Science.gov

Sample records for generational comparison revised

  1. Revision and product generation software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed revision and product generation (RevPG) software for updating digital line graph (DLG) data and producing maps from such data. This software is based on ARC/INFO, a geographic information system from Environmental Systems Resource Institute (ESRI). RevPG consists of ARC/INFO Arc Macro Language (AML) programs, C routines, and interface menus that permit operators to collect vector data using aerial images, to symbolize the data on-screen, and to produce plots and color-separated files for use in printing maps.

  2. Revision and Product Generation Software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed revision and product generation (RevPG) software for updating digital line graph (DLG) data and producing maps from such data. This software is based on ARC/INFO, a geographic information system from Environmental Systems Resource Institute (ESRI). RevPG consists of ARC/INFO Arc Macro Language (AML) programs, C routines, and interface menus that permit operators to collect vector data using aerial images, to symbolize the data onscreen, and to produce plots and color-separated files for use in printing maps.

  3. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  4. Reasons of Revision for First-Generation Highly Crosslinked Polyethylenes

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Medel, Francisco; MacDonald, Daniel; Parvizi, Javad; Kraay, Matthew; Rimnac, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Over a ten-year period, we prospectively evaluated the reasons for revision for contemporary and highly crosslinked polyethylene formulations in a multicenter retrieval program. 212 consecutive retrievals were classified as conventional gamma-inert sterilized liners (n=37), annealed (Crossfire™, n=72), or remelted (Longevity™, XLPE, Durasul; n=93). The most frequent reasons for revision were loosening (35%), instability (28%) and infection (21%) and were not related to polyethylene formulation (p = 0.17). Annealed and remelted liners had comparable linear penetration rates (0.03 and 0.04 mm/y, respectively, on average) and were significantly lower than conventional retrievals (0.11 mm/y; p ≤ 0.0005). This retrieval study including first-generation highly crosslinked liners demonstrated lower wear than conventional polyethylene. While loosening remained the most prevalent reason for revision, we could not demonstrate a relationship between wear and loosening. The long-term clinical performance of first-generation highly crosslinked remains promising, based on the mid-term outcomes of the components documented in this study. PMID:20541895

  5. 78 FR 48503 - Proposed Revision to Missiles Generated by Extreme Winds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Missiles Generated by Extreme Winds AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....4, ``Missiles Generated by Extreme Winds,'' of NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of... extreme winds. The revision also incorporates guidance on regulatory treatment of nonsafety systems....

  6. Revisions to the hydrogen gas generation computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    Waste Management Technology has requested SRTC to maintain and extend a previously developed computer model, TRUGAS, which calculates hydrogen gas concentrations within the transuranic (TRU) waste drums. TRUGAS was written by Frank G. Smith using the BASIC language and is described in the report A Computer Model of gas Generation and Transport within TRU Waste Drums (DP- 1754). The computer model has been partially validated by yielding results similar to experimental data collected at SRL and LANL over a wide range of conditions. The model was created to provide the capability of predicting conditions that could potentially lead to the formation of flammable gas concentrations within drums, and to assess proposed drum venting methods. The model has served as a tool in determining how gas concentrations are affected by parameters such as filter vent sizes, waste composition, gas generation values, the number and types of enclosures, water instrusion into the drum, and curie loading. The success of the TRUGAS model has prompted an interest in the program's maintenance and enhancement. Experimental data continues to be collected at various sites on such parameters as permeability values, packaging arrangements, filter designs, and waste contents. Information provided by this data is used to improve the accuracy of the model's predictions. Also, several modifications to the model have been made to enlarge the scope of problems which can be analyzed. For instance, the model has been used to calculate hydrogen concentrations inside steel cabinets containing retired glove boxes (WSRC-RP-89-762). The revised TRUGAS computer model, H2GAS, is described in this report. This report summarizes all modifications made to the TRUGAS computer model and provides documentation useful for making future updates to H2GAS.

  7. Revisions to the hydrogen gas generation computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    Waste Management Technology has requested SRTC to maintain and extend a previously developed computer model, TRUGAS, which calculates hydrogen gas concentrations within the transuranic (TRU) waste drums. TRUGAS was written by Frank G. Smith using the BASIC language and is described in the report A Computer Model of gas Generation and Transport within TRU Waste Drums (DP- 1754). The computer model has been partially validated by yielding results similar to experimental data collected at SRL and LANL over a wide range of conditions. The model was created to provide the capability of predicting conditions that could potentially lead to the formation of flammable gas concentrations within drums, and to assess proposed drum venting methods. The model has served as a tool in determining how gas concentrations are affected by parameters such as filter vent sizes, waste composition, gas generation values, the number and types of enclosures, water instrusion into the drum, and curie loading. The success of the TRUGAS model has prompted an interest in the program`s maintenance and enhancement. Experimental data continues to be collected at various sites on such parameters as permeability values, packaging arrangements, filter designs, and waste contents. Information provided by this data is used to improve the accuracy of the model`s predictions. Also, several modifications to the model have been made to enlarge the scope of problems which can be analyzed. For instance, the model has been used to calculate hydrogen concentrations inside steel cabinets containing retired glove boxes (WSRC-RP-89-762). The revised TRUGAS computer model, H2GAS, is described in this report. This report summarizes all modifications made to the TRUGAS computer model and provides documentation useful for making future updates to H2GAS.

