed changes that coincided with the move to the new all single room hospital: specifically, increased fall, pressure ulcer and Clostridium difficile rates in the older people’s ward, and temporary increases in falls and medication errors in the acute assessment unit. However, because the case mix of the older people’s ward changed, and because the increase in falls and medication errors on the acute assessment ward did not last longer than six months, no clear effect of single rooms on the safety outcomes was demonstrated. There were no changes to safety events coinciding with the move at the new build control site. Conclusion For all changes in patient safety events that coincided with the move to single rooms, we found plausible alternative explanations such as case-mix change or disruption as a result of the re-organization of services after the move. The results provide no evidence of either benefit or harm from all single room accommodation in terms of safety-related outcomes, although there may be short-term risks associated with a move to single rooms. PMID:26811373

  20. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  1. 50. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATOR EXCITER AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATOR EXCITER AND CONTROL MECHANISM - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  2. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  4. Advanced feedwater control for next generation nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hengliang

    In current generation Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the control of Steam Generator level experiences challenges over the full range of plant operating conditions. These challenges can be particularly troublesome in the low power range where the feedwater is highly subcooled and minor changes in the feed flow may cause oscillations in the SG level, potentially leading to reactor trip. Substantial attention has been given to feedwater control systems with recognition of the difficulty of the full range feedwater control problem due to steam generator level shrink-swell phenomena, changes in valve and flow path characteristics, and other nonlinear phenomena over the full range of operating conditions. The IRIS reactor concept adds additional challenges to the feedwater control problem as a result of a steam generator design where neither level or steam generator mass inventory can be measured directly. Neural networks have demonstrated capabilities to capture a wide range of dynamic signal transformation and non-linear problems. In this project a detailed engineering simulation of plant response is used to develop and test neural control methods for the IRIS full range feedwater control problem. The established neural feed controller has demonstrated the capability to improve the performance of SG level or mass control under transient conditions and over a wide range of reactor power including abnormal conditions.

  5. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation CESTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This talk will present the motivation, research approach and status of intelligent control research for Next Generation Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. An introduction to the challenges of CESTOL control will be given, leading into an assessment of potential control solutions. The approach of the control research will be discussed, including a brief overview of the technical aspects of the research.

  6. TREC-Rio trial: a randomised controlled trial for rapid tranquillisation for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms [ISRCTN44153243

    PubMed Central

    Huf, Gisele; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Adams, Clive E

    2002-01-01

    Background Agitated or violent patients constitute 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Management guidelines, the preferred treatment of clinicians and clinical practice all differ. Systematic reviews show that all relevant studies are small and none are likely to have adequate power to show true differences between treatments. Worldwide, current treatment is not based on evidence from randomised trials. In Brazil, the combination haloperidol-promethazine is frequently used, but no studies involving this mix exist. Methods TREC-Rio (Tranquilização Rápida-Ensaio Clínico [Translation: Rapid Tranquillisation-Clinical Trial]) will compare midazolam with haloperidol-promethazine mix for treatment of agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. TREC-Rio is a randomised, controlled, pragmatic and open study. Primary measure of outcome is tranquillisation at 20 minutes but effects on other measures of morbidity will also be assessed. TREC-Rio will involve the collaboration of as many health care professionals based in four psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio as possible. Because the design of this trial does not substantially complicate clinical management, and in several aspects simplifies it, the study can be large, and treatments used in everyday practice can be evaluated. PMID:12383353

  7. A Versatile Room-Temperature Route to Di- and Trisubstituted Allenes Using Flow-Generated Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Poh, Jian-Siang; Tran, Duc N; Battilocchio, Claudio; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2015-06-26

    A copper-catalyzed coupling reaction between flow-generated unstabilized diazo compounds and terminal alkynes provides di- and trisubstituted allenes. This extremely mild and rapid transformation is highly tolerant of several functional groups.

  8. Switchable dielectric, piezoelectric, and second-harmonic generation bistability in a new improper ferroelectric above room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ye, Heng-Yun; Cai, Hong-Ling; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Qiong; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Qionghua; Wang, Jinlan; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2014-07-01

    Imidazolium periodate (IPI) is found to be an improper ferroelectric. It shows bistable properties simultaneously in three channels of dielectricity, piezoelectricity, and second-harmonic generation within the temperature window 300-310 K. PMID:24789577

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 4, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Automatic control system generation for robot design validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, James A. (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The specification and drawings present a new method, system and software product for and apparatus for generating a robotic validation system for a robot design. The robotic validation system for the robot design of a robotic system is automatically generated by converting a robot design into a generic robotic description using a predetermined format, then generating a control system from the generic robotic description and finally updating robot design parameters of the robotic system with an analysis tool using both the generic robot description and the control system.

  14. Teleportation of a controllable orbital angular momentum generator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lixiang; She Weilong

    2009-12-15

    We report on a teleportation scheme, in which a controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) generator is teleported. Via our scheme, Alice is able to--according to another independent photon's spin state (polarization) sent by Carol--electrically control the remote OAM generation on Bob's photon. To this end, we introduce a local electrically tunable and spin-dependent OAM generator to transfer a preliminary OAM-OAM entanglement to a spin-OAM hybrid entanglement, which then makes a joint Bell-state measurement on Alice and Carol's photons play its role. We show that the quantum state tomography can be introduced to evaluate the performance of the teleportation.

  15. Room temperature freezing and orientational control of surface-immobilized peptides in air.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoxin; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Myers, John; Abbott, Nicholas L; Chen, Zhan

    2015-07-14

    Sugar coatings can stabilize the "native" structure and control the orientation of surface-immobilized peptides in air, providing a potential approach to retain biological functions of surface-immobilized biomolecules in air. This method is general and applicable to complex enzymes. PMID:26068205

  16. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  17. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  18. Communications dashboard (control rooms, take a cue from Facebook® !) Chapter 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, David W.

    Papers published via IEEE and AIAA conferences have presented an overview of how social media could benefit NASA working environments in general [1] and proposed three specific social applications to benefit space flight control operations [2]. One of them, Communications Dashboard, would help a real time flight controller keep up with both the “ big picture” and significant details of operations via a cohesive interface similar to those of social networking services (SNS). Instead of recreational social features, “ CommDash” would support functions like console logging, categorized and threaded text chat streams with enhanced accountability and graphics display features, high-level status displays driven by telemetry or other events, and an on-screen hailing function for requesting voice or text stream conversation. Moving certain voice conversations to text streams would reduce confusion and stress in two ways. Within text conversations, there would be far less repetition of content since text conversations have visual persistence and are reviewable instantly, e.g., there's no need to brief new participants to a discussion - they just read what's already there. Remaining voice traffic would stand out more clearly, and quieter voice loops means fewer “ say again” calls and less distraction from visual and mental tasks, thus less stress. (Most flight controllers monitor 4 or 5 voice loops at once.) Links could be created from console log entries to chat selections so that underlying details are readily available yet unobtrusive. This would reduce the confusion that rises from having multiple and sometimes divergent copies of the same information due to cut/copy and paste operations, attachments, and asynchronous editing. This concept could apply to a plethora of real time control environments and to other settings with lots of information juggling. This paper explores the dashboard concept in further detail and chronic- es the first phase of a NASA IT

  19. Communications Dashboard (Control Rooms Take a Cue from Facebook), Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David w.

    2013-01-01

    Papers published via IEEE and AIAA conferences have presented an overview of how social media could benefit NASA working environments in general and proposed three specific social applications to benefit space flight control operations. One of them, Communications Dashboard, would help a real time flight controller keep up with both the "big picture" and significant details of operations via a cohesive interface similar to those of social networking services (SNS). Instead of recreational social features, "CommDash" would support functions like console logging, categorized and threaded text chat streams with enhanced accountability and graphics display features, high-level status displays driven by telemetry or other events, and an on-screen hailing function for requesting voice or text stream conversation. Moving certain voice conversations to text streams would reduce confusion and stress in two ways. Within text conversations, there would be far less repetition of content since text conversations have visual persistence and are reviewable instantly, e.g., there s no need to brief new participants to a discussion -- they just read what s already there. Remaining voice traffic would stand out more clearly, and quieter voice loops means fewer "say again" calls and less distraction from visual and mental tasks, thus less stress. (Most flight controllers monitor 4 or 5 voice loops at once.) Links could be created from console log entries to chat selections so that underlying details are readily available yet unobtrusive. This would reduce the confusion that rises from having multiple and sometimes divergent copies of the same information due to cut/copy and paste operations, attachments, and asynchronous editing. This concept could apply to a plethora of real time control environments and to other settings with lots of information juggling. This paper explores the dashboard concept in further detail and chronicles the first phase of a NASA IT Labs (Information

  20. Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-06-01

    The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices. PMID:25849530

  1. Generation of stochastic electromagnetic beams with complete controllable coherence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xudong; Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Ziyang; Lin, Zhili; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-09-19

    We generate a stochastic electromagnetic beam (SEB) with complete controllable coherence, that is, the coherence degree can be controlled independently along two mutually perpendicular directions. We control the coherence of the SEB by adjusting the phase modulation magnitude applied onto two crossed phase only spatial light modulators. We measure the beam's coherence properties using Young's interference experiment, as well as the beam propagation factor. It is shown that the experimental results are consistent with our theoretical predictions. PMID:27661897

  2. Impact of Advance Control on Microturbine Generation System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil Mat Hussin, Ahmad; Zamri Che Wanik, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    Advance control employed in microturbine generation system (MTGS) is expected to improve its performance in responding to grid faults. This paper compares the effect of advance control of MTGS power conversion topology on the performance in riding through the grid faults. The analysis and investigation study through simulation shows there is no significant different on MTGS output performance even advance control is employed for its rectifier.

  3. Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.

    2000-03-01

    Wind energy is a viable option to complement other types of pollution-free generation. In the early development of wind energy, the majority of wind turbines were operated at constant speed. Recently, the number of variable-speed wind turbines installed in wind farms has increased and more wind turbine manufacturers are making variable-speed wind turbines. This paper covers the operation of variable-speed wind turbines with pitch control. The system the authors considered is controlled to generate maximum energy while minimizing loads. The maximization of energy was only carried out on a static basis and only drive train loads were considered as a constraint. In medium wind speeds, the generator and power converter control the wind turbine to capture maximum energy from the wind. In the high wind speed region, the wind turbine is controlled to maintain the aerodynamic power produced by the wind turbine. Two methods to adjust the aerodynamic power were investigated: pitch control and generator load control, both of which are employed to control the operation of the wind turbine. The analysis and simulation shows that the wind turbine can be operated at its optimum energy capture while minimizing the load on the wind turbine for a wide range of wind speeds.

  4. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance.

  5. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Zhang, Weili; O'Hara, John F.

