Science.gov

Sample records for generation knowledge base

  1. Knowledge Based Text Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    knowledge base as well as communicate the reasoning behind a particular diagnosis. This is discussed more thoroughly in subsequent sections. On the other...explanation. Wcincr proposed that a statement can be justified by offering reasons , supporting examples, and implausible alternatives, except for the statement...These justification techniques are realized in his system by four predicates: statement, reason , example and alternative. Connectives such as and/or

  2. Design of a knowledge-based report generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kukich, K.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge-based report generation is a technique for automatically generating natural language reports from computer databases. It is so named because it applies knowledge-based expert systems software to the problem of text generation. The first application of the technique, a system for generating natural language stock reports from a daily stock quotes database, is partially implemented. Three fundamental principles of the technique are its use of domain-specific semantic and linguistic knowledge, its use of macro-level semantic and linguistic constructs (such as whole messages, a phrasal lexicon, and a sentence-combining grammar), and its production system approach to knowledge representation. 14 references.

  3. Knowledge-based zonal grid generation for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation of flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards reducing the difficulty of three-dimensional grid generation in computational fluid dynamics. Using a knowledge-based approach makes sense, but problems arise which are caused by aspects of zoning involving perception, lack of expert consensus, and design processes. These obstacles are overcome by means of a simple shape and configuration language, a tunable zoning archetype, and a method of assembling plans from selected, predefined subplans. A demonstration system for knowledge-based two-dimensional flow field zoning has been successfully implemented and tested on representative aerodynamic configurations. The results show that this approach can produce flow field zonings that are acceptable to experts with differing evaluation criteria.

  4. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  5. Incorporating Feature-Based Annotations into Automatically Generated Knowledge Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, L. I.; Lederman, J. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2006-12-01

    Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) is efficient and effective in representing scientific data in an XML- based formalism. However, features of the data being represented are not accounted for in ESML. Such features might derive from events (e.g., a gap in data collection due to instrument servicing), identifications (e.g., a scientifically interesting area/volume in an image), or some other source. In order to account for features in an ESML context, we consider them from the perspective of annotation, i.e., the addition of information to existing documents without changing the originals. Although it is possible to extend ESML to incorporate feature-based annotations internally (e.g., by extending the XML schema for ESML), there are a number of complicating factors that we identify. Rather than pursuing the ESML-extension approach, we focus on an external representation for feature-based annotations via XML Pointer Language (XPointer). In previous work (Lumb &Aldridge, HPCS 2006, IEEE, doi:10.1109/HPCS.2006.26), we have shown that it is possible to extract relationships from ESML-based representations, and capture the results in the Resource Description Format (RDF). Thus we explore and report on this same requirement for XPointer-based annotations of ESML representations. As in our past efforts, the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) allows us to illustrate with a real-world example this approach for introducing annotations into automatically generated knowledge representations.

  6. Knowledge-based planning model for courses of action generation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.R.; Baucum, T.A.

    1986-04-07

    U.S. Army War College students of the Class of 1986 were solicited to participate in a Military Studies Program to develop a planning model for Courses of Action Generation. The Model was to be knowledge-based, i.e., drawn from the collective experience of officers with operational/planning backgrounds. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results of the four knowledge engineering sessions conducted. The detailed results are at enclosures 1-4, each enclosure acting as an agreed-upon record of that engineering session. Initial discussions between the CECLOM computer scientist and the AWC students concerned the potential for automation of the process of developing a scheme of maneuver. It was the opinion of the students that some aspects of the process would be extremely difficult to include in a computer program - the intent of the commander, for example. While neither student dismissed the potential of artificial intelligence on the battlefield, neither actively sought ways to incorporate it, either. What evolved, therefore, was and exposition by the students of what actually goes on in the minds of commanders and battlefield planners during an active operational environment.

  7. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  8. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  9. Knowledge-based reasoning in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time tactical decision generation system for air combat engagements, Paladin, has been developed. A pilot's job in air combat includes tasks that are largely symbolic. These symbolic tasks are generally performed through the application of experience and training (i.e. knowledge) gathered over years of flying a fighter aircraft. Two such tasks, situation assessment and throttle control, are identified and broken out in Paladin to be handled by specialized knowledge based systems. Knowledge pertaining to these tasks is encoded into rule-bases to provide the foundation for decisions. Paladin uses a custom built inference engine and a partitioned rule-base structure to give these symbolic results in real-time. This paper provides an overview of knowledge-based reasoning systems as a subset of rule-based systems. The knowledge used by Paladin in generating results as well as the system design for real-time execution is discussed.

  10. Motion Recognition and Modifying Motion Generation for Imitation Robot Based on Motion Knowledge Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzawa, Yuki; Kato, Shohei; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Itoh, Hidenori

    A knowledge-based approach to imitation learning of motion generation for humanoid robots and an imitative motion generation system based on motion knowledge learning and modification are described. The system has three parts: recognizing, learning, and modifying parts. The first part recognizes an instructed motion distinguishing it from the motion knowledge database by the continuous hidden markov model. When the motion is recognized as being unfamiliar, the second part learns it using locally weighted regression and acquires a knowledge of the motion. When a robot recognizes the instructed motion as familiar or judges that its acquired knowledge is applicable to the motion generation, the third part imitates the instructed motion by modifying a learned motion. This paper reports some performance results: the motion imitation of several radio gymnastics motions.

  11. A Different Approach to the Generation of Patient Management Problems from a Knowledge-Based System

    PubMed Central

    Barriga, Rosa Maria

    1988-01-01

    Several strategies are proposed to approach the generation of Patient Management Problems from a Knowledge Base and avoid inconsistencies in the results. These strategies are based on a different Knowledge Base structure and in the use of case introductions that describe the patient attributes which are not disease-dependent. This methodology has proven effective in a recent pilot test and it is on its way to implementation as part of an educational program at CWRU, School of Medicine.

  12. Generating MEDLINE search strategies using a librarian knowledge-based system.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, P.; Aguirre, A.; Johnson, S. B.; Cimino, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a librarian knowledge-based system that generates a search strategy from a query representation based on a user's information need. Together with the natural language parser AQUA, the system functions as a human/computer interface, which translates a user query from free text into a BRS Onsite search formulation, for searching the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In the system, conceptual graphs are used to represent the user's information need. The UMLS Metathesaurus and Semantic Net are used as the key knowledge sources in building the knowledge base. PMID:8130544

  13. Applying Knowledge to Generate Action: A Community-Based Knowledge Translation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Practical strategies are needed to translate research knowledge between researchers and users into action. For effective translation to occur, researchers and users should partner during the research process, recognizing the impact that knowledge, when translated into practice, will have on those most affected by that research.…

  14. Why discourse structures in medical reports matter for the validity of automatically generated text knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    1998-01-01

    The automatic analysis of medical full-texts currently suffers from neglecting text coherence phenomena such as reference relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the description adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of artificially fragmented, incomplete and invalid knowledge structures. We discuss three types of textual phenomena (pronominal and nominal anaphora, as well as textual ellipsis) and outline basic methodologies how to deal with them.

  15. Detecting knowledge base inconsistencies using automated generation of text and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, V.O.; Moore, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    Verifying the fidelity of domain representation in large knowledge bases (KBs) is a difficult problem: domain experts are typically not experts in knowledge representation languages, and as knowledge bases grow more complex, visual inspection of the various terms and their abstract definitions, their interrelationships and the limiting, boundary cases becomes much harder. This paper presents an approach to help verify and refine abstract term definitions in knowledge bases. It assumes that it is easier for a domain expert to determine the correctness of individual concrete examples than it is to verify and correct all the ramifications of an abstract, intentional specification. To this end, our approach presents the user with an interface in which abstract terms in the KB are described using examples and natural language generated from the underlying domain representation. Problems in the KB are therefore manifested as problems in the generated description. The user can then highlight specific examples or parts of the explanation that seem problematic. The system reasons about the underlying domain model by using the discourse plan generated for the description. This paper briefly describes the working of the system and illustrates three possible types of problem manifestations using an example of a specification of floating-point numbers in Lisp.

  16. Bedside, classroom and bench: collaborative strategies to generate evidence-based knowledge for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Charlotte A; Warren, Judith J; Delaney, Connie

    2005-12-01

    The rise of evidence-base practice (EBP) as a standard for care delivery is rapidly emerging as a global phenomenon that is transcending political, economic and geographic boundaries. Evidence-based nursing (EBN) addresses the growing body of nursing knowledge supported by different levels of evidence for best practices in nursing care. Across all health care, including nursing, we face the challenge of how to most effectively close the gap between what is known and what is practiced. There is extensive literature on the barriers and difficulties of translating research findings into practical application. While the literature refers to this challenge as the "Bench to Bedside" lag, this paper presents three collaborative strategies that aim to minimize this gap. The Bedside strategy proposes to use the data generated from care delivery and captured in the massive data repositories of electronic health record (EHR) systems as empirical evidence that can be analysed to discover and then inform best practice. In the Classroom strategy, we present a description for how evidence-based nursing knowledge is taught in a baccalaureate nursing program. And finally, the Bench strategy describes applied informatics in converting paper-based EBN protocols into the workflow of clinical information systems. Protocols are translated into reference and executable knowledge with the goal of placing the latest scientific knowledge at the fingertips of front line clinicians. In all three strategies, information technology (IT) is presented as the underlying tool that makes this rapid translation of nursing knowledge into practice and education feasible.

  17. Knowledge-based approach for generating target system specifications from a domain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomaa, Hassan; Kerschberg, Larry; Sugumaran, Vijayan

    1992-01-01

    Several institutions in industry and academia are pursuing research efforts in domain modeling to address unresolved issues in software reuse. To demonstrate the concepts of domain modeling and software reuse, a prototype software engineering environment is being developed at George Mason University to support the creation of domain models and the generation of target system specifications. This prototype environment, which is application domain independent, consists of an integrated set of commercial off-the-shelf software tools and custom-developed software tools. This paper describes the knowledge-based tool that was developed as part of the environment to generate target system specifications from a domain model.

  18. Building the Knowledge Base to Support the Automatic Animation Generation of Chinese Traditional Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gongjin; Bai, Weijing; Yin, Meifang; Zhang, Songmao

    We present a practice of applying the Semantic Web technologies in the domain of Chinese traditional architecture. A knowledge base consisting of one ontology and four rule bases is built to support the automatic generation of animations that demonstrate the construction of various Chinese timber structures based on the user's input. Different Semantic Web formalisms are used, e.g., OWL DL, SWRL and Jess, to capture the domain knowledge, including the wooden components needed for a given building, construction sequence, and the 3D size and position of every piece of wood. Our experience in exploiting the current Semantic Web technologies in real-world application systems indicates their prominent advantages (such as the reasoning facilities and modeling tools) as well as the limitations (such as low efficiency).

  19. Generating Topic Headings during Reading of Screen-Based Text Facilitates Learning of Structural Knowledge and Impairs Learning of Lower-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Marker, Anthony W.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation considers the effects of learner-generated headings on memory. Participants (N = 63) completed a computer-based lesson with or without learner-generated text topic headings. Posttests included a cued recall test of factual knowledge and a sorting task measure of structural knowledge. A significant disordinal interaction was…

  20. Scaling up explanation generation: Large-scale knowledge bases and empirical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.C.; Porter, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    To explain complex phenomena, an explanation system must be able to select information from a formal representation of domain knowledge, organize the selected information into multisentential discourse plans, and realize the discourse plans in text. Although recent years have witnessed significant progress in the development of sophisticated computational mechanisms for explanation, empirical results have been limited. This paper reports on a seven year effort to empirically study explanation generation from semantically rich, large-scale knowledge bases. We first describe Knight, a robust explanation system that constructs multi-sentential and multi-paragraph explanations from the Biology Knowledge Base, a large-scale knowledge base in the domain of botanical anatomy, physiology, and development. We then introduce the Two Panel evaluation methodology and describe how Knight`s performance was assessed with this methodology in the most extensive empirical evaluation conducted on an explanation system. In this evaluation, Knight scored within {open_quotes}half a grade{close_quote} of domain experts, and its performance exceeded that of one of the domain experts.

  1. A knowledge-based approach to generating diverse but energetically representative ensembles of ligand conformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, Roman J.; Smith, Karl M.; Masek, Brian B.; Clark, Robert D.

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a new and efficient stochastic conformational sampling method for generating a range of low-energy molecule conformations. Sampling can be tailored to a specific structural domain (e.g., peptides) by extracting torsional profiles from specific datasets and subsequently applying them to target molecules outside the reference set. The programs that handle creation of the knowledge-based torsional profiles and conformer generation per se are separate and so can be used independently or sequentially, depending on the task at hand. The conformational ensembles produced are contrasted with those generated using local minimization approaches. They are also quantitatively compared with a broader range of techniques in terms of speed and the ability to reproduce bound ligand conformations found in complexes with proteins.

  2. Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

    2013-01-01

    Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

  3. Foundations on Generation of Relationships Between Classes Based on Initial Business Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforova, Oksana; Pavlova, Natalya

    This chapter focuses on the development of the main component of platform independent model (PIM) of Model Driven Architecture, e.g., class diagram defined in Unified Modeling Language (UML), which has necessary details for transformation into platform specific model (PSM). It is important to formulate core principles of development of well-structured class diagram at a conceptual level, using knowledge of the problem domain, which consists of two interrelated models of system aspects - business processes and concept presentation. Definition of relationships of classes is important for PSM generation; therefore, the research on how it could be defined is performed. The hypothesis that it is possible to derive a class structure from initial business information is adduced. Information about the problem domain is presented in the form of two-hemisphere model that describes two interrelated parts of the most important aspects of a system, namely business process and concept models. These models serve as a source model for class diagram receiving. Capacity for the class diagram generation, based on the two-hemisphere model, is represented by a collection of graph transformations and illustrated with examples, where definition of different kinds of relationships (namely aggregation, dependency, generalization) is displayed.

  4. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  5. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  6. Knowledge-based design of generate-and-patch problem solvers that solve global resource assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Kerstin

    1992-01-01

    We present MENDER, a knowledge based system that implements software design techniques that are specialized to automatically compile generate-and-patch problem solvers that satisfy global resource assignments problems. We provide empirical evidence of the superior performance of generate-and-patch over generate-and-test: even with constrained generation, for a global constraint in the domain of '2D-floorplanning'. For a second constraint in '2D-floorplanning' we show that even when it is possible to incorporate the constraint into a constrained generator, a generate-and-patch problem solver may satisfy the constraint more rapidly. We also briefly summarize how an extended version of our system applies to a constraint in the domain of 'multiprocessor scheduling'.

  7. Generating executable knowledge for evidence-based medicine using natural language and semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the "gold standard" for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%.

  8. A Knowledge Generation Model via the Hypernetwork

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the statistical properties of the network on the knowledge diffusion has been extensively studied. However, the structure evolution and the knowledge generation processes are always integrated simultaneously. By introducing the Cobb-Douglas production function and treating the knowledge growth as a cooperative production of knowledge, in this paper, we present two knowledge-generation dynamic evolving models based on different evolving mechanisms. The first model, named “HDPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the hyperdegree preferential attachment mechanisms. The second model, named “KSPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the knowledge stock preferential attachment mechanisms. We investigate the effect of the parameters on the total knowledge stock of the two models. The hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model can be theoretically analyzed by the mean-field theory. The analytic result indicates that the hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model obeys the power-law distribution and the exponent is . Furthermore, we present the distributions of the knowledge stock for different parameters . The findings indicate that our proposed models could be helpful for deeply understanding the scientific research cooperation. PMID:24626143

  9. A knowledge generation model via the hypernetwork.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the statistical properties of the network on the knowledge diffusion has been extensively studied. However, the structure evolution and the knowledge generation processes are always integrated simultaneously. By introducing the Cobb-Douglas production function and treating the knowledge growth as a cooperative production of knowledge, in this paper, we present two knowledge-generation dynamic evolving models based on different evolving mechanisms. The first model, named "HDPH model," adopts the hyperedge growth and the hyperdegree preferential attachment mechanisms. The second model, named "KSPH model," adopts the hyperedge growth and the knowledge stock preferential attachment mechanisms. We investigate the effect of the parameters (α,β) on the total knowledge stock of the two models. The hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model can be theoretically analyzed by the mean-field theory. The analytic result indicates that the hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model obeys the power-law distribution and the exponent is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we present the distributions of the knowledge stock for different parameters (α,β). The findings indicate that our proposed models could be helpful for deeply understanding the scientific research cooperation.

  10. Computer based interpretation of infrared spectra-structure of the knowledge-base, automatic rule generation and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrentreich, F.; Dietze, U.; Meyer, U.; Abbas, S.; Schulz, H.

    1995-04-01

    It is a main task within the SpecInfo-Project to develop interpretation tools that can handle a great deal more of the complicated, more specific spectrum-structure-correlations. In the first step the empirical knowledge about the assignment of structural groups and their characteristic IR-bands has been collected from literature and represented in a computer readable well-structured form. Vague, verbal rules are managed by introduction of linguistic variables. The next step was the development of automatic rule generating procedures. We had combined and enlarged the IDIOTS algorithm with the algorithm by Blaffert relying on set theory. The procedures were successfully applied to the SpecInfo database. The realization of the preceding items is a prerequisite for the improvement of the computerized structure elucidation procedure.

  11. Introduction to knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsuga, S.

    1986-01-01

    This work provides a broad range of easy-to-understand information on basic knowledge base concepts and basic element technology for the building of a knowledge base system. It also discusses various languages and networks for development of knowledge base systems. It describes applications of knowledge base utilization methodology and prospects for the future in such areas as pattern recognition, natural language processing, expert systems, and CAD/CAM.

  12. Knowledge and vision engines: a new generation of image understanding systems combining computational intelligence methods and model-based knowledge representation and reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvychko, Igor

    2000-10-01

    Vision is a part of a larger informational system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. The solution to Image Understanding problems is suggested in form of active multilevel hierarchical networks represented dually as discrete and continuous structures. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Certainty Dimension converts attractors in neural networks into fuzzy sets, preserving input-output relationships. Symbols naturally emerge in such networks. Symbolic Space is a dual structure that combines closed distributed space split by the set of fuzzy regions, and discrete set of symbols equivalent to the cores of regions represented as points in the Certainty dimension. Model Space carries knowledge in form of links and relations between the symbols, and supports graph, diagrammatic and topological operations. Composition of spaces works similar to M. Minsky frames and agents, Gerard Edelman's maps of maps, etc., combining machine learning, classification and analogy together with induction, deduction and other methods of higher level model-based reasoning. Based on such principles, an Image Understanding system can convert images into knowledge models, effectively resolving uncertainty and ambiguity via feedback projections and does not require supercomputers.

  13. Cooperative Knowledge Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    intellegent knowledge bases. The present state of our system for concurrent evaluation of a knowledge base of logic clauses using static allocation...de Kleer, J., An assumption-based TMS, Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1986. [Doyle 79) Doyle, J. A truth maintenance system, Artificial

  14. Generational Differences in Knowledge Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    often called the “latchkey generation,” because many of its members came home from school to an empty house due to working parents (Hicks & Hicks). As...prodigious lifestyle and expects to enjoy 37 the fruits of prosperity throughout their lives (Hicks & Hicks). Sometimes called the “Net...applicability and appropriateness of the market construct across the generations. The protocol was administered to all participants in person, in an empty

  15. Next generation data systems and knowledge products to support agricultural producers and science-based policy decision making.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Susan M; Antle, John M; Seavert, Clark

    2017-07-01

    Research on next generation agricultural systems models shows that the most important current limitation is data, both for on-farm decision support and for research investment and policy decision making. One of the greatest data challenges is to obtain reliable data on farm management decision making, both for current conditions and under scenarios of changed bio-physical and socio-economic conditions. This paper presents a framework for the use of farm-level and landscape-scale models and data to provide analysis that could be used in NextGen knowledge products, such as mobile applications or personal computer data analysis and visualization software. We describe two analytical tools - AgBiz Logic and TOA-MD - that demonstrate the current capability of farmlevel and landscape-scale models. The use of these tools is explored with a case study of an oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, which could be used to produce jet aviation fuel. We conclude with a discussion of innovations needed to facilitate the use of farm and policy-level models to generate data and analysis for improved knowledge products.

  16. The role of textual semantic constraints in knowledge-based inference generation during reading comprehension: A computational approach.

    PubMed

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The present research adopted a computational approach to explore the extent to which the semantic content of texts constrains the activation of knowledge-based inferences. Specifically, we examined whether textual semantic constraints (TSC) can explain (1) the activation of predictive inferences, (2) the activation of bridging inferences and (3) the higher prevalence of the activation of bridging inferences compared to predictive inferences. To examine these hypotheses, we computed the strength of semantic associations between texts and probe items as presented to human readers in previous behavioural studies, using the Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) algorithm. We tested whether stronger semantic associations are observed for inferred items compared to control items. Our results show that in 15 out of 17 planned comparisons, the computed strength of semantic associations successfully simulated the activation of inferences. These findings suggest that TSC play a central role in the activation of knowledge-based inferences.

  17. Geospatial Standards and the Knowledge Generation Lifescycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalsa, Siri Jodha S.; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Standards play an essential role at each stage in the sequence of processes by which knowledge is generated from geoscience observations, simulations and analysis. This paper provides an introduction to the field of informatics and the knowledge generation lifecycle in the context of the geosciences. In addition we discuss how the newly formed Earth Science Informatics Technical Committee is helping to advance the application of standards and best practices to make data and data systems more usable and interoperable.

  18. Automated Knowledge Generation with Persistent Surveillance Video

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    5 2.1 Artificial Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 Formal Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2...background of Artificial Intelligence and the reasoning engines that will be applied to generate knowledge from data. Section 2.2 discusses background on...generation from persistent video. 4 II. Background In this chapter, we will discuss the background of Artificial Intelligence, Semantic Web, image

  19. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  20. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  1. Health Knowledge Among the Millennial Generation

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Tom; Shaffer, Michele L.; Christy, Stetter; Widome, Mark D.; Repke, John; Weitekamp, Michael R.; Eslinger, Paul J.; Bargainnier, Sandra S.; Paul, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Millennial Generation, also known as Generation Y, is the demographic cohort following Generation X, and is generally regarded to be composed of those individuals born between 1980 and 2000. They are the first to grow up in an environment where health-related information is widely available by internet, TV and other electronic media, yet we know very little about the scope of their health knowledge. This study was undertaken to quantify two domains of clinically relevant health knowledge: factual content and ability to solve health related questions (application) in nine clinically related medical areas. Study subjects correctly answered, on average, 75% of health application questions but only 54% of health content questions. Since students were better able to correctly answer questions dealing with applications compared to those on factual content contemporary US high school students may not use traditional hierarchical learning models in acquisition of their health knowledge. PMID:25170479

  2. Health knowledge among the millennial generation.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Tom; Shaffer, Michele L; Christy, Stetter; Widome, Mark D; Repke, John; Weitekamp, Michael R; Eslinger, Paul J; Bargainnier, Sandra S; Paul, Ian M

    2013-04-28

    The Millennial Generation, also known as Generation Y, is the demographic cohort following Generation X, and is generally regarded to be composed of those individuals born between 1980 and 2000. They are the first to grow up in an environment where health-related information is widely available by internet, TV and other electronic media, yet we know very little about the scope of their health knowledge. This study was undertaken to quantify two domains of clinically relevant health knowledge: factual content and ability to solve health related questions (application) in nine clinically related medical areas. Study subjects correctly answered, on average, 75% of health application questions but only 54% of health content questions. Since students were better able to correctly answer questions dealing with applications compared to those on factual content contemporary US high school students may not use traditional hierarchical learning models in acquisition of their health knowledge.

  3. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial process descriptions, and permitting techniques, including flexible permit development. Using MKB, one can gain a comprehensive understanding of emissions sources, control devices, and monitoring techniques, enabling one to determine appropriate permit terms and conditions.

  4. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  5. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  6. Generating scientific models of knowledge using arcs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinshil; Pressler, Susan J; Jones, Josette; Graves, Judith R

    2008-01-01

    Systematic approaches are needed to review literature on nutrition in heart failure for its scientific merit, relevance, and usefulness and identify directions for future research. To evaluate the feasibility of arcs (J.R.G., Indianapolis, Indiana), a computer program for managing data from literature and modeling knowledge, the objectives were to conduct an integrative review of 10 studies of nutrition in heart failure and generate scientific models of knowledge using arcs. A unit of knowledge in arcs is 2 variables linked by a statistical relationship. The computer program arcs categorized variables and relationships found in the 10 explanatory observational studies. It also provided a scientific model for further empirical testing. The computer program arcs aggregated the following: 104 dependent and 93 independent operational variables and 60 associational, 16 predictive, 15 structural, 1 descriptive, and 85 difference relationships. A direct model produced by arcs postulated a structural relationship between cachexia and 18-month mortality, independent of age or New York Heart Association classification, which can be tested as a path theoretical model. The computer program arcs appeared to be feasible for conducting an integrative review of nutrition in heart failure. A larger, representative set of literature will enable generation of knowledge and identification of gaps and inconsistencies in findings.

  7. Knowledge Generation Model for Visual Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sacha, Dominik; Stoffel, Andreas; Stoffel, Florian; Kwon, Bum Chul; Ellis, Geoffrey; Keim, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    Visual analytics enables us to analyze huge information spaces in order to support complex decision making and data exploration. Humans play a central role in generating knowledge from the snippets of evidence emerging from visual data analysis. Although prior research provides frameworks that generalize this process, their scope is often narrowly focused so they do not encompass different perspectives at different levels. This paper proposes a knowledge generation model for visual analytics that ties together these diverse frameworks, yet retains previously developed models (e.g., KDD process) to describe individual segments of the overall visual analytic processes. To test its utility, a real world visual analytics system is compared against the model, demonstrating that the knowledge generation process model provides a useful guideline when developing and evaluating such systems. The model is used to effectively compare different data analysis systems. Furthermore, the model provides a common language and description of visual analytic processes, which can be used for communication between researchers. At the end, our model reflects areas of research that future researchers can embark on.

  8. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, Stephanie; Post, Joachim; Mück, Matthias; Zosseder, Kai; Muhari, Abdul; Anwar, Herryal Z.; Gebert, Niklas; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas on the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Depending on the location of the tsunamigenic earthquake, in many cases the time to reach a tsunami-safe area is as short as 15 or 20 minutes. To increase the chances of a successful evacuation a comprehensive and thorough planning and preparation is necessary. For this purpose, detailed knowledge on potential hazard impact and safe areas, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, deficiencies in response capabilities and evacuation routes is crucial. The major aims of this paper are (i) to assess and quantify people's response capabilities and (ii) to identify high risk areas which have a high need of action to improve the response capabilities and thus to reduce the risk. The major factor influencing people's ability to evacuate successfully is the factor time. The estimated time of arrival of a tsunami at the coast which determines the overall available time for evacuation after triggering of a tsunami can be derived by analyzing modeled tsunami scenarios for a respective area. But in most cases, this available time frame is diminished by other time components including the time until natural or technical warning signs are received and the time until reaction follows a warning (understanding a warning and decision to take appropriate action). For the time to receive a warning we assume that the early warning centre is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. Reaction time is difficult to quantify as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience play a role. Although we are aware of the great importance of this factor and the importance to minimize the reaction time, it is not considered in this paper. Quantifying the needed evacuation time is based on a GIS approach. This approach is relatively simple and enables local

  9. Reflexive Professionalism as a Second Generation of Evidence-Based Practice: Some Considerations on the Special Issue "What Works? Modernizing the Knowledge-Base of Social Work"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Hans-Uwe; Polutta, Andreas; Ziegler, Holger

    2009-01-01

    This article refers sympathetically to the thoughtful debates and positions in the "Research on Social Work Practice" ("RSWP"; Special Issue, July, 2008 issue) on "What Works? Modernizing the Knowledge-Base of Social Work." It highlights the need for empirical efficacy and effectiveness research in social work and…

  10. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  11. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  12. Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model: an evidence-based framework for generating technological innovations with socio-economic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional government policies suggest that upstream investment in scientific research is necessary and sufficient to generate technological innovations. The expected downstream beneficial socio-economic impacts are presumed to occur through non-government market mechanisms. However, there is little quantitative evidence for such a direct and formulaic relationship between public investment at the input end and marketplace benefits at the impact end. Instead, the literature demonstrates that the technological innovation process involves a complex interaction between multiple sectors, methods, and stakeholders. Discussion The authors theorize that accomplishing the full process of technological innovation in a deliberate and systematic manner requires an operational-level model encompassing three underlying methods, each designed to generate knowledge outputs in different states: scientific research generates conceptual discoveries; engineering development generates prototype inventions; and industrial production generates commercial innovations. Given the critical roles of engineering and business, the entire innovation process should continuously consider the practical requirements and constraints of the commercial marketplace. The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model encompasses the activities required to successfully generate innovations, along with associated strategies for effectively communicating knowledge outputs in all three states to the various stakeholders involved. It is intentionally grounded in evidence drawn from academic analysis to facilitate objective and quantitative scrutiny, and industry best practices to enable practical application. Summary The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model offers a practical, market-oriented approach that avoids the gaps, constraints and inefficiencies inherent in undirected activities and disconnected sectors. The NtK Model is a means to realizing increased returns on public investments in those science and technology

  13. Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model: an evidence-based framework for generating technological innovations with socio-economic impacts.

    PubMed

    Flagg, Jennifer L; Lane, Joseph P; Lockett, Michelle M

    2013-02-15

    Traditional government policies suggest that upstream investment in scientific research is necessary and sufficient to generate technological innovations. The expected downstream beneficial socio-economic impacts are presumed to occur through non-government market mechanisms. However, there is little quantitative evidence for such a direct and formulaic relationship between public investment at the input end and marketplace benefits at the impact end. Instead, the literature demonstrates that the technological innovation process involves a complex interaction between multiple sectors, methods, and stakeholders. The authors theorize that accomplishing the full process of technological innovation in a deliberate and systematic manner requires an operational-level model encompassing three underlying methods, each designed to generate knowledge outputs in different states: scientific research generates conceptual discoveries; engineering development generates prototype inventions; and industrial production generates commercial innovations. Given the critical roles of engineering and business, the entire innovation process should continuously consider the practical requirements and constraints of the commercial marketplace.The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model encompasses the activities required to successfully generate innovations, along with associated strategies for effectively communicating knowledge outputs in all three states to the various stakeholders involved. It is intentionally grounded in evidence drawn from academic analysis to facilitate objective and quantitative scrutiny, and industry best practices to enable practical application. The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model offers a practical, market-oriented approach that avoids the gaps, constraints and inefficiencies inherent in undirected activities and disconnected sectors. The NtK Model is a means to realizing increased returns on public investments in those science and technology programs expressly intended to

  14. Knowledge generation and utilisation in occupational therapy: towards epistemic reflexivity.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Whiteford, Gail Elizabeth

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the ways in which theory generation, and hence knowledge generation, in occupational therapy is a complex social process, and therefore carries (often hidden) responsibilities for those who are part of our epistemic community. An epistemic community is a knowledge-producing community, who apply their standards of credibility, and epistemic values, to theory choice. In occupational therapy this community is comprised of a worldwide group of scholars and practitioners. We propose that epistemic reflexivity can be used to critique and contribute to our disciplinary knowledge and to critically consider 'who' makes epistemological choices in our profession, and the consequent implications for the theories we adopt. The purpose of this article is to make these relations explicit so that scholars and therapists can become increasingly conscious and empowered with respect to their contributions to occupational therapy's epistemic community. To demonstrate an application of epistemic reflexivity, we critically consider a theoretical construction that has been widely adopted by the international occupational therapy community: evidence-based practice. As authors, we engage in epistemic reflexivity to critically consider the challenge posed by evidence-based practice. We propose a conception of practice knowledge that is informed by evidence yet based on a conception of wise practice. Our intention is to stimulate discussion and debate in occupational therapy's epistemic community, a number of approaches for fostering epistemic reflexivity in occupational therapy are suggested.