  8. Revision of ceramic head fracture after third generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Ha, Yong-Chan; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Kang-Sup; Min, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sang-Rim

    2014-01-01

    We performed 24 revisions of fractures of third generation ceramic heads. The stem was not changed in 20 revisions; a new ceramic-on-ceramic bearing was used in four and a metal-on-polyethylene bearing in 16. The stem was changed in four revisions; a new ceramic-on-ceramic bearing was used in three and a metal-on-polyethylene bearing in one. During the follow-up of 57.5 months, complications occurred in five hips among the 20 stem retained revisions: a fracture of the new ceramic head in two, metallosis with pseudocyst in two, and femoral osteolysis with stem loosening in one. However, there were no complications in the four revisions where the stem was changed. Revision surgery after ceramic head fracture shows high rates of early complications. We recommend stem revision in cases of THA failure due to fracture of a modern ceramic head. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Revision surgery after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation in the knee.

    PubMed

    Niethammer, Thomas R; Niethammer, Thomas; Valentin, Siegfried; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Gülecyüz, Mehmet F; Gülecyüz, Mehmet; Pietschmann, Matthias F; Pietschmann, Matthias; Müller, Peter E; Müller, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an established treatment for full thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint. However, little is known about cases when revision surgery is needed. The aim of the present study is to investigate the complication rates and the main reasons for revision surgery after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation in the knee joint. It is of particular interest to examine in which cases revision surgery is needed and in which cases a "wait and see" strategy should be used. A total of 143 consecutive patients with 171 cartilage defects were included in this study with a minimum follow-up of two years. All defects were treated with third generation ACI (NOVACART®3D). Clinical evaluation was carried out after six months, followed by an annual evaluation using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for rest and during activity. Revision surgery was documented. The revision rate was 23.4 % (n = 36). The following major reasons for revision surgery were found in our study: symptomatic bone marrow edema (8.3 %, n = 3), arthrofibrosis (22.2 %, n = 8) and partial graft cartilage deficiency (47.2 %, n = 17). The following revision surgery was performed: retrograde drilling combined with Iloprost infusion therapy for bone marrow oedema (8.4 %, n = 3), arthroscopic arthrolysis of the suprapatellar recess (22.2 %, n = 8) and microfracturing/antegrade drilling (47.3 %, n = 17). Significant improvements of clinical scores after revision surgery were observed. Revision surgery after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation is common and is needed primarily in cases with arthrofibrosis, partial graft cartilage deficiency and symptomatic bone marrow oedema resulting in a significantly better clinical outcome.

  10. Comparison of Generative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Christian; Ritchie, Donn

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two generative learning strategies, concept maps and manipulation of objects, and to determine if either works better with individual learners or in cooperative learning groups. A total of 80 sixth-grade students in science education were randomly assigned to group or individual…

  11. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2G RLV). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve; Sides, Steve; Kmiec, Tom; Arbogast, Tim; Mayers, Tom; Doehnert, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This is a revised final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  12. Revising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Linda, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In focusing on recursive writing, the nine articles in this journal issue suggest that student writing should be taken seriously. The first article states that revision should occur throughout the writing process while the second discusses how to invite writers to become active readers of their own texts. The third article presents methods of…

  13. A comparison of Monte Carlo generators

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Tomasz

    2015-05-15

    A comparison of GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, and NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generators is presented using a set of four observables: protons multiplicity, total visible energy, most energetic proton momentum, and π{sup +} two-dimensional energy vs cosine distribution.

  14. Observed Methods for Generating Analogies in Scientific Problem Solving. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John

    Evidence from video tapes of experts thinking aloud and using analogies in scientific problem solving is presented. Four processes appear to be important in using an analogy: (1) generating the analogy; (2) establishing confidence in the validity of the analogy relation; (3) understanding the analogous case; and (4) applying findings to the…

  15. A real time approach for revising generation unit performance characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Viviani, G.L.; Lin, C.E.; Webb, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    This paper presents a unique method for representing the performance characteristics of generation units of electric utilities. The approach utilizes digitally sampled information in an on-line enviroment. The resulting accuracy is superior to conventional approaches, as the true time varying nature of performance characteristics is taken into account.

  16. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision2)

    SciTech Connect

    Waste Management Group

    2006-11-29

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management.

  17. Third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surfaces in revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Dong; Kamdar, Rutuj; Yoo, Je-Hyun; Hur, Mina; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2009-12-01

    With an increase of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), the choice of bearing surface becomes more important. Wear debris by conventional metal-on-polyethylene articulations may cause extensive osteolysis, especially in young patients. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic outcomes after revision THA using third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surfaces in 42 hips. The mean age of the patients was 48.8 years (32-59 years), and the mean duration of follow-up monitoring was 5.4 years (3.2-8.0 years). At final follow-up examination, the average Harris Hip Score was 91.3. Although minor complications were observed in 6 hips (14.3%), no hips required additional revision surgery. No hip showed radiolucent lines, acetabular cup migration, or osteolysis. Our data show that clinical and radiographic outcomes after revision THA using third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surfaces are favorable. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surfaces can be preferentially considered for revision THA, especially in young patients. Further studies with long-term follow-up data are warranted.