    2011-02-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate ultrafast optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a thin conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of ~10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor hole arrays. Optically pumping the semiconductor hole arrays favors excitation of surface plasmon resonance. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stop-band to a pass-band and up to π/ 2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz

  6. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Chen, Hou - Tong; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  8. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  9. A Facile pH Controlled Citrate-Based Reduction Method for Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Kushwaha, Ajay; Kumar, Anshuman; Aslam, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using citrate reduction process has been revisited. A simplified room temperature approach to standard Turkevich synthesis is employed to obtain fairly monodisperse gold nanoparticles. The role of initial pH alongside the concentration ratio of reactants is explored for the size control of Au nanoparticles. The particle size distribution has been investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). At optimal pH of 5, gold nanoparticles obtained are highly monodisperse and spherical in shape and have narrower size distribution (sharp surface plasmon at 520 nm). For other pH conditions, particles are non-uniform and polydisperse, showing a red-shift in plasmon peak due to aggregation and large particle size distribution. The room temperature approach results in highly stable "colloidal" suspension of gold nanoparticles. The stability test through absorption spectroscopy indicates no sign of aggregation for a month. The rate of reduction of auric ionic species by citrate ions is determined via UV absorbance studies. The size of nanoparticles under various conditions is thus predicted using a theoretical model that incorporates nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes. The faster rate of reduction yields better size distribution for optimized pH and reactant concentrations. The model involves solving population balance equation for continuously evolving particle size distribution by discretization techniques. The particle sizes estimated from the simulations (13 to 25 nm) are close to the experimental ones (10 to 32 nm) and corroborate the similarity of reaction processes at 300 and 373 K (classical Turkevich reaction). Thus, substitution of experimentally measured rate of disappearance of auric ionic species into theoretical model enables us to capture the unusual experimental observations. PMID:27526178

  10. A Facile pH Controlled Citrate-Based Reduction Method for Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Kushwaha, Ajay; Kumar, Anshuman; Aslam, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using citrate reduction process has been revisited. A simplified room temperature approach to standard Turkevich synthesis is employed to obtain fairly monodisperse gold nanoparticles. The role of initial pH alongside the concentration ratio of reactants is explored for the size control of Au nanoparticles. The particle size distribution has been investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). At optimal pH of 5, gold nanoparticles obtained are highly monodisperse and spherical in shape and have narrower size distribution (sharp surface plasmon at 520 nm). For other pH conditions, particles are non-uniform and polydisperse, showing a red-shift in plasmon peak due to aggregation and large particle size distribution. The room temperature approach results in highly stable "colloidal" suspension of gold nanoparticles. The stability test through absorption spectroscopy indicates no sign of aggregation for a month. The rate of reduction of auric ionic species by citrate ions is determined via UV absorbance studies. The size of nanoparticles under various conditions is thus predicted using a theoretical model that incorporates nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes. The faster rate of reduction yields better size distribution for optimized pH and reactant concentrations. The model involves solving population balance equation for continuously evolving particle size distribution by discretization techniques. The particle sizes estimated from the simulations (13 to 25 nm) are close to the experimental ones (10 to 32 nm) and corroborate the similarity of reaction processes at 300 and 373 K (classical Turkevich reaction). Thus, substitution of experimentally measured rate of disappearance of auric ionic species into theoretical model enables us to capture the unusual experimental observations.

  11. A Facile pH Controlled Citrate-Based Reduction Method for Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Kushwaha, Ajay; Kumar, Anshuman; Aslam, Mohammed

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using citrate reduction process has been revisited. A simplified room temperature approach to standard Turkevich synthesis is employed to obtain fairly monodisperse gold nanoparticles. The role of initial pH alongside the concentration ratio of reactants is explored for the size control of Au nanoparticles. The particle size distribution has been investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). At optimal pH of 5, gold nanoparticles obtained are highly monodisperse and spherical in shape and have narrower size distribution (sharp surface plasmon at 520 nm). For other pH conditions, particles are non-uniform and polydisperse, showing a red-shift in plasmon peak due to aggregation and large particle size distribution. The room temperature approach results in highly stable "colloidal" suspension of gold nanoparticles. The stability test through absorption spectroscopy indicates no sign of aggregation for a month. The rate of reduction of auric ionic species by citrate ions is determined via UV absorbance studies. The size of nanoparticles under various conditions is thus predicted using a theoretical model that incorporates nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes. The faster rate of reduction yields better size distribution for optimized pH and reactant concentrations. The model involves solving population balance equation for continuously evolving particle size distribution by discretization techniques. The particle sizes estimated from the simulations (13 to 25 nm) are close to the experimental ones (10 to 32 nm) and corroborate the similarity of reaction processes at 300 and 373 K (classical Turkevich reaction). Thus, substitution of experimentally measured rate of disappearance of auric ionic species into theoretical model enables us to capture the unusual experimental observations.

  12. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R.; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments – and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards. PMID:27790191

  13. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlasek, Szymon; Lalik, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Sornek, Krzysztof; Kupski, Robert; Raś, Anita

    2016-03-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units - quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  14. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  15. Non-blinking single-photon generation with anisotropic colloidal nanocrystals: towards room-temperature, efficient, colloidal quantum sources.

    PubMed

    Pisanello, Ferruccio; Leménager, Godefroy; Martiradonna, Luigi; Carbone, Luigi; Vezzoli, Stefano; Desfonds, Pascal; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide; Hermier, Jean-Pierre; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Cingolani, Roberto; De Vittorio, Massimo; Bramati, Alberto

    2013-04-11

    Blinking and single-photon emission can be tailored in CdSe/CdS core/shell colloidal dot-in-rods. By increasing the shell thickness it is possible to obtain almost non-blinking nanocrystals, while the shell length can be used to control single-photon emission probability.

  16. Hybrid propulsion based on fluid-controlled solid gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Norman S.; Strand, Leon D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of fuel-rich solid (gas generator-type) propellants for hybrid propulsion affords some design and utilization efficiency advantages. Both forward and aft liquid injection control concepts are evaluated from the operational standpoints of ballistics, throttling, stability and extinguishment. Steady-state and non-steady ballistics analyses are employed for this evaluation. Stability of solid motor operation is enhanced by fluid injection with adequate injector pressure drop. Efficient throttling and reliable extinguishment are attained through a combination of solid propellant combustion tailoring, grain design, control valves and sensors. Initial results from a laboratory-scale slab combustor, combining a gas generator propellant with gaseous oxygen injection, are also presented.

  17. Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Jang, Jae K; Luke, Kevin; Ji, Xingchen; Miller, Steven A; Klenner, Alexander; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-06-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of thermally controlled soliton mode-locked frequency comb generation in microresonators. By controlling the electric current through heaters integrated with silicon nitride microresonators, we demonstrate a systematic and repeatable pathway to single- and multi-soliton mode-locked states without adjusting the pump laser wavelength. Such an approach could greatly simplify the generation of mode-locked frequency combs and facilitate applications such as chip-based dual-comb spectroscopy.

  18. Electric field control of magnetization in Cu2O/porous anodic alumina hybrid structures at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, L. Q.; Liu, H. Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Liu, L. H.; Han, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    Cu2O nanoporous films are deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. This paper focuses on voltage driven magnetization switching in Cu2O/PAA (CP) composite films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. By applying a dc electric field, the magnetization of the CP composite films can be controlled in a reversible and reproducible way and shows an analogous on-off behavior. The magnitude of the change in the magnetization was about 75 emu/cm3 as the electric field was switched on and off. Resistive switching behavior was also observed in as-prepared CP composite films. Further analysis indicated that the formation/rupture of conducting filaments composed of oxygen vacancies is likely responsible for the changes in the magnetization as well as in the resistivity. Such reversible change of magnetization controlled by an electric field at room temperature may have applications in spintronics and power efficient data storage technologies.

  19. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  20. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-06-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  1. Control System for a Diesel Generator and UPS Based Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamar, Andriy; Pettai, Elmo; Beldjajev, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a microgrid composed of a diesel generator and two uninterruptible power supply systems with separate battery banks is introduced. The microgrid located in three academic buildings of Tallinn University of Technology. A three-level control and monitoring system for the microgrid based on the EtherNet/IP communication network is developed. In addition, a control strategy of the microgrid in the grid-connected and stand-alone mode of operation is proposed.

  2. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  3. A New Systematic Procedure to Design an Automatic Generation Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabakhshian, A.

    A new method to tune the controller parameters is presented in study for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of hydro turbine power systems. The controller parameters are adjusted such that the maximum phase is located on the right-most point of the ellipse, corresponding the maximum peak resonance on the Nichols chart. For this system making the open-loop frequency response curve tangent to a specified ellipse is an efficient method for controlling the overshoot, the stability and the dynamics of the system. The robustness of the feedback PID controller has been investigated on a multimachine power system model and the results are shown to be consistent with the expected performance. The results are also compared with a conventional PI controller and shown to be superior; especially since the transient droop compensator of the speed governor is removed a much faster response is obtained. The region of acceptable performance for the LFC covers a wide range of operating and system conditions.

  4. Automatic Overset Grid Generation with Heuristic Feedback Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Peter I.

    2001-01-01

    An advancing front grid generation system for structured Overset grids is presented which automatically modifies Overset structured surface grids and control lines until user-specified grid qualities are achieved. The system is demonstrated on two examples: the first refines a space shuttle fuselage control line until global truncation error is achieved; the second advances, from control lines, the space shuttle orbiter fuselage top and fuselage side surface grids until proper overlap is achieved. Surface grids are generated in minutes for complex geometries. The system is implemented as a heuristic feedback control (HFC) expert system which iteratively modifies the input specifications for Overset control line and surface grids. It is developed as an extension of modern control theory, production rules systems and subsumption architectures. The methodology provides benefits over the full knowledge lifecycle of an expert system for knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and knowledge execution. The vector/matrix framework of modern control theory systematically acquires and represents expert system knowledge. Missing matrix elements imply missing expert knowledge. The execution of the expert system knowledge is performed through symbolic execution of the matrix algebra equations of modern control theory. The dot product operation of matrix algebra is generalized for heuristic symbolic terms. Constant time execution is guaranteed.

  5. SCOS2: ESA's new generation of mission control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J. F.; Head, N. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the next generation Spacecraft Control System infrastructure (SCOSII) which is being developed at the Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objectives of the new system and selected areas of the proposed hardware and software approach are described.

  6. Teleportation of a controllable orbital angular momentum generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong

    2009-12-01

    We report on a teleportation scheme, in which a controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) generator is teleported. Via our scheme, Alice is able to—according to another independent photon’s spin state (polarization) sent by Carol—electrically control the remote OAM generation on Bob’s photon. To this end, we introduce a local electrically tunable and spin-dependent OAM generator to transfer a preliminary OAM-OAM entanglement to a spin-OAM hybrid entanglement, which then makes a joint Bell-state measurement on Alice and Carol’s photons play its role. We show that the quantum state tomography can be introduced to evaluate the performance of the teleportation.

  7. Signal generation and clarification: use of case-control data.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, D W; Rosenberg, L; Mitchell, A A

    2001-05-01

    Case-control surveillance systems are useful for 'signal' generation, i.e., signaling potential previously unidentified adverse effects of drugs. Two systems currently in operation, the Slone Epidemiology Unit's Case-Control Surveillance and the Birth Defects Study, have monitored drug effects since 1976. With extensive information on the diagnoses and covariates, the systems have the capacity to carry out in-depth analyses in which the outcome measure is more specifically defined and in which confounding is controlled, thus reducing the possibility of false alarms.

  8. Development of an intelligent controller for power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Clive; Waller, Winston

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a description of the development of an embedded controller for high power industrial diesel generators. The aim of the project was to replace the existing discrete logic design by an intelligent versatile and user configurable control system. A prototype embedded PC controlled system was developed, capable of fully replacing the existing system, with a colour TFT display and keypad. Features include fully automatic generator control as before with status and alarm display and monitoring of engine parameters, along with data logging, remote communications and a means of analysing data. The unit was tested on the bench and on diesel generators for the core controlling functionality to prove compliance with the specifications. The results of the testing proved the unit's suitability as a replacement for the existing system in its intended environment. The significance of this study is that a low cost replacement solution has been found for an industrial application by transferring modern technological knowledge to a small business. The company are now able to build on the design and take it into production, reducing servicing and production costs.

  9. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-08-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  10. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  11. Sand control in wells with gas generator and resin

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the formation perforations of the wellbore; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the formation perforations; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore. This paper also describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a coiled tubing, having a valve and gas generator attached thereto, so that the valve is positioned in a predetermined location relative to the bottom formation perforation; injecting a predetermined amount of fluid resin material through the coiled tubing and valve into the wellbore; raising the gas generator to a position across the formation perforations and in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to force the fluid resin material into the formation perforations; and thereafter polymerizing the previously fluid resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore.