  15. Augmenting a database knowledge representation for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, K.F.

    1982-01-01

    The knowledge representation is an important factor in natural language generation since it limits the semantic capabilities of the generation system. This paper identifies several information types in a knowledge representation that can be used to generate meaningful responses to questions about database structure. Creating such a knowledge representation, however, is a long and tedious process. A system is presented which uses the contents of the database to form part of this knowledge representation automatically. It employs three types of world knowledge axioms to ensure that the representation formed is meaningful and contains salient information. 7 references.

  16. Knowledge-Based Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    UNCLASSIF1 ED ETL-025s N IIp ETL-0258 AL Ai01319 S"Knowledge-based image analysis u George C. Stockman Barbara A. Lambird I David Lavine Laveen N. Kanal...extraction, verification, region classification, pattern recognition, image analysis . 3 20. A. CT (Continue on rever.. d. It necessary and Identify by...UNCLgSTFTF n In f SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Date Entered) .L1 - I Table of Contents Knowledge Based Image Analysis I Preface

  17. Knowledge-based nursing diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Claudette; Hay, D. Robert

    1991-03-01

    Nursing diagnosis is an integral part of the nursing process and determines the interventions leading to outcomes for which the nurse is accountable. Diagnoses under the time constraints of modern nursing can benefit from a computer assist. A knowledge-based engineering approach was developed to address these problems. A number of problems were addressed during system design to make the system practical extended beyond capture of knowledge. The issues involved in implementing a professional knowledge base in a clinical setting are discussed. System functions, structure, interfaces, health care environment, and terminology and taxonomy are discussed. An integrated system concept from assessment through intervention and evaluation is outlined.

  18. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  19. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  20. Knowledge Acquisition Using Linguistic-Based Knowledge Analysis

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Most knowledge-based system developmentefforts include acquiring knowledge from one or more sources. difficulties associated with this knowledge acquisition task are readily acknowledged by most researchers. While a variety of knowledge acquisition methods have been reported, little has been done to organize those different methods and to suggest how to apply them...

  1. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  2. Knowledge-based flow field zoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.

  3. Case-Based Tutoring from a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Homer L.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of programs that make use of large knowledge bases to assist physicians in diagnosis within the general field of internal medicine. One such program, Internist-I, contains knowledge about over 600 diseases, covering a significant proportion of internal medicine. This paper describes the process of converting a subset of this knowledge base--in the area of cardiovascular diseases--into a probabilistic format, and the use of this resulting knowledge base to teach medical diagnostic knowledge. The system (called KBSimulator--for Knowledge-Based patient Simulator) generates simulated patient cases and uses these cases as a focal point from which to teach medical knowledge. It interacts with the student in a mixed-initiative fashion, presenting patients for the student to diagnose, and allowing the student to obtain further information on his/her own initiative in the context of that patient case. The system scores the student, and uses these scores to form a rudimentary model of the student. This resulting model of the student is then used to direct the generation of subsequent patient cases. This project demonstrates the feasibility of building an intelligent, flexible instructional system that uses a knowledge base constructed primarily for medical diagnosis.

  4. Generative and Item-Specific Knowledge of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily Ida Popper

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate novel utterances compositionally using generative knowledge is a hallmark property of human language. At the same time, languages contain non-compositional or idiosyncratic items, such as irregular verbs, idioms, etc. This dissertation asks how and why language achieves a balance between these two systems--generative and…

  5. Generative and Item-Specific Knowledge of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily Ida Popper

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate novel utterances compositionally using generative knowledge is a hallmark property of human language. At the same time, languages contain non-compositional or idiosyncratic items, such as irregular verbs, idioms, etc. This dissertation asks how and why language achieves a balance between these two systems--generative and…

  6. Population Education: A Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.

    To aid junior high and high school educators and curriculum planners as they develop population education programs, the book provides an overview of the population education knowledge base. In addition, it suggests learning activities, discussion questions, and background information which can be integrated into courses dealing with population,…

  7. Population Education: A Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.

    To aid junior high and high school educators and curriculum planners as they develop population education programs, the book provides an overview of the population education knowledge base. In addition, it suggests learning activities, discussion questions, and background information which can be integrated into courses dealing with population,…

  8. Epistemology of knowledge based simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R.

    1987-04-01

    Combining artificial intelligence concepts, with traditional simulation methodologies yields a powerful design support tool known as knowledge based simulation. This approach turns a descriptive simulation tool into a prescriptive tool, one which recommends specific goals. Much work in the area of general goal processing and explanation of recommendations remains to be done.

  9. Collaboration-based medical knowledge recommendation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong; Zhao, Chenhui

    2012-05-01

    Clinicians rely on a large amount of medical knowledge when performing clinical work. In clinical environment, clinical organizations must exploit effective methods of seeking and recommending appropriate medical knowledge in order to help clinicians perform their work. Aiming at supporting medical knowledge search more accurately and realistically, this paper proposes a collaboration-based medical knowledge recommendation approach. In particular, the proposed approach generates clinician trust profile based on the measure of trust factors implicitly from clinicians' past rating behaviors on knowledge items. And then the generated clinician trust profile is incorporated into collaborative filtering techniques to improve the quality of medical knowledge recommendation, to solve the information-overload problem by suggesting knowledge items of interest to clinicians. Two case studies are conducted at Zhejiang Huzhou Central Hospital of China. One case study is about the drug recommendation hold in the endocrinology department of the hospital. The experimental dataset records 16 clinicians' drug prescribing tracks in six months. This case study shows a proof-of-concept of the proposed approach. The other case study addresses the problem of radiological computed tomography (CT)-scan report recommendation. In particular, 30 pieces of CT-scan examinational reports about cerebral hemorrhage patients are collected from electronic medical record systems of the hospital, and are evaluated and rated by 19 radiologists of the radiology department and 7 clinicians of the neurology department, respectively. This case study provides some confidence the proposed approach will scale up. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs well in recommending medical knowledge items of interest to clinicians, which indicates that the proposed approach is feasible in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AIS Data Base Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    the area of natura , ianguage understanding by computer come from the fields of Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence (Al). In the last...blocks of the data base. Another interestino approach to automated database generation is the :m,? taiean ty the Heurist~c P’ogrimming Projec~t at...operating system. 22 OSI’s Orientation O)perling Systems’ approach to automated database generatio,.I i_- irrneo ~~ ciilpport c,’ riformatlon

  11. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  12. Drawing on Dynamic Local Knowledge through Student-Generated Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Monson, Bayley; Moses, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors explored how teachers using student-generated photography draw on local knowledge. The study draws on the framework of funds of knowledge to highlight the assets marginalized students bring to the classroom and the need for culturally relevant pedagogy to address the needs of a diverse public school population. The…

  13. Drawing on Dynamic Local Knowledge through Student-Generated Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Monson, Bayley; Moses, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors explored how teachers using student-generated photography draw on local knowledge. The study draws on the framework of funds of knowledge to highlight the assets marginalized students bring to the classroom and the need for culturally relevant pedagogy to address the needs of a diverse public school population. The…

  14. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrentine, Tameka C.; Kennedy, Bryan C.; Saba, Anthony W.; Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Julia Teresa; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Baldonado, Esther

    2008-03-01

    In 2004, the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment department embarked upon a partnership with the Systems Engineering and Analysis knowledge management (KM) team to develop knowledge management systems for the neutron generator (NG) community. This partnership continues today. The most recent challenge was to improve the current KM system (KMS) development approach by identifying a process that will allow staff members to capture knowledge as they learn it. This 'as-you-go' approach will lead to a sustainable KM process for the NG community. This paper presents a historical overview of NG KMSs, as well as research conducted to move toward sustainable KM.

  15. Knowledge-based media adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, Klaus; Jannach, Dietmar; Hellwagner, Hermann

    2004-10-01

    This paper introduces the principal approach and describes the basic architecture and current implementation of the knowledge-based multimedia adaptation framework we are currently developing. The framework can be used in Universal Multimedia Access scenarios, where multimedia content has to be adapted to specific usage environment parameters (network and client device capabilities, user preferences). Using knowledge-based techniques (state-space planning), the framework automatically computes an adaptation plan, i.e., a sequence of media conversion operations, to transform the multimedia resources to meet the client's requirements or constraints. The system takes as input standards-compliant descriptions of the content (using MPEG-7 metadata) and of the target usage environment (using MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation metadata) to derive start and goal states for the planning process, respectively. Furthermore, declarative descriptions of the conversion operations (such as available via software library functions) enable existing adaptation algorithms to be invoked without requiring programming effort. A running example in the paper illustrates the descriptors and techniques employed by the knowledge-based media adaptation system.

  16. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  17. Acquisition, representation and rule generation for procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Chris; Saito, Tim; Mithal, Sachin; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the design and continuing development of a system for the acquisition of procedural knowledge, its representation in useful forms, and proposed methods for automated C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rule generation is discussed. The Task Analysis and Rule Generation Tool (TARGET) is intended to permit experts, individually or collectively, to visually describe and refine procedural tasks. The system is designed to represent the acquired knowledge in the form of graphical objects with the capacity for generating production rules in CLIPS. The generated rules can then be integrated into applications such as NASA's Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) architecture. Also described are proposed methods for use in translating the graphical and intermediate knowledge representations into CLIPS rules.

  18. Cooperating knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward A.; Buchanan, Bruce G.

    1988-01-01

    This final report covers work performed under Contract NCC2-220 between NASA Ames Research Center and the Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University. The period of research was from March 1, 1987 to February 29, 1988. Topics covered were as follows: (1) concurrent architectures for knowledge-based systems; (2) methods for the solution of geometric constraint satisfaction problems, and (3) reasoning under uncertainty. The research in concurrent architectures was co-funded by DARPA, as part of that agency's Strategic Computing Program. The research has been in progress since 1985, under DARPA and NASA sponsorship. The research in geometric constraint satisfaction has been done in the context of a particular application, that of determining the 3-D structure of complex protein molecules, using the constraints inferred from NMR measurements.

  19. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  20. Next generation agricultural system data, models and knowledge products: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Antle, John M; Jones, James W; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a "NextGen" study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  1. Generating pedagogical content knowledge in teacher education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ed

    2015-09-01

    Some pre-service teaching activities can contribute much to the learning of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and subsequent teaching as these activities are generating PCK within the pre-service teacher’s own classroom. Three examples are described: preparing exhibitions of science experiments, assessing preconceptions, and teaching using embedded formative assessment in which assessment leads teaching and almost inevitably results in the development of PCK. Evidence for the effectiveness of the methods is based on the author’s experience in teacher education programmes in different countries, but will need to be confirmed by research. This is a modified version of the author’s keynote lecture on teacher education at the World Conference on Physics Education, 1-6 July 2012, Istanbul, Turkey.

  2. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  3. Advanced software development workstation. Knowledge base design: Design of knowledge base for flight planning application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    The development process of the knowledge base for the generation of Test Libraries for Mission Operations Computer (MOC) Command Support focused on a series of information gathering interviews. These knowledge capture sessions are supporting the development of a prototype for evaluating the capabilities of INTUIT on such an application. the prototype includes functions related to POCC (Payload Operation Control Center) processing. It prompts the end-users for input through a series of panels and then generates the Meds associated with the initialization and the update of hazardous command tables for a POCC Processing TLIB.

  4. Automated Fictional Ideation via Knowledge Base Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Llano, Maria Teresa; Colton, Simon; Hepworth, Rose; Gow, Jeremy

    The invention of fictional ideas (ideation) is often a central process in the creative production of artefacts such as poems, music and paintings, but has barely been studied in the computational creativity community. We present here a general approach to automated fictional ideation that works by manipulating facts specified in knowledge bases. More specifically, we specify a number of constructions which, by altering and combining facts from a knowledge base, result in the generation of fictions. Moreover, we present an instantiation of these constructions through the use of ConceptNet, a database of common sense knowledge. In order to evaluate the success of these constructions, we present a curation analysis that calculates the proportion of ideas which pass a typicality judgement. We further evaluate the output of this approach through a crowd-sourcing experiment in which participants were asked to rank ideas. We found a positive correlation between the participant's rankings and a chaining inference technique that automatically assesses the value of the fictions generated through our approach. We believe that these results show that this approach constitutes a firm basis for automated fictional ideation with evaluative capacity.

  5. Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship in a Boundless Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Anno, Davide

    2008-01-01

    International entrepreneurship and knowledge-based entrepreneurship have recently generated considerable academic and non-academic attention. This paper explores the "new" field of knowledge-based entrepreneurship in a boundless research system. Cultural barriers to the development of business opportunities by researchers persist in some academic…

  6. Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship in a Boundless Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Anno, Davide

    2008-01-01

    International entrepreneurship and knowledge-based entrepreneurship have recently generated considerable academic and non-academic attention. This paper explores the "new" field of knowledge-based entrepreneurship in a boundless research system. Cultural barriers to the development of business opportunities by researchers persist in some academic…

  7. A knowledge base architecture for distributed knowledge agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    A tuple space based object oriented model for knowledge base representation and interpretation is presented. An architecture for managing distributed knowledge agents is then implemented within the model. The general model is based upon a database implementation of a tuple space. Objects are then defined as an additional layer upon the database. The tuple space may or may not be distributed depending upon the database implementation. A language for representing knowledge and inference strategy is defined whose implementation takes advantage of the tuple space. The general model may then be instantiated in many different forms, each of which may be a distinct knowledge agent. Knowledge agents may communicate using tuple space mechanisms as in the LINDA model as well as using more well known message passing mechanisms. An implementation of the model is presented describing strategies used to keep inference tractable without giving up expressivity. An example applied to a power management and distribution network for Space Station Freedom is given.

  8. Critical Analysis of Textbooks: Knowledge-Generating Logics and the Emerging Image of "Global Economic Contexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the critical analysis of textbook knowledge, which, working from a discourse theory perspective (based on the work of Foucault), refers to the performative nature of language. The critical potential of the approach derives from an analysis of knowledge-generating logics, which produce particular images of reality…

  9. Critical Analysis of Textbooks: Knowledge-Generating Logics and the Emerging Image of "Global Economic Contexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the critical analysis of textbook knowledge, which, working from a discourse theory perspective (based on the work of Foucault), refers to the performative nature of language. The critical potential of the approach derives from an analysis of knowledge-generating logics, which produce particular images of reality…

  10. Knowledge Base Editor (SharpKBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The SharpKBE software provides a graphical user interface environment for domain experts to build and manage knowledge base systems. Knowledge bases can be exported/translated to various target languages automatically, including customizable target languages.

  11. Generating Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Some pre-service teaching activities can contribute much to the learning of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and subsequent teaching as these activities are "generating" PCK within the pre-service teacher's own classroom. Three examples are described: preparing exhibitions of science experiments, assessing preconceptions, and teaching…

  12. Knowledge-Based Inferences Are Not General

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Connie; Chiarello, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Although knowledge-based inferences (Graesser, Singer, & Trabasso, 1994) depend on general knowledge, there may be differences across knowledge areas in how they support these processes. This study explored processing differences between 2 areas of knowledge (physical cause?effect vs. goals and planning) to establish (a) that each would support…

  13. Multi-Generational Knowledge Sharing for NASA Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA, like many other organizations, is facing major challenges when it comes to its workforce. The average age of its personnel is 46, and 68 percent of its population is between 35 and 55. According to the U.S. Government Accounting Office, if the workforce continues aging, not enough engineers will have moved up the ranks and have the requisite skills to enable NASA to meet its vision for space exploration. In order to meet its goals of developing a new generation of spacecraft to support human spaceflight to the moon and Mars, the agency must engage and retain younger generations of workers and bridge the gaps between the four generations working today. Knowledge sharing among the generations is more critical than ever. This paper describes the strategies used to develop the NASA Engineering Network with the goal of engaging different generations.

  14. A Discussion of Knowledge Based Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A discussion of knowledge and Knowledge- Based design as related to the design of aircraft is presented. The paper discusses the perceived problem with existing design studies and introduces the concepts of design and knowledge for a Knowledge- Based design system. A review of several Knowledge-Based design activities is provided. A Virtual Reality, Knowledge-Based system is proposed and reviewed. The feasibility of Virtual Reality to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of aerodynamic and multidisciplinary design, evaluation, and analysis of aircraft through the coupling of virtual reality technology and a Knowledge-Based design system is also reviewed. The final section of the paper discusses future directions for design and the role of Knowledge-Based design.

  15. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  16. Nonlinear knowledge-based classification.

    PubMed

    Mangasarian, Olvi L; Wild, Edward W

    2008-10-01

    In this brief, prior knowledge over general nonlinear sets is incorporated into nonlinear kernel classification problems as linear constraints in a linear program. These linear constraints are imposed at arbitrary points, not necessarily where the prior knowledge is given. The key tool in this incorporation is a theorem of the alternative for convex functions that converts nonlinear prior knowledge implications into linear inequalities without the need to kernelize these implications. Effectiveness of the proposed formulation is demonstrated on publicly available classification data sets, including a cancer prognosis data set. Nonlinear kernel classifiers for these data sets exhibit marked improvements upon the introduction of nonlinear prior knowledge compared to nonlinear kernel classifiers that do not utilize such knowledge.

  17. Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  18. The experimenters' regress reconsidered: Replication, tacit knowledge, and the dynamics of knowledge generation.

    PubMed

    Feest, Uljana

    2016-08-01

    This paper revisits the debate between Harry Collins and Allan Franklin, concerning the experimenters' regress. Focusing my attention on a case study from recent psychology (regarding experimental evidence for the existence of a Mozart Effect), I argue that Franklin is right to highlight the role of epistemological strategies in scientific practice, but that his account does not sufficiently appreciate Collins's point about the importance of tacit knowledge in experimental practice. In turn, Collins rightly highlights the epistemic uncertainty (and skepticism) surrounding much experimental research. However, I will argue that his analysis of tacit knowledge fails to elucidate the reasons why scientists often are (and should be) skeptical of other researchers' experimental results. I will present an analysis of tacit knowledge in experimental research that not only answers to this desideratum, but also shows how such skepticism can in fact be a vital enabling factor for the dynamic processes of experimental knowledge generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling Guru: Knowledge Base for NASA Modelers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    Modeling Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific models or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), Modeling Guru's combined forums and knowledge base for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific modeling and HEC communities. All NASA modelers and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the models and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. Modeling Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge base documents. Current modeling communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on Modeling Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge base" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the

  20. Knowledge-based pitch detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, W. P.

    1986-06-01

    Many problems in signal processing involve a mixture of numerical and symbolic knowledge. Examples of problems of this sort include the recognition of speech and the analysis of images. This thesis focuses on the problem of employing a mixture of symbolic and numerical knowledge within a single system, through the development of a system directed at a modified pitch detection problem. For this thesis, the conventional pitch detection problem was modified by providing a phonetic transcript and sex/age information as input to the system, in addition to the acoustic waveform. The Pitch Detector's Assistant (PDA) system that was developed is an interactive facility for evaluating ways of approaching this problem. The PDA system allows the user to interrupt processing at any point, change either input data, derived data, or problem knowledge and continue execution.

  1. Integration of textual guideline documents with formal guideline knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Shankar, R D; Tu, S W; Martins, S B; Fagan, L M; Goldstein, M K; Musen, M A

    2001-01-01

    Numerous approaches have been proposed to integrate the text of guideline documents with guideline-based care systems. Current approaches range from serving marked up guideline text documents to generating advisories using complex guideline knowledge bases. These approaches have integration problems mainly because they tend to rigidly link the knowledge base with text. We are developing a bridge approach that uses an information retrieval technology. The new approach facilitates a versatile decision-support system by using flexible links between the formal structures of the knowledge base and the natural language style of the guideline text.

  2. Automated extraction of knowledge for model-based diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Myler, Harley R.; Towhidnejad, Massood; Mckenzie, Frederic D.; Kladke, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of accessing computer aided design (CAD) design databases and extracting a process model automatically is investigated as a possible source for the generation of knowledge bases for model-based reasoning systems. The resulting system, referred to as automated knowledge generation (AKG), uses an object-oriented programming structure and constraint techniques as well as internal database of component descriptions to generate a frame-based structure that describes the model. The procedure has been designed to be general enough to be easily coupled to CAD systems that feature a database capable of providing label and connectivity data from the drawn system. The AKG system is capable of defining knowledge bases in formats required by various model-based reasoning tools.

  3. Introducing T-shaped managers. Knowledge management's next generation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M T; von Oetinger, B

    2001-03-01

    Most companies do a poor job of capitalizing on the wealth of expertise scattered across their organizations. That's because they tend to rely on centralized knowledge-management systems and technologies. But such systems are really only good at distributing explicit knowledge, the kind that can be captured and codified for general use. They're not very good at transferring implicit knowledge, the kind needed to generate new insights and creative ways of tackling business problems or opportunities. The authors suggest another approach, something they call T-shaped management, which requires executives to share knowledge freely across their organization (the horizontal part of the "T"), while remaining fiercely committed to their individual business unit's performance (the vertical part). A few companies are starting to use this approach, and one--BP Amoco--has been especially successful. From BP's experience, the authors have gleaned five ways that T-shaped managers help companies capitalize on their inherent knowledge. They increase efficiency by transferring best practices. They improve the quality of decision making companywide. They grow revenues through shared expertise. They develop new business opportunities through the cross-pollination of ideas. And they make bold strategic moves possible by delivering well-coordinated implementation. All that takes time, and BP's managers have had to learn how to balance that time against the attention they must pay to their own units. The authors suggest, however, that it's worth the effort to find such a balance to more fully realize the immense value of the knowledge lying idle within so many companies.

  4. Knowledge-Based Search Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Steven J.; Smith, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an empirical study that was conducted to examine the performance of expert search intermediaries from Chemical Abstracts Service. Highlights include subject-independent and subject-dependent expertise; a model of the use of subject-specific knowledge; and implications for computerized intermediary systems and for training human…

  5. Knowledge-Based Search Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Steven J.; Smith, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an empirical study that was conducted to examine the performance of expert search intermediaries from Chemical Abstracts Service. Highlights include subject-independent and subject-dependent expertise; a model of the use of subject-specific knowledge; and implications for computerized intermediary systems and for training human…

  6. Common Sense about Uncommon Knowledge: The Knowledge Bases for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, G. Pritchy

    This book explains knowledge bases for teaching diverse student populations. An introduction displays one first-year teacher's experiences with diverse students in a high school classroom in San Angelo, Texas in 1961. The 15 chapters are: (1) "Toward Defining Culturally Responsible and Responsive Teacher Education"; (2) "Knowledge…

  7. Games for Learning: Which Template Generates Social Construction of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover how three person teams use game templates (trivia, role-play, or scavenger hunt) to socially construct knowledge. The researcher designed an experimental Internet-based database to facilitate teams creating each game. Teams consisted of teachers, students, hobbyist, and business owners who shared similar…

  8. Games for Learning: Which Template Generates Social Construction of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover how three person teams use game templates (trivia, role-play, or scavenger hunt) to socially construct knowledge. The researcher designed an experimental Internet-based database to facilitate teams creating each game. Teams consisted of teachers, students, hobbyist, and business owners who shared similar…

  9. Utilizing knowledge-base semantics in graph-based algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Darwiche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Graph-based algorithms convert a knowledge base with a graph structure into one with a tree structure (a join-tree) and then apply tree-inference on the result. Nodes in the join-tree are cliques of variables and tree-inference is exponential in w*, the size of the maximal clique in the join-tree. A central property of join-trees that validates tree-inference is the running-intersection property: the intersection of any two cliques must belong to every clique on the path between them. We present two key results in connection to graph-based algorithms. First, we show that the running-intersection property, although sufficient, is not necessary for validating tree-inference. We present a weaker property for this purpose, called running-interaction, that depends on non-structural (semantical) properties of a knowledge base. We also present a linear algorithm that may reduce w* of a join-tree, possibly destroying its running-intersection property, while maintaining its running-interaction property and, hence, its validity for tree-inference. Second, we develop a simple algorithm for generating trees satisfying the running-interaction property. The algorithm bypasses triangulation (the standard technique for constructing join-trees) and does not construct a join-tree first. We show that the proposed algorithm may in some cases generate trees that are more efficient than those generated by modifying a join-tree.

  10. [Challenges for knowledge generation in environmental health: an ecosystemic approach].

    PubMed

    Weihs, Marla; Mertens, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    This article examines opportunities and limitations regarding knowledge generation in the field of environmental health. The contention is that understanding the complexity of factors that determine the health of humans and ecosystems requires a redefinition of the traditional distribution of roles and responsibilities in scientific research. These research practices involve inter and transdisciplinary approaches and the application of an ecosystemic approach (ecohealth). Challenges and opportunities associated to the application of inter and transdisciplinarity in environmental health problems are discussed and illustrated by two case studies that use an ecohealth approach: a project on the contamination and exposure to mercury in the Brazilian Amazon, and another on the urban transmission of echinococcosis in Nepal. In the conclusion, the potential benefits of using an ecohealth approach in overcoming the limitations of unidisciplinary practices and in taking advantage of local knowledge and participation is stressed.

  11. Persistent Data/Knowledge Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Processing in PDKB 47 8 Future Research Topics 51 9 Conclusion 59 A cknowledgnents iii Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Rome Air...queries are processed and rules are inferenced in PDKB. Chapter 8 discusses future research topics and directions for PDKB. They include reasoning...existing knowledge, and forward chaining will be triggered., A detailed query and inferencing processing design is beyond the scope of this research

  12. The Role of Domain Knowledge in Creative Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a predominant tendency in creative generation tasks is to base new ideas on well-known, specific instances of previous ideas (e.g., basing ideas for imaginary aliens on dogs, cats or bears). However, a substantial minority of individuals has been shown to adopt more abstract approaches to the task and to develop…

  13. The Role of Domain Knowledge in Creative Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a predominant tendency in creative generation tasks is to base new ideas on well-known, specific instances of previous ideas (e.g., basing ideas for imaginary aliens on dogs, cats or bears). However, a substantial minority of individuals has been shown to adopt more abstract approaches to the task and to develop…

  14. Factors Influencing the Creation of a Wiki Culture for Knowledge Management in a Cross-Generational Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro, Kenneth L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Initiatives within organizations that promote sharing of knowledge may be hampered by generational differences. Research on relationships between generations and technology-based knowledge sharing campaigns provides little managerial guidance for practitioners. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to identify the factors that influence the…

  15. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Xuefeng; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost. PMID:28588611

  16. Utilizing Data and Knowledge Mining for Probabilistic Knowledge Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    everything. My dear wife Tamara deserves an award simply for tolerating me these last 18 months. This is the second time she has been with me during a degree...and the flexibility of its knowledge representation scheme is an inverse one. In order to implement a realistic, real-world application, both of these ...information from some text- based source, such as an on-line encyclopedia or an Internet web page. Most often, these systems are highly focused and specialize

  17. The Knowledge Building Paradigm: A Model of Learning for Net Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Donald

    2005-01-01

    In this article Donald Philip describes Knowledge Building, a pedagogy based on the way research organizations function. The global economy, Philip argues, is driving a shift from older, industrial models to the model of the business as a learning organization. The cognitive patterns of today's Net Generation students, formed by lifetime exposure…

  18. The Knowledge Building Paradigm: A Model of Learning for Net Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Donald

    2005-01-01

    In this article Donald Philip describes Knowledge Building, a pedagogy based on the way research organizations function. The global economy, Philip argues, is driving a shift from older, industrial models to the model of the business as a learning organization. The cognitive patterns of today's Net Generation students, formed by lifetime exposure…

  19. Photography-based image generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  20. Frame-based knowledge representation for processing planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, K. J.

    An Expert System is being developed to perform generative process planning for individual parts fabricated from extruded and sheet metal materials, and for bonded metal assemblies. The system employs a frame-based knowledge representation structure and production rules to generate detailed fabrication and processing instructions. The system is being developed using the InterLISP-D language, commercially available expert system development software and a dedicated LISP machine. The paper describes the knowledge-based representation and reasoning techniques applied within the system and pertinent development issues.

  1. Verification of knowledge bases based on containment checking

    SciTech Connect

    Levy. A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Building complex knowledge based applications requires encoding large amounts of domain knowledge. After acquiring knowledge from domain experts, much of the effort in building a knowledge base goes into verifying that the knowledge is encoded correctly. We consider the problem of verifying hybrid knowledge bases that contain both Horn rules and a terminology in a description logic. Our approach to the verification problem is based on showing a close relationship to the problem of query containment. Our first contribution, based on this relationship, is presenting a thorough analysis of the decidability and complexity of the verification problem, for knowledge bases containing recursive rules and the interpreted predicates =, {le}, < and {ne}. Second, we show that important new classes of constraints on correct inputs and outputs can be expressed in a hybrid setting, in which a description logic class hierarchy is also considered, and we present the first complete algorithm for verifying such hybrid knowledge bases.

  2. Knowledge Based Systems and Metacognition in Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capraro, Gerard T.; Wicks, Michael C.

    An airborne ground looking radar sensor's performance may be enhanced by selecting algorithms adaptively as the environment changes. A short description of an airborne intelligent radar system (AIRS) is presented with a description of the knowledge based filter and detection portions. A second level of artificial intelligence (AI) processing is presented that monitors, tests, and learns how to improve and control the first level. This approach is based upon metacognition, a way forward for developing knowledge based systems.

  3. Logic Programming and Knowledge Base Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    fallen into-three classes: 1) expression of various quasi-intelligent expert systems tasks; 2) development of basic knowledge base systems; and 3...exploration of reasoning systems for maintenance of knowledge bases. We discuss each of these below. 1) Expression of expert systems tasks. We have coded...and run in metaProlog a diagnostic assistant based on the Oak Ridge spills expert of [Rosie3. This experiment demonstrated the usefulness and

  4. Knowledge data base system for twins study.

    PubMed

    Reina, S; Miozza, F

    1994-01-01

    The medical research on twins, carried out at the Gregor Mendel Institute for Medical Genetics and Twin Study in Rome over the past four decades, has resulted in a vast collection of clinical paper records. A challenge was presented by the need for a more secure method of storage to preserve this enormously valuable historical and scientific patrimony and to render its contents more easily accessible for research purposes. We met the challenge by planning and developing the computerization of this material. New concepts, currently being explored in biomedical informatics, were applied to build a Knowledge Data Base System, using a fourth-generation language (SQL). This architecturally innovative computer system enables its users to manipulate data supplied, rather than just simply storing it. Based on heuristic relational criteria between variables and parameters, the system is employed to solve problems of sibling design analysis typically arising from twins' records, but is also equipped to meet future data base requirements. Another feature of the system is its users' ability to pull off data in the form of regular automated reports, which are distributed through a Local Area Network (LAN). Through a Bulletin Board System (BBS) and modem, any scientist (outside as well as within the Institute) is thus able to access data and exchange scientific information.

  5. Knowledge-Based Replanning System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    The mid-1 970s was a bad time for theoretical linguistics ; the standard theory of Noam Chomsky had begun to lose ground to its various critics, but...researchers built good parsers that had at least some structural component based on linguistic theory . Also, CD based parsers began to show their...few adjectives anid ad,.erbs appear in the APE-II dcictionars the, are all but impossible to define adequately in terms of P* ( s , ([) theory crew

  6. How Is Knowledge Generated About Memory Encoding Strategy Effectiveness?

    PubMed Central

    Hertzog, Christopher; Price, Jodi; Dunlosky, John

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated how people learn about encoding strategy effectiveness in an associative memory task. Individuals studied two lists of paired associates under instructions to use either a normatively effective strategy (interactive imagery) or a normatively ineffective strategy (rote repetition) for each pair. Questionnaire ratings of imagery effectiveness increased and ratings of repetition effectiveness decreased after task experience, demonstrating new knowledge about strategy effectiveness. Cued recall confidence judgments, measuring confidence in recall accuracy, were almost perfectly correlated with actual recall and strongly correlated with postdictions – estimates of recall for each strategy. A structural regression model revealed that postdictions mediated both changes in second-list predictions and changes in strategy effectiveness ratings, implicating accurate performance estimates based on item-level monitoring as the key to updating strategy knowledge. PMID:19043596

  7. A Knowledge Base for FIA Data Uses

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management provides a way to capture the collective wisdom of an organization, facilitate organizational learning, and foster opportunities for improvement. This paper describes a knowledge base compiled from uses of field observations made by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program and a citation database of...