  18. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  19. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM ELECTROLYSIS - REVISED FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    IBRAHIM, SAMIR; STICHTER, MICHAEL

    2008-07-31

    DOE GO13028-0001 DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This report is a summary of the work performed by Teledyne Energy Systems to understand high pressure electrolysis mechanisms, investigate and address safety concerns related to high pressure electrolysis, develop methods to test components and systems of a high pressure electrolyzer, and produce design specifications for a low cost high pressure electrolysis system using lessons learned throughout the project. Included in this report are data on separator materials, electrode materials, structural cell design, and dissolved gas tests. Also included are the results of trade studies for active area, component design analysis, high pressure hydrogen/oxygen reactions, and control systems design. Several key pieces of a high pressure electrolysis system were investigated in this project and the results will be useful in further attempts at high pressure and/or low cost hydrogen generator projects. An important portion of the testing and research performed in this study are the safety issues that are present in a high pressure electrolyzer system and that they can not easily be simplified to a level where units can be manufactured at the cost goals specified, or operated by other than trained personnel in a well safeguarded environment. The two key objectives of the program were to develop a system to supply hydrogen at a rate of at least 10,000 scf/day at a pressure of 5000psi, and to meet cost goals of $600/ kW in production quantities of 10,000/year. On these two points TESI was not successful. The project was halted due to concerns over safety of high pressure gas electrolysis and the associated costs of a system which reduced the safety concerns.

  20. Comparison of Original and Revised Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2014-179

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stacy; Radwin, David

    2014-01-01

    The web tables in this report provide original and revised estimates of statistics previously published in 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2007-08 (NCES 2009-166). The revised estimates were generated using revised weights that were updated in August 2013. NPSAS:08 data were…

  1. Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith K; Zerbini, F Murilo; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Ramos-Sobrinho, Roberto; Silva, José C F; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Malathi, V G; Martin, Darren P; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael; Ueda, Shigenori; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-06-01

    Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) are emergent pathogens of crops throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. By virtue of having a small DNA genome that is easily cloned, and due to the recent innovations in cloning and low-cost sequencing, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of available begomovirus genome sequences. Even so, most of the available sequences have been obtained from cultivated plants and are likely a small and phylogenetically unrepresentative sample of begomovirus diversity, a factor constraining taxonomic decisions such as the establishment of operationally useful species demarcation criteria. In addition, problems in assigning new viruses to established species have highlighted shortcomings in the previously recommended mechanism of species demarcation. Based on the analysis of 3,123 full-length begomovirus genome (or DNA-A component) sequences available in public databases as of December 2012, a set of revised guidelines for the classification and nomenclature of begomoviruses are proposed. The guidelines primarily consider a) genus-level biological characteristics and b) results obtained using a standardized classification tool, Sequence Demarcation Tool, which performs pairwise sequence alignments and identity calculations. These guidelines are consistent with the recently published recommendations for the genera Mastrevirus and Curtovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Genome-wide pairwise identities of 91 % and 94 % are proposed as the demarcation threshold for begomoviruses belonging to different species and strains, respectively. Procedures and guidelines are outlined for resolving conflicts that may arise when assigning species and strains to categories wherever the pairwise identity falls on or very near the demarcation threshold value.

  2. Revision rate of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing arthroplasty: comparison of published literature and arthroplasty register data.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Reinhard; Neumann, Daniel; Rauf, Rauend; Hofstaetter, Jochen; Boehler, Nikolaus; Labek, Gerold

    2012-07-01

    Hip resurfacing arthroplasty has gained popularity for treating young and active patients who have arthritis. There are two major data sources for assessing outcome and revision rate after total joint arthroplasty: sample-based clinical trials and national arthroplasty registers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) arthroplasty in terms of revision rate as reported in clinical studies and recorded by national arthroplasty registers. A comprehensive literature research was performed from English-language, peer-reviewed journals and annual reports from national joint arthroplasty registers worldwide. Only publications from MEDLINE-listed journals were included. The revision rate was used as the primary outcome parameter. In order to allow for direct comparison of different data sets, calculation was based on revisions per 100 observed component years. For statistical analysis, confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. A total of 18,708 implants, equivalent to 106,565 observed component years, were analysed in the follow-up studies. The register reports contained 9,806 primary cases corresponding to 44,294 observed component years. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in revisions per 100 observed component years between the development team (0.27; CI: 0.14-0.40) and register data (0.74; CI: 0.72-0.76). The BHR arthroplasty device shows good results in terms of revision rate in register data as well as in clinical studies. However, the excellent results reported by the development team are not reproducible by other surgeons. Based on the results of our study, we believe that comprehensive national arthroplasty registers are the most suitable tool for assessing hip arthroplasty revision rate.

  3. Reasons for revision of first-generation highly cross-linked polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; Medel, Francisco J; MacDonald, Daniel W; Parvizi, Javad; Kraay, Matthew J; Rimnac, Clare M

    2010-09-01

    Over a 10-year period, we prospectively evaluated the reasons for revision of contemporary and highly cross-linked polyethylene formulations in amulticenter retrieval program. Two hundred twelve consecutive retrievals were classified as conventional gamma inert sterilized (n = 37), annealed (Cross fire,[Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ] n = 72), or remelted (Longevity [Zimmer ,Warsaw, Ind], XLPE[Smith and Nephew, Memphis, Tenn], Durasul [Zimmer,Warsaw, Ind] n = 103) liners. The most frequent reasons for revision were loosening (35%), instability(28%), and infection (21%) and were not related to polyethylene formulation (P = .17). Annealed and remelted liners had comparable linear penetration rates(0.03 and 0.04 mm/y, respectively, on average), and these were significantly lower than the rate in conventional retrievals (0.11 mm/y, P ≤ .0005). This retrieval study including first-generation highly cross linked liners demonstrated lower wear than conventional polyethylene. Although loosening remained as the most prevalent reason for revision, we could not demonstrate a relationship between wear and loosening.The long-term clinical performance of first-generation highly cross-linked liners remains promising based on the midterm outcomes of the components documented in this study [corrected].