  12. Versatile on-demand droplet generation for controlled encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Liu, Peng; Meagher, Robert J.; Light, Yooli K.; Singh, Anup K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a droplet-based microfluidic system for performing bioassays requiring controlled analyte encapsulation by employing highly flexible on-demand droplet generation. On-demand droplet generation and encapsulation are achieved pneumatically using a microdispensing pump connected to a constant pressure source. The system generates single droplets to the collection route only when the pump is actuated with a designated pressure level and produces two-phase parallel flow to the waste route during the stand-by state. We analyzed the effect of actuation pressure on the stability and size of droplets and optimized conditions for generation of stable droplets over a wide pressure range. By increasing the duration of pump actuation, we could either trigger a short train of identical size droplets or generate a single larger droplet. We also investigated the methodology to control droplet contents by fine-tuning flow rates or implementing a resistance bridge between the pump and main channels. We demonstrated the integrated chip for on-demand mixing between two aqueous phases in droplets and on-demand encapsulation of Escherichia coli cells. Our unique on-demand feature for selective encapsulation is particularly appropriate for bioassays with extremely dilute samples, such as pathogens in a clinical sample, since it can significantly reduce the number of empty droplets that impede droplet collection and subsequent data analysis. PMID:25379072

  13. The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control Systems: Generation II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschbacher, Mark; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    The Second Generation (Gen II) control system for the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) program implements direct adaptive neural networks to demonstrate robust tolerance to faults and failures. The direct adaptive tracking controller integrates learning neural networks (NNs) with a dynamic inversion control law. The term direct adaptive is used because the error between the reference model and the aircraft response is being compensated or directly adapted to minimize error without regard to knowing the cause of the error. No parameter estimation is needed for this direct adaptive control system. In the Gen II design, the feedback errors are regulated with a proportional-plus-integral (PI) compensator. This basic compensator is augmented with an online NN that changes the system gains via an error-based adaptation law to improve aircraft performance at all times, including normal flight, system failures, mispredicted behavior, or changes in behavior resulting from damage.

  14. Advanced control room design review guidelines: Integration of the NUREG-0700 guidelines and development of new human-system interface guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report documents the work conducted in four tasks of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) project entitled Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation. The purpose of the first task was to integrate the applicable sections of NUREG-0700 into the advanced control room design review (ACRDR) guidelines to ensure that all applicable guidelines are together in one document and conveniently accessible to users. The primary objective of the second task was to formulate a strategy for the development of new ACRDR guidelines that have not otherwise been identified. The main focus of the third task was to modify the individual ACRDR guidelines generated to date to ensure that they are suitable for the intended nuclear power plant (NPP) control station system application. The goal of the fourth task was to develop human factors guidelines for two human-system interface categories that are missing from the current ACRDR guidelines document. During the first task those areas in NUREG-0700 that are not addressed by the ACRDR guidelines document were identified, the areas were subsequently reviewed against six recent industry human factors engineering review guidelines, and the NUREG-0700 guidelines were updated as necessary. In the second task 13 general categories of human-system interface guidelines that are either missing from or not adequately addressed by the ACRDR document were discovered. An approach was derived for the development of new ACRDR guidelines, a preliminary assessment of the available sources that may be useful in the creation of new guidelines and their applicability to the identified human-system interface categories was performed, and an estimate was made of the amount of time and level of effort required to complete the development of needed new ACRDR guidelines. During the third task those NPP control station systems to which the NUREG-0700 and ACRDR guidelines apply were identified, matrices of such

  15. Human-factors control-room-design review draft audit report: Detroit Edison Company, Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant--Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1981-08-12

    A human factors audit of the Fermi-2 control room was conducted April 27 through May 1, 1981. This report contains the audit team findings, organized according to the draft NUREG-0700 guidelines sections. The discrepancies identified during the audit are categorized according to their severity and the required schedule for their resolution.

  16. High-pressure testing of heterogeneous charge transfer in a room-temperature ionic liquid: evidence for solvent dynamic control.

    PubMed

    Dolidze, Tina D; Khoshtariya, Dimitri E; Illner, Peter; Kulisiewicz, Leszek; Delgado, Antonio; van Eldik, Rudi

    2008-03-13

    We report the first application of a high-pressure electrochemical strategy to study heterogeneous charge transfer (CT) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, [BMIM][BTA]. High-pressure kinetic studies on electron exchange for two redox couples of different charge type, viz. [Fe(bipy)3]3+/2+ and [Fe(cp)2]+/0, at bare Au electrodes within the range of 0.1-150 MPa, revealed large positive volumes of activation that were found to be virtually the same for the two redox couples in terms of the CT rate constants and diffusion coefficients, despite the reactant's charge type. Independent viscosity (fluidity) studies at elevated pressure (up to 175 MPa), were also performed and revealed a pressure coefficient closely resembling the former ones. Complementary temperature-dependent kinetic studies within the range of 298-358 K also revealed the virtual similarity in activation enthalpies for the same kinetic and diffusion processes, as well as the viscosity of [BMIM][BTA]. A rigorous analysis of the complete variety of obtained results strongly indicates that dynamic (frictional) control of CT is operative by way of the full adiabatic mechanism. The contribution of the Franck-Condon term to the activation free energy of the kinetic process seems almost diminished because of the high value of electronic coupling and freezing out of the outer-sphere reorganization energy. Further analyses indicate that frictional control most probably takes place through slow translational modes (implying "minimal volume" cooperative dislocations) of constituent ions. This kind of motion seems further slowed down within the vicinity of the active site presumably located within the diffusive-like zone situated next to the compact (first) part of the metal/ionic liquid junction. PMID:18278899

  17. Electrical control of second-harmonic generation in a WSe2 monolayer transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Kyle L.; Schaibley, John R.; Gong, Pu; Rivera, Pasqual; Jones, Aaron M.; Wu, Sanfeng; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion, in which optical fields interact with a nonlinear medium to produce new field frequencies, is ubiquitous in modern photonic systems. However, the nonlinear electric susceptibilities that give rise to such phenomena are often challenging to tune in a given material and, so far, dynamical control of optical nonlinearities remains confined to research laboratories as a spectroscopic tool. Here, we report a mechanism to electrically control second-order optical nonlinearities in monolayer WSe2, an atomically thin semiconductor. We show that the intensity of second-harmonic generation at the A-exciton resonance is tunable by over an order of magnitude at low temperature and nearly a factor of four at room temperature through electrostatic doping in a field-effect transistor. Such tunability arises from the strong exciton charging effects in monolayer semiconductors, which allow for exceptional control over the oscillator strengths at the exciton and trion resonances. The exciton-enhanced second-harmonic generation is counter-circularly polarized to the excitation laser due to the combination of the two-photon and one-photon valley selection rules, which have opposite helicity in the monolayer. Our study paves the way towards a new platform for chip-scale, electrically tunable nonlinear optical devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors.

  18. Electrical control of second-harmonic generation in a WSe2 monolayer transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, Kyle L.; Schaibley, John R.; Gong, Pu; Rivera, Pasqual; Jones, Aaron M.; Wu, Sanfeng; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-04-20

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion, in which optical fields interact with a nonlinear medium to produce new field frequencies, is ubiquitous in modern photonic systems. However, the nonlinear electric susceptibilities that give rise to such phenomena are often challenging to tune in a given material and, so far, dynamical control of optical nonlinearities remains confined to research laboratories as a spectroscopic tool. In this paper, we report a mechanism to electrically control second-order optical nonlinearities in monolayer WSe2, an atomically thin semiconductor. We show that the intensity of second-harmonic generation at the A-exciton resonance is tunable by over an order of magnitude at low temperature and nearly a factor of four at room temperature through electrostatic doping in a field-effect transistor. Such tunability arises from the strong exciton charging effects in monolayer semiconductors, which allow for exceptional control over the oscillator strengths at the exciton and trion resonances. The exciton-enhanced second-harmonic generation is counter-circularly polarized to the excitation laser due to the combination of the two-photon and one-photon valley selection rules, which have opposite helicity in the monolayer. Finally, our study paves the way towards a new platform for chip-scale, electrically tunable nonlinear optical devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors.

  19. Electrical control of second-harmonic generation in a WSe2 monolayer transistor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seyler, Kyle L.; Schaibley, John R.; Gong, Pu; Rivera, Pasqual; Jones, Aaron M.; Wu, Sanfeng; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-04-20

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion, in which optical fields interact with a nonlinear medium to produce new field frequencies, is ubiquitous in modern photonic systems. However, the nonlinear electric susceptibilities that give rise to such phenomena are often challenging to tune in a given material and, so far, dynamical control of optical nonlinearities remains confined to research laboratories as a spectroscopic tool. In this paper, we report a mechanism to electrically control second-order optical nonlinearities in monolayer WSe2, an atomically thin semiconductor. We show that the intensity of second-harmonic generation at the A-exciton resonance is tunable by over an order ofmore » magnitude at low temperature and nearly a factor of four at room temperature through electrostatic doping in a field-effect transistor. Such tunability arises from the strong exciton charging effects in monolayer semiconductors, which allow for exceptional control over the oscillator strengths at the exciton and trion resonances. The exciton-enhanced second-harmonic generation is counter-circularly polarized to the excitation laser due to the combination of the two-photon and one-photon valley selection rules, which have opposite helicity in the monolayer. Finally, our study paves the way towards a new platform for chip-scale, electrically tunable nonlinear optical devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors.« less

  20. Controlling the spectrum of photons generated on a silicon nanophotonic chip

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Ong, Jun Rong; Savanier, Marc; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Directly modulated semiconductor lasers are widely used, compact light sources in optical communications. Semiconductors can also be used to generate nonclassical light; in fact, CMOS-compatible silicon chips can be used to generate pairs of single photons at room temperature. Unlike the classical laser, the photon-pair source requires control over a two-dimensional joint spectral intensity (JSI) and it is not possible to process the photons separately, as this could destroy the entanglement. Here we design a photon-pair source, consisting of planar lightwave components fabricated using CMOS-compatible lithography in silicon, which has the capability to vary the JSI. By controlling either the optical pump wavelength, or the temperature of the chip, we demonstrate the ability to select different JSIs, with a large variation in the Schmidt number. Such control can benefit high-dimensional communications where detector-timing constraints can be relaxed by realizing a large Schmidt number in a small frequency range. PMID:25410792

  1. Verifying a multiprocessor cache controller using random case generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.A.; Gibson, G.A.; Katz, R.H. )

    1989-01-01

    The newest generation of cache controller chips provide coherency to support multiprocessor systems, i.e., the controllers coordinate access to the cache memories to guarantee a single global view of memory. The cache coherency protocols they implement complicate the controller design, making design verification difficult. In the design of the cache controller for SPUR, a shared memory multiprocessor designed and built at U.C. Berkeley, the authors developed a random tester to generate and verify the complex interactions between multiple processors in the the functional simulation. Replacing the CPU model, the tester generates memory references by randomly selecting from a script of actions and checks. The checks verify correct completion of their corresponding actions. The tester was easy to develop, and detected over half of the functional bugs uncovered during simulation. They used an assembly language version of the random tester to verify the prototype hardware. A multiprocessor system is operational; it runs the Sprite operating system and is being used for experiments in parallel programming.

  2. Enhancing control of grid distribution in algebraic grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Roelke, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Three techniques are presented to enhance the control of grid-point distribution for a class of algebraic grid generation methods known as the two-, four- and six-boundary methods. First, multidimensional stretching functions are presented, and a technique is devised to construct them based on the desired distribution of grid points along certain boundaries. Second, a normalization procedure is proposed which allows more effective control over orthogonality of grid lines at boundaries and curvature of grid lines near boundaries. And third, interpolating functions based on tension splines are introduced to control curvature of grid lines in the interior of the spatial domain. In addition to these three techniques, consistency conditions are derived which must be satisfied by all user-specified data employed in the grid generation process to control grid-point distribution. The usefulness of the techniques developed in this study was demonstrated by using them in conjunction with the two- and four-boundary methods to generate several grid systems, including a three-dimensional grid system in the coolant passage of a radial turbine blade with serpentine channels and pin fins.

  3. Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control.

  4. Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control. PMID:27555365

  5. Leap Motion Gesture Control With Carestream Software in the Operating Room to Control Imaging: Installation Guide and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Pauchot, Julien; Di Tommaso, Laetitia; Lounis, Ahmed; Benassarou, Mourad; Mathieu, Pierre; Bernot, Dominique; Aubry, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, routine cross-sectional imaging viewing during a surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). Such contact risks exposure to aseptic conditions and causes loss of time. Devices such as the recently introduced Leap Motion (Leap Motion Society, San Francisco, CA), which enables interaction with the computer without any physical contact, are of wide interest in the field of surgery, but configuration and ergonomics are key challenges for the practitioner, imaging software, and surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of Leap Motion on a PC for optimized use with Carestream Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY) using a plug-in (to download at https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_F4eBeBQc3yNENvTXlnY09qS00&authuser=0) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Videos of surgical procedure and discussion about innovative gesture control technology and its various configurations are provided in this article.