  8. Updating knowledge bases with disjunctive information

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yan; Foo, Norman Y.

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that the minimal change principle was widely used in knowledge base updates. However, recent research has shown that conventional minimal change methods, eg. the PMA, are generally problematic for updating knowledge bases with disjunctive information. In this paper, we propose two different approaches to deal with this problem - one is called the minimal change with exceptions (MCE), the other is called the minimal change with maximal disjunctive inclusions (MCD). The first method is syntax-based, while the second is model-theoretic. We show that these two approaches are equivalent for propositional knowledge base updates, and the second method is also appropriate for first order knowledge base updates. We then prove that our new update approaches still satisfy the standard Katsuno and Mendelzon`s update postulates.

  9. Knowledge-Based Software Development Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    inference, finite differencing, and data structure selection are discussed. A detailed case study is presented that shows how these systems could cooperate...theories that were codified in the language. In particular, encoded in CHI were tireories for: generating data structure implementations 𔄃], which mil...problems, and the finite-differencing program optinmizatica technique Implementation knowledge for data structure generatmin and performance estimatim

  10. Knowledge-Based Learning: Integration of Deductive and Inductive Learning for Knowledge Base Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehall, Bradley Lane

    In constructing a knowledge-based system, the knowledge engineer must convert rules of thumb provided by the domain expert and previously solved examples into a working system. Research in machine learning has produced algorithms that create rules for knowledge-based systems, but these algorithms require either many examples or a complete domain…

  11. Knowledge-Based Learning: Integration of Deductive and Inductive Learning for Knowledge Base Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehall, Bradley Lane

    In constructing a knowledge-based system, the knowledge engineer must convert rules of thumb provided by the domain expert and previously solved examples into a working system. Research in machine learning has produced algorithms that create rules for knowledge-based systems, but these algorithms require either many examples or a complete domain…

  12. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  13. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  14. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  15. Knowledge based programming environments: A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1988-01-01

    Programming environments is an area of recent origin and refers to an integrated set of tools, such as program library, text editor, compiler, and debugger, in support of program development. Understanding of programs and programming has lead to automated techniques for program development. Knowledge based programming system using program transformations offer significant impact on future program development methodologies. A review of recent developments in the area of knowledge based programming environments, from the perspective of software engineering, is presented.

  16. Distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Some current research in the development and application of distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems technology is addressed. The focus of the current research is the spacecraft ground operations environment. The underlying hypothesis is that, because of the increasing size, complexity, and cost of planned systems, conventional procedural approaches to the architecture of automated systems will give way to a more comprehensive knowledge-based approach. A hallmark of these future systems will be the integration of multiple knowledge-based agents which understand the operational goals of the system and cooperate with each other and the humans in the loop to attain the goals. The current work includes the development of a reference model for knowledge-base management, the development of a formal model of cooperating knowledge-based agents, the use of testbed for prototyping and evaluating various knowledge-based concepts, and beginning work on the establishment of an object-oriented model of an intelligent end-to-end (spacecraft to user) system. An introductory discussion of these activities is presented, the major concepts and principles being investigated are highlighted, and their potential use in other application domains is indicated.

  17. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data

  18. Integrating knowledge-based techniques into well-test interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, I.W.; Fraser, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Spirit Project was to develop a prototype of next-generation well-test-interpretation (WTI) software that would include knowledge-based decision support for the WTI model selection task. This paper describes how Spirit makes use of several different types of information (pressure, seismic, petrophysical, geological, and engineering) to support the user in identifying the most appropriate WTI model. Spirit`s knowledge-based approach to type-curve matching is to generate several different feasible interpretations by making assumptions about the possible presence of both wellbore storage and late-time boundary effects. Spirit fuses information from type-curve matching and other data sources by use of a knowledge-based decision model developed in collaboration with a WTI expert. The sponsors of the work have judged the resulting prototype system a success.

  19. Reuse: A knowledge-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes our research in automating the reuse process through the use of application domain models. Application domain models are explicit formal representations of the application knowledge necessary to understand, specify, and generate application programs. Furthermore, they provide a unified repository for the operational structure, rules, policies, and constraints of a specific application area. In our approach, domain models are expressed in terms of a transaction-based meta-modeling language. This paper has described in detail the creation and maintenance of hierarchical structures. These structures are created through a process that includes reverse engineering of data models with supplementary enhancement from application experts. Source code is also reverse engineered but is not a major source of domain model instantiation at this time. In the second phase of the software synthesis process, program specifications are interactively synthesized from an instantiated domain model. These specifications are currently integrated into a manual programming process but will eventually be used to derive executable code with mechanically assisted transformations. This research is performed within the context of programming-in-the-large types of systems. Although our goals are ambitious, we are implementing the synthesis system in an incremental manner through which we can realize tangible results. The client/server architecture is capable of supporting 16 simultaneous X/Motif users and tens of thousands of attributes and classes. Domain models have been partially synthesized from five different application areas. As additional domain models are synthesized and additional knowledge is gathered, we will inevitably add to and modify our representation. However, our current experience indicates that it will scale and expand to meet our modeling needs.

  20. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The importance of knowledge-based technology.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Pamela F

    2012-01-01

    Nurse executives are responsible for a workforce that can provide safer and more efficient care in a complex sociotechnical environment. National quality priorities rely on technologies to provide data collection, share information, and leverage analytic capabilities to interpret findings and inform approaches to care that will achieve better outcomes. As a key steward for quality, the nurse executive exercises leadership to provide the infrastructure to build and manage nursing knowledge and instill accountability for following evidence-based practices. These actions contribute to a learning health system where new knowledge is captured as a by-product of care delivery enabled by knowledge-based electronic systems. The learning health system also relies on rigorous scientific evidence embedded into practice at the point of care. The nurse executive optimizes use of knowledge-based technologies, integrated throughout the organization, that have the capacity to help transform health care.

  2. Patient Dependency Knowledge-Based Systems.

    PubMed

    Soliman, F

    1998-10-01

    The ability of Patient Dependency Systems to provide information for staffing decisions and budgetary development has been demonstrated. In addition, they have become powerful tools in modern hospital management. This growing interest in Patient Dependency Systems has renewed calls for their automation. As advances in Information Technology and in particular Knowledge-Based Engineering reach new heights, hospitals can no longer afford to ignore the potential benefits obtainable from developing and implementing Patient Dependency Knowledge-Based Systems. Experience has shown that the vast majority of decisions and rules used in the Patient Dependency method are too complex to capture in the form of a traditional programming language. Furthermore, the conventional Patient Dependency Information System automates the simple and rigid bookkeeping functions. On the other hand Knowledge-Based Systems automate complex decision making and judgmental processes and therefore are the appropriate technology for automating the Patient Dependency method. In this paper a new technique to automate Patient Dependency Systems using knowledge processing is presented. In this approach all Patient Dependency factors have been translated into a set of Decision Rules suitable for use in a Knowledge-Based System. The system is capable of providing the decision-maker with a number of scenarios and their possible outcomes. This paper also presents the development of Patient Dependency Knowledge-Based Systems, which can be used in allocating and evaluating resources and nursing staff in hospitals on the basis of patients' needs.

  3. Web-Based Learning as a Tool of Knowledge Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of information in a borderless world has prompted lecturers to move forward together with the technological innovation and erudition of knowledge in performing his/her responsibility to educate the young generations to be able to stand above the crowd at the global scene. Teaching and Learning through web-based learning platform is a…

  4. Contrasting burnout, turnover intention, control, value congruence and knowledge sharing between Baby Boomers and Generation X.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Michael P; Jackson, Nicole J; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the contrasting role of work values for nurses from two generations: Baby Boomers and Generation X. Differences among nurses regarding core values pertaining to their work has a potential to influence the quality of their work life. These differences may have implications for their vulnerability to job burnout. The analysis is based upon questionnaire surveys of nurses representing Generation X (n = 255) and Baby Boomers (n = 193) that contrasted their responses on job burnout, areas of work life, knowledge transfer and intention to quit. The analysis identified a greater person/organization value mismatch for Generation X nurses than for Baby Boomer nurses. Their greater value mismatch was associated with a greater susceptibility to burnout and a stronger intention to quit for Generation X nurses. The article notes the influence of Baby Boomer nurses in the structure of work and the application of new knowledge in health care work settings. Implications for recruitment and retention are discussed with a focus on knowledge transfer activities associated with distinct learning styles. Understanding value differences between generations will help nursing managers to develop more responsive work settings for nurses of all ages.

  5. "Chromosome": a knowledge-based system for the chromosome classification.

    PubMed

    Ramstein, G; Bernadet, M

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome, a knowledge-based analysis system has been designed for the classification of human chromosomes. Its aim is to perform an optimal classification by driving a tool box containing the procedures of image processing, pattern recognition and classification. This paper presents the general architecture of Chromosome, based on a multiagent system generator. The image processing tool box is described from the met aphasic enhancement to the fine classification. Emphasis is then put on the knowledge base intended for the chromosome recognition. The global classification process is also presented, showing how Chromosome proceeds to classify a given chromosome. Finally, we discuss further extensions of the system for the karyotype building.

  6. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively.

  7. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively. PMID:26904105

  8. Bridging the gap: simulations meet knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary W.; Morrison, Clayton T.; Westbrook, David L.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2003-09-01

    Tapir and Krill are declarative languages for specifying actions and agents, respectively, that can be executed in simulation. As such, they bridge the gap between strictly declarative knowledge bases and strictly executable code. Tapir and Krill components can be combined to produce models of activity which can answer questions about mechanisms and processes using conventional inference methods and simulation. Tapir was used in DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) project to construct models of military tactics from the Army Field Manual FM3-90. These were then used to build Courses of Actions (COAs) which could be critiqued by declarative reasoning or via Monte Carlo simulation. Tapir and Krill can be read and written by non-knowledge engineers making it an excellent vehicle for Subject Matter Experts to build and critique knowledge bases.

  9. A knowledge based approach to VLSI CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, L. I.; Mitchell, T. M.

    1983-09-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques offer one possible avenue toward new CAD tools to handle the complexities of VLSI. This paper summarizes the experience of the Rutgers AI/VLSI group in exploring applications of AI to VLSI design over the past few years. In particular, it summarizes our experience in developing REDESIGN, a knowledge-based system for providing interactive aid in the functional redesign of digital circuits. Given a desired change to the function of a circuit, REDESIGN combines rule-based knowledge of design tactics with its ability to analyze signal propagation through circuits, in order to (1) help the user focus on an appropriate portion of the circuit to redesign, (2) suggest local redesign alternatives, and (3) determine side effects of possible redesigns. We also summarize our more recent research toward constructing a knowledge-based system for VLSI design and a system for chip debugging, both based on extending the techniques used by the REDESIGN system.

  10. Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.

  11. Building a Knowledge Base for Teacher Education: An Experience in K-8 Mathematics Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James; Morris, Anne K.

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the theme of this issue, we describe the details of one continuing effort to build knowledge for teacher education. We argue that building a useful knowledge base requires attention to the processes used to generate, record, and vet knowledge. By using 4 features of knowledge-building systems we identified in the introductory…

  12. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluating the potential human health and/or ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the ambient environment is one of the central challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and bio-effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. We used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near two wastewater treatment plants. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data was also mapped to the assembly models to statistically evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses. The prior knowledge approach was able reasonably hypothesize the biological impacts at one site but not the other. Chemicals most likely contributing to the observed biological responses were identified at each location. Despite limitations to the approach, knowledge assembly models have strong potential for associating chemical occurrence with potential biological effects and providing a foundation for hypothesis generation to guide research and/or monitoring efforts relat

  13. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluating the potential human health and/or ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the ambient environment is one of the central challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and bio-effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. We used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near two wastewater treatment plants. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data was also mapped to the assembly models to statistically evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses. The prior knowledge approach was able reasonably hypothesize the biological impacts at one site but not the other. Chemicals most likely contributing to the observed biological responses were identified at each location. Despite limitations to the approach, knowledge assembly models have strong potential for associating chemical occurrence with potential biological effects and providing a foundation for hypothesis generation to guide research and/or monitoring efforts relat

  14. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  15. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  16. A knowledge-based approach to design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Steinberg, L. I.; Shulman, J. S.

    1985-09-01

    The potential advantages of knowledge-based methods for computer-aided design are examined, and the organization of VEXED, a knowledge-based system for VLSI design, is described in detail. In particular, attention is given to the principles underlying the design of VEXED and several issues that have arisen from implementing and experimenting with the prototype system. The issues discussed include questions regarding the grainsize of rules, the possibility of learning new rules automatically, and issues related to constraint propagation and management.

  17. Knowledge-based commodity distribution planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saks, Victor; Johnson, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a Decision Support System (DSS) that incorporates Knowledge-Based (KB) and commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology components. The Knowledge-Based Logistics Planning Shell (KBLPS) is a state-of-the-art DSS with an interactive map-oriented graphics user interface and powerful underlying planning algorithms. KBLPS was designed and implemented to support skilled Army logisticians to prepare and evaluate logistics plans rapidly, in order to support corps-level battle scenarios. KBLPS represents a substantial advance in graphical interactive planning tools, with the inclusion of intelligent planning algorithms that provide a powerful adjunct to the planning skills of commodity distribution planners.

  18. Knowledge 'Translation' as social learning: negotiating the uptake of research-based knowledge in practice.

    PubMed

    Salter, K L; Kothari, A

    2016-02-29

    Knowledge translation and evidence-based practice have relied on research derived from clinical trials, which are considered to be methodologically rigorous. The result is practice recommendations based on a narrow view of evidence. We discuss how, within a practice environment, in fact individuals adopt and apply new evidence derived from multiple sources through ongoing, iterative learning cycles. The discussion is presented in four sections. After elaborating on the multiple forms of evidence used in practice, in section 2 we argue that the practitioner derives contextualized knowledge through reflective practice. Then, in section 3, the focus shifts from the individual to the team with consideration of social learning and theories of practice. In section 4 we discuss the implications of integrative and negotiated knowledge exchange and generation within the practice environment. Namely, how can we promote the use of research within a team-based, contextualized knowledge environment? We suggest support for: 1) collaborative learning environments for active learning and reflection, 2) engaged scholarship approaches so that practice can inform research in a collaborative manner and 3) leveraging authoritative opinion leaders for their clinical expertise during the shared negotiation of knowledge and research. Our approach also points to implications for studying evidence-informed practice: the identification of practice change (as an outcome) ought to be supplemented with understandings of how and when social negotiation processes occur to achieve integrated knowledge. This article discusses practice knowledge as dependent on the practice context and on social learning processes, and suggests how research knowledge uptake might be supported from this vantage point.

  19. Empirical Analysis and Refinement of Expert System Knowledge Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-30

    Knowledge base refinement is the modification of an existing expert system knowledge base with the goals of localizing specific weaknesses in a... expert system techniques for knowledge acquisition, knowledge base refinement, maintenance, and verification....on the related problems of knowledge base acquisition, maintenance, verification, and learning from experience. The SEEK system was the first expert

  20. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  1. Improving structural similarity based virtual screening using background knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Virtual screening in the form of similarity rankings is often applied in the early drug discovery process to rank and prioritize compounds from a database. This similarity ranking can be achieved with structural similarity measures. However, their general nature can lead to insufficient performance in some application cases. In this paper, we provide a link between ranking-based virtual screening and fragment-based data mining methods. The inclusion of binding-relevant background knowledge into a structural similarity measure improves the quality of the similarity rankings. This background knowledge in the form of binding relevant substructures can either be derived by hand selection or by automated fragment-based data mining methods. Results In virtual screening experiments we show that our approach clearly improves enrichment factors with both applied variants of our approach: the extension of the structural similarity measure with background knowledge in the form of a hand-selected relevant substructure or the extension of the similarity measure with background knowledge derived with data mining methods. Conclusion Our study shows that adding binding relevant background knowledge can lead to significantly improved similarity rankings in virtual screening and that even basic data mining approaches can lead to competitive results making hand-selection of the background knowledge less crucial. This is especially important in drug discovery and development projects where no receptor structure is available or more frequently no verified binding mode is known and mostly ligand based approaches can be applied to generate hit compounds. PMID:24341870

  2. Knowledge Management and Professional Work: A Communication Perspective on the Knowledge-Based Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Lorna; Taylor, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Challenges two common assumptions in the literature on Knowledge Management: that knowledge originates in the individual and that once made explicit, subsequent interpretation of the representations of knowledge in symbolic form is unproblematic. Argues that the key to understanding the generation and sharing of knowledge is the role of text as…

  3. Comparison of clinical knowledge bases for summarization of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Allison B; Sittig, Dean F; Wright, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Automated summarization tools that create condition-specific displays may improve clinician efficiency. These tools require new kinds of knowledge that is difficult to obtain. We compared five problem-medication pair knowledge bases generated using four previously described knowledge base development approaches. The number of pairs in the resulting mapped knowledge bases varied widely due to differing mapping techniques from the source terminologies, ranging from 2,873 to 63,977,738 pairs. The number of overlapping pairs across knowledge bases was low, with one knowledge base having half of the pairs overlapping with another knowledge base, and most having less than a third overlapping. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge bases independently in additional settings, and to identify methods to integrate the knowledge bases.

  4. Knowledge Base Refinement by Monitoring Abstract Control Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, D. C.; And Others

    Arguing that an explicit representation of the problem-solving method of an expert system shell as abstract control knowledge provides a powerful foundation for learning, this paper describes the abstract control knowledge of the Heracles expert system shell for heuristic classification problems, and describes how the Odysseus apprenticeship…

  5. Knowledge Generation, Organization Dissemination and Utilization for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.

    A "communication system" paradigm for dissemination of appropriate knowledge, information, and technology needed for effective rural development is briefly described. The paradigm describes six categories of interrelated functions, activities, and processes: (1) scientific knowledge production by carrying out basic and applied research; (2)…

  6. Knowledge Generation, Organization Dissemination and Utilization for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.

    A "communication system" paradigm for dissemination of appropriate knowledge, information, and technology needed for effective rural development is briefly described. The paradigm describes six categories of interrelated functions, activities, and processes: (1) scientific knowledge production by carrying out basic and applied research; (2)…

  7. An Ontology-Based Conceptual Model For Accumulating And Reusing Knowledge In A DMAIC Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, ThanhDat; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile

    2015-09-01

    DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) is an important process used to enhance quality of processes basing on knowledge. However, it is difficult to access DMAIC knowledge. Conventional approaches meet a problem arising from structuring and reusing DMAIC knowledge. The main reason is that DMAIC knowledge is not represented and organized systematically. In this article, we overcome the problem basing on a conceptual model that is a combination of DMAIC process, knowledge management, and Ontology engineering. The main idea of our model is to utilizing Ontologies to represent knowledge generated by each of DMAIC phases. We build five different knowledge bases for storing all knowledge of DMAIC phases with the support of necessary tools and appropriate techniques in Information Technology area. Consequently, these knowledge bases provide knowledge available to experts, managers, and web users during or after DMAIC execution in order to share and reuse existing knowledge.

  8. Viewing Knowledge Bases as Qualitative Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    The concept of a qualitative model provides a unifying perspective for understanding how expert systems differ from conventional programs. Knowledge bases contain qualitative models of systems in the world, that is, primarily non-numeric descriptions that provide a basis for explaining and predicting behavior and formulating action plans. The…

  9. Improving the Knowledge Base in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockler, Michael J.

    Education in the United States for most of the last 50 years has built its knowledge base on a single dominating foundation--behavioral psychology. This paper analyzes the history of behaviorism. Syntheses are presented of the theories of Ivan P. Pavlov, J. B. Watson, and B. F. Skinner, all of whom contributed to the body of works on behaviorism.…

  10. The knowledge-based software assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.; White, Douglas A.

    1987-01-01

    Where the Knowledge Based Software Assistant (KBSA) is now, four years after the initial report, is discussed. Also described is what the Rome Air Development Center expects at the end of the first contract iteration. What the second and third contract iterations will look like are characterized.

  11. Improving the Knowledge Base in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockler, Michael J.

    Education in the United States for most of the last 50 years has built its knowledge base on a single dominating foundation--behavioral psychology. This paper analyzes the history of behaviorism. Syntheses are presented of the theories of Ivan P. Pavlov, J. B. Watson, and B. F. Skinner, all of whom contributed to the body of works on behaviorism.…

  12. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  13. Knowledge-Based Instructional Gaming: GEO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchastel, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and development of an instructional game, GEO, in which the user learns elements of Canadian geography. The use of knowledge-based artificial intelligence techniques is discussed, the use of HyperCard in the design of GEO is explained, and future directions are suggested. (15 references) (Author/LRW)

  14. Constructing Knowledge Bases: A Promising Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trollip, Stanley R.; Lippert, Renate C.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that construction of knowledge bases is an instructional tool that encourages students' critical thinking in problem solving situations through metacognitive experiences. A study is described in which college students created expert systems to test the effectiveness of this method of instruction, and benefits for students and teachers are…

  15. Knowledge-Based Instructional Gaming: GEO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchastel, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and development of an instructional game, GEO, in which the user learns elements of Canadian geography. The use of knowledge-based artificial intelligence techniques is discussed, the use of HyperCard in the design of GEO is explained, and future directions are suggested. (15 references) (Author/LRW)

  16. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  17. Knowledge-based GIS techniques applied to geological engineering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Altheide, Phyllis; Deister, Robin R.P.; Barr, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS) approach which requires development of a rule base for both GIS processing and for the geological engineering application has been implemented. The rule bases are implemented in the Goldworks expert system development shell interfaced to the Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) raster-based GIS for input and output. GIS analysis procedures including recoding, intersection, and union are controlled by the rule base, and the geological engineering map product is generted by the expert system. The KBGIS has been used to generate a geological engineering map of Creve Coeur, Missouri.

  18. Animal models for periodontal tissue engineering: A knowledge generating process.

    PubMed

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim Mohamed; Doerfer, Christof

    2017-08-10

    The human periodontium is a uniquely complex vital structure, supporting and anchoring the teeth in their alveolar sockets, playing thereby a decisive role in tooth homeostasis and function. Chronic periodontitis is a highly prevalent immune-inflammatory disease of the periodontium, affecting 15% of adult individuals and is characterized by progressive destruction of the periodontal tooth-investing tissues, culminating in their irreversible damage. Current periodontal evidence-based treatment strategies achieve periodontal healing via repair processes, mostly combating the inflammatory component of the disease, to halt or reduce prospective periodontal tissue loss. However, complete periodontal tissue regeneration remains a hard fought for goal in the field of periodontology and multiple in-vitro and in-vivo studies have been conducted, in the conquest to achieve a functional periodontal tissue regeneration in humans. The present review evaluates the current status of periodontal regeneration attempted through tissue-engineering concepts, ideal requirements for experimental animal models under investigation, the methods of induction and classification of the experimentally created periodontal defects, types of experimental defects employed in the diverse animal studies, as well as the current state of knowledge obtained from in-vivo animal experiments, with special emphasis on large animal models.

  19. From Data to Knowledge: GEOSS experience and the GEOSS Knowledge Base contribution to the GCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.; Mazzetti, P., Sr.; Plag, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    According to systems theory, data is raw, it simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence; while, information is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. The appropriate collection of information, such that it contributes to understanding, is a process of knowledge creation.The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) developed by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a set of coordinated, independent Earth observation, information and processing systems that interact and provide access to diverse information for a broad range of users in both public and private sectors. GEOSS links these systems to strengthen the monitoring of the state of the Earth. In the past ten years, the development of GEOSS has taught several lessons dealing with the need to move from (open) data to information and knowledge sharing. Advanced user-focused services require to move from a data-driven framework to a knowledge sharing platform. Such a platform needs to manage information and knowledge, in addition to datasets linked to them. For this scope, GEO has launched a specific task called "GEOSS Knowledge Base", which deals with resources, like user requirements, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), observation and processing ontologies, publications, guidelines, best practices, business processes/algorithms, definition of advanced concepts like Essential Variables (EVs), indicators, strategic goals, etc. In turn, information and knowledge (e.g. guidelines, best practices, user requirements, business processes, algorithms, etc.) can be used to generate additional information and knowledge from shared datasets. To fully utilize and leverage the GEOSS Knowledge Base, the current GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) model will be extended and advanced to consider important concepts and implementation artifacts, such as data processing services and environmental/economic models as well as EVs, Primary Indicators, and SDGs. The new GCI model

  20. Generative Knowledge Interviewing: A Method for Knowledge Transfer and Talent Management at the University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Melissa R.; Walsh, Katherine; Sober, Robin; Rawak, Christine S.

    2010-01-01

    Experts and leaders within most fields possess knowledge that is largely tacit and unconscious in nature. The leaders of most organizations do not "know what they know" and cannot share their knowledge with others. The loss of this essential knowledge is of major concern to organizations. This study tested an innovative method of tacit…

  1. Generative Knowledge Interviewing: A Method for Knowledge Transfer and Talent Management at the University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Melissa R.; Walsh, Katherine; Sober, Robin; Rawak, Christine S.

    2010-01-01

    Experts and leaders within most fields possess knowledge that is largely tacit and unconscious in nature. The leaders of most organizations do not "know what they know" and cannot share their knowledge with others. The loss of this essential knowledge is of major concern to organizations. This study tested an innovative method of tacit…

  2. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Maulik R.; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard. Database URL: http://ebola.semanticscience.org. PMID:26055098

  3. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard.

  4. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning, which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning, which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15%, and

  5. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  6. Presentation planning using an integrated knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Yigal; Miller, Lawrence; Sondheimer, Norman

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of user interface research aimed at bringing together multiple input and output modes in a way that handles mixed mode input (commands, menus, forms, natural language), interacts with a diverse collection of underlying software utilities in a uniform way, and presents the results through a combination of output modes including natural language text, maps, charts and graphs. The system, Integrated Interfaces, derives much of its ability to interact uniformly with the user and the underlying services and to build its presentations, from the information present in a central knowledge base. This knowledge base integrates models of the application domain (Navy ships in the Pacific region, in the current demonstration version); the structure of visual displays and their graphical features; the underlying services (data bases and expert systems); and interface functions. The emphasis is on a presentation planner that uses the knowledge base to produce multi-modal output. There has been a flurry of recent work in user interface management systems. (Several recent examples are listed in the references). Existing work is characterized by an attempt to relieve the software designer of the burden of handcrafting an interface for each application. The work has generally focused on intelligently handling input. This paper deals with the other end of the pipeline - presentations.

  7. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  8. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  9. Knowledge-Based Query Construction Using the CDSS Knowledge Base for Efficient Evidence Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Jamil; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Lee, Sungyoung; Kang, Byeong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Finding appropriate evidence to support clinical practices is always challenging, and the construction of a query to retrieve such evidence is a fundamental step. Typically, evidence is found using manual or semi-automatic methods, which are time-consuming and sometimes make it difficult to construct knowledge-based complex queries. To overcome the difficulty in constructing knowledge-based complex queries, we utilized the knowledge base (KB) of the clinical decision support system (CDSS), which has the potential to provide sufficient contextual information. To automatically construct knowledge-based complex queries, we designed methods to parse rule structure in KB of CDSS in order to determine an executable path and extract the terms by parsing the control structures and logic connectives used in the logic. The automatically constructed knowledge-based complex queries were executed on the PubMed search service to evaluate the results on the reduction of retrieved citations with high relevance. The average number of citations was reduced from 56,249 citations to 330 citations with the knowledge-based query construction approach, and relevance increased from 1 term to 6 terms on average. The ability to automatically retrieve relevant evidence maximizes efficiency for clinicians in terms of time, based on feedback collected from clinicians. This approach is generally useful in evidence-based medicine, especially in ambient assisted living environments where automation is highly important. PMID:26343669

  10. Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learners: The Fabrication of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is embedded in a deconstruction of the field of Mathematics Education in order to reconstitute the mathematics student as a generative mathematical learner. The purpose of the dissertation is to understand how generative adolescent mathematical learners (GAMLs) maneuver through their mathematics courses while maintaining such a…

  11. Knowledge Base Management for Model Management Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    inter- faces as they relate to aspects of model base management. The focus of this study is to identify some organiza- tions of knowledge about models...Vertical thinking is loosely related to systemic thinking, where one idea establishes a logical foundation upon which to construct the next idea...thinking is somewhat associated with creative thinking, and the idea of pattern matching from one circumstance to another. Mintzberg IRef. 41 has related

  12. Clips as a knowledge based language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James B.

    1987-01-01

    CLIPS is a language for writing expert systems applications on a personal or small computer. Here, the CLIPS programming language is described and compared to three other artificial intelligence (AI) languages (LISP, Prolog, and OPS5) with regard to the processing they provide for the implementation of a knowledge based system (KBS). A discussion is given on how CLIPS would be used in a control system.

  13. Generating New HRD Knowledge: Discourse, Gender, and Theory Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Bierema, Laura

    2007-01-01

    For this manuscript, a classic management text was deconstructed using postmodern methods. The purpose was twofold: to gain an understanding of how this text connected knowledge and gender; and to provide readers with a sample of deconstruction. The value of this type of analysis for HRD will be made clear. Unsurprisingly, because the manuscript…

  14. How Causal Knowledge Affects Classification: A Generative Theory of Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Kim, ShinWoo

    2006-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed regarding how causal relations among features of objects affect how those objects are classified. The assumptions of these theories were tested in 3 experiments that manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories. There were 3 results. The 1st was a multiple cause effect in which a feature's…

  15. Examining the "Whole Child" to Generate Usable Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Ayoub, Catherine C.; Gravel, Jenna W.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the promise of scientific knowledge contributing to issues facing vulnerable children, families, and communities, typical approaches to research have made applications challenging. While contemporary theories of human development offer appropriate complexity, research has mostly failed to address dynamic developmental processes. Research…

  16. Knowledge based imaging for terrain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Rick; Westrom, George; Rossman, David; Kurrasch, Ellie

    1992-01-01

    A planetary rover will have various vision based requirements for navigation, terrain characterization, and geological sample analysis. In this paper we describe a knowledge-based controller and sensor development system for terrain analysis. The sensor system consists of a laser ranger and a CCD camera. The controller, under the input of high-level commands, performs such functions as multisensor data gathering, data quality monitoring, and automatic extraction of sample images meeting various criteria. In addition to large scale terrain analysis, the system's ability to extract useful geological information from rock samples is illustrated. Image and data compression strategies are also discussed in light of the requirements of earth bound investigators.

  17. Knowledge-based systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

  18. A knowledge based software engineering environment testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, C.; Reedy, A.; Baker, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Carnegie Group Incorporated and Boeing Computer Services Company are developing a testbed which will provide a framework for integrating conventional software engineering tools with Artifical Intelligence (AI) tools to promote automation and productivity. The emphasis is on the transfer of AI technology to the software development process. Experiments relate to AI issues such as scaling up, inference, and knowledge representation. In its first year, the project has created a model of software development by representing software activities; developed a module representation formalism to specify the behavior and structure of software objects; integrated the model with the formalism to identify shared representation and inheritance mechanisms; demonstrated object programming by writing procedures and applying them to software objects; used data-directed and goal-directed reasoning to, respectively, infer the cause of bugs and evaluate the appropriateness of a configuration; and demonstrated knowledge-based graphics. Future plans include introduction of knowledge-based systems for rapid prototyping or rescheduling; natural language interfaces; blackboard architecture; and distributed processing

  19. Explanation-based knowledge acquisition of electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieras, David E.

    1992-08-01

    This is the final report in a project that examined how knowledge of practical electronics could be acquired from materials similar to that appearing in electronics training textbooks, from both an artificial intelligence perspective and an experimental psychology perspective. Practical electronics training materials present a series of basic circuits accompanied by an explanation of how the circuit performs the desired function. More complex circuits are then explained in terms of these basic circuits. This material thus presents schema knowledge for individual circuit types in the form of explanations of circuit behavior. Learning from such material would thus consist of first instantiating any applicable schemas, and then constructing a new schema based on the circuit structure and behavior described in the explanation. If the basic structure of the material is an effective approach to learning, learning about a new circuit should be easier if the relevant schemas are available than not. This result was obtained for both an artificial intelligence system that used standard explanation-based learning mechanisms and with human learners in a laboratory setting, but the benefits of already having the relevant schemas were not large in these materials. The close examination of learning in this domain, and the structure of knowledge, should be useful to future cognitive analyses of training in technical domains.