  4. Evaluation and application of site-specific data to revise the first-order decay model for estimating landfill gas generation and emissions at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH₄) generated from low-organic waste degradation at four Danish landfills was estimated by three first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models (LandGEM, IPCC, and Afvalzorg). Actual waste data from Danish landfills were applied to fit model (IPCC and Afvalzorg) required categories. In general, the single-phase model, LandGEM, significantly overestimated CH₄generation, because it applied too high default values for key parameters to handle low-organic waste scenarios. The key parameters were biochemical CH₄potential (BMP) and CH₄generation rate constant (k-value). In comparison to the IPCC model, the Afvalzorg model was more suitable for estimating CH₄generation at Danish landfills, because it defined more proper waste categories rather than traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions. Moreover, the Afvalzorg model could better show the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories. By using laboratory-determined BMPs and k-values for shredder, sludge, mixed bulky waste, and street-cleaning waste, the Afvalzorg model was revised. The revised model estimated smaller cumulative CH₄generation results at the four Danish landfills (from the start of disposal until 2020 and until 2100). Through a CH₄mass balance approach, fugitive CH₄emissions from whole sites and a specific cell for shredder waste were aggregated based on the revised Afvalzorg model outcomes. Aggregated results were in good agreement with field measurements, indicating that the revised Afvalzorg model could provide practical and accurate estimation for Danish LFG emissions. This study is valuable for both researchers and engineers aiming to predict, control, and mitigate fugitive CH₄emissions from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Landfill operators use the first-order decay (FOD) models to estimate methane (CH₄) generation. A single-phase model (LandGEM) and a traditional model (IPCC) could result in

  5. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Wortham, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected are valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential, individual off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04% of the natural background radiation dose to the population in the path of the release.

  6. Greater Trochanteric Reattachment Using the Third-Generation Cable Plate System in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sung; Pansey, Nachiket; Kansay, Rajeev K; Yoo, Je-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Yong; Chang, Jun-Dong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiologic and functional results of greater trochanteric reattachment using the third-generation cable plate system in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 47 trochanteric fixations (27 men and 18 women; mean age of 60.2 years) using the third-generation cable plate system in revision THA were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up was 80.4 months (range 27-148 months). The osteotomized greater trochanter was reattached using the Cable-Ready system (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) and the Dall-Miles cable system (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ). The clinical results with Harris hip score, visual analog scale, and radiologic outcomes were evaluated. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 55.7 (range 17-72) preoperatively to 90.8 (range 68-100; P = .001) postoperatively, and the mean pain score was improved from 6.6 (range 3-10) to 2.5 (range 0-6; P = .001), respectively. Nonunion was observed in 6 hips (12.7%). Migration of the osteotomized greater trochanteric fragment (>1 cm) was seen in 8 hips (17.0%). Cable breakage occurred in 13 cases (27.6%). Although 5 cable plate systems were removed, there was no need for reattachment of the greater trochanter in this study. This study showed a relatively high incidence of radiologic failure after greater trochanteric reattachment using the cable plate system in revision THA, although reattachments were not required and clinical outcome was relatively satisfactory. Periodic and close observation for the early detection of failure is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Revising in Two Languages: A Multi-Dimensional Comparison of Online Writing Revisions in L1 and FL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Marie; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees

    2006-01-01

    It has frequently been claimed that, in foreign language writing, attention to linguistic processes inhibits attention available for higher level conceptual processing [e.g., Chenoweth & Hayes, 2001; Whalen & Menard, 1995]. This study examines this hypothesis for foreign language revision processes by comparing online revisions made by 22…

  8. Comparison of revision surgeries for one- to two-level cervical TDR and ACDF from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Fineberg, Steven J; Singh, Kern

    2014-12-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) provide comparable outcomes for degenerative cervical pathology. However, revisions of these procedures are not well characterized. The purpose of this study is to examine the rates, epidemiology, perioperative complications, and costs between the revision procedures and to compare these outcomes with those of primary cases. This study is a retrospective database analysis. A total of 3,792 revision and 183,430 primary cases from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2002 to 2011 were included. Incidence of revision cases, patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), in-hospital costs, mortality, and perioperative complications. Patients who underwent revision for either one- to two-level cervical TDR or ACDF were identified. SPSS v.20 was used for statistical analysis with χ(2) test for categorical data and independent sample t test for continuous data. The relative risk for perioperative complications with revisions was calculated in comparison with primary cases using a 95% confidence interval. An alpha level of less than 0.05 denoted statistical significance. There were 3,536 revision one- to two-level ACDFs and 256 revision cervical TDRs recorded in the NIS database from 2002 to 2011. The revision cervical TDR cohort demonstrated a significantly greater LOS (3.18 vs. 2.25, p<.001), cost ($16,998 vs. $15,222, p=.03), and incidence of perioperative wound infections (13.6 vs. 5.3 per 1,000, p<.001) compared with the ACDF revision cohort (p<.001). There were no differences in mortality between the revision surgical cohorts. Compared with primary cases, both revision cohorts demonstrated a significantly greater LOS and cost. Furthermore, patients who underwent revision demonstrated a greater incidence and risk for perioperative wound infections, hematomas, dysphagia, and neurologic complications relative to the primary procedures. This study demonstrated a

  9. Radiological Assessment of Steam Generator Removal and Replacement: Update and Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenes, G. R.; Mueller, M. A.; McCormack, W. D.