  6. Leap Motion Gesture Control With Carestream Software in the Operating Room to Control Imaging: Installation Guide and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Pauchot, Julien; Di Tommaso, Laetitia; Lounis, Ahmed; Benassarou, Mourad; Mathieu, Pierre; Bernot, Dominique; Aubry, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, routine cross-sectional imaging viewing during a surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). Such contact risks exposure to aseptic conditions and causes loss of time. Devices such as the recently introduced Leap Motion (Leap Motion Society, San Francisco, CA), which enables interaction with the computer without any physical contact, are of wide interest in the field of surgery, but configuration and ergonomics are key challenges for the practitioner, imaging software, and surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of Leap Motion on a PC for optimized use with Carestream Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY) using a plug-in (to download at https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_F4eBeBQc3yNENvTXlnY09qS00&authuser=0) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Videos of surgical procedure and discussion about innovative gesture control technology and its various configurations are provided in this article. PMID:26002115

  7. Memory's Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  8. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenshan; Vasudev, Alok P; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-09-23

    Plasmonics provides a route to develop ultracompact optical devices on a chip by using extreme light concentration and the ability to perform simultaneous electrical and optical functions. These properties also make plasmonics an ideal candidate for dynamically controlling nonlinear optical interactions at the nanoscale. We demonstrate electrically tunable harmonic generation of light from a plasmonic nanocavity filled with a nonlinear medium. The metals that define the cavity also serve as electrodes that can generate high direct current electric fields across the nonlinear material. A fundamental wave at 1.56 micrometers was frequency doubled and modulated in intensity by applying a moderate external voltage to the electrodes, yielding a voltage-dependent nonlinear generation with a normalized magnitude of ~7% per volt.

  9. Cycle time control of an onboard oxygen generation system.

    PubMed

    Beaman, J J; Wang, S Y; Masada, G Y

    1987-12-01

    The outlet oxygen concentration of an onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS) is controlled in this study by varying the cycle time of a pressure swing adsorption process. The control of the oxygen concentration is highly desirable since both high and low concentrations of oxygen can cause physiological problems. This cycle time control method can be easily implemented using a DC motor and a simple electronic controller. The physiological requirements recommended for high-performance tactical aircraft can be met by this method with either an open-loop or closed-loop configuration. The open-loop configuration requires the measurement of crew breathing flowrate and cabin pressure. The closed-loop configuration requires an additional measurement of oxygen concentration, but it has the advantage of being more adaptive to system variability during setup and operation. The method in either configuration requires very little adjustment and setup time in order to meet the specifications.

  10. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  11. Optimal control of coupled PDE networks with automated code generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, D.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a framework for the optimal control of coupled PDE networks. A coupled PDE network is a system of partial differential equations coupled together. Such systems can be represented as a directed graph. A domain specific language (DSL)—an extension of the DOT language—is used for the description of such a coupled PDE network. The adjoint equations and the gradient, required for its optimal control, are computed with the help of a computer algebra system (CAS). Automated code generation techniques have been used for the generation of the PDE systems of both the direct and the adjoint equations. Both the direct and adjoint equations are solved with the standard finite element method. Finally, for the numerical optimization of the system standard optimization techniques are used such as BFGS and Newton conjugate gradient.

  12. Active Control of Fan-Generated Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to control the noise radiated from the inlet of a ducted fan using a time domain active adaptive system. The control ,sound source consists of loudspeakers arranged in a ring around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same, when the dominant wave in the duct is a plane wave. The presence of higher order modes in the duct reduces the noise reduction efficiency, particularly near the mode cut-on where the standing wave component is strong, but the control system converges stably. The control system is stable and converges when the first circumferential mode is generated in the duct. The control system is found to reduce the fan noise in the far field on an arc around the fan inlet by as much as 20 dB with none of the sound amplification associated with mode spillover.

  13. Controlling the electromagnetically induced grating via spontaneously generated coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgzadeh, Forough; Sahrai, Mostafa; Khoshsima, Habib

    2016-09-01

    A new arrangement of an electromagnetically induced grating in a three-level Ladder-type atomic system with indirect incoherent pumping field is proposed. It is found that the diffraction intensity can efficiently be controlled by the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC). In addition, the diffraction intensity spectrum can dramatically be tuned by manipulating the coupling field intensity, resonance conditions, the rate of an indirect incoherent pumping field, and interaction length.

  14. Following control for a UUV using temporary path generation guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheping; Chi, Dongnan; Zhou, Jiajia; Zhao, Yufei

    2012-06-01

    A path following control algorithm for an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) using temporary path generation guidance was proposed in this paper. Owing to different initial states of the vehicle, such as position and orientation, the path following control in the horizontal plane may yield a poor performance. To deal with the negative effect induced by initial states, a temporary path generation was presented based on the relationship between the original reference path and the vehicle's initial states. With different relative positions between the vehicle and reference path, including out of straight lines, as well as inside and outside a circle, the related temporary paths guiding the vehicle to the reference path were able to be generated in real time. The vehicle was guided to steer along the temporary path until it reached the tangent point at the reference path, where the controller was designed using the input-output feedback linearization method. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is effective under the three different situations mentioned above.

  15. Size-controlled stabilization of the superionic phase to room temperature in polymer-coated AgI nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Makiura, Rie; Yonemura, Takayuki; Yamada, Teppei; Yamauchi, Miho; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2009-06-01

    Solid-state ionic conductors are actively studied for their large application potential in batteries and sensors. From the view of future nanodevices, nanoscaled ionic conductors are attracting much interest. Silver iodide (AgI) is a well-known ionic conductor for which the high-temperature alpha-phase shows a superionic conductivity greater than 1 Omega(-1) cm(-1). Below 147 degrees C, alpha-AgI undergoes a phase transition into the poorly conducting beta- and gamma-polymorphs, thereby limiting its applications. Here, we report the facile synthesis of variable-size AgI nanoparticles coated with poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP) and the controllable tuning of the alpha- to beta-/gamma-phase transition temperature (Tc). Tc shifts considerably to lower temperatures with decreasing nanoparticle size, leading to a progressively enlarged thermal hysteresis. Specifically, when the size approaches 10-11 nm, the alpha-phase survives down to 30 degrees C--the lowest temperature for any AgI family material. We attribute the suppression of the phase transition not only to the increase of the surface energy, but also to the presence of defects and the accompanying charge imbalance induced by PVP. Moreover, the conductivity of as-prepared 11 nm beta-/gamma-AgI nanoparticles at 24 degrees C is approximately 1.5 x 10(-2) Omega(-1) cm(-1)--the highest ionic conductivity for a binary solid at room temperature. The stabilized superionic phase and the remarkable transport properties at a practical temperature reported here suggest promising applications in silver-ion-based electrochemical devices.

  16. Size-controlled stabilization of the superionic phase to room temperature in polymer-coated AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiura, Rie; Yonemura, Takayuki; Yamada, Teppei; Yamauchi, Miho; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2009-06-01

    Solid-state ionic conductors are actively studied for their large application potential in batteries and sensors. From the view of future nanodevices, nanoscaled ionic conductors are attracting much interest. Silver iodide (AgI) is a well-known ionic conductor for which the high-temperature α-phase shows a superionic conductivity greater than 1Ω-1cm-1 (ref. 6). Below 147∘C, α-AgI undergoes a phase transition into the poorly conducting β- and γ-polymorphs, thereby limiting its applications. Here, we report the facile synthesis of variable-size AgI nanoparticles coated with poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP) and the controllable tuning of the α- to β-/γ-phase transition temperature (Tc↓). Tc↓ shifts considerably to lower temperatures with decreasing nanoparticle size, leading to a progressively enlarged thermal hysteresis. Specifically, when the size approaches 10-11nm, the α-phase survives down to 30∘C-the lowest temperature for any AgI family material. We attribute the suppression of the phase transition not only to the increase of the surface energy, but also to the presence of defects and the accompanying charge imbalance induced by PVP. Moreover, the conductivity of as-prepared 11nm β-/γ-AgI nanoparticles at 24∘C is ~1.5×10-2Ω-1cm-1-the highest ionic conductivity for a binary solid at room temperature. The stabilized superionic phase and the remarkable transport properties at a practical temperature reported here suggest promising applications in silver-ion-based electrochemical devices.

  17. Modeling and control of fuel cell based distributed generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo

    This dissertation presents circuit models and control algorithms of fuel cell based distributed generation systems (DGS) for two DGS topologies. In the first topology, each DGS unit utilizes a battery in parallel to the fuel cell in a standalone AC power plant and a grid-interconnection. In the second topology, a Z-source converter, which employs both the L and C passive components and shoot-through zero vectors instead of the conventional DC/DC boost power converter in order to step up the DC-link voltage, is adopted for a standalone AC power supply. In Topology 1, two applications are studied: a standalone power generation (Single DGS Unit and Two DGS Units) and a grid-interconnection. First, dynamic model of the fuel cell is given based on electrochemical process. Second, two full-bridge DC to DC converters are adopted and their controllers are designed: an unidirectional full-bridge DC to DC boost converter for the fuel cell and a bidirectional full-bridge DC to DC buck/boost converter for the battery. Third, for a three-phase DC to AC inverter without or with a Delta/Y transformer, a discrete-time state space circuit model is given and two discrete-time feedback controllers are designed: voltage controller in the outer loop and current controller in the inner loop. And last, for load sharing of two DGS units and power flow control of two DGS units or the DGS connected to the grid, real and reactive power controllers are proposed. Particularly, for the grid-connected DGS application, a synchronization issue between an islanding mode and a paralleling mode to the grid is investigated, and two case studies are performed. To demonstrate the proposed circuit models and control strategies, simulation test-beds using Matlab/Simulink are constructed for each configuration of the fuel cell based DGS with a three-phase AC 120 V (L-N)/60 Hz/50 kVA and various simulation results are presented. In Topology 2, this dissertation presents system modeling, modified space

  18. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  19. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  20. Influence of cathode on the electro-generation of peroxydisulfuric acid oxidant and its application for effective removal of SO2 by room temperature electro-scrubbing process.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Subramanian; Muthuraman, Govindan; Moon, Il Shik

    2015-12-15

    Peroxydisulfuric acid oxidant (H2S2O8) was electro-generated using boron doped diamond (BDD) anode in an undivided electrolytic cell under the optimized conditions and used for the oxidative removal of gaseous SO2. The influence of the nature of cathode material on the formation yield of H2S2O8 was investigated with Ti, Pt, Zr and DSA electrodes in a flow type electrolytic cell under batch recirculation mode. Among the various cathodes employed Ti exhibited a good performance and the formation yield was nearly doubled (0.19 M) compared to the reported value of 0.07 M. The optimization of electrode area ratio between the anode and cathode brought out the fact that for nearly 8 times smaller Ti cathode (8.75:1) the achieved yield was ∼65% higher than the 1:1 ratio of anode and cathode. The highest concentration of 6.8% (0.48 M) H2S2O8 was seen for 35 cm(2) BDD anode with 4 cm(2) Ti at 20 °C with the measured redox potential value of +1200 mV. The oxidative removal of SO2 in an electro-scrubbing column attached to the online production of peroxydisulfuric acid under the optimized conditions of cell parameters shows that SO2 removal efficiency was nearly 100% for 25 and 50 ppm inlet concentrations and 96% for 100 ppm at the room temperature of 25 °C.

  1. The important contribution of photo-generated charges to the silicon nanocrystals photo-charging/discharging-response time at room temperature in MOS-photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatbouri, S.; Troudi, M.; Fargi, A.; Kalboussi, A.; Souifi, A.