  20. What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary…

  1. Advances in knowledge-based software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this work is that a rigorous and comprehensive software reuse methodology can bring about a more effective and efficient utilization of constrained resources in the development of large-scale software systems by both government and industry. It is also believed that correct use of this type of software engineering methodology can significantly contribute to the higher levels of reliability that will be required of future operational systems. An overview and discussion of current research in the development and application of two systems that support a rigorous reuse paradigm are presented: the Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment (KBSEE) and the Knowledge Acquisition fo the Preservation of Tradeoffs and Underlying Rationales (KAPTUR) systems. Emphasis is on a presentation of operational scenarios which highlight the major functional capabilities of the two systems.

  2. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  3. Bidirectional mereological reasoning in anatomical knowledge bases.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mereological relationships--relationships between parts and wholes--are essential for ontological engineering in the anatomical domain. We propose a knowledge engineering approach that emulates mereological reasoning by taxonomic reasoning based on SEP triplets, a special data structure for the encoding of part-whole relations, which is fully embedded in the formal framework of standard description logics. We extend the SEP formalism in order to account not only for the part-of but also for the has-part relation, both being considered transitive in our domain. Furthermore we analyze the distinction between the ontological primitives singletons, collections and mass concepts in the anatomy domain and sketch how reasoning about these kinds of concepts can be accounted for in a knowledge representation language, using the extended SEP formalism. PMID:11825258

  4. Building a Knowledge Base for the Knowledge Worker System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Environment (PSE) 16. PRICE COoE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF...available to other related work groups through the Corps of Engineers Automation Plan ( CEAP ) environment. This extra avenue for connectivity will improve...review of literature pertaining to task analysis, decision making, and human-computer interfaces revealed that no classification system for knowledge

  5. Knowledge Base Refinement by Monitoring Abstract Control Knowledge. Revision 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Wilkins, NV. J. Clancey, and B. G. Buchanan 0 S .. Department of Computer Science Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 e EOT -N...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. 2b DECLASSIFICATIONDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED 4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NuMBER( S ) S MONITORING...ORGANIZATION REPORT NuMBER( S ) ONR TECHNICAL REPORT # 6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION STANFORD KNOWLEDGE

  6. Design of a knowledge-based welding advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    Expert system implementation can take numerous forms ranging form traditional declarative rule-based systems with if-then syntax to imperative programming languages that capture expertise in procedural code. The artificial intelligence community generally thinks of expert systems as rules or rule-bases and an inference engine to process the knowledge. The welding advisor developed at Sandia National Laboratories and described in this paper deviates from this by codifying expertise using object representation and methods. Objects allow computer scientists to model the world as humans perceive it giving us a very natural way to encode expert knowledge. The design of the welding advisor, which generates and evaluates solutions, will be compared and contrasted to a traditional rule- based system.

  7. Technical aspects of internet-based knowledge presentation in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lütttgau, A; Bendl, R

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning is a complex and time-consuming optimization process which requires much experience. To simplify and to speed up the process of treatment planning as well as to exchange experience and therapeutic knowledge, the department of Medical Physics at the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg is developing an Internet-based 3D Radiotherapy planning and Information System (IRIS). IRIS designed internet-based client-server application, implemented using Java, CORBA and PVM. The concept of IRIS combines the functionality of an interactive tutorial with a discussion forum, teleconferencing tool and an atlas of dose distributions. Furthermore an integral knowledge-based system provides automatically generated, preoptimized treatment plans. This paper explains the technical design of the system and gives an overview of experiences gained by the technical realization of a first prototype using currently available internet technology. The prototype is currently running for testing in the intranet of DKFZ.

  8. Personal knowledge management based on social software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chengling; Cao, Jianxia; Guo, Xinhua

    The emergence of information technology has provided a powerful hand for personal knowledge management, thus the personal knowledge management goes on more convenient and feasible. This paper gave the summary of personal knowledge management as well as social software, and then analyzed the characteristic of applying social software in personal knowledge management from the explicit and tacit knowledge perspective, finally gave a model of applying social software in personal knowledge management.

  9. Generating Knowledge of Academic Language among Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E.; Lawrence, Joshua F.; White, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study in which academic word-learning by students in five schools implementing the Word Generation program was compared to academic word-learning by students in three schools within the same system that did not choose to implement the program. Because the implementing schools were those that volunteered for the…

  10. When generating answers benefits arithmetic skill: the importance of prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Kmicikewycz, Alexander Oleksij

    2008-09-01

    People remember information better if they generate the information while studying rather than read the information. However, prior research has not investigated whether this generation effect extends to related but unstudied items and has not been conducted in classroom settings. We compared third graders' success on studied and unstudied multiplication problems after they spent a class period generating answers to problems or reading the answers from a calculator. The effect of condition interacted with prior knowledge. Students with low prior knowledge had higher accuracy in the generate condition, but as prior knowledge increased, the advantage of generating answers decreased. The benefits of generating answers may extend to unstudied items and to classroom settings, but only for learners with low prior knowledge.

  11. MetaShare: Enabling Knowledge-Based Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, D. D.; Salayandia, L.; Gates, A.; Osuna, F.

    2013-12-01

    MetaShare is a free and open source knowledge-based system for supporting data management planning, now required by some agencies and publishers. MetaShare supports users as they describe the types of data they will collect, expected standards, and expected policies for sharing. MetaShare's semantic model captures relationships between disciplines, tools, data types, data formats, and metadata standards. As the user plans their data management activities, MetaShare recommends choices based on practices and decisions from a community that has used the system for similar purposes, and extends the knowledge base to capture new relationships. The MetaShare knowledge base is being seeded with information for geoscience and environmental science domains, and is currently undergoing testing on at the University of Texas at El Paso. Through time and usage, it is expected to grow to support a variety of research domains, enabling community-based learning of data management practices. Knowledge of a user's choices during the planning phase can be used to support other tasks in the data life cycle, e.g., collecting, disseminating, and archiving data. A key barrier to scientific data sharing is the lack of sufficient metadata that provides context under which data were collected. The next phase of MetaShare development will automatically generate data collection instruments with embedded metadata and semantic annotations based on the information provided during the planning phase. While not comprehensive, this metadata will be sufficient for discovery and will enable user's to focus on more detailed descriptions of their data. Details are available at: Salayandia, L., Pennington, D., Gates, A., and Osuna, F. (accepted). MetaShare: From data management plans to knowledge base systems. AAAI Fall Symposium Series Workshop on Discovery Informatics, November 15-17, 2013, Arlington, VA.

  12. A Collaborative Environment for Knowledge Base Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Yang, C.; Raskin, R.; Nebert, D. D.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge Base (KB) is an essential component for capturing, structuring and defining the meanings of domain knowledge. It’s important in enabling the sharing and interoperability of scientific data and services in a smart manner. It’s also the foundation for most the research in semantic field, such as semantic reasoning and ranking. In collaborating with ESIP, GMU is developing an online interface and supporting infrastructure to allow semantic registration of datasets and other web resources. The semantic description of data, services, and scientific content will be collected and transformed to the KB. As a case study, the harvest of web map services from by Nordic mapping agencies to build a virtual Arctic spatial data infrastructure will be used as the domain example. To automate the process, a controlled vocabulary of certain subjects, such as solid water, is created to filter from existing data and service repositories to obtain a collection of closely related document. Then latent semantic indexing is utilized to analyze semantic relationship among concepts that appears in service document. At last, semantic structure in plain text will be mapped and automatically populated to the specific presentation of knowledge in the KB.

  13. Towards a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Design and Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Conant, Richard T.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Jones, James W.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Keating, Brian A.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a "pre-competitive" space for model development to a "competitive space" for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.

  14. Towards a new generation of agricultural system data, models and knowledge products: Design and improvement.

    PubMed

    Antle, John M; Basso, Bruno; Conant, Richard T; Godfray, H Charles J; Jones, James W; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E; Keating, Brian A; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Tittonell, Pablo; Wheeler, Tim R

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a "pre-competitive" space for model development to a "competitive space" for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.

  15. Towards a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Design and Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Conant, Richard T.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Jones, James W.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Keating, Brian A.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a "pre-competitive" space for model development to a "competitive space" for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.

  16. Ontodog: a web-based ontology community view generation tool.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Stoeckert, Christian J; He, Yongqun

    2014-05-01

    Biomedical ontologies are often very large and complex. Only a subset of the ontology may be needed for a specified application or community. For ontology end users, it is desirable to have community-based labels rather than the labels generated by ontology developers. Ontodog is a web-based system that can generate an ontology subset based on Excel input, and support generation of an ontology community view, which is defined as the whole or a subset of the source ontology with user-specified annotations including user-preferred labels. Ontodog allows users to easily generate community views with minimal ontology knowledge and no programming skills or installation required. Currently >100 ontologies including all OBO Foundry ontologies are available to generate the views based on user needs. We demonstrate the application of Ontodog for the generation of community views using the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations as the source ontology.

  17. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  18. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  19. Knowledge-based representations of risk beliefs.

    PubMed

    Tonn, B E; Travis, C B; Goeltz, R T; Phillippi, R H

    1990-03-01

    Beliefs about risks associated with two risk agents, AIDS and toxic waste, are modeled using knowledge-based methods and elicited from subjects via interactive computer technology. A concept net is developed to organize subject responses concerning the consequences of the risk agents. It is found that death and adverse personal emotional and sociological consequences are most associated with AIDS. Toxic waste is most associated with environmental problems. These consequence profiles are quite dissimilar, although past work in risk perception would have judged the risk agents as being quite similar. Subjects frequently used causal semantics to represent their beliefs and "% of time" instead of "probability" to represent likelihoods. The news media is the most prevalent source of risk information although experiences of acquaintances appear more credible. The results suggest that "broadly based risk" communication may be ineffective because people differ in their conceptual representation of risk beliefs. In general, the knowledge-based approach to risk perception representation has great potential to increase our understanding of important risk topics.

  20. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  1. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  2. Building a knowledge based economy in Russia using guided entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Boris N.; Daniels, Marc; Ichim, Thomas E.; Reznik, David L.

    2005-06-01

    Despite advanced scientific and technological (S&T) expertise, the Russian economy is presently based upon manufacturing and raw material exports. Currently, governmental incentives are attempting to leverage the existing scientific infrastructure through the concept of building a Knowledge Based Economy. However, socio-economic changes do not occur solely by decree, but by alteration of approach to the market. Here we describe the "Guided Entrepreneurship" plan, a series of steps needed for generation of an army of entrepreneurs, which initiate a chain reaction of S&T-driven growth. The situation in Russia is placed in the framework of other areas where Guided Entrepreneurship has been successful.

  3. A knowledge-based care protocol system for ICU.

    PubMed

    Lau, F; Vincent, D D

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using care maps in ICU. So far, the emphasis has been on developing the critical path, problem/outcome, and variance reporting for specific diagnoses. This paper presents a conceptual knowledge-based care protocol system design for the ICU. It is based on the manual care map currently in use for managing myocardial infarction in the ICU of the Sturgeon General Hospital in Alberta. The proposed design uses expert rules, object schemas, case-based reasoning, and quantitative models as sources of its knowledge. Also being developed is a decision model with explicit linkages for outcome-process-measure from the care map. The resulting system is intended as a bedside charting and decision-support tool for caregivers. Proposed usage includes charting by acknowledgment, generation of alerts, and critiques on variances/events recorded, recommendations for planned interventions, and comparison with historical cases. Currently, a prototype is being developed on a PC-based network with Visual Basic, Level-Expert Object, and xBase. A clinical trial is also planned to evaluate whether this knowledge-based care protocol can reduce the length of stay of patients with myocardial infarction in the ICU.

  4. A knowledge base of vasopressin actions in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sanghi, Akshay; Zaringhalam, Matthew; Corcoran, Callan C.; Saeed, Fahad; Hoffert, Jason D.; Sandoval, Pablo; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2014-01-01

    Biological information is growing at a rapid pace, making it difficult for individual investigators to be familiar with all information that is relevant to their own research. Computers are beginning to be used to extract and curate biological information; however, the complexity of human language used in research papers continues to be a critical barrier to full automation of knowledge extraction. Here, we report a manually curated knowledge base of vasopressin actions in renal epithelial cells that is designed to be readable either by humans or by computer programs using natural language processing algorithms. The knowledge base consists of three related databases accessible at https://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/TinyUrls/Vaso_portal.html. One of the component databases reports vasopressin actions on individual proteins expressed in renal epithelia, including effects on phosphorylation, protein abundances, protein translocation from one subcellular compartment to another, protein-protein binding interactions, etc. The second database reports vasopressin actions on physiological measures in renal epithelia, and the third reports specific mRNA species whose abundances change in response to vasopressin. We illustrate the application of the knowledge base by using it to generate a protein kinase network that connects vasopressin binding in collecting duct cells to physiological effects to regulate the water channel protein aquaporin-2. PMID:25056354

  5. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study. Phase II.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Tameka B.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Cole, Benjamin Holland, II; Baldonado, Esther

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the second phase of work under the Sustainable Knowledge Management (SKM) project for the Neutron Generator organization at Sandia National Laboratories. Previous work under this project is documented in SAND2008-1777, Sustaining Knowledge in the Neutron Generator Community and Benchmarking Study. Knowledge management (KM) systems are necessary to preserve critical knowledge within organizations. A successful KM program should focus on people and the process for sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The Neutron Generator organization is developing KM systems to ensure knowledge is not lost. A benchmarking study involving site visits to outside industry plus additional resource research was conducted during this phase of the SKM project. The findings presented in this report are recommendations for making an SKM program successful. The recommendations are activities that promote sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The benchmarking effort, including the site visits to Toyota and Halliburton, provided valuable information on how the SEA KM team could incorporate a KM solution for not just the neutron generators (NG) community but the entire laboratory. The laboratory needs a KM program that allows members of the workforce to access, share, analyze, manage, and apply knowledge. KM activities, such as communities of practice (COP) and sharing best practices, provide a solution towards creating an enabling environment for KM. As more and more people leave organizations through retirement and job transfer, the need to preserve knowledge is essential. Creating an environment for the effective use of knowledge is vital to achieving the laboratory's mission.

  6. A knowledge based expert system for turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, J.A.; Rivera-Grijalva, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the development of an Expert system for identification of turbomachinery faults caused by an increase in the vibrations of the rotor bearing system. The organization of the expert system is based on the known vibration patterns constructed from four distinctive vibration parameters: amplitude, frequency, phase angle and waveform. Each of the parameters can lead to a different set of faults. When all four sets of possible faults are overlapped during the selection process, which is automatically carried out, the number of possible faults is reduced to one or two. All the possible causes of increment of vibration can be detected with a high degree of probability. The system is used off-line and can be installed on-line with a monitoring system. The knowledge levels and the separate bases are built into the system.

  7. Applying knowledge compilation techniques to model-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers in the area of knowledge compilation are developing general purpose techniques for improving the efficiency of knowledge-based systems. In this article, an attempt is made to define knowledge compilation, to characterize several classes of knowledge compilation techniques, and to illustrate how some of these techniques can be applied to improve the performance of model-based reasoning systems.

  8. Selection of construction methods: a knowledge-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ferrada, Ximena; Serpell, Alfredo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method' selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS) was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods' selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  9. Selection of Construction Methods: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Skibniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method' selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS) was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods' selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects. PMID:24453925

  10. Approach for ontological modeling of database schema for the generation of semantic knowledge on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozeva, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Currently there is large quantity of content on web pages that is generated from relational databases. Conceptual domain models provide for the integration of heterogeneous content on semantic level. The use of ontology as conceptual model of a relational data sources makes them available to web agents and services and provides for the employment of ontological techniques for data access, navigation and reasoning. The achievement of interoperability between relational databases and ontologies enriches the web with semantic knowledge. The establishment of semantic database conceptual model based on ontology facilitates the development of data integration systems that use ontology as unified global view. Approach for generation of ontologically based conceptual model is presented. The ontology representing the database schema is obtained by matching schema elements to ontology concepts. Algorithm of the matching process is designed. Infrastructure for the inclusion of mediation between database and ontology for bridging legacy data with formal semantic meaning is presented. Implementation of the knowledge modeling approach on sample database is performed.

  11. Interfaces for knowledge-base builders control knowledge and application-specific procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, P.; Katke, W.; Meier, M.; Snyder, S.; Stillman, R.

    1986-01-01

    Expert System Environment/VM is an expert system shell-a general-purpose system for constructing and executing expert system applications. An application expert has both factual knowledge about an application and knowledge about how that factual knowledge should be organized and processed. In addition, many applications require application-dependent procedures to access databases or to do specialized processing. An important and novel part of Expert System Environment/VM is the technique used to allow the expert or knowledge-base builder to enter the control knowledge and to interface with application-dependent procedures. This paper discusses these high-level interfaces for the knowledge-base builder.

  12. An object-based methodology for knowledge representation in SGML

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Hartley, R.T.; Webster, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    An object-based methodology for knowledge representation and its Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) implementation is presented. The methodology includes class, perspective domain, and event constructs for representing knowledge within an object paradigm. The perspective construct allows for representation of knowledge from multiple and varying viewpoints. The event construct allows actual use of knowledge to be represented. The SGML implementation of the methodology facilitates usability, structured, yet flexible knowledge design, and sharing and reuse of knowledge class libraries.

  13. Microtubule-based force generation.

    PubMed

    Kent, Ian A; Lele, Tanmay P

    2017-05-01

    Microtubules are vital to many important cell processes, such as cell division, transport of cellular cargo, organelle positioning, and cell migration. Owing to their diverse functions, understanding microtubule function is an important part of cell biological research that can help in combating various diseases. For example, microtubules are an important target of chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel because of their pivotal role in cell division. Many functions of microtubules relate to the generation of mechanical forces. These forces are generally either a direct result of microtubule polymerization/depolymerization or generated by motor proteins that move processively along microtubules. In this review, we summarize recent efforts to quantify and model force generation by microtubules in the context of microtubule function. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1428. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1428 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Linguistic Knowledge and Reasoning for Error Diagnosis and Feedback Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmonte, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    Presents four sets of natural language processing-based exercises for which error correction and feedback are produced by means of a rich database in which linguistic information is encoded either at the lexical or the grammatical level. (Author/VWL)

  15. DeepDive: Declarative Knowledge Base Construction.

    PubMed

    De Sa, Christopher; Ratner, Alex; Ré, Christopher; Shin, Jaeho; Wang, Feiran; Wu, Sen; Zhang, Ce

    2016-03-01

    The dark data extraction or knowledge base construction (KBC) problem is to populate a SQL database with information from unstructured data sources including emails, webpages, and pdf reports. KBC is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of data extraction, cleaning, and integration. We describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems. The key idea in DeepDive is that statistical inference and machine learning are key tools to attack classical data problems in extraction, cleaning, and integration in a unified and more effective manner. DeepDive programs are declarative in that one cannot write probabilistic inference algorithms; instead, one interacts by defining features or rules about the domain. A key reason for this design choice is to enable domain experts to build their own KBC systems. We present the applications, abstractions, and techniques of DeepDive employed to accelerate construction of KBC systems.

  16. Route Generation for a Synthetic Character (BOT) Using a Partial or Incomplete Knowledge Route Generation Algorithm in UT2004 Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanold, Gregg T.; Hanold, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new Route Generation Algorithm that accurately and realistically represents human route planning and navigation for Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). The accuracy of this algorithm in representing human behavior is measured using the Unreal Tournament(Trademark) 2004 (UT2004) Game Engine to provide the simulation environment in which the differences between the routes taken by the human player and those of a Synthetic Agent (BOT) executing the A-star algorithm and the new Route Generation Algorithm can be compared. The new Route Generation Algorithm computes the BOT route based on partial or incomplete knowledge received from the UT2004 game engine during game play. To allow BOT navigation to occur continuously throughout the game play with incomplete knowledge of the terrain, a spatial network model of the UT2004 MOUT terrain is captured and stored in an Oracle 11 9 Spatial Data Object (SOO). The SOO allows a partial data query to be executed to generate continuous route updates based on the terrain knowledge, and stored dynamic BOT, Player and environmental parameters returned by the query. The partial data query permits the dynamic adjustment of the planned routes by the Route Generation Algorithm based on the current state of the environment during a simulation. The dynamic nature of this algorithm more accurately allows the BOT to mimic the routes taken by the human executing under the same conditions thereby improving the realism of the BOT in a MOUT simulation environment.

  17. Harnessing the knowledge of animal toxins to generate drugs.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, V O; Pasqualoto, K F M; Picolo, G; Chudzinski-Tavassi, A M; Cury, Y

    2016-10-01

    Animal toxins present high selectivity and specificity for their molecular targets, and have long been considered as prototypes for developing novel drugs, with some successful cases. In this regard, the variety of molecules found in animal venoms, which can be capable of affecting vital physiological systems, have providing the development of studies focusing on turning those molecules (toxins) into therapeutics to treat several diseases, such as chronic pain, hypertension, thrombosis, cancer, and so on. However, some important issues have been responsible for disrupting the toxin-based drug discovery projects. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the development of drugs based on animal toxins, discussing some successful cases as well as the main causes of failure, pointing out the recent strategies applied to overcome the difficulties related to the translational process in this kind of development scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge-based system verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and evaluate a methodology for verification and validation (V&V) of knowledge-based systems (KBS) for space station applications with high reliability requirements. The approach consists of three interrelated tasks. The first task is to evaluate the effectiveness of various validation methods for space station applications. The second task is to recommend requirements for KBS V&V for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The third task is to recommend modifications to the SSF to support the development of KBS using effectiveness software engineering and validation techniques. To accomplish the first task, three complementary techniques will be evaluated: (1) Sensitivity Analysis (Worchester Polytechnic Institute); (2) Formal Verification of Safety Properties (SRI International); and (3) Consistency and Completeness Checking (Lockheed AI Center). During FY89 and FY90, each contractor will independently demonstrate the user of his technique on the fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) KBS or the manned maneuvering unit (MMU), a rule-based system implemented in LISP. During FY91, the application of each of the techniques to other knowledge representations and KBS architectures will be addressed. After evaluation of the results of the first task and examination of Space Station Freedom V&V requirements for conventional software, a comprehensive KBS V&V methodology will be developed and documented. Development of highly reliable KBS's cannot be accomplished without effective software engineering methods. Using the results of current in-house research to develop and assess software engineering methods for KBS's as well as assessment of techniques being developed elsewhere, an effective software engineering methodology for space station KBS's will be developed, and modification of the SSF to support these tools and methods will be addressed.

  19. Knowledge-based systems and NASA's software support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Tim; Carmody, Cora; Lennington, Kent; Nelson, Bob

    1990-01-01

    A proposed role for knowledge-based systems within NASA's Software Support Environment (SSE) is described. The SSE is chartered to support all software development for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). This includes support for development of knowledge-based systems and the integration of these systems with conventional software systems. In addition to the support of development of knowledge-based systems, various software development functions provided by the SSE will utilize knowledge-based systems technology.

  20. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  1. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  2. Building validation tools for knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, R. A.; Chang, C. L.; Stock, T. S.; Combs, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA), a validation system under development at the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center for more than a year, provides a wide range of validation tools to check the correctness, consistency and completeness of a knowledge-based system. A declarative meta-language (higher-order language), is used to create a generic version of EVA to validate applications written in arbitrary expert system shells. The architecture and functionality of EVA are presented. The functionality includes Structure Check, Logic Check, Extended Structure Check (using semantic information), Extended Logic Check, Semantic Check, Omission Check, Rule Refinement, Control Check, Test Case Generation, Error Localization, and Behavior Verification.

  3. The Effects of Domain Knowledge and Instructional Manipulation on Creative Idea Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was designed to explore the effects of domain knowledge, instructional manipulation, and the interaction between them on creative idea generation. Three groups of participants who respectively possessed the domain knowledge of biology, sports, or neither were asked to finish two tasks: imagining an extraterrestrial animal and…

  4. The Effects of Domain Knowledge and Instructional Manipulation on Creative Idea Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was designed to explore the effects of domain knowledge, instructional manipulation, and the interaction between them on creative idea generation. Three groups of participants who respectively possessed the domain knowledge of biology, sports, or neither were asked to finish two tasks: imagining an extraterrestrial animal and…

  5. Knowledge-based requirements analysis for automating software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markosian, Lawrence Z.

    1988-01-01

    We present a new software development paradigm that automates the derivation of implementations from requirements. In this paradigm, informally-stated requirements are expressed in a domain-specific requirements specification language. This language is machine-understable and requirements expressed in it are captured in a knowledge base. Once the requirements are captured, more detailed specifications and eventually implementations are derived by the system using transformational synthesis. A key characteristic of the process is that the required human intervention is in the form of providing problem- and domain-specific engineering knowledge, not in writing detailed implementations. We describe a prototype system that applies the paradigm in the realm of communication engineering: the prototype automatically generates implementations of buffers following analysis of the requirements on each buffer.

  6. [Trends on generation and reproduction of knowledge about economic evaluation and health].

    PubMed

    Arredondo, A; Parada, I

    2001-08-01

    This paper identifies the trends and recent progress in the generation and reproduction of knowledge on health economic evaluation. Analysis is organized along nine public health action fields, namely: health determinants and predictors, economic value of health, healthcare demand, healthcare supply, microeconomic evaluation of healthcare, healthcare market balance, evaluation of policy instruments, general evaluation of the health system, and healthcare planning, regulation and supervision. Each action field is defined to place the reader in the proper setting and level of analysis. In addition, thematic research topics developed in each action field are proposed and discussed. The generation and reproduction of knowledge on the different action fields was based on the review of the bibliographic databases MEDLINE and LILACS for the 1992-2000 period. Results lead to the conclusion that development and application of economic evaluation of healthcare has been uneven across different countries and that there is a growing increase of applications starting in 1994, the year of initiation of healthcare reform in Latin America.

  7. Tools for Assembling and Managing Scalable Knowledge Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    1 1.1 Knowledge Translation .......................................................................................................................... 1...areas of the knowledge base and ontology construction process and are outlined in more detail below. 1.1 Knowledge Translation As mentioned above...during KB merging operations. 2.2 The Translation Problem Figure 2: The knowledge translation problem. The general problem we set out to solve is

  8. Generating a mortality model from a pediatric ICU (PICU) database utilizing knowledge discovery.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Curtis E.; Aoki, Noriaki

    2002-01-01

    Current models for predicting outcomes are limited by biases inherent in a priori hypothesis generation. Knowledge discovery algorithms generate models directly from databases, minimizing such limitations. Our objective was to generate a mortality model from a PICU database utilizing knowledge discovery techniques. The database contained 5067 records with 192 clinically relevant variables. It was randomly split into training (75%) and validation (25%) groups. We used decision tree induction to generate a mortality model from the training data, and validated its performance on the validation data. The original PRISM algorithm was used for comparison. The decision tree model contained 25 variables and predicted 53/88 deaths; 29 correctly (Sens:33%, Spec:98%, PPV:54%). PRISM predicted 27/88 deaths correctly (Sens:30%, Spec:98%, PPV:51%). Performance difference between models was not significant. We conclude that knowledge discovery algorithms can generate a mortality model from a PICU database, helping establish validity of such tools in the clinical medical domain. PMID:12463850

  9. Proposing a Knowledge Base for Teaching Academic Content to English Language Learners: Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…

  10. The Relationship between Agriculture Knowledge Bases for Teaching and Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the agriculture knowledge bases for teaching of agriculture teachers and to see if a relationship existed between years of teaching experience, sources of knowledge, and development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), using quantitative methods. A model of PCK from mathematics was utilized as a…

  11. Joint Knowledge Generation Between Climate Science and Infrastructure Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, A. M. K.; Hayhoe, K.; Jacobs, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade the engineering community has become increasingly aware of the need to incorporate climate projections into the planning and design of sensitive infrastructure. However, this is a task that is easier said than done. This presentation will discuss some of the successes and hurdles experiences through the past year, from a climate scientist's perspective, working with engineers in infrastructure research and applied engineering through the Infrastructure & Climate Network (ICNet). Engineers rely on strict building codes and ordinances, and can be the subject of lawsuits if those codes are not followed. Matters are further complicated by the uncertainty inherent to climate projections, which include short-term natural variability, as well as the influence of scientific uncertainty and even human behavior on the rate and magnitude of change. Climate scientists typically address uncertainty by creating projections based on multiple models following different future scenarios. This uncertainty is difficult to incorporate into engineering projects, however, due to the fact that they cannot build two different bridges, one allowing for a lower amount of change, and another for a higher. More often than not there is a considerable difference between the costs of building two such bridges, which means that available funds often are the deciding factor. Discussions of climate science are often well received with engineers who work in the research area of infrastructure; going a step further, however, and implementing it in applied engineering projects can be challenging. This presentation will discuss some of the challenges and opportunities inherent to collaborations between climate scientists and transportation engineers, drawing from a range of studies including truck weight restrictions on roads during the spring thaw, and bridge deck performance due to environmental forcings.

  12. Organizational culture and knowledge management in the electric power generation industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Robert D.

    Scarcity of knowledge and expertise is a challenge in the electric power generation industry. Today's most pervasive knowledge issues result from employee turnover and the constant movement of employees from project to project inside organizations. To address scarcity of knowledge and expertise, organizations must enable employees to capture, transfer, and use mission-critical explicit and tacit knowledge. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to examine the relationship between and among organizations within the electric power generation industry developing knowledge management processes designed to retain, share, and use the industry, institutional, and technical knowledge upon which the organizations depend. The research findings show that knowledge management is a business problem within the domain of information systems and management. The risks associated with losing mission critical-knowledge can be measured using metrics on employee retention, recruitment, productivity, training and benchmarking. Certain enablers must be in place in order to engage people, encourage cooperation, create a knowledge-sharing culture, and, ultimately change behavior. The research revealed the following change enablers that support knowledge management strategies: (a) training - blended learning, (b) communities of practice, (c) cross-functional teams, (d) rewards and recognition programs, (e) active senior management support, (f) communication and awareness, (g) succession planning, and (h) team organizational culture.

  13. Establishing a national knowledge translation and generation network in kidney disease: the CAnadian KidNey KNowledge TraNslation and GEneration NeTwork.

    PubMed

    Manns, Braden; Barrett, Brendan; Evans, Michael; Garg, Amit; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Kappel, Joanne; Klarenbach, Scott; Madore, Francois; Parfrey, Patrick; Samuel, Susan; Soroka, Steven; Suri, Rita; Tonelli, Marcello; Wald, Ron; Walsh, Michael; Zappitelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not always receive care consistent with guidelines, in part due to complexities in CKD management, lack of randomized trial data to inform care, and a failure to disseminate best practice. At a 2007 conference of key Canadian stakeholders in kidney disease, attendees noted that the impact of Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) guidelines was attenuated given limited formal linkages between the CSN Clinical Practice Guidelines Group, kidney researchers, decision makers and knowledge users, and that further knowledge was required to guide care in patients with kidney disease. The idea for the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) developed from this meeting. CANN-NET is a pan-Canadian network established in partnership with CSN, the Kidney Foundation of Canada and other professional societies to improve the care and outcomes of patients with and at risk for kidney disease. The initial priority areas for knowledge translation include improving optimal timing of dialysis initiation, and increasing the appropriate use of home dialysis. Given the urgent need for new knowledge, CANN-NET has also brought together a national group of experienced Canadian researchers to address knowledge gaps by encouraging and supporting multicentre randomized trials in priority areas, including management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney failure.