    1980-12-01

    A previous analysis of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators has been updated based on experience gained during steam generator repairs at Surry Unit 2. Some estimates of occupational doses involved in the operation have been revised but are not significantly different from the earlier estimates. Estimates of occupational doses and radioactive effluents for new tasks have been added. Health physics concerns that arose at Surry included the number of persons involved in the operation, tne training of workers, the handling of quantitites.of low-level waste, and the application of the ALARA principle. A review of these problem areas may help in the planning of other similar operations. A variety of processes could be used to decontaminate steam generators. Research is needed to assess these techniques and their associated occupational doses and waste volumes. Contaminated steam generators can be stored or disposed of after removal without significant radiological problems. Onsite storage and intact shipment have the least impact. In-placing retubing, an alternative to steam generator removal, results in occupational doses and effluents similar to those from removal, but prior decontamination of the channel head is needed. The retubing option should be assessed further.

  10. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact -- handled transuranic waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.M.; Backlund, E.G.

    1995-09-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste in order to comply wit the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) -- Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) or keep non-certifiable containers segregated. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly generated waste at WHC meets the DOE Order 5820.2A and the WHC-WAC which includes the State of Washington Department of Ecology -- Washington Administrative Code (DOE-WAC). The metho used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WHC-EP-0063-4.

  11. Size Comparison: Three Generations of Mars Rovers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-19

    Full-scale models of three generations of NASA Mars rovers show the increase in size from the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder project, to the twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, to the Mars Science Laboratory rover.

  12. Comparison of State Unemployment Insurance Laws. Comparison Revision, Number 1, August 6, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Unemployment Insurance Service.

    To inform the public about details of the employment security program and how it functions, this comparison of state unemployment insurance laws is presented. The report is based primarily on an analysis of state statutes. It examines state by state the types of workers and employers that are covered under the state law, the methods of financing…

  13. Comparison of Self-Scoring Error Rate for SDS (Self Directed Search) (1970) and the Revised SDS (1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Gary E.; And Others

    A comparison of Self-Scoring Error Rate for Self Directed Search (SDS) and the revised SDS is presented. The subjects were college freshmen and sophomores who participated in career planning as a part of their orientation program, and a career workshop. Subjects, N=190 on first study and N=84 on second study, were then randomly assigned to the SDS…

  14. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Li, Yinhu; Li, Siliang; Hu, Ni; He, Yimin; Pong, Ray; Lin, Danni; Lu, Lihua; Law, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    With fast development and wide applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomic sequence information is within reach to aid the achievement of goals to decode life mysteries, make better crops, detect pathogens, and improve life qualities. NGS systems are typically represented by SOLiD/Ion Torrent PGM from Life Sciences, Genome Analyzer/HiSeq 2000/MiSeq from Illumina, and GS FLX Titanium/GS Junior from Roche. Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI), which possesses the world's biggest sequencing capacity, has multiple NGS systems including 137 HiSeq 2000, 27 SOLiD, one Ion Torrent PGM, one MiSeq, and one 454 sequencer. We have accumulated extensive experience in sample handling, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. In this paper, technologies of these systems are reviewed, and first-hand data from extensive experience is summarized and analyzed to discuss the advantages and specifics associated with each sequencing system. At last, applications of NGS are summarized. PMID:22829749

  15. Size Comparison: Three Generations of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Full-scale models of three generations of NASA Mars rovers show the increase in size from the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder project that landed on Mars in 1997 (center), to the twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity that landed in 2004 (left), to the Mars Science Laboratory rover for a mission to land in 2010 (right).

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is about 9 feet wide, 10 feet long (not counting its robotic arm) and 7 feet tall.

    This image was taken in May 2008 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which has built the real Mars rovers and managed the rover missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Size Comparison: Three Generations of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Full-scale models of three generations of NASA Mars rovers show the increase in size from the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder project that landed on Mars in 1997 (center), to the twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity that landed in 2004 (left), to the Mars Science Laboratory rover for a mission to land in 2010 (right).

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is about 9 feet wide, 10 feet long (not counting its robotic arm) and 7 feet tall.