    2016-06-01

    The results are reported of a detailed investigation into the photogenerated changes that occur in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) photodetector, having a silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) embedded in SiOx=1.5 tunnel oxide layers. In order to study the influence of photon energy on charging/discharging photo-response of nanocrystal-based MOS structures, we have examined photo-capacitance-voltage (photo-CV) measurements at both light intensities 45 μW and 75 μW and wavelengths 436 nm and 595 nm. The photo-CV measurements indicate the important contribution of photo-generated charges to the charging/discharging mechanism. The (Si-ncs) charging/discharging photo-response time is evaluated to be 300 s at wavelength of 595 nm for 75 μW optical power at room temperature. This response time is influenced by the photogenerated-holes lifetime in the Si-ncs.

  2. Analysis of air ions in biological exposure systems, near HV dc electric power transmission lines, in rooms containing ion generators, and near exposed humans and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, William T.; Gillis, Murlin F.; Weigel, Richard J.

    1983-11-01

    A number of systems containing space charge are analyzed using the transit-time technique developed in an earlier paper. (1) An inequality is derived for a room containing an air-ion generator which relates the ion source current to the minimum space-charge density. (2) Published wind-tunnel data are treated, and the characteristics of space-charge plumes produced downstream from localized corona and radioactive sources are explained. (3) Space-charge data published by other researchers can be evaluated; three examples are given, and in two of them published space-charge densities substantially exceed calculated upper-bound values. (4) Formulae are derived for the extrapolation of ground-level space-charge-density, electric field, and ion-current-density data to points above ground level; these formulae are useful for characterizing the three-dimensional environments in systems where only ground-level measurements are available. (5) A simple upper bound is derived for ground-level space-charge densities produced by high-voltage direct-current (HV dc) transmission lines, and it is shown that actual lines do produce densities closely approaching this upper-bound value. (6) The perturbed space-charge density at the surface of the body of an animal or human exposed to air ions and electric fields is estimated, and it is shown that perturbed and unperturbed space-charge densities are approximately equal for exposure conditions simulating those at ground level near HV dc transmission lines.

  3. Accurate line shapes from sub-1 cm(-1) resolution sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of α-pinene at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Amanda L; Velarde, Luis; Ho, Junming; Psciuk, Brian T; Negre, Christian F A; Ebben, Carlena J; Upshur, Mary Alice; Lu, Zhou; Strick, Benjamin L; Thomson, Regan J; Batista, Victor S; Wang, Hong-Fei; Geiger, Franz M

    2015-02-26

    Despite the importance of terpenes in biology, the environment, and catalysis, their vibrational spectra remain unassigned. Here, we present subwavenumber high-resolution broad-band sum frequency generation (HR-BB-SFG) spectra of the common terpene (+)-α-pinene that reveal 10 peaks in the C-H stretching region at room temperature. The high spectral resolution resulted in spectra with more and better resolved spectral features than those of the Fourier transform infrared, femtosecond stimulated Raman spectra in the bulk condensed phase and those of the conventional BB-SFG and scanning SFG spectroscopy of the same molecule on a surface. Experiment and simulation show the spectral line shapes with HR-BB-SFG to be accurate. Homogeneous vibrational decoherence lifetimes of up to 1.7 ps are assigned to specific oscillators and compare favorably to lifetimes computed from density functional tight binding molecular dynamics calculations. Phase-resolved spectra provided their orientational information. We propose the new spectroscopy as an attractive alternative to time domain vibrational spectroscopy or heterodyne detection schemes for studying vibrational energy relaxation and vibrational coherences in molecules at molecular surfaces or interfaces.

  4. A PC-controlled voltage pulse generator for electroanalytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia-López, Francisco J.; Góngora-Alfaro, José L.; Alvarez-Cervera, Fernando J.; Bata-García, José Luis

    1997-04-01

    We present the design of a voltage pulse generator controlled by an IBM or compatible AT Personal Computer (PC) capable of synthesizing some of the voltage pulse wave forms commonly used in electrochemical studies. The included signals are: differential pulse voltametry, differential normal pulse voltametry, and differential pulse amperometry. Additionally, a triangular wave form and a constant-voltage signal, used in the pretreatment of carbon fiber microelectrodes for neurochemical analysis, are also available. Operating the generator imposes a minimum of restrictions on the specification of the duration, amplitude, and type of wave shapes. Low-cost PC-based design allows for compatibility, portability, and versatility. The operating ranges of the wave form parameters for the three voltametric signals are: initial voltage, -0.9-+0.9 V; step amplitude, 0.1-900 mV; period, 6 ms-60 s; measuring pulse amplitude, 0.1-900 mV; measuring pulse duration, 2 ms-20 s; prepulse duration, 2 ms-20 s. In the electrode pretreatment mode, the operating ranges are: amplitude, 0-±5 V; duration, unlimited; frequency, 15-240 Hz. The generator uses its own time base for the generation of all signals, thereby rendering it independent of processor clock speed or power-line frequency. The results of the experimental evaluation indicate that the system is accurate within ±10% of the expected values, taking into account the errors associated with the signal synthesis and the digitizing process. The maximum achievable scan rate is 500 V/s, and the highest frequency for the triangular wave form is 240 Hz. Therefore, the pulse generator could be used for fast cyclic voltametry (FCV). FCV and other wave forms could be added through software modules, without any hardware changes. We conclude that the PC-based electrochemistry pulse generator represents an economical and flexible alternative for electroanalytical applications.

  5. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The third reporting period in Phase II (April 1--June 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and comparison of the results with full-scale data. The pilot scale tests were performed with the objective of simulating furnace conditions of ongoing full-scale tests at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and defining the processes controlling AR performance to subsequently improve the performance. The tests were conducted in EER' s Boiler Simulator Facility. The main fuel pulsing system was used at the BSF to control the degree of unmixedness, thus providing control over furnace gas O{sub 2} and CO concentrations. Results on AR-Lean, presented in the previous quarterly report, were compared with full-scale data. Performance of reburn+SNCR was tested to predict NO{sub x} control at Greenidge. The results of the BSF reburn+SNCR simulation tests demonstrated that there are synergistic advantages of using these two technologies in series. In particular, injection of overfire air provides additional mixing that reduces negative effects on AR performance at the temperature regime of the Greenidge boiler.

  6. Strong Facet-Induced and Light-Controlled Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Semiconducting β-FeSi2 Nanocubes.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiqiang; Xiong, Shijie; Wu, Shuyi; Zhu, Xiaobin; Meng, Ming; Wu, Xinglong

    2015-09-01

    Crystalline β-FeSi2 nanocubes with two {100} facets and four {011} lateral facets synthesized by spontaneous one-step chemical vapor deposition exhibit strong room-temperature ferromagnetism with saturation magnetization of 15 emu/g. The room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed from the β-FeSi2 nanocubes larger than 150 nm with both the {100} and {011} facets. The ferromagnetism is tentatively explained with a simplified model including both the itinerant electrons in surface states and the local moments on Fe atoms near the surfaces. The work demonstrates the transformation from a nonmagnetic semiconductor to a magnetic one by exposing specific facets and the room-temperature ferromagnetism can be manipulated under light irradiation. The semiconducting β-FeSi2 nanocubes may have large potential in silicon-based spintronic applications. PMID:26302086

  7. Resource allocation and supervisory control architecture for intelligent behavior generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Moore, Kevin L.; Flann, Nicholas S.; Martin, Jason

    2003-09-01

    In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) was funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). As part of our research, we presented the use of a grammar-based approach to enabling intelligent behaviors in autonomous robotic vehicles. With the growth of the number of available resources on the robot, the variety of the generated behaviors and the need for parallel execution of multiple behaviors to achieve reaction also grew. As continuation of our past efforts, in this paper, we discuss the parallel execution of behaviors and the management of utilized resources. In our approach, available resources are wrapped with a layer (termed services) that synchronizes and serializes access to the underlying resources. The controlling agents (called behavior generating agents) generate behaviors to be executed via these services. The agents are prioritized and then, based on their priority and the availability of requested services, the Control Supervisor decides on a winner for the grant of access to services. Though the architecture is applicable to a variety of autonomous vehicles, we discuss its application on T4, a mid-sized autonomous vehicle developed for security applications.

  8. On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiping; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Qin; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-05-01

    A method to generate and control the amplitude and phase distributions of an optical vortex beam is proposed. By introducing a holographic grating on the top of a dielectric waveguide, the free space vortex beam and the in-plane guiding wave can be converted to each other. This microscale holographic grating is very robust against the variation of geometry parameters. The designed vortex beam generator can produce the target beam with a fidelity up to 0.93, and the working bandwidth is about 175 nm with the fidelity larger than 0.80. In addition, a multiple generator composed of two holographic gratings on two parallel waveguides is studied, which can perform an effective and flexible modulation on the vortex beam by controlling the phase of the input light. Our work opens an available avenue towards the integrated orbital angular momentum devices with multiple degrees of optical freedom, which can be used for optical tweezers, micronano imaging, information processing, and so on.

  9. Image quality evaluation and control of computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Uetake, Hiroki

    2016-03-01

    Image quality of the computer-generated holograms are usually evaluated subjectively. For example, the re- constructed image from the hologram is compared with other holograms, or evaluated by the double-stimulus impairment scale method to compare with the original image. This paper proposes an objective image quality evaluation of a computer-generated hologram by evaluating both diffraction efficiency and peak signal-to-noise ratio. Theory and numerical experimental results are shown on Fourier transform transmission hologram of both amplitude and phase modulation. Results without the optimized random phase show that the amplitude transmission hologram gives better peak signal-to noise ratio, but the phase transmission hologram provides about 10 times higher diffraction efficiency to the amplitude type. As an optimized phase hologram, Kinoform is evaluated. In addition, we investigate to control image quality by non-linear operation.

  10. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  11. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  12. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, D. T.

    1985-04-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  13. Using evolution to generate sustainable malaria control with spatial repellents

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Penelope Anne; Boots, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Evolution persistently undermines vector control programs through insecticide resistance. Here we propose a novel strategy which instead exploits evolution to generate and sustain new control tools. Effective spatial repellents are needed to keep vectors out of houses. Our approach generates such new repellents by combining a high-toxicity insecticide with a candidate repellent initially effective against only part of the vector population. By killing mosquitoes that enter treated properties the insecticide selects for vector phenotypes deflected by the repellent, increasing efficacy of the repellent against the target vector population and in turn protecting the insecticide against the spread of insecticide resistance. Using such evolved spatial repellents offers an evolutionarily sustainable, ‘double-dip’ system of disease control combining mortality and repellence. We formalize this idea using models which explore vector population genetics and disease transmission probabilities and show that using evolved spatial repellents is theoretically achievable, effective and sustainable. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15416.001 PMID:27776220

  14. Controllable bioeffects of laser-generated intracellular microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohdy, Marwa Joy

    Laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a nonlinear energy absorption process that can generate precise damage in biological tissues. With femtosecond laser pulses, disruption is highly localized with minimal thermal and mechanical effects to the surrounding region. Cavitation bubbles are produced as a result of LIOB, and these bubbles can be detected and monitored with high-frequency ultrasound. In this work, the controllable viability effects of LIOB bubbles in single cells were characterized. Using a high-frequency acoustic transducer synchronized with a 793 nm, 100 fs laser pulsed at 250 kHz, thermal effects in the vicinity of an LIOB event were directly assessed. Temperaturedependent pulse-echo displacements were calculated using phase-sensitive correlation tracking and fit to a finite-element heat transfer model to estimate thermal distribution. Results indicate a minimal temperature increase (<1 degree C) within 100 microns of a bubble created with multiple laser pulses, confirming that LIOB can be controlled to be thermally noninvasive in the bubble vicinity. Acoustically detectable microbubbles were generated in individual cells with femtosecond LIOB. By adjusting laser fluence, exposure time, and focal location, LIOB could be controlled to produce distinctly different cellular effects. Small (1-2 micron) bubbles with short lifetimes (10100 ms) could be generated in cells without affecting their viability; and, alternatively, large (510 micron) bubbles with long lifetimes (1-5 s) could be generated for selective cell killing without affecting immediately neighboring cells. Experiments were performed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro, and LIOB was detected with both optical and acoustic microscopy. A long-term proliferation assay was also performed using green-fluorescent MCA207 mouse sarcoma cells targeted for LIOB. This assay confirmed that nondestructive bubbles did not affect target cell proliferation over several generations, and that

  15. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  16. First flight vehicle controlled by computer generated software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirab, H.; Tubb, F.