  14. Improving the implementation of evidence-based practice: a knowledge management perspective.

    PubMed

    Sandars, John; Heller, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Experience of knowledge management initiatives in non-health care organizations can offer useful insights, and strategies, to implement evidence-based practice in health care. Knowledge management offers a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution and application of knowledge in organizations. This includes both tacit knowledge (personal experience) and explicit knowledge (evidence). Communities of practice are a key component of knowledge management and have been recognized to be essential for the implementation of change in organizations. It is within communities of practice that tacit knowledge is actively integrated with explicit knowledge. Organizational factors that limit the development of knowledge management, including communities of practice, in non-health care organizations need to be overcome if the potential is to be achieved within health care.

  15. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  16. Knowledge-based reusable software synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Cammie

    1989-01-01

    The Eli system, a knowledge-based reusable software synthesis system, is being developed for NASA Langley under a Phase 2 SBIR contract. Named after Eli Whitney, the inventor of interchangeable parts, Eli assists engineers of large-scale software systems in reusing components while they are composing their software specifications or designs. Eli will identify reuse potential, search for components, select component variants, and synthesize components into the developer's specifications. The Eli project began as a Phase 1 SBIR to define a reusable software synthesis methodology that integrates reusabilityinto the top-down development process and to develop an approach for an expert system to promote and accomplish reuse. The objectives of the Eli Phase 2 work are to integrate advanced technologies to automate the development of reusable components within the context of large system developments, to integrate with user development methodologies without significant changes in method or learning of special languages, and to make reuse the easiest operation to perform. Eli will try to address a number of reuse problems including developing software with reusable components, managing reusable components, identifying reusable components, and transitioning reuse technology. Eli is both a library facility for classifying, storing, and retrieving reusable components and a design environment that emphasizes, encourages, and supports reuse.

  17. IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system.

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J. A.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support.

  18. DeepDive: Declarative Knowledge Base Construction

    PubMed Central

    De Sa, Christopher; Ratner, Alex; Ré, Christopher; Shin, Jaeho; Wang, Feiran; Wu, Sen; Zhang, Ce

    2016-01-01

    The dark data extraction or knowledge base construction (KBC) problem is to populate a SQL database with information from unstructured data sources including emails, webpages, and pdf reports. KBC is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of data extraction, cleaning, and integration. We describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems. The key idea in DeepDive is that statistical inference and machine learning are key tools to attack classical data problems in extraction, cleaning, and integration in a unified and more effective manner. DeepDive programs are declarative in that one cannot write probabilistic inference algorithms; instead, one interacts by defining features or rules about the domain. A key reason for this design choice is to enable domain experts to build their own KBC systems. We present the applications, abstractions, and techniques of DeepDive employed to accelerate construction of KBC systems. PMID:28344371

  19. Knowledge Generation

    SciTech Connect

    BRABSON,JOHN M.; DELAND,SHARON M.

    2000-11-02

    Unattended monitoring systems are being studied as a means of reducing both the cost and intrusiveness of present nuclear safeguards approaches. Such systems present the classic information overload problem to anyone trying to interpret the resulting data not only because of the sheer quantity of data but also because of the problems inherent in trying to correlate information from more than one source. As a consequence, analysis efforts to date have mostly concentrated on checking thresholds or diagnosing failures. Clearly more sophisticated analysis techniques are required to enable automated verification of expected activities level concepts in order to make automated judgments about safety, sensor system integrity, sensor data quality, diversion, and accountancy.

  20. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  1. A framework for knowledge acquisition, representation and problem-solving in knowledge-based planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Bermudez, Iliana

    This research addresses the problem of developing planning knowledge-based applications. In particular, it is concerned with the problems of knowledge acquisition and representation---the issues that remain an impediment to the development of large-scale, knowledge-based planning applications. This work aims to develop a model of planning problem solving that facilitates expert knowledge elicitation and also supports effective problem solving. Achieving this goal requires determining the types of knowledge used by planning experts, the structure of this knowledge, and the problem-solving process that results in the plan. While answering these questions it became clear that the knowledge structure, as well as the process of problem solving, largely depends on the knowledge available to the expert. This dissertation proposes classification of planning problems based on their use of expert knowledge. Such classification can help in the selection of the appropriate planning method when dealing with a specific planning problem. The research concentrates on one of the identified classes of planning problems that can be characterized by well-defined and well-structured problem-solving knowledge. To achieve a more complete knowledge representation architecture for such problems, this work employs the task-specific approach to problem solving. The result of this endeavor is a task-specific methodology that allows the representation and use of planning knowledge in a structural, consistent manner specific to the domain of the application. The shell for building a knowledge-based planning application was created as a proof of concept for the methodology described in this dissertation. This shell enabled the development of a system for manufacturing planning---COMPLAN. COMPLAN encompasses knowledge related to four generic techniques used in composite material manufacturing and, given the description of the composite part, creates a family of plans capable of producing it.

  2. Bermuda Triangle or three to tango: generation Y, e-health and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kwang Chien

    2007-01-01

    Generation Y workers are slowly gathering critical mass in the healthcare sector. The sustainability of future healthcare is highly dependent on this group of workers. This generation of workers loves technology and thrives in stimulating environments. They have great thirst for life-experience and therefore they move from one working environment to the other. The healthcare system has a hierarchical operational, information and knowledge structure, which unfortunately might not be the ideal ground to integrate with generation Y. The challenges ahead present a fantastic opportunity for electronic health implementation and knowledge management to flourish. Generation Y workers, however, have very different expectation of technology utilisation, technology design and knowledge presentation. This paper will argue that a clear understanding of this group of workers is essential for researchers in health informatics and knowledge management in order to provide socio-technical integrated solution for this group of future workers. The sustainability of a quality healthcare system will depend upon the integration of generation Y, health informatics and knowledge management strategies in a re-invented healthcare system.

  3. A Knowledge-Based System Developer for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, George Z.; Wu, Kewei; Fensky, Connie S.; Lo, Ching F.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype Knowledge-Based System Developer (KBSD) has been developed for aerospace applications by utilizing artificial intelligence technology. The KBSD directly acquires knowledge from domain experts through a graphical interface then builds expert systems from that knowledge. This raises the state of the art of knowledge acquisition/expert system technology to a new level by lessening the need for skilled knowledge engineers. The feasibility, applicability , and efficiency of the proposed concept was established, making a continuation which would develop the prototype to a full-scale general-purpose knowledge-based system developer justifiable. The KBSD has great commercial potential. It will provide a marketable software shell which alleviates the need for knowledge engineers and increase productivity in the workplace. The KBSD will therefore make knowledge-based systems available to a large portion of industry.

  4. A Knowledge-Based System Developer for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, George Z.; Wu, Kewei; Fensky, Connie S.; Lo, Ching F.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype Knowledge-Based System Developer (KBSD) has been developed for aerospace applications by utilizing artificial intelligence technology. The KBSD directly acquires knowledge from domain experts through a graphical interface then builds expert systems from that knowledge. This raises the state of the art of knowledge acquisition/expert system technology to a new level by lessening the need for skilled knowledge engineers. The feasibility, applicability , and efficiency of the proposed concept was established, making a continuation which would develop the prototype to a full-scale general-purpose knowledge-based system developer justifiable. The KBSD has great commercial potential. It will provide a marketable software shell which alleviates the need for knowledge engineers and increase productivity in the workplace. The KBSD will therefore make knowledge-based systems available to a large portion of industry.

  5. Creating a knowledge base of biological research papers

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, C.D.; Baclawski, K.; Futrelle, R.P.; Fridman, N.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent text-oriented tools for representing and searching the biological research literature are being developed, which combine object-oriented databases with artificial intelligence techniques to create a richly structured knowledge base of Materials and Methods sections of biological research papers. A knowledge model of experimental processes, biological and chemical substances, and analytical techniques is described, based on the representation techniques of taxonomic semantic nets and knowledge frames. Two approaches to populating the knowledge base with the contents of biological research papers are described: natural language processing and an interactive knowledge definition tool.

  6. From knowledge generation to knowledge archive. A general strategy using TOPS-MODE with DEREK to formulate new alerts for skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ernesto; Patlewicz, Grace; Gutierrez, Yaquelin

    2004-01-01

    A general strategy for knowledge flow concerning skin sensitization based on the combined use of TOPS-MODE and DEREK expert system is proposed. TOPS-MODE is used as a knowledge generator, while DEREK represents the knowledge archive. A TOPS-MODE classification model allows the identification of structural fragments and groups responsible for strong/moderate skin sensitization. These structural contributions are sorted, analyzed, and graphically displayed in an appropriate way allowing the identification of several structural alerts for skin sensitization. Nine structural alerts already implemented in DEREK are identified using this strategy. They comprise, among others, alkyl halides, aldehydes, alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds, aromatic amines, phenols, hydroquinone, isothiazolinone, and alkyl sulfonates. Four new hypotheses are generated using TOPS-MODE structural contributions to skin sensitization, which are not recognized as structural alerts by DEREK. They include the reduction of aromatic nitro groups and epoxidation reaction of double bonds as metabolic activation steps that can lead to reactive haptens which can trigger the skin sensitization mechanism. Another new alert is based on 1,2,5-thiadiazole-1,1-dioxide for which we have identified a possible mechanism explaining its strong skin sensitization profile. It is based on the existence of a tautomeric equilibrium and further reaction with nucleophiles, which are both supported by experimental evidence. Finally, we have identified a possible new mechanism for the skin sensitization of nonreactive compounds, which involves the formation of noncovalent complexes with proteins in a processing- and metabolism-independent way.

  7. System Engineering for the NNSA Knowledge Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C.; Ballard, S.; Hipp, J.

    2006-05-01

    To improve ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring capability, GNEM R&E (Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Engineering) researchers at the national laboratories have collected an extensive set of raw data products. These raw data are used to develop higher level products (e.g. 2D and 3D travel time models) to better characterize the Earth at regional scales. The processed products and selected portions of the raw data are stored in an archiving and access system known as the NNSA (National Nuclear Security Administration) Knowledge Base (KB), which is engineered to meet the requirements of operational monitoring authorities. At its core, the KB is a data archive, and the effectiveness of the KB is ultimately determined by the quality of the data content, but access to that content is completely controlled by the information system in which that content is embedded. Developing this system has been the task of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and in this paper we discuss some of the significant challenges we have faced and the solutions we have engineered. One of the biggest system challenges with raw data has been integrating database content from the various sources to yield an overall KB product that is comprehensive, thorough and validated, yet minimizes the amount of disk storage required. Researchers at different facilities often use the same data to develop their products, and this redundancy must be removed in the delivered KB, ideally without requiring any additional effort on the part of the researchers. Further, related data content must be grouped together for KB user convenience. Initially SNL used whatever tools were already available for these tasks, and did the other tasks manually. The ever-growing volume of KB data to be merged, as well as a need for more control of merging utilities, led SNL to develop our own java software package, consisting of a low- level database utility library upon which we have built several

  8. Agent-Based Knowledge Discovery for Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Marshall, Eric J.; Fligg, Alan K.; Gregory, Michelle L.; McGrath, Liam R.

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes an approach to using agent technology to extend the automated discovery mechanism of the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework (KEF). KEF is a suite of tools to enable the linking of knowledge inputs (relevant, domain-specific evidence) to modeling and simulation projects, as well as other domains that require an effective collaborative workspace for knowledge-based tasks. This framework can be used to capture evidence (e.g., trusted material such as journal articles and government reports), discover new evidence (covering both trusted and social media), enable discussions surrounding domain-specific topics and provide automatically generated semantic annotations for improved corpus investigation. The current KEF implementation is presented within a semantic wiki environment, providing a simple but powerful collaborative space for team members to review, annotate, discuss and align evidence with their modeling frameworks. The novelty in this approach lies in the combination of automatically tagged and user-vetted resources, which increases user trust in the environment, leading to ease of adoption for the collaborative environment.

  9. An object-based methodology for knowledge representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Hartley, R.T.; Webster, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    An object based methodology for knowledge representation is presented. The constructs and notation to the methodology are described and illustrated with examples. The ``blocks world,`` a classic artificial intelligence problem, is used to illustrate some of the features of the methodology including perspectives and events. Representing knowledge with perspectives can enrich the detail of the knowledge and facilitate potential lines of reasoning. Events allow example uses of the knowledge to be represented along with the contained knowledge. Other features include the extensibility and maintainability of knowledge represented in the methodology.

  10. Project-Based Learning and the Limits of Corporate Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Carl; Garrick, John

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of management discourses, especially project-based learning and knowledge management, indicates that such terms as human capital, working knowledge, and knowledge assets construe managerial workers as cogito-economic subjects. Although workplace learning should develop economically related capabilities, such discourses imply that these…

  11. Knowledge Sharing in an American Multinational Company Based in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chen Wai; Sandhu, Manjit S.; Jain, Kamal Kishore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the views of executives working in an American based multinational company (MNC) about knowledge sharing, barriers to knowledge sharing, and strategies to promote knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out in phases. In the first phase, a topology of organizational mechanisms for…

  12. Project-Based Learning and the Limits of Corporate Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Carl; Garrick, John

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of management discourses, especially project-based learning and knowledge management, indicates that such terms as human capital, working knowledge, and knowledge assets construe managerial workers as cogito-economic subjects. Although workplace learning should develop economically related capabilities, such discourses imply that these…

  13. Knowledge Sharing in an American Multinational Company Based in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chen Wai; Sandhu, Manjit S.; Jain, Kamal Kishore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the views of executives working in an American based multinational company (MNC) about knowledge sharing, barriers to knowledge sharing, and strategies to promote knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out in phases. In the first phase, a topology of organizational mechanisms for…

  14. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  15. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  16. An Evaluation of Knowledge Base Systems for Large OWL Datasets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    An Evaluation of Knowledge Base Systems for Large OWL Datasets Yuanbo Guo, Zhengxiang Pan, and Jeff Heflin Computer Science & Engineering ...present our work on evaluating knowledge base sys- tems with respect to use in large OWL applications. To this end, we have de- veloped the Lehigh...University Benchmark (LUBM). The benchmark is in- tended to evaluate knowledge base systems with respect to extensional queries over a large dataset that

  17. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  18. Benchmarking of Prelicensure Nursing Students' Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Sheryl; Milner, Kerry A; Wonder, Amy

    2017-06-19

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) knowledge among prelicensure nursing students was measured before, immediately following, and 1 year after completion of an EBP course using a relatively new instrument. There was a significant increase in EBP knowledge immediately following the course, and knowledge was sustained 1 year later. Results enabled faculty to gauge the effectiveness of the EBP course within the curriculum to prepare students with the knowledge needed to enact EBP in practice.

  19. Zero-Knowledge Proof Based Node Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    results are inconclusive and require additional experiments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Airborne Network Protocol, Zero Knowledge Proof, Graph Isomorphism...we developed the basic guidelines for this selection, our results are inconclusive and require additional experiments. 2 2. INTRODUCTION...manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report is the result of contracted fundamental research deemed exempt

  20. Active Data/Knowledge Base Dictionary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    maintenance of integrity asser- tions using redundant aggregate. In Proceedings of the 6th Int’l Conf. on Very Large Databases, pages 126-136, Alfonso ...Minker. Logic and Databases. Plenum Press, New York, 1978. [GM83] Hector Garcia- Molina . Using semantic knowledge for transaction processing in a dis

  1. A knowledge based system for scientific data visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senay, Hikmet; Ignatius, Eve

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge-based system, called visualization tool assistant (VISTA), which was developed to assist scientists in the design of scientific data visualization techniques, is described. The system derives its knowledge from several sources which provide information about data characteristics, visualization primitives, and effective visual perception. The design methodology employed by the system is based on a sequence of transformations which decomposes a data set into a set of data partitions, maps this set of partitions to visualization primitives, and combines these primitives into a composite visualization technique design. Although the primary function of the system is to generate an effective visualization technique design for a given data set by using principles of visual perception the system also allows users to interactively modify the design, and renders the resulting image using a variety of rendering algorithms. The current version of the system primarily supports visualization techniques having applicability in earth and space sciences, although it may easily be extended to include other techniques useful in other disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics, finite-element analysis and medical imaging.

  2. Approximate Degrees of Similarity between a User's Knowledge and the Tutorial Systems' Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogharreban, Namdar

    2004-01-01

    A typical tutorial system functions by means of interaction between four components: the expert knowledge base component, the inference engine component, the learner's knowledge component and the user interface component. In typical tutorial systems the interaction and the sequence of presentation as well as the mode of evaluation are…

  3. Construction of Expert Knowledge Monitoring and Assessment System Based on Integral Method of Knowledge Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golovachyova, Viktoriya N.; Menlibekova, Gulbakhyt Zh.; Abayeva, Nella F.; Ten, Tatyana L.; Kogaya, Galina D.

    2016-01-01

    Using computer-based monitoring systems that rely on tests could be the most effective way of knowledge evaluation. The problem of objective knowledge assessment by means of testing takes on a new dimension in the context of new paradigms in education. The analysis of the existing test methods enabled us to conclude that tests with selected…

  4. Students' Refinement of Knowledge during the Development of Knowledge Bases for Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Renate; Finley, Fred

    The refinement of the cognitive knowledge base was studied through exploration of the transition from novice to expert and the use of an instructional strategy called novice knowledge engineering. Six college freshmen, who were enrolled in an honors physics course, used an expert system to create questions, decisions, rules, and explanations…

  5. Supervised Learning Based Hypothesis Generation from Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shengtian; Yang, Zhihao; Li, Zongyao; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the amount of biomedical literatures is growing at an explosive speed, and there is much useful knowledge undiscovered in this literature. Researchers can form biomedical hypotheses through mining these works. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning based approach to generate hypotheses from biomedical literature. This approach splits the traditional processing of hypothesis generation with classic ABC model into AB model and BC model which are constructed with supervised learning method. Compared with the concept cooccurrence and grammar engineering-based approaches like SemRep, machine learning based models usually can achieve better performance in information extraction (IE) from texts. Then through combining the two models, the approach reconstructs the ABC model and generates biomedical hypotheses from literature. The experimental results on the three classic Swanson hypotheses show that our approach outperforms SemRep system. PMID:26380291

  6. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technology information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.

  7. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    DOE PAGES

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technologymore » information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.« less

  8. Fundamentals of Knowledge-Based Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Predicate logic knowledge representation models what are known as facts within a domain and represents these facts so that an inference engine or...ANyyy, x]Target Relation [ANsss, T1] [ANyyy, T2] RxPower Relation [T1, x] [T2, x] Figure 3. Relational DBMS Model of Facts and Causes...Semantic Nets Originally semantic nets were developed for the purpose of modeling the English language (7), for a computer to understand. A method

  9. The question of knowledge in evidence-based design for healthcare facilities: limitations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2013-01-01

    To help designers and researchers and other proponents of evidence-based design (EBD) overcome limitations concerning knowledge categorization and acquisition of evidence-based design (EBD). The evidence-based design (EBD) approach for healthcare facilities has been widely embraced by both designers and researchers in recent years; however, there are some limitations concerning knowledge categorization and acquisition of EBD. These limitations include an overemphasis on empirical knowledge gained by experimental research, a narrow focus that excludes design knowledge generated outside healthcare and allied fields, and a lack of interest in empirical knowledge gained by qualitative studies. In order to overcome these limitations, the proponents of EBD must acknowledge that design knowledge relevant to healthcare design can be found in disciplines unrelated to healthcare; that design knowledge does not always need empirical validation; and that design knowledge of the semantic kind can be more easily accessed and understood through qualitative studies. To reassess the foundations of knowledge of EBD with moderated skepticism is necessary because there are philosophical and analytical problems yet to be overcome in delivering on the promises of EBD. To question and reassess the foundations of knowledge base of EBD is not necessarily to deny its value, but rather to stimulate a judicious and balanced appraisal of its limitations so that, in future, we are able to take necessary steps to overcome these limitations. Design process, evidence-based design, methodology, theory, interdisciplinary.

  10. EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base (iGTKB) Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qian; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G; Ferber, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The gap between a large growing number of genetic tests and a suboptimal clinical workflow of incorporating these tests into regular clinical practice poses barriers to effective reliance on advanced genetic technologies to improve quality of healthcare. A promising solution to fill this gap is to develop an intelligent genetic test recommendation system that not only can provide a comprehensive view of genetic tests as education resources, but also can recommend the most appropriate genetic tests to patients based on clinical evidence. In this study, we developed an EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base for Individualized Medicine (iGTKB). We extracted genetic testing information and patient medical records from EHR systems at Mayo Clinic. Clinical features have been semi-automatically annotated from the clinical notes by applying a Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool, MedTagger suite. To prioritize clinical features for each genetic test, we compared odds ratio across four population groups. Genetic tests, genetic disorders and clinical features with their odds ratios have been applied to establish iGTKB, which is to be integrated into the Genetic Testing Ontology (GTO). Overall, there are five genetic tests operated with sample size greater than 100 in 2013 at Mayo Clinic. A total of 1,450 patients who was tested by one of the five genetic tests have been selected. We assembled 243 clinical features from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) for these five genetic tests. There are 60 clinical features with at least one mention in clinical notes of patients taking the test. Twenty-eight clinical features with high odds ratio (greater than 1) have been selected as dominant features and deposited into iGTKB with their associated information about genetic tests and genetic disorders. In this study, we developed an EHR based genetic testing knowledge base, iGTKB. iGTKB will be integrated into the GTO by providing relevant clinical evidence, and ultimately to

  11. "Comments on Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes": Technologies that Facilitate Generating Knowledge and Possibly Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes (2009) argue that Web 2.0 media are well suited to enhancing the education research community's purpose of generating and sharing knowledge. The author of this comment article first articulates how a research infrastructure with capabilities for communal bookmarking, photo and video sharing, social networking, wikis,…

  12. "Comments on Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes": Technologies that Facilitate Generating Knowledge and Possibly Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes (2009) argue that Web 2.0 media are well suited to enhancing the education research community's purpose of generating and sharing knowledge. The author of this comment article first articulates how a research infrastructure with capabilities for communal bookmarking, photo and video sharing, social networking, wikis,…

  13. How To Manage the Emerging Generational Divide in the Contemporary Knowledge-Rich Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novicevic, Milorad M.; Buckley, M. Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the manager's dilemmas and options in resolving emerging latent intergenerational conflict in the contemporary knowledge-rich workplace. Topics include a theoretical framework for generational divide management; the polarization in task requirements; social and environmental factors; differences in employee needs and expectations; and…

  14. Data Mining in Finance: Using Counterfactuals To Generate Knowledge from Organizational Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Vasant

    1998-01-01

    Shows how counterfactuals and machine learning methods can be used to guide exploration of large databases that addresses some of the fundamental problems that organizations face in learning from data. Discusses data mining, particularly in the financial arena; generating useful knowledge from data; and the evaluation of counterfactuals. (LRW)

  15. How To Manage the Emerging Generational Divide in the Contemporary Knowledge-Rich Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novicevic, Milorad M.; Buckley, M. Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the manager's dilemmas and options in resolving emerging latent intergenerational conflict in the contemporary knowledge-rich workplace. Topics include a theoretical framework for generational divide management; the polarization in task requirements; social and environmental factors; differences in employee needs and expectations; and…

  16. Towards a Reconceptualisation of "Word" for High Frequency Word Generation in Word Knowledge Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency words…

  17. Towards a Reconceptualisation of "Word" for High Frequency Word Generation in Word Knowledge Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency words…

  18. Requirements for an on-line knowledge-based anatomy information system.

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, J. F.; Rosse, C.

    1998-01-01

    User feedback from the Digital Anatomist Web-based anatomy atlases, together with over 20 years of anatomy teaching experience, were used to formulate the requirements and system design for a next-generation anatomy information system. The main characteristic of this system over current image-based approaches is that it is knowledge-based. A foundational model of anatomy is accessed by an intelligent agent that uses its knowledge about the available anatomy resources and the user types to generate customized interfaces. Current usage statistics suggest that even partial implementation of this design will be of great practical value for both clinical and educational needs. Images Figure 1 PMID:9929347

  19. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability

    PubMed Central

    Yahagi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, T.; Hara, T.; Ota, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. PMID:27347501

  20. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  1. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  2. Improved knowledge diffusion model based on the collaboration hypernetwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-Pan; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    The process for absorbing knowledge becomes an essential element for innovation in firms and in adapting to changes in the competitive environment. In this paper, we present an improved knowledge diffusion hypernetwork (IKDH) model based on the idea that knowledge will spread from the target node to all its neighbors in terms of the hyperedge and knowledge stock. We apply the average knowledge stock V(t) , the variable σ2(t) , and the variance coefficient c(t) to evaluate the performance of knowledge diffusion. By analyzing different knowledge diffusion ways, selection ways of the highly knowledgeable nodes, hypernetwork sizes and hypernetwork structures for the performance of knowledge diffusion, results show that the diffusion speed of IKDH model is 3.64 times faster than that of traditional knowledge diffusion (TKDH) model. Besides, it is three times faster to diffuse knowledge by randomly selecting "expert" nodes than that by selecting large-hyperdegree nodes as "expert" nodes. Furthermore, either the closer network structure or smaller network size results in the faster knowledge diffusion.

  3. Analyzing Data Generated Through Deliberative Dialogue: Bringing Knowledge Translation Into Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, Katrina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Cole, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    Deliberative dialogue (DD) is a knowledge translation strategy that can serve to generate rich data and bridge health research with action. An intriguing alternative to other modes of generating data, the purposeful and evidence-informed conversations characteristic of DD generate data inclusive of collective interpretations. These data are thus dialogic, presenting complex challenges for qualitative analysis. In this article, we discuss the nature of data generated through DD, orienting ourselves toward a theoretically grounded approach to analysis. We offer an integrated framework for analysis, balancing analytical strategies of categorizing and connecting with the use of empathetic and suspicious interpretive lenses. In this framework, data generation and analysis occur in concert, alongside engaging participants and synthesizing evidence. An example of application is provided, demonstrating nuances of the framework. We conclude with reflections on the strengths and limitations of the framework, suggesting how it may be relevant in other qualitative health approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-05-21

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.

  5. Structural and Network-based Methods for Knowledge-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURAL AND NETWORK-BASED METHODS FOR KNOWLEDGE -BASED SYSTEMS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structural and Network-based Methods for Knowledge -based Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ABSTRACT Structural and Network-based Methods for Knowledge -based Systems In recent years, there has been

  6. Knowledge sources for evidence-based practice in rheumatology nursing.

    PubMed

    Neher, Margit; Ståhl, Christian; Ellström, Per-Erik; Nilsen, Per

    2015-12-01

    As rheumatology nursing develops and extends, knowledge about current use of knowledge in rheumatology nursing practice may guide discussions about future knowledge needs. To explore what perceptions rheumatology nurses have about their knowledge sources and about what knowledge they use in their practice, 12 nurses working in specialist rheumatology were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis. The analysis yielded four types of knowledge sources in clinical practice: interaction with others in the workplace, contacts outside the workplace, written materials, and previous knowledge and experience. Colleagues, and physicians in particular, were important for informal learning in daily rheumatology practice. Evidence from the medical arena was accessed through medical specialists, while nursing research was used less. Facilitating informal learning and continuing formal education is proposed as a way toward a more evidence-based practice in extended roles. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  8. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  9. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  10. Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Over a period of some 20 years, different aspects of co-management (the sharing of power and responsibility between the government and local resource users) have come to the forefront. The paper focuses on a selection of these: knowledge generation, bridging organizations, social learning, and the emergence of adaptive co-management. Co-management can be considered a knowledge partnership. Different levels of organization, from local to international, have comparative advantages in the generation and mobilization of knowledge acquired at different scales. Bridging organizations provide a forum for the interaction of these different kinds of knowledge, and the coordination of other tasks that enable co-operation: accessing resources, bringing together different actors, building trust, resolving conflict, and networking. Social learning is one of these tasks, essential both for the co-operation of partners and an outcome of the co-operation of partners. It occurs most efficiently through joint problem solving and reflection within learning networks. Through successive rounds of learning and problem solving, learning networks can incorporate new knowledge to deal with problems at increasingly larger scales, with the result that maturing co-management arrangements become adaptive co-management in time.

  11. Towards Modeling False Memory With Computational Knowledge Bases.

    PubMed

    Li, Justin; Kohanyi, Emma

    2017-01-01

    One challenge to creating realistic cognitive models of memory is the inability to account for the vast common-sense knowledge of human participants. Large computational knowledge bases such as WordNet and DBpedia may offer a solution to this problem but may pose other challenges. This paper explores some of these difficulties through a semantic network spreading activation model of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task. In three experiments, we show that these knowledge bases only capture a subset of human associations, while irrelevant information introduces noise and makes efficient modeling difficult. We conclude that the contents of these knowledge bases must be augmented and, more important, that the algorithms must be refined and optimized, before large knowledge bases can be widely used for cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P.

    2013-07-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions to their

  13. KAT: A Flexible XML-based Knowledge Authoring Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Rocha, Roberto A.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Bradshaw, Richard L.; Hanna, Timothy P.; Roemer, Lorrie K.

    2005-01-01

    As part of an enterprise effort to develop new clinical information systems at Intermountain Health Care, the authors have built a knowledge authoring tool that facilitates the development and refinement of medical knowledge content. At present, users of the application can compose order sets and an assortment of other structured clinical knowledge documents based on XML schemas. The flexible nature of the application allows the immediate authoring of new types of documents once an appropriate XML schema and accompanying Web form have been developed and stored in a shared repository. The need for a knowledge acquisition tool stems largely from the desire for medical practitioners to be able to write their own content for use within clinical applications. We hypothesize that medical knowledge content for clinical use can be successfully created and maintained through XML-based document frameworks containing structured and coded knowledge. PMID:15802477

  14. Effective domain-dependent reuse in medical knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Dojat, M; Pachet, F

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge reuse is now a critical issue for most developers of medical knowledge-based systems. As a rule, reuse is addressed from an ambitious, knowledge-engineering perspective that focuses on reusable general purpose knowledge modules, concepts, and methods. However, such a general goal fails to take into account the specific aspects of medical practice. From the point of view of the knowledge engineer, whose goal is to capture the specific features and intricacies of a given domain, this approach addresses the wrong level of generality. In this paper, we adopt a more pragmatic viewpoint, introducing the less ambitious goal of "domain-dependent limited reuse" and suggesting effective means of achieving it in practice. In a knowledge representation framework combining objects and production rules, we propose three mechanisms emerging from the combination of object-oriented programming and rule-based programming. We show these mechanisms contribute to achieve limited reuse and to introduce useful limited variations in medical expertise.

  15. EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base (iGTKB) Development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The gap between a large growing number of genetic tests and a suboptimal clinical workflow of incorporating these tests into regular clinical practice poses barriers to effective reliance on advanced genetic technologies to improve quality of healthcare. A promising solution to fill this gap is to develop an intelligent genetic test recommendation system that not only can provide a comprehensive view of genetic tests as education resources, but also can recommend the most appropriate genetic tests to patients based on clinical evidence. In this study, we developed an EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base for Individualized Medicine (iGTKB). Methods We extracted genetic testing information and patient medical records from EHR systems at Mayo Clinic. Clinical features have been semi-automatically annotated from the clinical notes by applying a Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool, MedTagger suite. To prioritize clinical features for each genetic test, we compared odds ratio across four population groups. Genetic tests, genetic disorders and clinical features with their odds ratios have been applied to establish iGTKB, which is to be integrated into the Genetic Testing Ontology (GTO). Results Overall, there are five genetic tests operated with sample size greater than 100 in 2013 at Mayo Clinic. A total of 1,450 patients who was tested by one of the five genetic tests have been selected. We assembled 243 clinical features from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) for these five genetic tests. There are 60 clinical features with at least one mention in clinical notes of patients taking the test. Twenty-eight clinical features with high odds ratio (greater than 1) have been selected as dominant features and deposited into iGTKB with their associated information about genetic tests and genetic disorders. Conclusions In this study, we developed an EHR based genetic testing knowledge base, iGTKB. iGTKB will be integrated into the GTO by providing relevant

  16. AOP Knowledge Base/Wiki Tool Set

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilizing ToxCast Data and Lifestage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to Drive Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs)-Based Margin of Exposures (ABME) to Chemicals. Hisham A. El-Masri1, Nicole C. Klienstreur2, Linda Adams1, Tamara Tal1, Stephanie Padilla1, Kristin Is...