    This image was taken in May 2008 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which has built the real Mars rovers and managed the rover missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  18. Reference Values for the Revised Anti-Müllerian Hormone Generation II Assay: Infertile Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong Yeup; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chung Hyon; Seo, Soyeon; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2017-05-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is now accepted as an important clinical marker of ovarian reserve and is increasingly measured as an initial evaluation at infertility clinics. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for the revised second generation (Gen II) assay using population-based data. In this population-based cohort study, AMH data from unselected infertile women aged 25-45 years from June 2013 to June 2014 (n = 15,801) were collected. The AMH values were measured using the revised Gen II assay. We established and validated 5 AMH-age regression models. Based on the optimal AMH-age model, reference values and centile charts were obtained. The quadratic model (log AMH = 0.410 × age -0.008 × age² -3.791) was the most appropriate for describing the age-dependent decrease in AMH measured using the revised Gen II assay. This is the largest population-based study to establish age-specific reference values of AMH using the revised Gen II assay. These reference values may provide more specific information regarding the ovarian reserve estimation of infertile women. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Waste generation forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1995-FY 2002, September 1994 revision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive waste-forecasting task was initiated in FY 1991 to provide a consistent, documented estimate of the volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of U.S. Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) Environmental Restoration (ER) OR-1 Project activities. Continual changes in the scope and schedules for remedial action (RA) and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities have required that an integrated data base system be developed that can be easily revised to keep pace with changes and provide appropriate tabular and graphical output. The output can then be analyzed and used to drive planning assumptions for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. The results of this forecasting effort and a description of the data base developed to support it are provided herein. The initial waste-generation forecast results were compiled in November 1991. Since the initial forecast report, the forecast data have been revised annually. This report reflects revisions as of September 1994.

  20. Split Heat Mechanical Property Comparison of ESR (Electroslag Remelting) and VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) 4340 Steel. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    34· AMMRC TR 83-27 (Revised) lAD SPLIT HEAT MECHANICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON OF ESR AND VAR 4340 STEEL CHARI£S F. HICKEY, Jr. and ALBERT A...COIIEREO SPLIT HEAT MECHANICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON OF Final Report ESR AND VAR 4340 STEEL ’ PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NU1118ER 7. AU THOA(•I •• CONTRACT...decarburized (AOD) heat of 4340 steel which was further pro- cessed by vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting ( ESR ) into 12.7 em (5 inch) square

  1. Are cross-cultural comparisons of personality profiles meaningful? Differential item and facet functioning in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    PubMed

    Church, A Timothy; Alvarez, Juan M; Mai, Nhu T Q; French, Brian F; Katigbak, Marcia S; Ortiz, Fernando A

    2011-11-01

    Measurement invariance is a prerequisite for confident cross-cultural comparisons of personality profiles. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in factor loadings and intercepts for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in comparisons of college students in the United States (N = 261), Philippines (N = 268), and Mexico (N = 775). About 40%-50% of the items exhibited some form of DIF and item-level noninvariance often carried forward to the facet level at which scores are compared. After excluding DIF items, some facet scales were too short or unreliable for cross-cultural comparisons, and for some other facets, cultural mean differences were reduced or eliminated. The results indicate that considerable caution is warranted in cross-cultural comparisons of personality profiles.

  2. ORIGEN2: a revised and updated version of the Oak Ridge isotope generation and depletion code

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.

    1980-07-01

    ORIGEN2 is a versatile point depletion and decay computer code for use in simulating nuclear fuel cycles and calculating the nuclide compositions of materials contained therein. This code represents a revision and update of the original ORIGEN computer code which has been distributed world-wide beginning in the early 1970s. The purpose of this report is to give a summary description of a revised and updated version of the original ORIGEN computer code, which has been designated ORIGEN2. A detailed description of the computer code ORIGEN2 is presented. The methods used by ORIGEN2 to solve the nuclear depletion and decay equations are included. Input information necessary to use ORIGEN2 that has not been documented in supporting reports is documented.

  3. Model/data comparison of typhoon-generated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Yan; Li, Feng-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Ocean noise recorded during a typhoon can be used to monitor the typhoon and investigate the mechanism of the wind-generated noise. An analytical expression for the typhoon-generated noise intensity is derived as a function of wind speed. A “bi-peak” structure was observed in an experiment during which typhoon-generated noise was recorded. Wind speed dependence and frequency dependence were also observed in the frequency range of 100 Hz-1000 Hz. The model/data comparison shows that results of the present model of 500 Hz and 1000 Hz are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the typhoon-generated noise intensity has a dependence on frequency and a power-law dependence on wind speed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012, 41561144006, and 11125420).

  4. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.

    1991-08-22

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. A Comparison of the Minnesota Perceptual Diagnostic Test Revised and the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Booney; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study involving 33 children referred to school psychologists compared the Bender Gestalt and the Minnesota Perceptual Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPDT-R) in ability to predict intellectual and academic performance as measured by standardized tests. Factor analysis suggested that the MPDT-R provides unique information concerning…

  6. Neuroanatomical term generation and comparison between two terminologies.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Prashanti R; Gusfield, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Gertz, Michael; Hogarth, Michael; Stone, James; Jones, Edward G; Gorin, Fredric A

    2003-01-01

    An approach and software tools are described for identifying and extracting compound terms (CTs), acronyms and their associated contexts from textual material that is associated with neuroanatomical atlases. A set of simple syntactic rules were appended to the output of a commercially available part of speech (POS) tagger (Qtag v 3.01) that extracts CTs and their associated context from the texts of neuroanatomical atlases. This "hybrid" parser. appears to be highly sensitive and recognized 96% of the potentially germane neuroanatomical CTs and acronyms present in the cat and primate thalamic atlases. A comparison of neuroanatomical CTs and acronymsbetween the cat and primate atlas texts was initially performed using exact-term matching. The implementation of string-matching algorithms significantly improved the identification of relevant terms and acronyms between the two domains. The End Gap Free string matcher identified 98% of CTs and the Needleman Wunsch (NW) string matcher matched 36% of acronyms between the two atlases. Combining several simple grammatical and lexical rules with the POS tagger ("hybrid parser") (1) extracted complex neuroanatomical terms and acronyms from selected cat and primate thalamic atlases and (2) and facilitated the semi-automated generation of a highly granular thalamic terminology. The implementation of string-matching algorithms (1) reconciled terminological errors generated by optical character recognition (OCR) software used to generate the neuroanatomical text information and (2) increased the sensitivity of matching neuroanatomical terms and acronyms between the two neuroanatomical domains that were generated by the "hybrid" parser.