    1993-09-01

    The use of rapid prototyping design methodologies for real time control systems development have become mnore accepted within production engineering organizations. We will use a case study of the Multiple Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) Program (pro- nounced 'Misty') to consider some of the problems with tradi- tional design approaches and attempt to quantify some advantages of rapid prototyping. The MSTI team used rapid prototyping techniques to develop operational flight software for a spacecraft in under fourteen months. MSTI will be the first spacecraft launched which uses automatically generated real-time flight software.

  17. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  18. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Payne; Lary Swanson; Antonio Marquez; Ary Chang; Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-09-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The twelfth reporting period in Phase II (July 3-October 15, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task No.2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  19. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-10-29

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The eighth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 26, 1999) included combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning and experimental activities in support of modeling. Modeling efforts focused on description of AR-Lean--combination of basic reburning and co-injection of N-agent with overfire air. Modeling suggests that efficiency of AR-Lean strongly depends on the amount of the reburning fuel, temperature of flue gas at the point of OFA/N-agent injection, and evaporation time of N-agent. The model describes the most important features of AR-Lean and can be used for AR-Lean optimization.

  20. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky

    2000-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eleventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task 2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  1. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  2. SCOS 2: ESA's new generation of mission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Head, N. C.; Keyte, K.; Howard, P.; Lynenskjold, S.

    1994-01-01

    New mission-control infrastructure is currently being developed by ESOC, which will constitute the second generation of the Spacecraft Control Operations system (SCOS 2). The financial, functional and strategic requirements lying behind the new development are explained. The SCOS 2 approach is described. The technological implications of these approaches is described: in particular it is explained how this leads to the use of object oriented techniques to provide the required 'building block' approach. The paper summarizes the way in which the financial, functional and strategic requirements have been met through this combination of solutions. Finally, the paper outlines the development process to date, noting how risk reduction was achieved in the approach to new technologies and summarizes the current status future plans.

  3. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  4. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  5. Shock Generation and Control Using DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mehul P.; Cain, Alan B.; Nelson, Christopher C.; Corke, Thomas C.; Matlis, Eric H.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a NASA Phase I SBIR contract, with some revisions to remove company proprietary data. The Shock Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI) phenomena in a supersonic inlet involve mutual interaction of oblique shocks with boundary layers, forcing the boundary layer to separate from the inlet wall. To improve the inlet efficiency, it is desired to prevent or delay shock-induced boundary layer separation. In this effort, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and the University of Notre Dame (UND) jointly investigated the use of dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuators for control of SBLI in a supersonic inlet. The research investigated the potential for DBD plasma actuators to suppress flow separation caused by a shock in a turbulent boundary layer. The research involved both numerical and experimental investigations of plasma flow control for a few different SBLI configurations: (a) a 12 wedge flow test case at Mach 1.5 (numerical and experimental), (b) an impinging shock test case at Mach 1.5 using an airfoil as a shock generator (numerical and experimental), and (c) a Mach 2.0 nozzle flow case in a simulated 15 X 15 cm wind tunnel with a shock generator (numerical). Numerical studies were performed for all three test cases to examine the feasibility of plasma flow control concepts. These results were used to guide the wind tunnel experiments conducted on the Mach 1.5 12 degree wedge flow (case a) and the Mach 1.5 impinging shock test case (case b) which were at similar flow conditions as the corresponding numerical studies to obtain experimental evidence of plasma control effects for SBLI control. The experiments also generated data that were used in validating the numerical studies for the baseline cases (without plasma actuators). The experiments were conducted in a Mach 1.5 test section in the University of Notre Dame Hessert Laboratory. The simulation results from cases a and b indicated that multiple

  6. Extreme Precision Environmental Control for Next Generation Radial Velocity Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, Gudmundur K.; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad; Nelson, Matt; Halverson, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Extreme radial velocity precisions of order 10cm/s will enable the discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. Temperature and pressure variations inside a spectrograph can lead to thermomechanical instabilities in the optics and mounts, and refractive index variations in both the optical elements as well as the surrounding air. Together, these variations can easily induce instrumental drifts of several tens to hundreds of meters per second. Enclosing the full optical train in thermally stabilized high-vacuum environments minimizes such errors. In this talk, I will discuss the Environmental Control System (ECS) for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrograph: a near infrared (NIR) facility class instrument we will commission at the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2016. The ECS will maintain the HPF optical bench stable at 180K at the sub milli-Kelvin level on the timescale of days, and at the few milli-Kelvin level over months to years. The entire spectrograph is kept under high-quality vacuum (<10-6 Torr), and environmental temperature fluctuations are compensated for with an actively controlled radiation shield outfitted with custom feedback electronics. High efficiency Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets, and a passive external thermal enclosure further isolate the optics from ambient perturbations. This environmental control scheme is versatile, suitable to stabilize both next generation NIR, and optical spectrographs. I will show how we are currently testing this control system for use with our design concept of the Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS), the next generation optical spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. Our most recent results from full-scale stability tests will be presented.

  7. Beamlet pulse-generation and wavefront-control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Salmon, J.T.; Wilcox, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Beamlet pulse-generation system (or {open_quotes}front end{close_quotes}) refers to the laser hardware that generates the spatially and temporally shaped pulse that is injected into the main laser cavity. All large ICF lasers have pulse-generation systems that typically consist of a narrow-band oscillator, elector-optic modulators for temporal and bandwidth shaping, and one or more preamplifiers. Temporal shaping is used to provide the desired laser output pulse shape and also to compensate for gain saturation effects in the large-aperture amplifiers. Bandwidth is applied to fulfill specific target irradiation requirements and to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in large-aperture laser components. Usually the sharp edge of the beam`s spatial intensity profile is apodized before injection in the main amplifier beam line. This prevents large-amplitude ripples on the intensity profile. Here the authors briefly review the front-end design and discuss improvements to the oscillator and modulator systems. Their main focus, however, is to describe Beamlet`s novel beam-shaping and wavefront-control systems that have recently been fully activated and tested.

  8. Rotorcraft Fuselage Flow Control Using Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Dustin; Thomas, Flint

    2012-11-01

    Active flow control, in the form of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators, is applied to a NASA ROBIN-mod7 generic rotorcraft fuselage model. The model is considered in what would be a typical cruise position i.e. a nose down position at α = -5° . This configuration gives rise to a massive 3-D flow separation over the aft ramp section of the fuselage, characterized by two counter-rotating, streamwise vortices. The control objective is to minimize these concentrated vortices by means of flush fuselage-mounted plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs), and consequently, reduce the form drag of the vehicle. Experiments were conducted at freestream Mach and Reynolds numbers of M∞ = 0 . 12 and ReL = 2 . 65 million, respectively. Aerodynamic loads under both natural and controlled conditions were acquired through use of an ATI Mini40 6-component force sensor. The pressure field on the ramp section was monitored by a 128 count static pressure array. Likewise, the flow field was captured by time-resolved PIV wake surveys. Results are compared with previous studies that utilized active flow control by way of pulsed jets or combustion actuators. This work is supported under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX10AM32G.

  9. New-generation CCD controller requirements and an example: the San Diego State University generation II controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Robert W.; Beale, Frank L.; Eriksen, Jamey E.

    1998-07-01

    New generation astronomical CCD controllers are being required to operate a variety of CCDs in a range of ground-based applications. These include simultaneous readout from two or four corners of the same CCD (multiple readout), operation of several CCDs in the same focal plane (mosaics), fast readout of small devices for wavefront sensing in adaptive optics systems, readout of only a small region or number of regions of a single CCD (sub-image or region of interest readout), merging the charge from neighboring pixels before readout (binning), continuous readout of devices for drift scan observations, and low contrast polarimetric or spectroscopic differential imaging. Most astronomical applications require that the controller electronics not contribute significantly to the readout noise of the CCD, that the dynamic range of the CCD be fully sampled, that the CCD be read out as quickly as possible from one or more readout channels, and that some flexibility in readout modes and device format exist. A further requirement imposed by some institutions is that a single controller design be used for all their CCD instruments to minimize maintenance and development efforts. The Generation II controller design recently completed at San Diego State University to address these requirements is reviewed. A user-programmable digital signal processor (DSP) operating as a sequencer and communications processor is combined with 12-bit digital-to-analog converters for setting all CCD voltages, a video processor chain with speeds of up to 1 MHz, 16-bit analog-to-digital converters, and a bussed backplane architecture for incorporating the control and readout of multiple CCDs by replicating the clock driver and video processing elements.

  10. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  11. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  13. Size-controllable APTS stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoparticles catalyst for the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zahmakıran, Mehmet; Philippot, Karine; Özkar, Saim; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-01-14

    Dimethylamine-borane, (CH(3))(2)NHBH(3), has been considered as one of the attractive materials for the efficient storage of hydrogen, which is still one of the key issues in the "Hydrogen Economy". In a recent communication we have reported the synthesis and characterization of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoparticles with the preliminary results for their catalytic performance in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature. Herein, we report a complete work including (i) effect of initial [APTS]/[Ru] molar ratio on both the size and the catalytic activity of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles, (ii) collection of extensive kinetic data under non-MTL conditions depending on the substrate and catalyst concentrations to define the rate law of Ru(0)/APTS-catalyzed dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature, (iii) determination of activation parameters (E(a), ΔH(#) and ΔS(#)) for Ru(0)/APTS-catalyzed dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane; (iv) demonstration of the catalytic lifetime of Ru(0)/APTS nanoparticles in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature, (v) testing the bottlability and reusability of Ru(0)/APTS nanocatalyst in the room-temperature dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane, (vi) quantitative carbon disulfide (CS(2)) poisoning experiments to find a corrected TTO and TOF values on a per-active-ruthenium-atom basis, (vii) a summary of extensive literature review for the catalysts tested in the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane as part of the results and discussions. PMID:22052298

  14. 49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms contain all motors, motor controllers, and gears for operating one span, in this case, the north span. Note bell with continuous operating clapper for use as fog signals. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 17. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, mechanical equipment room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, mechanical equipment room no. 1; sign reads: Heat exchangers (shell and tube type). Provide precise temperature control of water for cooling critical electronic equipment - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. North American Electric Reliability Council's new control performance standard-oriented automatic generation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Maojun

    A comprehensive Automatic Generation Control (AGC) Simulator has been developed to provide realistic simulation enviromnent for evaluating different AGC algorithms with respect to NERC's (North American Electric Reliability Council) old control criteria and new control performance standards. It can simulate multiple interconnected control areas with net interchanges among them, with one study control area that consists of ten units of different types and sizes, and other equivalent external control areas with two units modeled for each area. Each control area has its own one-month worth of load data that is based on the actual recordings provided by major electric utilities of the United States, while the study area's load also includes a separate set of non-conforming load (NCL) data. The simulator can simulate all of the major types of generating units, and a delay logic has been added to unit models so that the responses of unit models can be closer to that of real units. A unit can be operating in three modes---base loaded mode, manual dispatch mode, and automatic mode. Simplified schemes of unit commitment and economic dispatch are also developed. A new NERC's control performance standard (CPS) oriented AGC logic has been designed and tested by the comprehensive and realistic AGC simulator mentioned above. The new AGC logic includes the CPS1 control, two methods of the CPS2 control, the DCS control, and the prioritized control coordination scheme. Simulation results indicate that the new AGC can achieve better CPS1 and CPS2 control performances with less amount of control effort. A very short-term load predictor is developed, and its application in different AGC algorithms has been studied. The control performance effects of non-conforming load, including its type and magnitude, and total regulating capacity are investigated. In addition, a set of operator-friendly control performance status displays are designed. An IEEE journal paper has been generated from

  17. Internal and ancestral controls of cell-generation times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    Lateral and longitudinal correlations between related cells reveal associations between the generation times of cells for an intermediate period /three generations in bacteral cultures/. Generation times of progeny are influenced by nongenetic factors transmitted from their ancestors.