  17. AOP Knowledge Base/Wiki Tool Set

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilizing ToxCast Data and Lifestage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to Drive Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs)-Based Margin of Exposures (ABME) to Chemicals. Hisham A. El-Masri1, Nicole C. Klienstreur2, Linda Adams1, Tamara Tal1, Stephanie Padilla1, Kristin Is...

  18. Knowledge-based graphical interfaces for presenting technical information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiner, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Designing effective presentations of technical information is extremely difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, the combination of increasing task complexity and declining job skills makes the need for high-quality technical presentations especially urgent. We believe that this need can ultimately be met through the development of knowledge-based graphical interfaces that can design and present technical information. Since much material is most naturally communicated through pictures, our work has stressed the importance of well-designed graphics, concentrating on generating pictures and laying out displays containing them. We describe APEX, a testbed picture generation system that creates sequences of pictures that depict the performance of simple actions in a world of 3D objects. Our system supports rules for determining automatically the objects to be shown in a picture, the style and level of detail with which they should be rendered, the method by which the action itself should be indicated, and the picture's camera specification. We then describe work on GRIDS, an experimental display layout system that addresses some of the problems in designing displays containing these pictures, determining the position and size of the material to be presented.

  19. GENSCHED - A Real World Hierarchical Planning Knowledge-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeco, Antonio C.; Williams, Bryan D.; Roth, Stefan; Gilmore, John F.

    1986-03-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of GENSCHED, a hierarchical planning system for scheduling production orders in manufacturing facilities.In a typical manufacturing application, orders for the production of certain items arrive continuously and must be scheduled to minimize tardiness, wait-in-process time, and early completion in addition to maximize throughput and resource utilization. In many cases, arriving orders generate manufacturing requirements beyond the capacity of the plant and compromises must be made. Manufacturing operations desire the capability to rearrange the backlog of orders to expedite higher priority ones, and to estimate the effect of newly arriving orders in the current backlog. GENSCHED features a hierarchical planner which takes advantage of the repetitive nature of the plans to efficiently generate valid schedules. A user interface allows manual and automatic scheduling and "what-if" processing of production orders. Finally, a rule-based subsystem for entering and maintaining domain-specific knowledge is exploited to improve schedules and minimize search.

  20. The 2004 knowledge base parametric grid data software suite.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Lisa K.; Simons, Randall W.; Ballard, Sandy; Jensen, Lee A.; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2004-08-01

    One of the most important types of data in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Knowledge Base (KB) is parametric grid (PG) data. PG data can be used to improve signal detection, signal association, and event discrimination, but so far their greatest use has been for improving event location by providing ground-truth-based corrections to travel-time base models. In this presentation we discuss the latest versions of the complete suite of Knowledge Base PG tools developed by NNSA to create, access, manage, and view PG data. The primary PG population tool is the Knowledge Base calibration integration tool (KBCIT). KBCIT is an interactive computer application to produce interpolated calibration-based information that can be used to improve monitoring performance by improving precision of model predictions and by providing proper characterizations of uncertainty. It is used to analyze raw data and produce kriged correction surfaces that can be included in the Knowledge Base. KBCIT not only produces the surfaces but also records all steps in the analysis for later review and possible revision. New features in KBCIT include a new variogram autofit algorithm; the storage of database identifiers with a surface; the ability to merge surfaces; and improved surface-smoothing algorithms. The Parametric Grid Library (PGL) provides the interface to access the data and models stored in a PGL file database. The PGL represents the core software library used by all the GNEM R&E tools that read or write PGL data (e.g., KBCIT and LocOO). The library provides data representations and software models to support accurate and efficient seismic phase association and event location. Recent improvements include conversion of the flat-file database (FDB) to an Oracle database representation; automatic access of station/phase tagged models from the FDB during location; modification of the core

  1. The data dictionary: A view into the CTBT knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, E.R.; Keyser, R.G.; Armstrong, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    The data dictionary for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) knowledge base provides a comprehensive, current catalog of the projected contents of the knowledge base. It is written from a data definition view of the knowledge base and therefore organizes information in a fashion that allows logical storage within the computer. The data dictionary introduces two organization categories of data: the datatype, which is a broad, high-level category of data, and the dataset, which is a specific instance of a datatype. The knowledge base, and thus the data dictionary, consist of a fixed, relatively small number of datatypes, but new datasets are expected to be added on a regular basis. The data dictionary is a tangible result of the design effort for the knowledge base and is intended to be used by anyone who accesses the knowledge base for any purpose, such as populating the knowledge base with data, or accessing the data for use with automatic data processing (ADP) routines, or browsing through the data for verification purposes. For these two reasons, it is important to discuss the development of the data dictionary as well as to describe its contents to better understand its usefulness; that is the purpose of this paper.

  2. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Design of an opt-electronic knowledge-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuan-Jing; Qian, Qing-Ji; Liu, Ping-Ping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the analysis of the features of knowledge-based system and optical computing, a scheme of an opt-electronic hybrid system (OEHKBS) model and its hardware supporting system. The OEHKBS adopts a knowledge representation based on matrix and its inference and learning arithmetic which suitable for optical parallel processing. Finally, the paper analyses the performance of the OEHKBS, which can make the time complexity for solving Maze problem reduce to O(n).

  4. The process for integrating the NNSA knowledge base.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Lisa K.; Carr, Dorthe Bame; Young, Christopher John; Hampton, Jeff; Martinez, Elaine

    2009-03-01

    From 2002 through 2006, the Ground Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Engineering (GNEMRE) program at Sandia National Laboratories defined and modified a process for merging different types of integrated research products (IRPs) from various researchers into a cohesive, well-organized collection know as the NNSA Knowledge Base, to support operational treaty monitoring. This process includes defining the KB structure, systematically and logically aggregating IRPs into a complete set, and verifying and validating that the integrated Knowledge Base works as expected.

  5. Apprenticeship Learning Techniques for Knowledge Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    domain, such as medicine. The Odysseus explanation-based learning program constructs explanations of problem-solving actions in the domain of medical...theories and empirical methods so as to allow construction of an explanation. The Odysseus learning program provides the first demonstration of using the... Odysseus explanation-based learning program is presfuted, which constructs explanations of human problem-solving actions in the domain of medical di

  6. A specialized framework for medical diagnostic knowledge-based systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1992-08-01

    For a knowledge-based system (KBS) to exhibit an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed with knowledge enabling it to represent the expert's strategies. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form which may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge-Based Systems that can help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proven to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks that it is composed of. It allows a straightforward modeling of diagnostic reasoning at the knowledge level by the domain expert, thus helping to convey domain-dependent strategies into the target KBS.

  7. A specialized framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1991-01-01

    To have a knowledge based system (KBS) exhibiting an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed even with knowledge able to represent the expert's strategies, other than with domain knowledge. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form that may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems able to help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proved to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks by which it is composed of.

  8. Using Knowledge-Based Systems to Support Learning of Organizational Knowledge: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.

  9. Using Knowledge-Based Systems to Support Learning of Organizational Knowledge: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.

  10. A knowledge-based decision support system for payload scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, Rajesh; Tseng, Fan T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a prototype Knowledge-based Decision Support System, currently under development, for scheduling payloads/experiments on space station missions. The DSS is being built on Symbolics, a Lisp machine, using KEE, a commercial knowledge engineering tool.

  11. Grey Documentation as a Knowledge Base in Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Yitzhak

    1994-01-01

    Defines grey documentation as documents issued informally and not available through normal channels and discusses the role that grey documentation can play in the social work knowledge base. Topics addressed include grey documentation and science; social work and the empirical approach in knowledge development; and dissemination of grey…

  12. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  13. Developing Learning Progression-Based Teacher Knowledge Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Shin, HyoJeong; Johnson, Michele E.; Kim, JinHo; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed learning progression-based measures of science teachers' content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The measures focus on an important topic in secondary science curriculum using scientific reasoning (i.e., tracing matter, tracing energy, and connecting scales) to explain plants gaining weight and…

  14. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  15. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  16. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  17. Developing Learning Progression-Based Teacher Knowledge Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Shin, HyoJeong; Johnson, Michele E.; Kim, JinHo; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed learning progression-based measures of science teachers' content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The measures focus on an important topic in secondary science curriculum using scientific reasoning (i.e., tracing matter, tracing energy, and connecting scales) to explain plants gaining weight and…

  18. Conventional and Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval with Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, William; Paz, Noemi

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of PROLOG to program knowledge-based information retrieval systems, in which the knowledge contained in a document is translated into machine processable logic. Several examples of the resulting search process, and the program rules supporting the process, are given. (10 references) (CLB)

  19. Principals for Our Changing Schools: The Knowledge and Skill Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott, D., Ed.; And Others

    This publication describes a new knowledge and skill base for use in a principal preparation program. These essential skills and knowledge encompass 21 "domains," which were defined in "Principals for Our Changing Schools: Preparation and Certification" (1990). The 21 domains, organized under 4 broad themes, blend the…

  20. Next generation agricultural system models and knowledge products: Synthesis and strategy.

    PubMed

    Antle, John M; Jones, James W; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. In the Introduction to this Special Issue, we described a vision for accelerating the rate of agricultural innovation and meeting the growing global need for food and fiber. In this concluding article of the NextGen Special Issue we synthesize insights and formulate a strategy to advance data, models, and knowledge products that are consistent with this vision. This strategy is designed to facilitate a transition from the current, primarily supply-driven approach toward a more demand-driven approach that would address key Use Cases where better data, models and knowledge products are seen by end-users as essential to meet their needs.

  1. Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baolong; Wang, Xiangqian; Li, Huizong; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2017-06-01

    The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. On the basis of analyzing the structures and internal relations of coal mining equipment knowledge, taking OWL as ontology construct language, the ontology model of coal mining equipment knowledge is built with the help of Protégé 4.3 software tools. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

  2. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    PubMed

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  3. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  4. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  5. Knowledge-based control and case-based diagnosis based upon empirical knowledge and fuzzy logic for the SBR plant.

    PubMed

    Bae, H; Seo, H Y; Kim, S; Kim, Y

    2006-01-01

    Because biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) involve a long time-delay and various disturbances, in general, skilled operators manually control the plant based on empirical knowledge. And operators usually diagnose the plant using similar cases experienced in the past. For the effective management of the plant, system automation has to be accomplished based upon operating recipes. This paper introduces automatic control and diagnosis based upon the operator's knowledge. Fuzzy logic was employed to design this knowledge-based controller because fuzzy logic can convert the linguistic information to rules. The controller can manage the influent and external carbon in considering the loading rate. The input of the controller is not the loading rate but the dissolved oxygen (DO) lag-time, which has a strong relation to the loading rate. This approach can replace an expensive sensor, which measures the loading rate and ammonia concentration in the reactor, with a cheaper DO sensor. The proposed controller can assure optimal operation and prevent the over-feeding problem. Case-based diagnosis was achieved by the analysis of profile patterns collected from the past. A new test profile was diagnosed by comparing it with template patterns containing normal and abnormal cases. The proposed control and diagnostic system will guarantee the effective and stable operation of WWTPs.

  6. Comparing contents of a knowledge base to traditional information sources.

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, N. B.; Giuse, D. A.; Bankowitz, R. A.; Miller, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Physicians rely on the medical literature as a major source of medical knowledge and data. The medical literature, however, is continually evolving and represents different sources at different levels of coverage and detail. The recent development of computerized medical knowledge bases has added a new form of information that can potentially be used to address the practicing physician's information needs. To understand how the information from various sources differs, we compared the description of a disease found in the QMR knowledge base to those found in two general internal medicine textbooks and two specialized nephrology textbooks. The study shows both differences in coverage and differences in the level of detail. Textbooks contain information about pathophysiology and therapy that is not present in the diagnostic knowledge base. The knowledge base contains a more detailed description of the associated findings, more quantitative information, and a greater number of references to peer-reviewed medical articles. The study demonstrates that computerized knowledge bases, if properly constructed, may be able to provide clinicians with a useful new source of medical knowledge that is complementary to existing sources. PMID:8130550

  7. Supporting the design of translational clinical studies through the generation and verification of conceptual knowledge-anchored hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Payne, Philip Richard Orrin; Borlawsky, Tara B; Borlawsky, Tara; Kwok, Alan; Greaves, Andrew W; Greaves, Andrew

    2008-11-06

    The ability to generate hypotheses based upon the contents of large-scale, heterogeneous data sets is critical to the design of translational clinical studies. In previous reports, we have described the application of a conceptual knowledge engineering technique, known as constructive induction (CI) in order to satisfy such needs. However, one of the major limitations of this method is the need to engage multiple subject matter experts to verify potential hypotheses generated using CI. In this manuscript, we describe an alternative verification technique that leverages published biomedical literature abstracts. Our report will be framed in the context of an ongoing project to generate hypotheses related to the contents of a translational research data repository maintained by the CLL Research Consortium. Such hypotheses will are intended to inform the design of prospective clinical studies that can elucidate the relationships that may exist between biomarkers and patient phenotypes.

  8. Knowledge-Based System Analysis and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    for use as a training tool (given considerable enlargement of its present circuit data base and problem repertoire), because it can provide step-by...from the slow and expensive process of training personnel in complex professional specialties. Tech Control began to emerge as a skill area ripe for...for any purpose but offline training . In late FY87 and early FY88, planning was therefore begun for a new expert system which would have no air gap

  9. A Design Knowledge Management System based on a Model of Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomaguchi, Yutaka; Shimomura, Yoshiki; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    In this paper, we report the development of a design knowledge management system, called DDMS (Design Documentation Management System). By composing design documents during design, DDMS encourages a designer to externalize his/her knowledge and facilitates sharing and reuse of such externalized design knowledge in later stages. DDMS works as a front end to KIEF (Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework), which we have been developing over years. DDMS is capable of guiding designers with design process knowledge based on a model of synthesis, combined together with KIEF that can integrate multiple design object models, and maintain consistency among these models. DDMS automatically generates design documents after analyzing design log data based on the model of synthesis. We also illustrate an example of laser lithography design to demonstrate the features of DDMS.

  10. Enhancing acronym/abbreviation knowledge bases with semantic information.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2007-10-11

    In the biomedical domain, a terminology knowledge base that associates acronyms/abbreviations (denoted as SFs) with the definitions (denoted as LFs) is highly needed. For the construction such terminology knowledge base, we investigate the feasibility to build a system automatically assigning semantic categories to LFs extracted from text. Given a collection of pairs (SF,LF) derived from text, we i) assess the coverage of LFs and pairs (SF,LF) in the UMLS and justify the need of a semantic category assignment system; and ii) automatically derive name phrases annotated with semantic category and construct a system using machine learning. Utilizing ADAM, an existing collection of (SF,LF) pairs extracted from MEDLINE, our system achieved an f-measure of 87% when assigning eight UMLS-based semantic groups to LFs. The system has been incorporated into a web interface which integrates SF knowledge from multiple SF knowledge bases. Web site: http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesurus.

  11. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring

  12. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-06-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos` Mechanical & Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  13. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos' Mechanical Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  14. Online Knowledge-Based Model for Big Data Topic Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Taimoor; Durrani, Mehr; Khalid, Shehzad; Aziz, Furqan

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong machine learning (LML) models learn with experience maintaining a knowledge-base, without user intervention. Unlike traditional single-domain models they can easily scale up to explore big data. The existing LML models have high data dependency, consume more resources, and do not support streaming data. This paper proposes online LML model (OAMC) to support streaming data with reduced data dependency. With engineering the knowledge-base and introducing new knowledge features the learning pattern of the model is improved for data arriving in pieces. OAMC improves accuracy as topic coherence by 7% for streaming data while reducing the processing cost to half. PMID:27195004

  15. Effects of Delays on 6-Year-Old Children's Self-Generation and Retention of Knowledge through Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (i.e., "stem" facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In…

  16. Data mining and intelligent queries in a knowledge-based multimedia medical database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhua; Coleman, John D.

    2000-04-01

    Multimedia medical databases have accumulated large quantities of data and information about patients and their medical conditions. Patterns and relationships within this data could provide new knowledge for making better medical decisions. Unfortunately, few technologies have been developed and applied to discover and use this hidden knowledge. We are currently developing a next generation knowledge-based multimedia medical database, named MedBase, with advanced behaviors for data analysis and data fusion. As part of this R&D effort, a knowledge-rich data model is constructed to incorporate data mining techniques/tools to assist the building of medical knowledge bases, and to facilitate intelligent answering of users' investigative and knowledge queries in the database. Techniques such as data generalization, classification, clustering, semantic structures, and concept hierarchies, are used to acquire and represent both symbolic and spatial knowledge implicit in the database. With the availability of semantic structures, concept hierarchies and generalized knowledge, queries may be posed and answered at multiple levels of abstraction. In this article we provide a general description of the approaches and efforts undertaken so far in the MedBase project.

  17. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  18. Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-11-17

    A key property of relational representations is their generativity: From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from non-relational inputs. In the present paper, we show that a bottom-up model of relation learning, initially developed to discriminate between positive and negative examples of comparative relations (e.g., deciding whether a sheep is larger than a rabbit), can be extended to make generative inferences. The model is able to make quasi-deductive transitive inferences (e.g., "If A is larger than B and B is larger than C, then A is larger than C") and to qualitatively account for human responses to generative questions such as "What is an animal that is smaller than a dog?" These results provide evidence that relational models based on bottom-up learning mechanisms are capable of supporting generative inferences.

  19. A knowledge-based approach to automated flow-field zoning for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Alison Andrews

    1989-01-01

    An automated three-dimensional zonal grid generation capability for computational fluid dynamics is shown through the development of a demonstration computer program capable of automatically zoning the flow field of representative two-dimensional (2-D) aerodynamic configurations. The applicability of a knowledge-based programming approach to the domain of flow-field zoning is examined. Several aspects of flow-field zoning make the application of knowledge-based techniques challenging: the need for perceptual information, the role of individual bias in the design and evaluation of zonings, and the fact that the zoning process is modeled as a constructive, design-type task (for which there are relatively few examples of successful knowledge-based systems in any domain). Engineering solutions to the problems arising from these aspects are developed, and a demonstration system is implemented which can design, generate, and output flow-field zonings for representative 2-D aerodynamic configurations.

  20. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  1. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  2. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  3. The latent structure of secure base script knowledge.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A; Fraley, R Chris; Groh, Ashley M; Steele, Ryan D; Vaughn, Brian E; Bost, Kelly K; Veríssimo, Manuela; Coppola, Gabrielle; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that attachment representations abstracted from childhood experiences with primary caregivers are organized as a cognitive script describing secure base use and support (i.e., the secure base script). To date, however, the latent structure of secure base script knowledge has gone unexamined-this despite that such basic information about the factor structure and distributional properties of these individual differences has important conceptual implications for our understanding of how representations of early experience are organized and generalized, as well as methodological significance in relation to maximizing statistical power and precision. In this study, we report factor and taxometric analyses that examined the latent structure of secure base script knowledge in 2 large samples. Results suggested that variation in secure base script knowledge-as measured by both the adolescent (N = 674) and adult (N = 714) versions of the Attachment Script Assessment-is generalized across relationships and continuously distributed.

  4. A knowledge-based artificial neural network classifier for pulmonary embolism diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Serpen, G; Tekkedil, D K; Orra, M

    2008-02-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that knowledge-based hybrid learning algorithms are positioned to offer better performance in comparison with purely empirical machine learning algorithms for the automatic classification task associated with the diagnosis of a medical condition described as pulmonary embolism (PE). The main premise is that there exists substantial and significant specialized knowledge in the domain of PE, which can readily be leveraged for bootstrapping a knowledge-based hybrid classifier that employs both the explanation-based and the empirical learning. The modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria, which represent the pre-eminent collective experiential knowledge base among nuclear radiologists as a diagnosis procedure for PE, are conveniently defined in terms of a set of if-then rules. As such, it lends itself to being captured into a knowledge base through instantiating a knowledge-based hybrid learning algorithm. This study shows the instantiation of a knowledge-based artificial neural network (KBANN) classifier through the modified PIOPED criteria for the diagnosis of PE. The development effort for the KBANN that captures the rule base associated with the PIOPED criteria as well as further refinement of the same rule base through highly specialized domain expertise is presented. Through a testing dataset generated with the help of nuclear radiologists, performance of the instantiated KBANN is profiled. Performances of a set of empirical machine learning algorithms, which are configured as classifiers and include the nai ve Bayes, the Bayesian Belief network, the multilayer perceptron neural network, the C4.5 decision tree algorithm, and two meta learners with boosting and bagging, are also profiled on the same dataset for the purpose of comparison with that of the KBANN. Simulation results indicate that the KBANN can effectively model and leverage the PIOPED knowledge base and its further refinements

  5. In Search of Museum Professional Knowledge Base: Mapping the Professional Knowledge Debate onto Museum Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlili, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Museum professionalism remains an unexplored area in museum studies, particularly with regard to what is arguably the core generic question of a "sui generis" professional knowledge base, and its necessary and sufficient conditions. The need to examine this question becomes all the more important with the increasing expansion of the…

  6. Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION *University of Illinois f (If applicable) Artificial Intelligence (Code 1133) ______________________ 1...Mathews Ave Dist Urbana, IL 61801 A August 1989 Submitted for Publication: Artificial Intelligence Journal Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct...Introduction Reasoning under uncertainty has been widely investigated in artificial intelligence . Prob- abilistic approaches are of particular relevance

  7. Hidden Knowledge: Working-Class Capacity in the "Knowledge-Based Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, David W.; Sawchuck, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this paper attempts to document the actual learning practices of working-class people in the context of the much heralded "knowledge-based economy." Our primary thesis is that working-class peoples' indigenous learning capacities have been denied, suppressed, degraded or diverted within most capitalist schooling,…

  8. Intelligent technique for knowledge reuse of dental medical records based on case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong-Xiao; Liang, Chang-Yong; Li, Xing-Guo; Yang, Shan-Lin; Zhang, Pei

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of both information technology and the management of modern medical regulation, the generation of medical records tends to be increasingly intelligent. In this paper, Case-Based Reasoning is applied to the process of generating records of dental cases. Based on the analysis of the features of dental records, a case base is constructed. A mixed case retrieval method (FAIES) is proposed for the knowledge reuse of dental records by adopting Fuzzy Mathematics, which improves similarity algorithm based on Euclidian-Lagrangian Distance, and PULL & PUSH weight adjustment strategy. Finally, an intelligent system of dental cases generation (CBR-DENT) is constructed. The effectiveness of the system, the efficiency of the retrieval method, the extent of adaptation and the adaptation efficiency are tested using the constructed case base. It is demonstrated that FAIES is very effective in terms of reducing the time of writing medical records and improving the efficiency and quality. FAIES is also proven to be an effective aid for diagnoses and provides a new idea for the management of medical records and its applications.

  9. Extensible knowledge-based architecture for segmenting CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew S.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Aberle, Denise R.

    1998-06-01

    A knowledge-based system has been developed for segmenting computed tomography (CT) images. Its modular architecture includes an anatomical model, image processing engine, inference engine and blackboard. The model contains a priori knowledge of size, shape, X-ray attenuation and relative position of anatomical structures. This knowledge is used to constrain low-level segmentation routines. Model-derived constraints and segmented image objects are both transformed into a common feature space and posted on the blackboard. The inference engine then matches image to model objects, based on the constraints. The transformation to feature space allows the knowledge and image data representations to be independent. Thus a high-level model can be used, with data being stored in a frame-based semantic network. This modularity and explicit representation of knowledge allows for straightforward system extension. We initially demonstrate an application to lung segmentation in thoracic CT, with subsequent extension of the knowledge-base to include tumors within the lung fields. The anatomical model was later augmented to include basic brain anatomy including the skull and blood vessels, to allow automatic segmentation of vascular structures in CT angiograms for 3D rendering and visualization.

  10. Knowledge-based engineering of a PLC controlled telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans; Deconinck, Geert

    2016-08-01

    As the new control system of the Mercator Telescope is being finalized, we can review some technologies and design methodologies that are advantageous, despite their relative uncommonness in astronomical instrumentation. Particular for the Mercator Telescope is that it is controlled by a single high-end soft-PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Using off-the-shelf components only, our distributed embedded system controls all subsystems of the telescope such as the pneumatic primary mirror support, the hydrostatic bearing, the telescope axes, the dome, the safety system, and so on. We show how real-time application logic can be written conveniently in typical PLC languages (IEC 61131-3) and in C++ (to implement the pointing kernel) using the commercial TwinCAT 3 programming environment. This software processes the inputs and outputs of the distributed system in real-time via an observatory-wide EtherCAT network, which is synchronized with high precision to an IEEE 1588 (PTP, Precision Time Protocol) time reference clock. Taking full advantage of the ability of soft-PLCs to run both real-time and non real-time software, the same device also hosts the most important user interfaces (HMIs or Human Machine Interfaces) and communication servers (OPC UA for process data, FTP for XML configuration data, and VNC for remote control). To manage the complexity of the system and to streamline the development process, we show how most of the software, electronics and systems engineering aspects of the control system have been modeled as a set of scripts written in a Domain Specific Language (DSL). When executed, these scripts populate a Knowledge Base (KB) which can be queried to retrieve specific information. By feeding the results of those queries to a template system, we were able to generate very detailed "browsable" web-based documentation about the system, but also PLC software code, Python client code, model verification reports, etc. The aim of this paper is to

  11. Evaluation of database technologies for the CTBT Knowledge Base prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, R.; Shepard-Dombroski, E.; Baur, D.; Hipp, J.; Moore, S.; Young, C.; Chael, E.

    1996-11-01

    This document examines a number of different software technologies in the rapidly changing field of database management systems, evaluates these systems in light of the expected needs of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Knowledge Base, and makes some recommendations for the initial prototypes of the Knowledge Base. The Knowledge Base requirements are examined and then used as criteria for evaluation of the database management options. A mock-up of the data expected in the Knowledge Base is used as a basis for examining how four different database technologies deal with the problems of storing and retrieving the data. Based on these requirement and the results of the evaluation, the recommendation is that the Illustra database be considered for the initial prototype of the Knowledge Base. Illustra offers a unique blend of performance, flexibility, and features that will aid in the implementation of the prototype. At the same time, Illustra provides a high level of compatibility with the hardware and software environments present at the US NDC (National Data Center) and the PIDC (Prototype International Data Center).

  12. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  13. Managing Project Landscapes in Knowledge-Based Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantchev, Vladimir; Franke, Marc Roman

    Knowledge-based enterprises are typically conducting a large number of research and development projects simultaneously. This is a particularly challenging task in complex and diverse project landscapes. Project Portfolio Management (PPM) can be a viable framework for knowledge and innovation management in such landscapes. A standardized process with defined functions such as project data repository, project assessment, selection, reporting, and portfolio reevaluation can serve as a starting point. In this work we discuss the benefits a multidimensional evaluation framework can provide for knowledge-based enterprises. Furthermore, we describe a knowledge and learning strategy and process in the context of PPM and evaluate their practical applicability at different stages of the PPM process.

  14. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  15. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-05-13

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V(-1). We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  16. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  17. Knowledge discovery based on experiential learning corporate culture management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    A good corporate culture based on humanistic theory can make the enterprise's management very effective, all enterprise's members have strong cohesion and centripetal force. With experiential learning model, the enterprise can establish an enthusiastic learning spirit corporate culture, have innovation ability to gain the positive knowledge growth effect, and to meet the fierce global marketing competition. A case study on Trend's corporate culture can offer the proof of industry knowledge growth rate equation as the contribution to experiential learning corporate culture management.

  18. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Language Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    systemic gramma rs--morphological, lexical, syntactic, and functional knowledge. The valu e of a feature may be a literal, special symbol, or a composite...A Knowledge-Based Approach to Language Prcxiuction By Paul Schafran Jacobs A.B. (Harvard University ) 1981 S.M. (Harvard University ) 1981...GRADUATE DIVISION OF ’THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY .. ~, ....-~- .. 9.!!.1’!.5 ’ i Date ..... 0. ~ •.. fi.:. -~- ..... f./..’(/ P.:’ .. ~ d

  19. Arranging ISO 13606 archetypes into a knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    To enable the efficient reuse of standard based medical data we propose to develop a higher level information model that will complement the archetype model of ISO 13606. This model will make use of the relationships that are specified in UML to connect medical archetypes into a knowledge base within a repository. UML connectors were analyzed for their ability to be applied in the implementation of a higher level model that will establish relationships between archetypes. An information model was developed using XML Schema notation. The model allows linking different archetypes of one repository into a knowledge base. Presently it supports several relationships and will be advanced in future.

  20. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  1. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  2. CommonKADS models for knowledge-based planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.; Shadbolt, N.; Tate, A.

    1996-12-31

    The CommonKADS methodology is a collection of structured methods for building knowledge-based systems. A key component of CommonKADS is the library of generic inference models which can be applied to tasks of specified types. These generic models can either be used as frameworks for knowledge acquisition, or to verify the completeness of models developed by analysis of the domain. However, the generic models for some task types, such as knowledge-based planning, are not well-developed. Since knowledge-based planning is an important commercial application of Artificial Intelligence, there is a clear need for the development of generic models for planning tasks. Many of the generic models which currently exist have been derived from modelling of existing AI systems. These models have the strength of proven applicability. There are a number of well-known and well-tried Al planning systems in existence; one of the best known is the Open Planning Architecture (O-Plan). This paper describes the development of a CommonKADS generic inference model for knowledge-based planning tasks, based on the capabilities of the O-Plan system. The paper also describes the verification of this model in the context of a real-life planning task: the assignment and management of Royal Air Force Search and Rescue operations.

  3. Intelligent Tools for Planning Knowledge base Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.

    1996-01-01

    A key obstacle hampering fielding of AI planning applications is the considerable expense of developing, verifying, updating, and maintaining the planning knowledge base (KB). Planning systems must be able to compare favorably in terms of software lifecycle costs to other means of automation such as scripts or rule-based expert systems.

  4. Dynamic Strategic Planning in a Professional Knowledge-Based Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrom; Reventlow, Susanne; Quelle, Dan Grevelund; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Professional, knowledge-based institutions have a particular form of organization and culture that makes special demands on the strategic planning supervised by research administrators and managers. A model for dynamic strategic planning based on a pragmatic utilization of the multitude of strategy models was used in a small university-affiliated…

  5. Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills…

  6. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  7. Developing and Assessing Teachers' Knowledge of Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2015-01-01

    Research focusing on the development and assessment of teacher knowledge in game-based learning is in its infancy. A mixed-methods study was undertaken to educate pre-service teachers in game-based learning using the Game Network Analysis (GaNA) framework. Fourteen pre-service teachers completed a methods course, which prepared them in game…

  8. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  9. Developing and Assessing Teachers' Knowledge of Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2015-01-01

    Research focusing on the development and assessment of teacher knowledge in game-based learning is in its infancy. A mixed-methods study was undertaken to educate pre-service teachers in game-based learning using the Game Network Analysis (GaNA) framework. Fourteen pre-service teachers completed a methods course, which prepared them in game…

  10. Knowledge management: An abstraction of knowledge base and database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel D.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial intelligence application requirements demand powerful representation capabilities as well as efficiency for real-time domains. Many tools exist, the most prevalent being expert systems tools such as ART, KEE, OPS5, and CLIPS. Other tools just emerging from the research environment are truth maintenance systems for representing non-monotonic knowledge, constraint systems, object oriented programming, and qualitative reasoning. Unfortunately, as many knowledge engineers have experienced, simply applying a tool to an application requires a large amount of effort to bend the application to fit. Much work goes into supporting work to make the tool integrate effectively. A Knowledge Management Design System (KNOMAD), is described which is a collection of tools built in layers. The layered architecture provides two major benefits; the ability to flexibly apply only those tools that are necessary for an application, and the ability to keep overhead, and thus inefficiency, to a minimum. KNOMAD is designed to manage many knowledge bases in a distributed environment providing maximum flexibility and expressivity to the knowledge engineer while also providing support for efficiency.