  7. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Halsey, William; Hayner, George; Katoh, Yutai; Klett, James William; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Stoller, Roger E; Wilson, Dane F

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  8. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Gary E. Rochau and Thurlow W.H. Caffey, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0740; Bahram Nassersharif and Gabe V. Garcia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001; Russell P. Jedlicka, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001

    2003-05-01

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis.

  9. Constrained CVT Meshes and a Comparison of Triangular Mesh Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hoa; Burkardt, John; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili; Saka, Yuki

    2009-01-01

    Mesh generation in regions in Euclidean space is a central task in computational science, and especially for commonly used numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations, e.g., finite element and finite volume methods. We focus on the uniform Delaunay triangulation of planar regions and, in particular, on how one selects the positions of the vertices of the triangulation. We discuss a recently developed method, based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) concept, for effecting such triangulations and present two algorithms, including one new one, for CVT-based grid generation. We also compare several methods, including CVT-based methods, for triangulating planar domains. To this end, we define several quantitative measures of the quality of uniform grids. We then generate triangulations of several planar regions, including some having complexities that are representative of what one may encounter in practice. We subject the resulting grids to visual and quantitative comparisons and conclude that all the methods considered produce high-quality uniform grids and that the CVT-based grids are at least as good as any of the others.

  10. [Points of view in comparison on the 5ht revision of the Declaration of Helsinki].

    PubMed

    Rosmini, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    The horror for the scientific crimes of the nazi period led the World Medical Association (WMA), in 1964, to settle by the Helsinki declaration, an ethical code for the medical research on human beings. The code was successively modified in order to account for the developments of the medical science in the past decades. In October 2000, the last revision, the 5th one, has been approved in Edinburgh. Its preparation lasted three years and entailed a passionate, but also profitable dispute between who believes that ethical principles must be followed even though they can hamper the scientific progress, and who thinks that more articulate evaluations should prevail. The initial victory of the more intransigent party resulted in the maintenance of the norm which entails the greatest restriction in using placebo, but, after one year and half, it was partially reshaped by a more permissive interpretation of the same WMA, while waiting for a new revision that is scheduled for this year.

  11. A Comparison of stochastic and hybrid based weather generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatehi, Iman; Mirdar Soltani, Shiva; Bárdossy, András

    2017-04-01

    Climate change modeling is obviously one of the fundamental basis for further environmental studies such as hydrological modeling, flood forecasting, watershed planning, etc. However, Global Circulation Models (GCMs) provide possible climate change scenarios, nevertheless even if they are run at a high resolution, which they are not, it is still necessary to downscale their results before employing them for local impact studies. Downscaling approaches are typically categorized mainly into four types; dynamical, weather typing, stochastic weather generators and transfer function-based approaches. The accuracy of two types of weather generators is evaluated in this study, Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and Statistical Down Scaling Model (SDSM), stochastic and hybrid of the transfer function and stochastic-based weather generators, respectively. Therefore, these weather generators have been employed to simulate three daily climate parameters, including; precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature data between 1990 to 2010 in Guilan province of Iran. Subsequently, modeling performances have been evaluated, applying Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). According to the calculated AIC and BIC values, LARS-WG has performed slightly more reliable in simulating the daily precipitation data and significantly better in simulating the minimum and maximum daily temperatures. Despite these results, is it adequate for a conclusion to prefer stochastic-based weather generators rather than the other? Indeed, more considerations are required to investigate the preferable downscaling approach. Hence, some statistical coefficients, i.e. coefficient of determination (R-squared) and correlation coefficient have also been employed to evaluate the simulation performances in more detail by investigating the correlation between individual daily simulated data, variances and daily maximas and minimas in comparison to the

  12. Towards actionable international comparisons of health system performance: expert revision of the OECD framework and quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Carinci, F; Van Gool, K; Mainz, J; Veillard, J; Pichora, E C; Januel, J M; Arispe, I; Kim, S M; Klazinga, N S

    2015-04-01

    To review and update the conceptual framework, indicator content and research priorities of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) project, after a decade of collaborative work. A structured assessment was carried out using a modified Delphi approach, followed by a consensus meeting, to assess the suite of HCQI for international comparisons, agree on revisions to the original framework and set priorities for research and development. International group of countries participating to OECD projects. Members of the OECD HCQI expert group. A reference matrix, based on a revised performance framework, was used to map and assess all seventy HCQI routinely calculated by the OECD expert group. A total of 21 indicators were agreed to be excluded, due to the following concerns: (i) relevance, (ii) international comparability, particularly where heterogeneous coding practices might induce bias, (iii) feasibility, when the number of countries able to report was limited and the added value did not justify sustained effort and (iv) actionability, for indicators that were unlikely to improve on the basis of targeted policy interventions. The revised OECD framework for HCQI represents a new milestone of a long-standing international collaboration among a group of countries committed to building common ground for performance measurement. The expert group believes that the continuation of this work is paramount to provide decision makers with a validated toolbox to directly act on quality improvement strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  13. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated tru waste certification. Final revised version 3/97