  18. A new generation control system for astrophysical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirami, R.; Comari, M.; Corte, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Pucillo, M.; Santin, P.; Vuerli, C.

    A new generation control system for telescopes and astrophysical instruments, both by the software and hardware point of view, has been developed and tested at the laboratories of INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. In this paper we present a working prototype of such a system: a lightweight, portable, adaptive system, based on the most diffuse standards; such a prototype can be used as a general purpose building block in the design of new instruments. The software environment is based on Linux, Java and CORBA for the communications among the components of the system. The hardware has been chosen among COTS components; in particular the prototype presented here runs on a PC104+ platform.

  19. Next Generation GPS Ground Control Segment (OCX) Navigation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Harvey, Nate; Miller, Kevin; Romans, Larry; Weiss, Jan; Doyle, Larry; Solorzano, Tara; Petzinger, John; Stell, Al

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, a Raytheon-led team was selected by The Air Force to develop, implement, and operate the next generation GPS ground control segment (OCX). To meet and exceed the demanding OCX navigation performance requirements, the Raytheon team partnered with ITT (Navigation lead) and JPL to adapt major elements of JPL's navigation technology, proven in the operations of the Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. Key design goals for the navigation subsystem include accurate ephemeris and clock accuracy (user range error), ease of model upgrades, and a smooth and safe transition from the legacy system to OCX.We will describe key elements of the innovative architecture of the OCX navigation subsystem,and demonstrate the anticipated performance of the system through high fidelity simulations withactual GPS measurements.

  20. Optical Property Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Deshpande, Mukund S.; Pierson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation white thermal control coatings were developed via the Small Business Innovative Research program utilizing lithium silicate chemistry as a binder. Doping of the binder with additives yielded a powder that was plasma spray capable and that could be applied to light weight polymers and carbon-carbon composite surfaces. The plasma sprayed coating had acceptable beginning-of-life and end-of-live optical properties, as indicated by a successful 1.5 year exposure to the space environment in low Earth orbit. Recent studies also showed the coating to be durable to simulated space environments consisting of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons, 4.5 MeV electrons, and thermal cycling. Large scale deposition was demonstrated on a polymer matrix composite radiator panel, leading to the selection of the coating for use on the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

  1. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  2. Gait generation and control in a climbing hexapod robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, A. A.; Haynes, G. C.; Full, R. J.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2006-05-01

    We discuss the gait generation and control architecture of a bioinspired climbing robot that presently climbs a variety of vertical surfaces, including carpet, cork and a growing range of stucco-like surfaces in the quasi-static regime. The initial version of the robot utilizes a collection of gaits (cyclic feed-forward motion patterns) to locomote over these surfaces, with each gait tuned for a specific surface and set of operating conditions. The need for more flexibility in gait specification (e.g., adjusting number of feet on the ground), more intricate shaping of workspace motions (e.g., shaping the details of the foot attachment and detachment trajectories), and the need to encode gait "transitions" (e.g., tripod to pentapod gait structure) has led us to separate this trajectory generation scheme into the functional composition of a phase assigning transformation of the "clock space" (the six dimensional torus) followed by a map from phase into leg joints that decouples the geometric details of a particular gait. This decomposition also supports the introduction of sensory feedback to allow recovery from unexpected event and to adapt to changing surface geometries.

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  4. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The fourth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on gas reburning. The pilot scale tests reported in previous Quarterly Reports QR-2 and QR-3 were continued. The objective was to simulate furnace conditions at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and to improve the process performance. The tests were conducted in EER's Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). During the reporting period, measurements of CO and ammonia emissions were conducted for reburn + SNCR conditions, as well as tests on the effect of sodium on NO{sub x} control efficiency. Exhaust levels of CO remained below 100 ppm in all tests. Prospective process conditions for the full-scale facility have been identified that can provide over 80% NO{sub x} reduction while maintaining ammonia slip below 4 ppm. Addition of sodium resulted in NO{sub x} control improvement of about 7-10 percentage points. The objective of modeling work was to further understand the influence of the mixing process on gas reburning and to identify factors that can increase the effectiveness of NO reduction. Modeling results demonstrated that the main features of gas reburning could be described using a detailed chemical mechanism with one-dimensional representation of mixing.

  5. Phase, Viscosity, Morphology, and Room Temperature Evaporation Rates of SOA Particles Generated from Different Precursors, at Low and High Relative Humidities, and their Interaction with Hydrophobic Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D. G.; Beranek, J.; Abramson, E.; Shrivastava, M.

    2012-12-01

    Formation, properties, transformations, and temporal evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles strongly depend on particle phase. Semi-volatile molecules that comprise SOA particles were assumed to form a low viscosity solution that maintains equilibrium with the evolving gas phase by rapid evaporation condensation. However, studies by our group indicate that laboratory-generated alpha-pinene SOA particles and ambient SOA characterized in a recent field campaign are in a semi-solid, highly viscous phase, and their evaporation rates are orders of magnitude slower than predicted. We present the results of recent studies in which we have extended our work to include SOA particles generated by oxidation of a number of precursors including limonene, n-alkenes, cyclo-alkenes and isoprene. The resulting particles are characterized by their phase, morphology and room temperature evaporation rates. We conclude that, while the detailed properties of SOA particles depend of their precursor, all studied SOA particles are highly viscous semi-solids that exhibit very slow evaporation rates. Given that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) can change particle phase, it is important to investigate the effect of RH on the phase and evaporation kinetics of SOA particles. To this end SOA particles were generated at low and high (~90%) RH, and their evaporation kinetics and phase were characterized as a function of RH. In the ambient atmosphere SOA particles form in the presence of a mixture of different organic compounds, which are present at or below their equilibrium vapor pressure, and thus have been ignored. However, our data show that these compounds can adsorb to the surface of particles during SOA formation, becoming trapped in the highly viscous SOA, and affect particle properties. We examine the interaction between SOA particles and different hydrophobic organics representing typical anthropogenic emissions by making SOA in the presence of the vapors of these

  6. Controlled generation of disorder on functionalized solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    2000-03-01

    Fabrication of surfaces with complex patterns and small features are important in fields ranging from cell biology to electronics. One of the methods used for controlling surface properties is the functionalization of a solid substrate with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Using methods of conventional or soft lithography, these SAMs can be patterned on a micron scale into ORDERED regions formed from DIFFERENT molecules. The strategy described here is based on a conceptually new approach - controlled generation of DISORDERED regions in a SAM of a SINGLE molecule formed on a substrate micropatterned with different materials. Patterned substrates were fabricated by evaporating one metal (Au, Ag, Si, Al) onto the surface of a second through a stencil mask or photoresist and were immersed in a solution of X(CH_2)_nCH3 (X = SH, SiCl3 or PO(OH)_2). It has been shown that SAMs of the same alkanethiol formed on different metals differ in structure. The SAM at the transition region between the two metals will, therefore, have a distinct and disordered character. The size of the disordered region can be regulated over scales of below 20 nm to microns. We show that the increased reactivity of the surface at the transition region can be used for patterning various area-selective processes, such as wetting, crystallization and fabrication of structures with sub-100-nm features in different materials.

  7. Acoustic bubble: Controlled and selective micropropulsion and chemical waveform generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Daniel

    have offered a higher level of sophistication in terms of liquid manipulation, however, due to low Reynolds number associated with these methods, precise temporal manipulation has remained a challenge. Furthermore, varying the sample concentration rapidly and controllably, an important task for a plethora of chemical and biological studies, has proven to be extremely difficult. Here I demonstrate (Chapter 3) a novel approach for generating chemical waveforms that permits continuous modulation of the signal characteristics including the shape, frequency, amplitude (sample concentration), and duty cycle, with frequencies reaching up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, using multiple bubbles of different sizes in a single microchannel, we show fast switching between multiple distinct stimuli, wherein the waveform of each stimulus is independently controlled. Using our device, we characterized the frequency-dependent activation and internalization of the -adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR), a prototypic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) due to epinephrine. We determined that beta2-AR internalization due to epinephrine occurs on timescales between 100 ms and 5sec. The chemical waveform generation and switching method presented herein is expected to be useful for understanding the dynamics of fast biomolecular processes.

  8. Microgrids and distributed generation systems: Control, operation, coordination and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Liang

    Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) which include distributed generations (DGs), distributed energy storage systems, and adjustable loads are key components in microgrid operations. A microgrid is a small electric power system integrated with on-site DERs to serve all or some portion of the local load and connected to the utility grid through the point of common coupling (PCC). Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and island mode. The structure and components of hierarchical control for a microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) are discussed and analyzed. Case studies would address the reliable and economic operation of IIT microgrid. The simulation results of IIT microgrid operation demonstrate that the hierarchical control and the coordination strategy of distributed energy resources (DERs) is an effective way of optimizing the economic operation and the reliability of microgrids. The benefits and challenges of DC microgrids are addressed with a DC model for the IIT microgrid. We presented the hierarchical control strategy including the primary, secondary, and tertiary controls for economic operation and the resilience of a DC microgrid. The simulation results verify that the proposed coordinated strategy is an effective way of ensuring the resilient response of DC microgrids to emergencies and optimizing their economic operation at steady state. The concept and prototype of a community microgrid that interconnecting multiple microgrids in a community are proposed. Two works are conducted. For the coordination, novel three-level hierarchical coordination strategy to coordinate the optimal power exchanges among neighboring microgrids is proposed. For the planning, a multi-microgrid interconnection planning framework using probabilistic minimal cut-set (MCS) based iterative methodology is proposed for enhancing the economic, resilience, and reliability signals in multi-microgrid operations. The implementation of high-reliability microgrids

  9. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yun

    2015-04-28

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  10. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Li, Yun

    2015-04-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  11. Hydrofluoric Acid Controlled TiO2 Phase Transformation from Rutile to Anatase at Room Temperature and Their Photocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Ge, Suxiang; Li, Dapeng; Jia, Gaoyang; Wang, Beibei; Yang, Zhen; Yang, Zongyang; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we first present rutile TiO2 superstructures could be successfully transformed into anatase TiO2 nanoparticles at room temperature by adjusting the amount of hydrofluoric acid (HF) used in aqueous solution. Photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the as prepared anatase TiO2 exhibited better photocatalytic performance than that of rutile TiO2. We further studied the photocatalytic degradation of RhB on different TiO2 via active species trapping experiments and confirmed that the presence of surface F- on TiO2 was beneficial for the formation of *OH, which was thought to be mainly responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  12. Contamination Control Considerations for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Space Science Program, in its ongoing mission to study the universe, has begun planning for a telescope that will carry on the Hubble Space Telescope's exploration. This telescope, the 'Next Generation Space Telescope' (NGST), will be 6-8 meters in diameter, will be radiatively cooled to 30-60 Kelvin in order to enable extremely deep exposures at near infrared wavelengths, and will operate for a lifetime of 5-10 years. The requirement will be to measure wavelengths from 1-5 microns, with a goal to measure wavelengths from 0.6-30 microns. As such, NGST will present a new contamination control challenge. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) performed one of three preliminary feasibility studies for the NGST, presenting a telescope with an 8 meter, deployable primary mirror and a deployable secondary mirror. The telescope would be radiatively cooled, with the optical telescope assembly (OTA) and the science instrument module (SIM) isolated from the warmer spacecraft support module (SSM). The OTA and the SIM would also be shielded from sunlight with an enormous, inflatable sun-shield. The GSFC telescope was designed for launch on an Atlas HAS, which would require launching the telescope in a stowed configuration, with the SSM, antennae, sun-shield, primary mirror 'petals', and secondary mirror deployed once on-orbit. The launch configuration and deployment scenario of an exposed telescope measuring near infrared and cooled to 30-60 K are the factors presenting contamination hazards to the NGST mission. Preliminary science requirements established are: less than 20% reflectance decrease on optical surfaces over the wavelength range, and less than 0.3% obscuration of optical surfaces. In order to meet these requirements, NGST must be built and launched with careful attention to contamination control. Initial contamination control design options include strict selecting of materials and baking out of hardware down to the component level, minimizing or

  13. Dual-loop self-optimizing robust control of wind power generation with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a self-optimizing robust control scheme that can maximize the power generation for a variable speed wind turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. A dual-loop control structure is proposed to synergize the conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor power and the conversion from rotor power to the electrical power. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the electric power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal generator torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. An ℋ(∞) controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems.