  11. Structural topology design of container ship based on knowledge-based engineering and level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jin-ju; Wang, De-yu; Shi, Qi-qi

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) is introduced into the ship structural design in this paper. From the implementation of KBE, the design solutions for both Rules Design Method (RDM) and Interpolation Design Method (IDM) are generated. The corresponding Finite Element (FE) models are generated. Topological design of the longitudinal structures is studied where the Gaussian Process (GP) is employed to build the surrogate model for FE analysis. Multi-objective optimization methods inspired by Pareto Front are used to reduce the design tank weight and outer surface area simultaneously. Additionally, an enhanced Level Set Method (LSM) which employs implicit algorithm is applied to the topological design of typical bracket plate which is used extensively in ship structures. Two different sets of boundary conditions are considered. The proposed methods show satisfactory efficiency and accuracy.

  12. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  13. KBGIS-II: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terence; Peuquet, Donna; Menon, Sudhakar; Agarwal, Pankaj

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented Knowledge-Based Geographic Information System (KBGIS-II), designed to satisfy several general criteria for the GIS, is described. The system has four major functions including query-answering, learning and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial object language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is performing all its designated tasks successfully. Future reports will relate performance characteristics of the system.

  14. Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

  15. Desperately seeking data: knowledge base-database links.

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, G.; Johnson, S. B.; Clayton, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    Linking a knowledge-based system (KBS) to a clinical database is a difficult task, but critical if such systems are to achieve widespread use. The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center's clinical event monitor provides alerts, interpretations, research screening, and quality assurance functions for the center. Its knowledge base consists of Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). The knowledge base was analyzed in order to quantify the use and impact of KBS-database links. The MLM data slot, which contains the definition of these links, had almost as many statements (5.8 vs. 8.8, ns with p = 0.15) and more tokens (122 vs. 76, p = 0.037) than the logic slot, which contains the actual medical knowledge. The data slot underwent about twice as many modifications over time as the logic slot (3.0 vs. 1.6 modifications/version, p = 0.010). Database queries and updates accounted for 97.2% of the MLM's total elapsed execution time. Thus, KBS-database links consume substantial resources in an MLM knowledge base, in terms of coding, maintenance, and performance. PMID:8130552

  16. MEGen: A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Generator

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, George; Hogg, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are being used in an increasing number of different areas. However, they are perceived as complex, data hungry, resource intensive, and time consuming. In addition, model validation and verification are hindered by the relative complexity of the equations. To begin to address these issues a web application called MEGen for the rapid construction and documentation of bespoke deterministic PBPK model code is under development. MEGen comprises a parameter database and a model code generator that produces code for use in several commercial software packages and one that is freely available. Here we present an overview of the current capabilities of MEGen, and discuss future developments. PMID:22084631

  17. Assessing an AI knowledge-base for asymptomatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Babic, A; Mathiesen, U; Hedin, K; Bodemar, G; Wigertz, O

    1998-01-01

    Discovering not yet seen knowledge from clinical data is of importance in the field of asymptomatic liver diseases. Avoidance of liver biopsy which is used as the ultimate confirmation of diagnosis by making the decision based on relevant laboratory findings only, would be considered an essential support. The system based on Quinlan's ID3 algorithm was simple and efficient in extracting the sought knowledge. Basic principles of applying the AI systems are therefore described and complemented with medical evaluation. Some of the diagnostic rules were found to be useful as decision algorithms i.e. they could be directly applied in clinical work and made a part of the knowledge-base of the Liver Guide, an automated decision support system.

  18. A Knowledge-Based Approach To Planning And Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Williams, D. Lamont; Thornton, Sheila

    1989-03-01

    Analyses of the shop scheduling domain indicate the objective of scheduling is the determination and satisfaction of a large number of diverse constraints. Many researchers have explored the possibilities of scheduling with the assistance of dispatching rules, algorithms, heuristics and knowledge-based systems. This paper describes the development of an experimental knowledge-based planning and scheduling system which marries traditional planning and scheduling algorithms with a knowledge-based problem solving methodology in an integrated blackboard architecture. This system embodies scheduling methods and techniques which attempt to minimize one or a combination of scheduling parameters including completion time, average completion time, lateness, tardiness, and flow time. Preliminary results utilizing a test case factory involved in part production are presented.

  19. The browser prototype for the CTBT knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H.M.; Keyser, R.G.

    1997-07-02

    As part of the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) research and development effort, a Knowledge Base is being developed. This Knowledge Base will store the regional geophysical research results as well as geographic contexual information and make this information available to the Automated Data Processing (ADP routines) as well as human analysts involved in CTBT monitoring. This paper focuses on the initial development of a browser prototype to be used to interactively examine the contents of the CTBT Knowledge Base. The browser prototype is intended to be a research tool to experiment with different ways to display and integrate the datasets. An initial prototype version has been developed using Environmental Systems Research Incorporated`s (ESRI) ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) product. The conceptual requirements, design, initial implementation, current status, and future work plans are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  20. TVS: An Environment For Building Knowledge-Based Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymouth, Terry E.; Amini, Amir A.; Tehrani, Saeid

    1989-03-01

    Advances in the field of knowledge-guided computer vision require the development of large scale projects and experimentation with them. One factor which impedes such development is the lack of software environments which combine standard image processing and graphics abilities with the ability to perform symbolic processing. In this paper, we describe a software environment that assists in the development of knowledge-based computer vision projects. We have built, upon Common LISP and C, a software development environment which combines standard image processing tools and a standard blackboard-based system, with the flexibility of the LISP programming environment. This environment has been used to develop research projects in knowledge-based computer vision and dynamic vision for robot navigation.

  1. A standard based approach for biomedical knowledge representation.

    PubMed

    Farkash, Ariel; Neuvirth, Hani; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Conti, Costanza; Rizzi, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Salvi, Erika; Cusi, Daniele; Shabo, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    The new generation of health information standards, where the syntax and semantics of the content is explicitly formalized, allows for interoperability in healthcare scenarios and analysis in clinical research settings. Studies involving clinical and genomic data include accumulating knowledge as relationships between genotypic and phenotypic information as well as associations within the genomic and clinical worlds. Some involve analysis results targeted at a specific disease; others are of a predictive nature specific to a patient and may be used by decision support applications. Representing knowledge is as important as representing data since data is more useful when coupled with relevant knowledge. Any further analysis and cross-research collaboration would benefit from persisting knowledge and data in a unified way. This paper describes a methodology used in Hypergenes, an EC FP7 project targeting Essential Hypertension, which captures data and knowledge using standards such as HL7 CDA and Clinical Genomics, aligned with the CEN EHR 13606 specification. We demonstrate the benefits of such an approach for clinical research as well as in healthcare oriented scenarios.

  2. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children’s healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly selected from one of the largest school districts in the United States and randomly assigned to treatment curriculum and control conditions. Students in third, fourth, and fifth grade (N = 5,717) were pre- and posttested on a standardized knowledge test on exercise principles and benefits in cardiorespiratory health, muscular capacity, and healthful nutrition and body flexibility. The results indicated that children in the treatment curriculum condition learned at a faster rate than their counterparts in the control condition. The results suggest that the constructivist curriculum is capable of inducing superior knowledge gain in third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade children. PMID:26269659

  3. A knowledge-based system for prototypical reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieto, Antonio; Minieri, Andrea; Piana, Alberto; Radicioni, Daniele P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a knowledge-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the classical representational and reasoning capabilities of the ontology-based frameworks towards the realm of the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science with the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorisation task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially extends the representational and reasoning 'conceptual' capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

  4. Document Retrieval Using A Fuzzy Knowledge-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Viswanath; Biswas, Gautam; Bezdek, James C.

    1986-03-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a prototype document retrieval system using a knowledge-based systems approach. Both the domain-specific knowledge base and the inferencing schemes are based on a fuzzy set theoretic framework. A query in natural language represents a request to retrieve a relevant subset of documents from a document base. Such a query, which can include both fuzzy terms and fuzzy relational operators, is converted into an unambiguous intermediate form by a natural language interface. Concepts that describe domain topics and the relationships between concepts, such as the synonym relation and the implication relation between a general concept and more specific concepts, have been captured in a knowledge base. The knowledge base enables the system to emulate the reasoning process followed by an expert, such as a librarian, in understanding and reformulating user queries. The retrieval mechanism processes the query in two steps. First it produces a pruned list of documents pertinent to the query. Second, it uses an evidence combination scheme to compute a degree of support between the query and individual documents produced in step one. The front-end component of the system then presents a set of document citations to the user in ranked order as an answer to the information request.

  5. Knowledge of response location alone is not sufficient to generate social inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Manzone, Joseph; McDougall, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has revealed that the inhibition of return (IOR) effect emerges when individuals respond to a target at the same location as their own previous response or the previous response of a co-actor. The latter social IOR effect is thought to occur because the observation of co-actor's response evokes a representation of that action in the observer and that the observation-evoked response code subsequently activates the inhibitory mechanisms underlying IOR. The present study was conducted to determine if knowledge of the co-actor's response alone is sufficient to evoke social IOR. Pairs of participants completed responses to targets that appeared at different button locations. Button contact generated location-contingent auditory stimuli (high and low tones in Experiment 1 and colour words in Experiment 2). In the Full condition, the observer saw the response and heard the auditory stimuli. In the Auditory Only condition, the observer did not see the co-actor's response, but heard the auditory stimuli generated via button contact to indicate response endpoint. It was found that, although significant individual and social IOR effects emerged in the Full conditions, there were no social IOR effects in the Auditory Only conditions. These findings suggest that knowledge of the co-actor's response alone via auditory information is not sufficient to activate the inhibitory processes leading to IOR. The activation of the mechanisms that lead to social IOR seems to be dependent on processing channels that code the spatial characteristics of action.

  6. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  7. Instance-Based Generative Biological Shape Modeling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Wang, Wei; Rohde, Gustavo K; Murphy, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Biological shape modeling is an essential task that is required for systems biology efforts to simulate complex cell behaviors. Statistical learning methods have been used to build generative shape models based on reconstructive shape parameters extracted from microscope image collections. However, such parametric modeling approaches are usually limited to simple shapes and easily-modeled parameter distributions. Moreover, to maximize the reconstruction accuracy, significant effort is required to design models for specific datasets or patterns. We have therefore developed an instance-based approach to model biological shapes within a shape space built upon diffeomorphic measurement. We also designed a recursive interpolation algorithm to probabilistically synthesize new shape instances using the shape space model and the original instances. The method is quite generalizable and therefore can be applied to most nuclear, cell and protein object shapes, in both 2D and 3D.

  8. A knowledge-based information system for monitoring drug levels.

    PubMed

    Wiener, F; Groth, T; Mortimer, O; Hallquist, I; Rane, A

    1989-06-01

    The expert system shell SMR has been enhanced to include information system routines for designing data screens and providing facilities for data entry, storage, retrieval, queries and descriptive statistics. The data for inference making is abstracted from the data base record and inserted into a data array to which the knowledge base is applied to derive the appropriate advice and comments. The enhanced system has been used to develop an intelligent information system for monitoring serum drug levels which includes evaluation of temporal changes and production of specialized printed reports. The module for digoxin has been fully developed and validated. To demonstrate the extension to other drugs a module for phenytoin was constructed with only a rudimentary knowledge base. Data from the request forms together with the S-digoxin results are entered into the data base by the department secretary. The day's results are then reviewed by the clinical pharmacologist. For each case, previous results may be displayed and are taken into account by the system in the decision process. The knowledge base is applied to the data to formulate an evaluative comment on the report returned to the requestor. The report includes a semi-graphic presentation of the current and previous results and either the system's interpretation or one entered by the pharmacologist if he does not agree with it. The pharmacologist's comment is also recorded in the data base for future retrieval, analysis and possible updating of the knowledge base. The system is now undergoing testing and evaluation under routine operations in the clinical pharmacology service. It is a prototype for other applications in both laboratory and clinical medicine currently under development at Uppsala University Hospital. This system may thus provide a vehicle for a more intensive penetration of knowledge-based systems in practical medical applications.

  9. The nature of students' science knowledge base: Using assessment to paint a picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk

    Goals in inquiry-based science include not only that students understand content knowledge, but also that students be able to utilize this knowledge in complex problem solving situations to work with tasks that involve skills such as interpreting data and formulating scientific explanations. In addition, advancements in the measurement sciences allow for sophisticated and complex ways to score and interpret student responses on assessment tasks. However, while many studies have shown the benefits of scientific inquiry in the classroom and others have described new types of psychometric models available for scoring analysis, few have combined the two to develop a better understanding of how students "know" science. I describe an assessment system used to create items that systematically measure and disentangle three focal aspects of sixth grade students' science knowledge base associated with the BioKIDS: Kids' Inquiry of Diverse Species curriculum. Then, using students' verbal and written responses to the assessment, I analyzed the validity of the assessment tasks and examined the nature of students' science knowledge base when working in science problem solving situations. Overall, the results suggest that the tasks created using the assessment system provided students with opportunities to demonstrate the knowledge and skills about which they were designed, thus indicating that utilizing this assessment system could enable assessment designers to create tasks that allow them to gather information about multiple key aspects of students' science knowledge base. Specifically, tasks can generate information about students' content knowledge, explanation ability and interpreting data ability. In addition, utilizing psychometric models, the results suggest that students have a multidimensional science knowledge base. However, after students have participated in an inquiry-based curricular program, these dimensions are highly related to one another. Despite the

  10. Building organizational knowledge and value: informed decision making in Kansas children's community-based mental health services.

    PubMed

    Stipp, Karen Flint; Kapp, Stephen A

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge is managers' principal asset and knowledge building is managers' primary work. This qualitative study explores knowledge building by directors of children's community-based mental health services in Kansas. Of the state's 27 directors, 25 completed a survey about knowledge building, in their preference of online or telephone format. Fourteen participants took part either in preliminary interviews for study development, or in follow-up interviews for further detail and member checking. Study findings indicate that with requisite resources, directors inform their decision making with streams of information, which they manage and generate to build organizational knowledge and value for local practice effectiveness.

  11. The Latent Structure of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Fraley, R. Chris; Groh, Ashley M.; Steele, Ryan D.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Bost, Kelly K.; Veríssimo, Manuela; Coppola, Gabrielle; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that attachment representations abstracted from childhood experiences with primary caregivers are organized as a cognitive script describing secure base use and support (i.e., the secure base script). To date, however, the latent structure of secure base script knowledge has gone unexamined—this despite the fact that such basic information about the factor structure and distributional properties of these individual differences has important conceptual implications for our understanding of how representations of early experience are organized and generalized, as well as methodological significance in relation to maximizing statistical power and precision. In this study, we report factor and taxometric analyses that examined the latent structure of secure base script knowledge in two large samples. Results suggested that variation in secure base script knowledge—as measured by both the adolescent (N = 674) and adult (N = 714) versions of the Attachment Script Assessment—is generalized across relationships and continuously distributed. PMID:25775111

  12. A knowledge-based multiple-sequence alignment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ken D; Pan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A common and cost-effective mechanism to identify the functionalities, structures, or relationships between species is multiple-sequence alignment, in which DNA/RNA/protein sequences are arranged and aligned so that similarities between sequences are clustered together. Correctly identifying and aligning these sequence biological similarities help from unwinding the mystery of species evolution to drug design. We present our knowledge-based multiple sequence alignment (KB-MSA) technique that utilizes the existing knowledge databases such as SWISSPROT, GENBANK, or HOMSTRAD to provide a more realistic and reliable sequence alignment. We also provide a modified version of this algorithm (CB-MSA) that utilizes the sequence consistency information when sequence knowledge databases are not available. Our benchmark tests on BAliBASE, PREFAB, HOMSTRAD, and SABMARK references show accuracy improvements up to 10 percent on twilight data sets against many leading alignment tools such as ISPALIGN, PADT, CLUSTALW, MAFFT, PROBCONS, and T-COFFEE.

  13. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large…

  14. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large…

  15. Elicitation of neurological knowledge with argument-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Groznik, Vida; Guid, Matej; Sadikov, Aleksander; Možina, Martin; Georgiev, Dejan; Kragelj, Veronika; Ribarič, Samo; Pirtošek, Zvezdan; Bratko, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes the use of expert's knowledge in practice and the efficiency of a recently developed technique called argument-based machine learning (ABML) in the knowledge elicitation process. We are developing a neurological decision support system to help the neurologists differentiate between three types of tremors: Parkinsonian, essential, and mixed tremor (comorbidity). The system is intended to act as a second opinion for the neurologists, and most importantly to help them reduce the number of patients in the "gray area" that require a very costly further examination (DaTSCAN). We strive to elicit comprehensible and medically meaningful knowledge in such a way that it does not come at the cost of diagnostic accuracy. To alleviate the difficult problem of knowledge elicitation from data and domain experts, we used ABML. ABML guides the expert to explain critical special cases which cannot be handled automatically by machine learning. This very efficiently reduces the expert's workload, and combines expert's knowledge with learning data. 122 patients were enrolled into the study. The classification accuracy of the final model was 91%. Equally important, the initial and the final models were also evaluated for their comprehensibility by the neurologists. All 13 rules of the final model were deemed as appropriate to be able to support its decisions with good explanations. The paper demonstrates ABML's advantage in combining machine learning and expert knowledge. The accuracy of the system is very high with respect to the current state-of-the-art in clinical practice, and the system's knowledge base is assessed to be very consistent from a medical point of view. This opens up the possibility to use the system also as a teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Apprenticeship learning techniques for knowledge-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes apprenticeship learning techniques for automation of the transfer of expertise. Apprenticeship learning is a form of learning by watching, in which learning occurs as a byproduct of building explanations of human problem-solving actions. As apprenticeship is the most-powerful method that human experts use to refine and debug their expertise in knowledge-intensive domains such as medicine; this motivates giving such capabilities to an expert system. The major accomplishment in this thesis is showing how an explicit representation of the strategy knowledge to solve a general problem class, such as diagnosis, can provide a basis for learning the knowledge that is specific to a particular domain, such as medicine. The Odysseus learning program provides the first demonstration of using the same technique to transfer of expertise to and from an expert system knowledge base. Another major focus of this thesis is limitations of apprenticeship learning. It is shown that extant techniques for reasoning under uncertainty for expert systems lead to a sociopathic knowledge base.

  17. Knowledge-based simulation using object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoran, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations have become a powerful mechanism for understanding and modeling complex phenomena. Their results have had substantial impact on a broad range of decisions in the military, government, and industry. Because of this, new techniques are continually being explored and developed to make them even more useful, understandable, extendable, and efficient. One such area of research is the application of the knowledge-based methods of artificial intelligence (AI) to the computer simulation field. The goal of knowledge-based simulation is to facilitate building simulations of greatly increased power and comprehensibility by making use of deeper knowledge about the behavior of the simulated world. One technique for representing and manipulating knowledge that has been enhanced by the AI community is object-oriented programming. Using this technique, the entities of a discrete-event simulation can be viewed as objects in an object-oriented formulation. Knowledge can be factual (i.e., attributes of an entity) or behavioral (i.e., how the entity is to behave in certain circumstances). Rome Laboratory's Advanced Simulation Environment (RASE) was developed as a research vehicle to provide an enhanced simulation development environment for building more intelligent, interactive, flexible, and realistic simulations. This capability will support current and future battle management research and provide a test of the object-oriented paradigm for use in large scale military applications.

  18. Knowledge base image classification using P-trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, M.; Ravi, G.

    2010-02-01

    Image Classification is the process of assigning classes to the pixels in remote sensed images and important for GIS applications, since the classified image is much easier to incorporate than the original unclassified image. To resolve misclassification in traditional parametric classifier like Maximum Likelihood Classifier, the neural network classifier is implemented using back propagation algorithm. The extra spectral and spatial knowledge acquired from the ancillary information is required to improve the accuracy and remove the spectral confusion. To build knowledge base automatically, this paper explores a non-parametric decision tree classifier to extract knowledge from the spatial data in the form of classification rules. A new method is proposed using a data structure called Peano Count Tree (P-tree) for decision tree classification. The Peano Count Tree is a spatial data organization that provides a lossless compressed representation of a spatial data set and facilitates efficient classification than other data mining techniques. The accuracy is assessed using the parameters overall accuracy, User's accuracy and Producer's accuracy for image classification methods of Maximum Likelihood Classification, neural network classification using back propagation, Knowledge Base Classification, Post classification and P-tree Classifier. The results reveal that the knowledge extracted from decision tree classifier and P-tree data structure from proposed approach remove the problem of spectral confusion to a greater extent. It is ascertained that the P-tree classifier surpasses the other classification techniques.

  19. Integrating knowledge and control into hypermedia-based training environments: Experiments with HyperCLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The issues of knowledge representation and control in hypermedia-based training environments are discussed. The main objective is to integrate the flexible presentation capability of hypermedia with a knowledge-based approach to lesson discourse management. The instructional goals and their associated concepts are represented in a knowledge representation structure called a 'concept network'. Its functional usages are many: it is used to control the navigation through a presentation space, generate tests for student evaluation, and model the student. This architecture was implemented in HyperCLIPS, a hybrid system that creates a bridge between HyperCard, a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to data bases and other applications, and CLIPS, a highly portable government-owned expert system shell.

  20. After the Crash: Research-Based Theater for Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colantonio, Angela; Kontos, Pia C.; Gilbert, Julie E.; Rossiter, Kate; Gray, Julia; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this project was to develop and evaluate a research-based dramatic production for the purpose of transferring knowledge about traumatic brain injury (TBI) to health care professionals, managers, and decision makers. Methods: Using results drawn from six focus group discussions with key stakeholders (consumers, informal…

  1. Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Debates about the selection of programming languages often produce cultural collisions that are not easily resolved. This is especially true in the case of Ada and knowledge based programming. The construction of programming tools provides a desirable alternative for resolving the conflict.

  2. Towards an Intelligent Planning Knowledge Base Development Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.

    1994-01-01

    ract describes work in developing knowledge base editing and debugging tools for the Multimission VICAR Planner (MVP) system. MVP uses artificial intelligence planning techniques to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory.

  3. SCU at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    SCU at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track Hung Nguyen, Yi Fang Department of Computer Engineering Santa Clara University 500 El Camino ...University,Department of Computer Engineering,500 El Camino Real,Santa Clara,CA,95053 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  4. Development of a Knowledge Base for Incorporating Technology into Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Logan

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a project resulting from the request of a group of faculty at The College at Brockport to create a website for best practices in teaching and technology. The project evolved into a knowledge base powered by WordPress. Installation and configuration of WordPress resulted in the creation of custom taxonomies and post types,…

  5. Value Creation in the Knowledge-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Effective investment strategies help companies form dynamic core organizational capabilities allowing them to adapt and survive in today's rapidly changing knowledge-based economy. This dissertation investigates three valuation issues that challenge managers with respect to developing business-critical investment strategies that can have…

  6. Language-Based Prior Knowledge and Transition to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide; Torres, Cristina; Chen, Fan

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a college mathematics student's concept maps, definitions, and essays to support the thesis that language-based prior knowledge can influence students' cognitive processes of mathematical concepts. A group of intermediate algebra students who displayed terms mainly from the spoken language on the first and the second concept…

  7. Enhancing Acronym/Abbreviation Knowledge Bases with Semantic Information

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the biomedical domain, a terminology knowledge base that associates acronyms/abbreviations (denoted as SFs) with the definitions (denoted as LFs) is highly needed. For the construction such terminology knowledge base, we investigate the feasibility to build a system automatically assigning semantic categories to LFs extracted from text. Methods: Given a collection of pairs (SF,LF) derived from text, we i) assess the coverage of LFs and pairs (SF,LF) in the UMLS and justify the need of a semantic category assignment system; and ii) automatically derive name phrases annotated with semantic category and construct a system using machine learning. Results: Utilizing ADAM, an existing collection of (SF,LF) pairs extracted from MEDLINE, our system achieved an f-measure of 87% when assigning eight UMLS-based semantic groups to LFs. The system has been incorporated into a web interface which integrates SF knowledge from multiple SF knowledge bases. Web site: http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesurus. PMID:18693933

  8. Knowledge Based Engineering for Spatial Database Management and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligence techniques that are applicable to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are examined. Questions involving the performance and modification to the database structure, the definition of spectra in quadtree structures and their use in search heuristics, extension of the knowledge base, and learning algorithm concepts are investigated.

  9. Toffler's Powershift: Creating New Knowledge Bases in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Patrick James

    This paper examines the creation of new knowledge bases in higher education in light of the ideas of Alvin Toffler, whose trilogy "Future Shock" (1970), "The Third Wave" (1980), and "Powershift" (1990) focus on the processes, directions, and control of change, respectively. It discusses the increasingly important role…

  10. Spinning Fantasy: Themes, Structure, and the Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucariello, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the influence of the child's knowledge base on symbolic play in terms of event schemas. Pretend play of 10 mother-child (ages 24 to 29 months) dyads was observed in novel and free play contexts. Play was examined for thematic content, self-other relations, substitute/imaginary objects, action integration, and planfulness. (Author/BN)

  11. Designing a Knowledge Base for Automatic Book Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the design of a knowledge base for an automatic classification in the library science field by using the facet classification principles of colon classification. Discusses inputting titles or key words into the computer to create class numbers through automatic subject recognition and processing title key words. (Author/LRW)

  12. PLAN-IT - Knowledge-based mission sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.

    1987-01-01

    PLAN-IT (Plan-Integrated Timelines), a knowledge-based approach to assist in mission sequencing, is discussed. PLAN-IT uses a large set of scheduling techniques known as strategies to develop and maintain a mission sequence. The approach implemented by PLAN-IT and the current applications of PLAN-IT for sequencing at NASA are reported.

  13. After the Crash: Research-Based Theater for Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colantonio, Angela; Kontos, Pia C.; Gilbert, Julie E.; Rossiter, Kate; Gray, Julia; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this project was to develop and evaluate a research-based dramatic production for the purpose of transferring knowledge about traumatic brain injury (TBI) to health care professionals, managers, and decision makers. Methods: Using results drawn from six focus group discussions with key stakeholders (consumers, informal…

  14. Designing a Knowledge Base for Automatic Book Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the design of a knowledge base for an automatic classification in the library science field by using the facet classification principles of colon classification. Discusses inputting titles or key words into the computer to create class numbers through automatic subject recognition and processing title key words. (Author/LRW)

  15. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  16. Planning and Implementing a High Performance Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the conceptual framework for developing a rapid-prototype high-performance knowledge base for the four mission agencies of the United States Department of Agriculture and their university partners. Describes the background of the project and methods used for establishing the requirements; examines issues and problems surrounding semantic…

  17. Planning and Implementing a High Performance Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the conceptual framework for developing a rapid-prototype high-performance knowledge base for the four mission agencies of the United States Department of Agriculture and their university partners. Describes the background of the project and methods used for establishing the requirements; examines issues and problems surrounding semantic…

  18. The Pedagogical Knowledge Base of Four TESOL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullock, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have called for a broadening of the theoretical base of language teacher development programs to include gathering information not only on what teachers do in the classroom, but also on what they know, and how this knowledge is transferred to their teaching behavior, especially as they gain more experience in the classroom.…

  19. Developing a Knowledge Base and Taxonomy in Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Edward P.; Fly, Kenneth

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using a model adapted from the instructional design and technology (ID&T) taxonomy model proposed by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology Committee to build an ID&T knowledge base. The model was tested by mapping a random…

  20. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  1. Beyond the Keyword Barrier: Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the inability of traditional subject index terms to represent relational information among concepts, and the development of frame based knowledge representation methods that provide relational semantic representations of documents and user queries. The discussion covers research in user interfaces and automatic document classifications,…

  2. Knowledge Based Engineering for Spatial Database Management and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligence techniques that are applicable to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are examined. Questions involving the performance and modification to the database structure, the definition of spectra in quadtree structures and their use in search heuristics, extension of the knowledge base, and learning algorithm concepts are investigated.

  3. Development of a Knowledge Base for Incorporating Technology into Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Logan

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a project resulting from the request of a group of faculty at The College at Brockport to create a website for best practices in teaching and technology. The project evolved into a knowledge base powered by WordPress. Installation and configuration of WordPress resulted in the creation of custom taxonomies and post types,…

  4. Value Creation in the Knowledge-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Effective investment strategies help companies form dynamic core organizational capabilities allowing them to adapt and survive in today's rapidly changing knowledge-based economy. This dissertation investigates three valuation issues that challenge managers with respect to developing business-critical investment strategies that can have…

  5. Reflections on the knowledge base for obstetric fistula.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J; Winter, H R

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the reflections of an experienced fistula surgeon and an epidemiologist on the current knowledge base for obstetric fistula. The incidence, prevention, and management of vesico-vaginal and recto-vaginal fistula are discussed. The authors call for more randomized controlled trials to determine the effectiveness of surgical interventions for fistula repair.

  6. An Analysis of Three Different Approaches to Student Teacher Mentoring and Their Impact on Knowledge Generation in Practicum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena, Juanjo; García, Marisa; Clarke, Anthony; Barkatsas, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring in Teacher Education is a key component in the professional development of student teachers. However, little research focuses on the knowledge shared and generated in mentoring conversations. In this paper, we explore the knowledge student teachers articulate in mentoring conversations under three different post-lesson approaches to…

  7. An Analysis of Three Different Approaches to Student Teacher Mentoring and Their Impact on Knowledge Generation in Practicum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena, Juanjo; García, Marisa; Clarke, Anthony; Barkatsas, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring in Teacher Education is a key component in the professional development of student teachers. However, little research focuses on the knowledge shared and generated in mentoring conversations. In this paper, we explore the knowledge student teachers articulate in mentoring conversations under three different post-lesson approaches to…

  8. An Empirical Analysis of Knowledge Based Hypertext Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Snell, J.R.; Boyle, C.

    1990-01-01

    Our purpose is to investigate the effectiveness of knowledge-based navigation in a dermatology hypertext network. The chosen domain is a set of dermatology class notes implemented in Hypercard and SINS. The study measured time, number of moves, and success rates for subjects to find solutions to ten questions. The subjects were required to navigate within a dermatology hypertext network in order to find the solutions to a question. Our results indicate that knowledge-based navigation can assist the user in finding information of interest in a fewer number of node visits (moves) than with traditional button-based browsing or keyword searching. The time necessary to find an item of interest was lower for traditional-based methods. There was no difference in success rates for the two test groups.

  9. Fiber-based flexible thermoelectric power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, A.; Pipe, K. P.; Shtein, M.

    Flexible thermoelectric power generators fabricated by evaporating thin films on flexible fiber substrates are demonstrated to be feasible candidates for waste heat recovery. An open circuit voltage of 19.6 μV K per thermocouple junction is measured for Ni-Ag thin films, and a maximum power of 2 nW for 7 couples at Δ T = 6.6 K is measured. Heat transfer analysis is used to project performance for several other material systems, with a predicted power output of 1 μW per couple for Bi 2Te 3/Sb 2Te 3-based fiber coatings with a hot junction temperature of 100 °C. Considering the performance of woven thermoelectric cloths or fiber composites, relevant properties and dimensions of individual thermoelectric fibers are optimized.

  10. National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base Core Table Schema Document

    SciTech Connect

    CARR,DORTHE B.