  14. Dual-loop self-optimizing robust control of wind power generation with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a self-optimizing robust control scheme that can maximize the power generation for a variable speed wind turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. A dual-loop control structure is proposed to synergize the conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor power and the conversion from rotor power to the electrical power. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the electric power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal generator torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. An ℋ(∞) controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems. PMID:26071967

  15. Efficient Ultraviolet Second-Harmonic Generation from a Walk-Off-Compensating β-BaB2O4 Device with a New Structure Fabricated by Room-Temperature Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Shinnosuke; Onda, Tomomi; Nagashima, Wataru; Shoji, Ichiro

    2012-05-01

    We have fabricated a second-harmonic-generation device with a new walk-off-compensating structure of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) by room-temperature bonding. The 5-mm-long device, which consists of four 1-mm-thick plates and additional input and output plates of 0.5 mm thickness, generated nearly twice the UV second-harmonic power compared with a bulk BBO crystal. Moreover, we found that the device can improve the beam shape of the output UV light, which is otherwise degraded in a bulk crystal due to the walk-off effect.

  16. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  17. Internet chat rooms: connecting with a new generation of young men of color at risk for HIV infection who have sex with other men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sheldon D; Wharton, Mitchell J; Marrero, Anita I; Little, Avril; Pannell, Kraig; Morgan, John H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of gay-related Internet chat rooms by young men who have sex with other men of color (YMSMC) in a specific catchment area. Participants were 104 YMSMC age 18 to 24 (M = 21.56) who were encountered in two gay-related Internet chat rooms during April 2005. Participants were mainly African American (53.7%, n = 56), HIV-negative (57.6%, n = 60), and online looking for some type of sexual encounter (80.7%, n = 84). The results of this study support the need to develop specific culturally appropriate HIV prevention Internet outreach protocols targeting YMSMC at risk for HIV infection. Lessons learned while conducting this study and recommendations are also discussed.

  18. Generating Control Commands From Gestures Sensed by EMG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    An effort is under way to develop noninvasive neuro-electric interfaces through which human operators could control systems as diverse as simple mechanical devices, computers, aircraft, and even spacecraft. The basic idea is to use electrodes on the surface of the skin to acquire electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with gestures, digitize and process the EMG signals to recognize the gestures, and generate digital commands to perform the actions signified by the gestures. In an experimental prototype of such an interface, the EMG signals associated with hand gestures are acquired by use of several pairs of electrodes mounted in sleeves on a subject s forearm (see figure). The EMG signals are sampled and digitized. The resulting time-series data are fed as input to pattern-recognition software that has been trained to distinguish gestures from a given gesture set. The software implements, among other things, hidden Markov models, which are used to recognize the gestures as they are being performed in real time. Thus far, two experiments have been performed on the prototype interface to demonstrate feasibility: an experiment in synthesizing the output of a joystick and an experiment in synthesizing the output of a computer or typewriter keyboard. In the joystick experiment, the EMG signals were processed into joystick commands for a realistic flight simulator for an airplane. The acting pilot reached out into the air, grabbed an imaginary joystick, and pretended to manipulate the joystick to achieve left and right banks and up and down pitches of the simulated airplane. In the keyboard experiment, the subject pretended to type on a numerical keypad, and the EMG signals were processed into keystrokes. The results of the experiments demonstrate the basic feasibility of this method while indicating the need for further research to reduce the incidence of errors (including confusion among gestures). Topics that must be addressed include the numbers and arrangements

  19. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Yung Szen; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2015-06-15

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously—a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  20. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yap, Yung Szen; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously-a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  1. Triangular-wave generator with controlled sweep polarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Generator, comprised largely of integrated circuits, has operational amplifier connected as integrator to provide linear voltage ramp, pair of logic gates and one-shot multivibrator function as sweep reverse circuit feeding the integrator. Solid state switch effects generator hold capability.

  2. [Virtual room of gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Osvaldo Mateo; Fittipaldi, Mónica Elsa; Henderson, Eduardo; Krabshuis, Justus Hendrik

    2010-12-01

    The amount of published information and its continuing growth can no longer be managed by an individual searcher. One of today's great challenges for the academic researcher and clinician is to find a relevant scientific article using bibliographic search strategies. We aimed to design and build a Virtual Room of Gastroenterology (VRG) generating real-time automated search strategies and producing bibliographic and full text search results. These results update and complement with the latest evidence the Clinical Guideline Program of the World Gastroenterology Organisation. The HTML driven interface provides a series of pre-formulated MeSH based search strategies for each Aula. For each topic between 10 and 20 specific terms, qualifiers and subheadings are identified. The functionality of the VRG is based on the PubMed's characteristic that allows a search strategy to be captured as a web address. The VRG is available in Spanish and English, and the access is free. There are 28 rooms currently available. All together these rooms provide an advanced bibliographic access using more than 900 pre-programmed MeSH driven strategies. In a further very recent development some of the topics of VRG now allow cascade based searches. These searches look at resource sensitive options and possible ethnic difference per topic. The VRG allows significant reductions in time required to design and carry out complex bibliographic searches in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology and endoscopy. The system updates automatically in real-time thus ensuring the currency of the results. PMID:21381412

  3. [Virtual room of gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Osvaldo Mateo; Fittipaldi, Mónica Elsa; Henderson, Eduardo; Krabshuis, Justus Hendrik

    2010-12-01

    The amount of published information and its continuing growth can no longer be managed by an individual searcher. One of today's great challenges for the academic researcher and clinician is to find a relevant scientific article using bibliographic search strategies. We aimed to design and build a Virtual Room of Gastroenterology (VRG) generating real-time automated search strategies and producing bibliographic and full text search results. These results update and complement with the latest evidence the Clinical Guideline Program of the World Gastroenterology Organisation. The HTML driven interface provides a series of pre-formulated MeSH based search strategies for each Aula. For each topic between 10 and 20 specific terms, qualifiers and subheadings are identified. The functionality of the VRG is based on the PubMed's characteristic that allows a search strategy to be captured as a web address. The VRG is available in Spanish and English, and the access is free. There are 28 rooms currently available. All together these rooms provide an advanced bibliographic access using more than 900 pre-programmed MeSH driven strategies. In a further very recent development some of the topics of VRG now allow cascade based searches. These searches look at resource sensitive options and possible ethnic difference per topic. The VRG allows significant reductions in time required to design and carry out complex bibliographic searches in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology and endoscopy. The system updates automatically in real-time thus ensuring the currency of the results.

  4. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  5. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  6. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  7. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  8. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  9. Is There Room for Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Pharmacotherapy of Panic Disorder? A Systematic Review Based on PRISMA Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Giampaolo; Alessandra, Alciati; Raffaele, Balletta; Elisa, Mingotto; Giuseppina, Diaferia; Paolo, Cavedini; Maria, Nobile; Daniela, Caldirola

    2016-01-01

    A role for second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of panic disorders (PD) has been proposed, but the actual usefulness of SGAs in this disorder is unclear. According to the PRISMA guidelines, we undertook an updated systematic review of all of the studies that have examined, in randomized controlled trials, the efficacy and tolerability of SGAs (as either monotherapy or augmentation) in the treatment of PD, with or without other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Studies until 31 December 2015 were identified through PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library and Clinical trials.gov. Among 210 studies, five were included (two involving patients with a principal diagnosis of PD and three involving patients with bipolar disorder with comorbid PD or generalized anxiety disorder). All were eight-week trials and involved treatments with quetiapine extended release, risperidone and ziprasidone. Overall, a general lack of efficacy of SGAs on panic symptoms was observed. Some preliminary indications of the antipanic effectiveness of risperidone are insufficient to support its use in PD, primarily due to major limitations of the study. However, several methodological limitations may have negatively affected all of these studies, decreasing the validity of the results and making it difficult to draw reliable conclusions. Except for ziprasidone, SGAs were well tolerated in these short-term trials. PMID:27089322

  10. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  11. An application of fuzzy logic to power generation control

    SciTech Connect

    Tarabishy, M.N.; Grudzinski, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The high demand for more energy at lower prices, coupled with tighter safety and environmental regulations made it necessary for utility companies to provide reliable power more efficiently, and for that purpose new control methods are being utilized to meet those challenges. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) technology produces controllers that are more robust at lower development cost and time. These qualities give FLC advantage over conventional control technologies particularly in dealing with increasingly complex nonlinear systems. In this paper the authors examine some of the main applications of FLC in power systems and demonstrate it`s usefulness in the control of a gas turbine.

  12. 146. View of oil filter room in basement (Room B1) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. View of oil filter room in basement (Room B-1) where oil used in lubrication in generator room is cleaned and recycled. The two tanks in the foreground each have capacities of 2,100 gallons. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  13. 149. Interior of Room B3, Air Compressor Room, showing a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. Interior of Room B-3, Air Compressor Room, showing a ca. 1960s Worthington air compressor used to provide compressed air for powerhouse; air compressor powered by an electric motor; stairway (far left) leads to the generator room. Looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  15. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  16. VIEW OF ICE/INSP TEAM ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 2, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ICE/INSP TEAM ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 2, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Generation and control of thoron emanated from lantern mantles.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Tokonami, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a thoron ((220)Rn) flowthrough source made of a commercially available lantern mantle. This (220)Rn source is easy to construct and operate and has a negligible radon ((222)Rn) gas generated when the air was passed through the source. We studied the (220)Rn concentration generated from the lantern mantles in terms of the variability in concentration associated with both the total weight of the lantern mantles used in the source and the air flow rate used in the experimental chamber. We found that the concentration of (220)Rn generated in air ranged from 0.9 to 150 kBq m(-3) and exponentially depended on the absolute humidity. The (220)Rn concentration increased linearly with increasing total weight of the lantern mantles, but variations in the rate of air flow passed through the source had no influence on the observed (220)Rn concentration.

  18. Generation and control of thoron emanated from lantern mantles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Tokonami, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a thoron (R220n) flowthrough source made of a commercially available lantern mantle. This R220n source is easy to construct and operate and has a negligible radon (R222n) gas generated when the air was passed through the source. We studied the R220n concentration generated from the lantern mantles in terms of the variability in concentration associated with both the total weight of the lantern mantles used in the source and the air flow rate used in the experimental chamber. We found that the concentration of R220n generated in air ranged from 0.9 to 150 kBq m-3 and exponentially depended on the absolute humidity. The R220n concentration increased linearly with increasing total weight of the lantern mantles, but variations in the rate of air flow passed through the source had no influence on the observed R220n concentration.

  19. The Distribution of Active Force Generators Controls Mitotic Spindle Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Stephan W.; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2003-07-01

    During unequal cell divisions a mitotic spindle is eccentrically positioned before cell cleavage. To determine the basis of the net force imbalance that causes spindle displacement in one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we fragmented centrosomes with an ultraviolet laser. Analysis of the mean and variance of fragment speeds suggests that the force imbalance is due to a larger number of force generators pulling on astral microtubules of the posterior aster relative to the anterior aster. Moreover, activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) α subunits is required to generate these astral forces.

  20. Vortex generators for control of shock-induced separation. Part 3: Examples of applications of vortex generators to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    ESDU 93026 illustrates by case studies the use of the information in Parts 1 and 2 on the use of vortex generators to control shock-induced separation. The examples are the control of internal noise by the application of vortex generators on the forward cabin roof of a business aircraft (Gulfstream III), the control of separation associated with a three-shock pattern near the tip of a highly swept and tapered model wing in a wind-tunnel, and the improvement of the buffet maneuver boundary on a straight wing interceptor aircraft of the fifties. In each case the geometric details of the arrays of vortex generators tested are provided, the results obtained are described, and the aerodynamic principles involved that influence those results are assessed.