    2002-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is creating a Knowledge Base to store technical information to support the United States nuclear explosion monitoring mission. This document defines the core database tables that are used in the Knowledge Base. The purpose of this document is to present the ORACLE database tables in the NNSA Knowledge Base that on modifications to the CSS3.0 Database Schema developed in 1990. (Anderson et al., 1990). These modifications include additional columns to the affiliation table, an increase in the internal ORACLE format from 8 integers to 9 integers for thirteen IDs, and new primary and unique key definitions for six tables. It is intended to be used as a reference by researchers inside and outside of NNSA/DOE as they compile information to submit to the NNSA Knowledge Base. These ''core'' tables are separated into two groups. The Primary tables are dynamic and consist of information that can be used in automatic and interactive processing (e.g. arrivals, locations). The Lookup tables change infrequently and are used for auxiliary information used by the processing. In general, the information stored in the core tables consists of: arrivals; events, origins, associations of arrivals; magnitude information; station information (networks, site descriptions, instrument responses); pointers to waveform data; and comments pertaining to the information. This document is divided into four sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines the sixteen tables that make up the core tables of the NNSA Knowledge Base database. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. In addition, the primary, unique and foreign keys are defined. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams. The last section, defines the columns or attributes of the various tables. Information that is

  11. Knowledge-based nonuniform sampling in multidimensional NMR.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Adam D; Maciejewski, Mark W; Arthanari, Haribabu; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2011-07-01

    The full resolution afforded by high-field magnets is rarely realized in the indirect dimensions of multidimensional NMR experiments because of the time cost of uniformly sampling to long evolution times. Emerging methods utilizing nonuniform sampling (NUS) enable high resolution along indirect dimensions by sampling long evolution times without sampling at every multiple of the Nyquist sampling interval. While the earliest NUS approaches matched the decay of sampling density to the decay of the signal envelope, recent approaches based on coupled evolution times attempt to optimize sampling by choosing projection angles that increase the likelihood of resolving closely-spaced resonances. These approaches employ knowledge about chemical shifts to predict optimal projection angles, whereas prior applications of tailored sampling employed only knowledge of the decay rate. In this work we adapt the matched filter approach as a general strategy for knowledge-based nonuniform sampling that can exploit prior knowledge about chemical shifts and is not restricted to sampling projections. Based on several measures of performance, we find that exponentially weighted random sampling (envelope matched sampling) performs better than shift-based sampling (beat matched sampling). While shift-based sampling can yield small advantages in sensitivity, the gains are generally outweighed by diminished robustness. Our observation that more robust sampling schemes are only slightly less sensitive than schemes highly optimized using prior knowledge about chemical shifts has broad implications for any multidimensional NMR study employing NUS. The results derived from simulated data are demonstrated with a sample application to PfPMT, the phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

  12. Knowledge-Based Production Management: Approaches, Results and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of research in the field of knowledge-based production management . We begin by examining the important sources...of decision-making difficulty in practical production management domains, discussing the requirements implied by each with respect to the development...of effective production management tools, and identifying the general opportunities in this regard provided by AI-based technology. We then categorize

  13. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Smaldone, Arlene M; Davidson, Patricia R; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Davidson, Patricia R.; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D.; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. Materials and methods The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. Results The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. Discussion The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. Conclusion The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. PMID:26547253

  15. 'Medical Knowledge' and 'Tradition' of Colonial Korea: Focused on Kudo's "Gynecology"-based Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang Hee

    2013-08-01

    This article attempts to illuminate the ways in which Kudo's medical knowledge based on 'gynecological science' constructed the cultural 'traditions' of colonial Korea. Kudo appears to have been quite an influential figure in colonial Korea in that his writings on the relationship between women's crime, gynecological science and the Chosŏn society granted a significant amount of intellectual authority. Here, I examine Kudo's position within colonial Korea as a producer and propagator of medical knowledge, and then see how women's bodies were understood according to his gynecological knowledge. It also traces the ways in which Kudo's gynecological knowledge represents Chosŏn society and in turn invents the 'traditions' of Chosŏn. Kudo's knowledge of "gynecology" which had been formed while it traveled the states such as Japan, Germany and France served as an important reference for his representation of colonial Korean society. Kudo was a proponent of biological evolution, particularly the rules of 'atavism' put forth by the criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, and argued that an unique social environment caused 'alteration of sexual urges' and primitive cruelty in Chosŏn women. According to Kudo, The social environment was none other than the practice of 'early marriage,' which went against the physiology of women. To Kudo, 'early marriage' was an old 'tradition' of Chosŏn and the cause of heinous crimes, as well as an unmistakable indicator of both the primitiveness and savageness of Chosŏn. While Lombroso considered personal factors such as stress as the cause of women's crimes, Kudo saw Chosŏn women's crimes as a national characteristic. Moreover, he compared the occurrence rate of husband murders by provinces, based on which he categorized the northern population of Chosŏn as barbaric Manchurian and the southern population as the superior Japanese, a combination of racism and scientific knowledge. Kudo's writings provide an insight into the

  16. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  17. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  18. ISPE: A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical engineers use mathematical simulators to design, model, optimize and refine various engineering plants/processes. This procedure requires the following steps: (1) preparation of an input data file according to the format required by the target simulator; (2) excecuting the simulation; and (3) analyzing the results of the simulation to determine if all specified goals'' are satisfied. If the goals are not met, the input data file must be modified and the simulation repeated. This multistep process is continued until satisfactory results are obtained. This research was undertaken to develop a knowledge based system, IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment), that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant to perform a variety tasks related to process simulation. ASPEN, a widely used simulator by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) was selected as the target process simulator in the project. IPSE, written in the C language, was developed using a number of knowledge-based programming paradigms: object-oriented knowledge representation that uses inheritance and methods, rulebased inferencing (includes processing and propagation of probabilistic information) and data-driven programming using demons. It was implemented using the knowledge based environment LASER. The relationship of IPSE with the user, ASPEN, LASER and the C language is shown in Figure 1.

  19. Evidence-based health care: A roadmap for knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Kuo, Ken N; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-09-29

    Evidence-based health care informs clinicians of choices regarding the most effective care based on the best available research evidence. However, concepts or instruments of evidence-based medicine are still fragmented for most clinicians. Substantial gaps between evidence and clinical practice remain. A knowledge translation roadmap may help clinicians to improve the quality of care by integration of various concepts in evidence-based health care. Improving research transparency and accuracy, conducting an updated systematic review, and shared decision making are the key points to diminish the gaps between research and practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. Developing Practical Knowledge of the Next Generation Science Standards in Elementary Science Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Zangori, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Just as the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSSs) call for change in what students learn and how they are taught, teacher education programs must reconsider courses and curriculum in order to prepare teacher candidates to understand and implement new standards. In this study, we examine the development of prospective elementary teachers' practical knowledge of the NGSS in the context of a science methods course and innovative field experience. We present three themes related to how prospective teachers viewed and utilized the standards: (a) as a useful guide for planning and designing instruction, (b) as a benchmark for student and self-evaluation, and (c) as an achievable vision for teaching and learning. Our findings emphasize the importance of collaborative opportunities for repeated teaching of the same lessons, but question what is achievable in the context of a semester-long experience.

  1. User Generated Content Consumption and Social Networking in Knowledge-Sharing OSNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, Jake T.; Raeder, Troy; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    Knowledge-sharing online social networks are becoming increasingly pervasive and popular. While the user-to-user interactions in these networks have received substantial attention, the consumption of user generated content has not been studied extensively. In this work, we use data gathered from digg.com to present novel findings and draw important sociological conclusions regarding the intimate relationship between consumption and social networking. We first demonstrate that individuals' consumption habits influence their friend networks, consistent with the concept of homophily. We then show that one's social network can also influence the consumption of a submission through the activation of an extended friend network. Finally, we investigate the level of reciprocity, or balance, in the network and uncover relationships that are significantly less balanced than expected.

  2. A rainfall simulator based on multifractal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrour, Nawal; mallet, Cecile; barthes, Laurent; chazottes, Aymeric

    2015-04-01

    The Precipitations are due to complex meteorological phenomenon's and unlike other geophysical constituents such as water vapour concentration they present a relaxation behaviour leading to an alternation of dry and wet periods. Thus, precipitations can be described as intermittent process. The spatial and temporal variability of this phenomenon is significant and covers large scales. This high variability can cause extreme events which are difficult to observe properly because of their suddenness and their localized character. For all these reasons, the precipitations are therefore difficult to model. This study aims to adapt a one-dimensional time series model previously developed by the authors [Akrour et al., 2013, 2014] to a two-dimensional rainfall generator. The original time series model can be divided into 3 major steps : rain support generation, intra event rain rates generation using multifractal and finally calibration process. We use the same kind of methodology in the present study. Based on dataset obtained from meteorological radar of Météo France with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km we present the used approach : Firstly, the extraction of rain support (rain/no rain area) allowing the retrieval of the rain support structure function (variogram) and fractal properties. This leads us to use either the rain support modelisation proposed by ScleissXXX [ref] or directly real rain support extracted from radar rain maps. Then, the generation (over rain areas) of rain rates is made thanks to a 2D multifractal Fractionnally Integrated Flux (FIF) model [ref]. This second stage is followed by a calibration/forcing step (forcing average rain rate per events) added in order to provide rain rate coherent with observed rain-rate distribution. The forcing process is based on a relation identified from the average rain rate of observed events and their surfaces. The presentation will first explain the different steps presented above, then some results

  3. Knowledge generation about care-giving in the UK: a critical review of research paradigms.

    PubMed

    Milne, Alisoun; Larkin, Mary

    2015-01-01

    While discourse about care and caring is well developed in the UK, the nature of knowledge generation about care and the research paradigms that underpin it have been subjected to limited critical reflection and analysis. An overarching synthesis of evidence - intended to promote debate and facilitate new understandings - identifies two largely separate bodies of carer-related research. The first body of work - referred to as Gathering and Evaluating - provides evidence of the extent of care-giving, who provides care to whom and with what impact; it also focuses on evaluating policy and service efficacy. This type of research tends to dominate public perception about caring, influences the type and extent of policy and support for carers and attracts funding from policy and health-related sources. However, it also tends to be conceptually and theoretically narrow, has limited engagement with carers' perspectives and adopts an atomistic purview on the care-giving landscape. The second body of work - Conceptualising and Theorising - explores the conceptual and experiential nature of care and aims to extend thinking and theory about caring. It is concerned with promoting understanding of care as an integral part of human relationships, embedded in the life course, and a product of interdependence and reciprocity. This work conceptualises care as both an activity and a disposition and foregrounds the development of an 'ethic of care', thereby providing a perspective within which to recognise both the challenges care-giving may present and the significance of care as a normative activity. It tends to be funded from social science sources and, while strong in capturing carers' experiences, has limited policy and service-related purchase. Much could be gained for citizens, carers and families, and the generation of knowledge advanced, if the two bodies of research were integrated to a greater degree. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Using open data in near real time disaster analysis and knowledge generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun

    2017-04-01

    This presentation will address the value of using open operational geo data in near real time disaster analysis and knowledge generation. In the past, mechanism analysis of a meteo-hyrological extreme event may take month and years with lots of resources since there exist many kinds of restrictions on the model and observation data, e.g., in availability, accessibility, adequacy in resolution, quality and delivery time etc. In recent years, thanks to the open data and open service programs such as Copernicus, EMODnet (European Marine Observation Data Network) and data sharing activities in ROOSs (Regional Operational Oceanography Systems) and national agencies, the disaster analysis become a much faster and efficient procedure. The study will present such a case study for analyzing a hundred-year storm event in January 2017 which affects Danish and German coasts in western Baltic Sea. The event and its forecasts have caused lots of attention in Danish and German media. However, the explanations on how the storm surge is formed and why the prediction is good or bad in this or that country are still largely absent in the media reports. All the data and plots used in the analysis are from open sources. It is found that with the open data, the spatiotemporal variation and the internal links between weather, sea level and water mass movements can be well understood. New knowledge on key factors for the unusual high waters in the western Baltic is obtained from this analysis. Finally, recommendations for using open operational data in generating open science are given.

  5. Social studies of volcanology: knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive; Bravo, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the philosophy and evolution of volcanological science in recent years, particularly in relation to the growth of volcanic hazard and risk science. It uses the lens of Science and Technology Studies to examine the ways in which knowledge generation is controlled and directed by social forces, particularly during eruptions, which constitute landmarks in the development of new technologies and models. It also presents data from a survey of volcanologists carried out during late 2008 and early 2009. These data concern the felt purpose of the science according to the volcanologists who participated and their impressions of the most important eruptions in historical time. It demonstrates that volcanologists are motivated both by the academic science environment and by a social concern for managing the impact of volcanic hazards on populations. Also discussed are the eruptions that have most influenced the discipline and the role of scientists in policymaking on active volcanoes. Expertise in volcanology can become the primary driver of public policy very suddenly when a volcano erupts, placing immense pressure on volcanologists. In response, the epistemological foundations of volcanology are on the move, with an increasing volume of research into risk assessment and management. This requires new, integrated methodologies for knowledge collection that transcend scientific disciplinary boundaries.

  6. The Knowledge-Based Software Assistant: Beyond CASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carozzoni, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will outline the similarities and differences between two paradigms of software development. Both support the whole software life cycle and provide automation for most of the software development process, but have different approaches. The CASE approach is based on a set of tools linked by a central data repository. This tool-based approach is data driven and views software development as a series of sequential steps, each resulting in a product. The Knowledge-Based Software Assistant (KBSA) approach, a radical departure from existing software development practices, is knowledge driven and centers around a formalized software development process. KBSA views software development as an incremental, iterative, and evolutionary process with development occurring at the specification level.

  7. Knowledge acquisition for case-based reasoning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riesbeck, Christopher K.

    1988-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a simple idea: solve new problems by adapting old solutions to similar problems. The CBR approach offers several potential advantages over rule-based reasoning: rules are not combined blindly in a search for solutions, solutions can be explained in terms of concrete examples, and performance can improve automatically as new problems are solved and added to the case library. Moving CBR for the university research environment to the real world requires smooth interfaces for getting knowledge from experts. Described are the basic elements of an interface for acquiring three basic bodies of knowledge that any case-based reasoner requires: the case library of problems and their solutions, the analysis rules that flesh out input problem specifications so that relevant cases can be retrieved, and the adaptation rules that adjust old solutions to fit new problems.

  8. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, V. Denikin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. P.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rachkov, V. A.; Naumenko, M. A.; Saiko, V. V.

    2016-09-15

    Principles underlying the organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru) are described. This base includes a vast body of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and on cross sections for nuclear reactions that is combined with a wide set of interconnected computer programs for simulating complex nuclear dynamics, which work directly in the browser of a remote user. Also, the current situation in the realms of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics is surveyed. The potential of the NRV knowledge base is illustrated in detail by applying it to the example of an analysis of the fusion of nuclei that is followed by the decay of the excited compound nucleus formed.

  9. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V.; Denikin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. P.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rachkov, V. A.; Naumenko, M. A.; Saiko, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Principles underlying the organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru) are described. This base includes a vast body of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and on cross sections for nuclear reactions that is combined with a wide set of interconnected computer programs for simulating complex nuclear dynamics, which work directly in the browser of a remote user. Also, the current situation in the realms of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics is surveyed. The potential of the NRV knowledge base is illustrated in detail by applying it to the example of an analysis of the fusion of nuclei that is followed by the decay of the excited compound nucleus formed.

  10. NetWeaver for EMDS user guide (version 1.1): a knowledge base development system.

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes use of the NetWeaver knowledge base development system. Knowledge representation in NetWeaver is based on object-oriented fuzzy-logic networks that offer several significant advantages over the more traditional rulebased representation. Compared to rule-based knowledge bases, NetWeaver knowledge bases are easier to build, test, and maintain because...

  11. Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

  12. Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shailesh; Gardner, James

    2006-01-01

    Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to a wider audience, i.e. higher levels of government. Methods Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations in one of the project sites of RCMPCC. Results The review of local medicinal plant knowledge systems reveals that even though medicinal plants and associated knowledge systems (particularly local knowledge) are gaining wider recognition at the global level, the efforts to recognize and promote the un-codified folk systems of medicinal knowledge are still inadequate. In country like India, such neglect is evident through the lack of legal recognition and supporting policies. On the other hand, community-based approaches like local healers' workshops or village biologist programs implemented by RCMPCC are useful in combining both local (folk and codified) and formal systems of medicine. Conclusion Despite the high reliance on the local medicinal knowledge systems for health needs in India, the formal policies and national support structures are inadequate for traditional systems of medicine and almost absent for folk medicine. On the other hand, NGOs like the RCMPCC have demonstrated that community-based and local approaches such as local healer's workshops and village biologist program can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge with the formal sciences (in this case botany and ecology) and generate positive impacts at various levels. PMID:16603082

  13. Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailesh; Gardner, James

    2006-04-07

    Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to a wider audience, i.e. higher levels of government. Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations in one of the project sites of RCMPCC. The review of local medicinal plant knowledge systems reveals that even though medicinal plants and associated knowledge systems (particularly local knowledge) are gaining wider recognition at the global level, the efforts to recognize and promote the un-codified folk systems of medicinal knowledge are still inadequate. In country like India, such neglect is evident through the lack of legal recognition and supporting policies. On the other hand, community-based approaches like local healers' workshops or village biologist programs implemented by RCMPCC are useful in combining both local (folk and codified) and formal systems of medicine. Despite the high reliance on the local medicinal knowledge systems for health needs in India, the formal policies and national support structures are inadequate for traditional systems of medicine and almost absent for folk medicine. On the other hand, NGOs like the RCMPCC have demonstrated that community-based and local approaches such as local healer's workshops and village biologist program can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge with the formal sciences (in this case botany and ecology) and generate positive impacts at various levels.

  14. Using the DOE Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H.M.; Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.

    1998-10-20

    The DOE Knowledge Base is a library of detailed information whose purpose is to support the United States National Data Center (USNDC) in its mission to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). One of the important tasks which the USNDC must accomplish is to periodically perform detailed analysis of events of high interest, so-called "Special Events", to provide the national authority with information needed to make policy decisions. In this paper we investigate some possible uses of the Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis (SEA), and make recommendations for improving Knowledge Base support for SEA. To analyze an event in detail, there are two basic types of data which must be used sensor-derived data (wave- forms, arrivals, events, etc.) and regiohalized contextual data (known sources, geological characteristics, etc.). Cur- rently there is no single package which can provide full access to both types of data, so for our study we use a separate package for each MatSeis, the Sandia Labs-developed MATLAB-based seismic analysis package, for wave- form data analysis, and ArcView, an ESRI product, for contextual data analysis. Both packages are well-suited to pro- totyping because they provide a rich set of currently available functionality and yet are also flexible and easily extensible, . Using these tools and Phase I Knowledge Base data sets, we show how the Knowledge Base can improve both the speed and the quality of SEA. Empirically-derived interpolated correction information can be accessed to improve both location estimates and associated error estimates. This information can in turn be used to identi~ any known nearby sources (e.g. mines, volcanos), which may then trigger specialized processing of the sensor data. Based on the location estimate, preferred magnitude formulas and discriminants can be retrieved, and any known blockages can be identified to prevent miscalculations. Relevant historic events can be identilled either by

  15. SAFOD Brittle Microstructure and Mechanics Knowledge Base (BM2KB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Broda Cindi, M.; Hadizadeh, Jafar; Kumar, Anuj

    2013-07-01

    Scientific drilling near Parkfield, California has established the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), which provides the solid earth community with short range geophysical and fault zone material data. The BM2KB ontology was developed in order to formalize the knowledge about brittle microstructures in the fault rocks sampled from the SAFOD cores. A knowledge base, instantiated from this domain ontology, stores and presents the observed microstructural and analytical data with respect to implications for brittle deformation and mechanics of faulting. These data can be searched on the knowledge base‧s Web interface by selecting a set of terms (classes, properties) from different drop-down lists that are dynamically populated from the ontology. In addition to this general search, a query can also be conducted to view data contributed by a specific investigator. A search by sample is done using the EarthScope SAFOD Core Viewer that allows a user to locate samples on high resolution images of core sections belonging to different runs and holes. The class hierarchy of the BM2KB ontology was initially designed using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which was used as a visual guide to develop the ontology in OWL applying the Protégé ontology editor. Various Semantic Web technologies such as the RDF, RDFS, and OWL ontology languages, SPARQL query language, and Pellet reasoning engine, were used to develop the ontology. An interactive Web application interface was developed through Jena, a java based framework, with AJAX technology, jsp pages, and java servlets, and deployed via an Apache tomcat server. The interface allows the registered user to submit data related to their research on a sample of the SAFOD core. The submitted data, after initial review by the knowledge base administrator, are added to the extensible knowledge base and become available in subsequent queries to all types of users. The interface facilitates inference capabilities in the

  16. Evidence-based patient education: knowledge transfer to endodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, John T; McNeil, Daniel W; Gochenour, Lori L; Jackson, C Russell

    2009-11-01

    Evidence-based treatment is emphasized in oral health care, but there has been less focus on empirically demonstrating the effects of patient education. Attempts to educate patients must be empirically demonstrated in order to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners and educators. We conducted two studies that assessed information acquisition during five-minute audiovisual films on oral hygiene procedures, endodontic procedures, and fear about pain during root canal therapy. A fifteen-item Dental Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ), with three subscales each focusing on the content of one of the films, was developed and psychometrically evaluated. Study 1 included 268 undergraduates; study 2 involved 104 endodontic patients. Participants completed the DKQ, viewed one of the three films, and repeated the questionnaire. The effects of information on knowledge were assessed using 3 (film group) X 3 (subscale of the DKQ) X 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs. Scores improved in a content-specific fashion relevant to the film viewed among undergraduates, F(4, 263)=211.33, p<.001, partial eta(2)=.62 and endodontic patients, F(4, 99)=87.22, p<.001, partial eta(2)=.63. The results provide evidence for using brief informational film as an efficacious method to increase patient knowledge, at least in the short term. The DKQ is proposed as a tool to assess patient knowledge in the arenas of oral hygiene and endodontics.

  17. Knowledge-based architecture for airborne mine and minefield detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Menon, Deepak; Swonger, C. W.

    2004-09-01

    One of the primary lessons learned from airborne mid-wave infrared (MWIR) based mine and minefield detection research and development over the last few years has been the fact that no single algorithm or static detection architecture is able to meet mine and minefield detection performance specifications. This is true not only because of the highly varied environmental and operational conditions under which an airborne sensor is expected to perform but also due to the highly data dependent nature of sensors and algorithms employed for detection. Attempts to make the algorithms themselves more robust to varying operating conditions have only been partially successful. In this paper, we present a knowledge-based architecture to tackle this challenging problem. The detailed algorithm architecture is discussed for such a mine/minefield detection system, with a description of each functional block and data interface. This dynamic and knowledge-driven architecture will provide more robust mine and minefield detection for a highly multi-modal operating environment. The acquisition of the knowledge for this system is predominantly data driven, incorporating not only the analysis of historical airborne mine and minefield imagery data collection, but also other "all source data" that may be available such as terrain information and time of day. This "all source data" is extremely important and embodies causal information that drives the detection performance. This information is not being used by current detection architectures. Data analysis for knowledge acquisition will facilitate better understanding of the factors that affect the detection performance and will provide insight into areas for improvement for both sensors and algorithms. Important aspects of this knowledge-based architecture, its motivations and the potential gains from its implementation are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  18. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John; Arnott, James; Wright, Alyson

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  19. Governing Long-Term Risks in Radioactive Waste Management: Reversibility and Knowledge Transfer Across Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Safe management of the long-lived and high-level radioactive waste originating primarily from nuclear power stations requires isolating and confining the waste for periods up to 100 000 years. Disposal in deep geological formations is currently the solution advocated by international organisations (e.g. the IAEA and the OECD-NEA) and governments, but nowhere in the world is such repository for civilian nuclear waste in operation yet. Concerns about the governance of the involved risks and uncertainties for such long periods lie at the heart of the controversies that have slowed down the identification of a solution. In order to draw lessons potentially relevant for the governance of long-term climate risks, this paper examines the ways in which two interrelated aspects have been addressed in nuclear waste management in France, the US, and the Nordic countries. The first issue concerns "reversibility" - i.e. the possibility on one hand to retrieve the waste once it has been disposed of in a repository, and on the other to return at any point in time along the decision-making process to the previous decision-making phase. Reversibility constitutes today a fundamental, legally binding requirement in French radioactive waste policy. A strategy for managing risk and uncertainty as such, reversibility nevertheless also poses significant safety challenges of its own. The second topic goes beyond the timescales (max. 300 years) in which reversibility is usually considered applicable, addressing the question of intergenerational knowledge transfer, comparing the Nordic and the American approaches to the issue. The key challenge here is ensuring the transfer to the future generations - for periods up to 100 000 years - of sufficient knowledge concerning the siting, characteristics and management of the waste deposited in a repository. Even more fundamentally, instead of knowledge transfer, should we rather aim at "active forgetting", in order to prevent the curious in the

  20. Practice to Evidence: Using Evaluability Assessment to Generate Practice-Based Evidence in Rural South Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, Sally; Hermstad, April; Carvalho, Michelle L.; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob; Ballard, Denise; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from formal evaluation of real-world practice can address gaps in the public health knowledge base and provide information about feasible, relevant strategies for varied settings. Interest in evaluability assessment (EA) as an approach for generating practice-based evidence has grown. EA has been central to several structured assessment…

  1. Knowledge/geometry-based Mobile Autonomous Robot Simulator (KMARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Linfu; Mckendrick, John D.; Liu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing applied research is focused on developing guidance system for robot vehicles. Problems facing the basic research needed to support this development (e.g., scene understanding, real-time vision processing, etc.) are major impediments to progress. Due to the complexity and the unpredictable nature of a vehicle's area of operation, more advanced vehicle control systems must be able to learn about obstacles within the range of its sensor(s). A better understanding of the basic exploration process is needed to provide critical support to developers of both sensor systems and intelligent control systems which can be used in a wide spectrum of autonomous vehicles. Elcee Computek, Inc. has been working under contract to the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio to develop a Knowledge/Geometry-based Mobile Autonomous Robot Simulator (KMARS). KMARS has two parts: a geometry base and a knowledge base. The knowledge base part of the system employs the expert-system shell CLIPS ('C' Language Integrated Production System) and necessary rules that control both the vehicle's use of an obstacle detecting sensor and the overall exploration process. The initial phase project has focused on the simulation of a point robot vehicle operating in a 2D environment.

  2. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  3. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward. PMID:25276091

  4. A rule-based software test data generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  5. A rule-based software test data generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  6. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  7. Measuring Knowledge Elaboration Based on a Computer-Assisted Knowledge Map Analytical Approach to Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Huang, Ronghuai; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the level of knowledge elaboration and explore the relationships between prior knowledge of a group, group performance, and knowledge elaboration in collaborative learning. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the level of knowledge elaboration. The collaborative learning objective in…

  8. Measuring Knowledge Elaboration Based on a Computer-Assisted Knowledge Map Analytical Approach to Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Huang, Ronghuai; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the level of knowledge elaboration and explore the relationships between prior knowledge of a group, group performance, and knowledge elaboration in collaborative learning. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the level of knowledge elaboration. The collaborative learning objective in…

  9. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Naumenko, M. A.; Alekseev, A. P.; Rachkov, V. A.; Samarin, V. V.; Saiko, V. V.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the principles of organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru/) which integrates a large amount of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and nuclear reaction cross sections with a wide range of computational programs for modeling of nuclear properties and various processes of nuclear dynamics which work directly in the browser of a remote user. The paper also gives an overview of the current situation in the field of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics. The features of the NRV knowledge base are illustrated in detail on the example of the analysis of nucleon transfer reactions within the distorted wave Born approximation.

  10. Knowledge-based IC-CAD software reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yueqiu; Yang, Lin; Tong, Jiarong; Tang, Pushan

    1996-03-01

    This paper discussed a method of knowledge representations to automatically reuse software information, such as, algorithms, designs, documents, reports etc. in the domain of IC-CAD. An architecture of framework ICSDE was presented which consists of four main parts: packaging unit, prototyping unit, reusable library and data base management. Within this framework, time domain knowledge of reusable-software-information (RSI) was represented and abstracted into three concept levels. Based on this representation method, the RSI can be packaged into reusable-software-component in the reusable library, and the function was provided to help IC-CAD software tools or system developers producing their products with low time and low cost. So it is possible to provide the IC-CAD products good reliability and maintainability under this framework.

  11. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  12. Distributed Knowledge Base Systems for Diagnosis and Information Retrieval.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    progress came in the area of diagnostic reasoning and in the conceptual foundations of knowledge-based systems in general. We also developed an approach to a...have been experimenting with the application of this tool to the design and implementation of expert systems in the area of mechanical systems, since...itself or in the problem solving open area of research in the field, but the intuition is that processes that operate on it. Thus the range of

  13. Impact of Knowledge-Based Techniques on Emerging Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    coherent location (PCL), tracking in multistatic radar, and ‘spatial denial’ as a waveform diversity technique to prevent the exploitation by an enemy...performing a variety of surveillance and tracking tasks. Knowledge-based processing may be used to control the scheduling of tasks in such a radar, showing...techniques to bistatic and multistatic radar, including the use of information on waveform properties in passive coherent location (PCL), tracking

  14. A knowledge-based decision support system for payload scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Stephen; Ford, Donnie

    1988-01-01

    The role that artificial intelligence/expert systems technologies play in the development and implementation of effective decision support systems is illustrated. A recently developed prototype system for supporting the scheduling of subsystems and payloads/experiments for NASA's Space Station program is presented and serves to highlight various concepts. The potential integration of knowledge based systems and decision support systems which has been proposed in several recent articles and presentations is illustrated.

  15. A Study of Knowledge-Based Systems for Photo Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    OIL (15] CAI Electronics SOPHIE (10] Medicine GUIDON [14] Learning Chemistry Meta-DENDRAL (i] Agriculture INDUCE [19] Mathematics AM [40] Intelligent...16 6. Computer-Aided Instruction: GUIDON Three types of traditional computer-aided instruction (CAI) are often distinguished: frame-oriented drill-and...systems have an obvious contribution to make to CAI. The GUIDON system developed by Clancey at Stanford exploits the MYCIN knowledge base about

  16. A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-11

    This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

  17. Knowledge-Based Decision Support in Department of Defense Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    2005) reviewed and analyzed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ) project management policies and compared them to the GAO’s best...practices on knowledge-based decision making. The study was primarily focused on the Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Lab, Johnson ...Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. During its investigation, the GAO found NASA deficient in key criteria and decision reviews to fully

  18. Knowledge-based vision and simple visual machines.

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, D; Noble, J

    1997-01-01

    The vast majority of work in machine vision emphasizes the representation of perceived objects and events: it is these internal representations that incorporate the 'knowledge' in knowledge-based vision or form the 'models' in model-based vision. In this paper, we discuss simple machine vision systems developed by artificial evolution rather than traditional engineering design techniques, and note that the task of identifying internal representations within such systems is made difficult by the lack of an operational definition of representation at the causal mechanistic level. Consequently, we question the nature and indeed the existence of representations posited to be used within natural vision systems (i.e. animals). We conclude that representations argued for on a priori grounds by external observers of a particular vision system may well be illusory, and are at best place-holders for yet-to-be-identified causal mechanistic interactions. That is, applying the knowledge-based vision approach in the understanding of evolved systems (machines or animals) may well lead to theories and models that are internally consistent, computationally plausible, and entirely wrong. PMID:9304684

  19. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  20. Embedded knowledge-based system for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutalib, A. O.

    1990-10-01

    The development of a reliable Automatic Target Recognition (ATE) system is considered a very critical and challenging problem. Existing ATE Systems have inherent limitations in terms of recognition performance and the ability to learn and adapt. Artificial Intelligence Techniques have the potential to improve the performance of ATh Systems. In this paper, we presented a novel Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Reasoning Process (ARP) , that can be used to automatically develop and maintain a Knowledge-Base (K-B) for the ATR Systems. In its learning mode, the ARP utilizes Learning samples to automatically develop the ATR K-B, which consists of minimum size sets of necessary and sufficient conditions for each target class. In its operational mode, the ARP infers the target class from sensor data using the ATh K-B System. The ARP also has the capability to reason under uncertainty, and can support both statistical and model-based approaches for ATR development. The capabilities of the ARP are compared and contrasted to those of another Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Rule Induction (ARI) which is based on maximizing the mutual information. The AR? has been implemented in LISP on a VAX-GPX workstation.