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from many of the expensive characterization activities associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying most of its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  14. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  16. TIBIAL COMPONENT IN REVISION OF TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: COMPARISON BETWEEN CEMENTED AND HYBRID FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Francisco Fontes; Yepéz, Anthony Kerbes; Rasga, Marcos Gilbert Sucena; Abagge, Marcelo; Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical, radiographic and medium-term follow-up results from two fixation methods for the tibial component in revision procedures on total knee prostheses: cemented (tray and stem) and hybrid (cemented tray and uncemented, nonporous canal-filling stem). Methods: Between August 1999 and November 2005, 30 revision procedures on total knee arthroplasties were performed on 26 patients, who were divided between group I (cemented fixation; 21 knees) and group II (hybrid fixation; nine knees). The mean follow-up was 52 months and no patients were lost from the follow up. Results: No differences in the scores from the WOMAC and Knee Society questionnaires were observed between the two groups. One patient in group I presented radiographic signs of loosening. Two patients (one in each group) complained of pain in the diaphyseal region, compatible with the location of the stem tip. The pedestal radiographic sign was observed in 89% of the knees with uncemented stems and in none of the cemented group. Conclusion: The comparative analysis between the two methods did not show any differences regarding clinical and radiographic parameters, or arthroplasty survival. PMID:27027058

  17. CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

    2002-01-01

    For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

  18. A revised model for Jeffrey nanofluid subject to convective condition and heat generation/absorption.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Here magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Jeffrey nanofluid by a nonlinear stretching surface is addressed. Heat generation/absorption and convective surface condition effects are considered. Novel features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are present. A non-uniform applied magnetic field is employed. Boundary layer and small magnetic Reynolds number assumptions are employed in the formulation. A newly developed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is imposed. The resulting nonlinear systems are solved. Convergence domains are explicitly identified. Graphs are analyzed for the outcome of sundry variables. Further local Nusselt number is computed and discussed. It is observed that the effects of Hartman number on the temperature and concentration distributions are qualitatively similar. Both temperature and concentration distributions are enhanced for larger Hartman number.

  19. A revised model for Jeffrey nanofluid subject to convective condition and heat generation/absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Here magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Jeffrey nanofluid by a nonlinear stretching surface is addressed. Heat generation/absorption and convective surface condition effects are considered. Novel features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are present. A non-uniform applied magnetic field is employed. Boundary layer and small magnetic Reynolds number assumptions are employed in the formulation. A newly developed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is imposed. The resulting nonlinear systems are solved. Convergence domains are explicitly identified. Graphs are analyzed for the outcome of sundry variables. Further local Nusselt number is computed and discussed. It is observed that the effects of Hartman number on the temperature and concentration distributions are qualitatively similar. Both temperature and concentration distributions are enhanced for larger Hartman number. PMID:28231298

  20. Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, Curt; Ghan, Steven J.; Walton, John J.; Weissman, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of nuclear winter; GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of asteroid/comet winter, however, are more severe than in nuclear winter because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a patchy sense.

  1. Baseline Testing of Ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Project. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation (NGLT) project to obtain empirical data for determining the feasibility of using ultracapacitors for the project. There are large transient loads associated with NGLT that require either a very large primary energy source or an energy storage system. The primary power source used for these tests is a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The energy storage system can consist of devices such as batteries, flywheels, or ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors were used for these tests. Ultracapacitors are ideal for applications such as NGLT where long life, maintenance-free operation, and excellent low-temperature performance is essential. State-of-the-art symmetric ultracapacitors were used for these tests. The ultracapacitors were interconnected in an innovative configuration to minimize interconnection impedance. PEM fuel cells provide excellent energy density, but not good power density. Ultracapacitors provide excellent power density, but not good energy density. The combination of PEM fuel cells and ultracapacitors provides a power source with excellent energy density and power density. The life of PEM fuel cells is shortened significantly by large transient loads. Ultracapacitors used in conjunction with PEM fuel cells reduce the transient loads applied to the fuel cell, and thus appreciably improves its life. PEM fuel cells were tested with and without ultracapacitors, to determine the benefits of ultracapacitors. The report concludes that the implementation of symmetric ultracapacitors in the NGLT power system can provide significant improvements in power system performance and reliability.

  2. Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, Curt; Ghan, Steven J.; Walton, John J.; Weissman, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of nuclear winter; GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of asteroid/comet winter, however, are more severe than in nuclear winter because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a patchy sense.

  3. Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, C.; Ghan, S.J.; Walton, J.J.; Weissman, P.R.

    1989-06-01

    Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of ''nuclear winter; '' GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of ''asteroid/comet winter,'' however, are more severe than in ''nuclear winter'' because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects -- which would occur much more frequently than the Cretaceous/Tertiary event deduced by Alvarez and coworkers -- could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a ''patchy'' sense. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B B; Knopf, K F

    1982-08-01

    The Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration were administered to two groups of 40 children each, ages 7 through 10 yr. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Revised Beery manual) were obtained. Children screened for learning disabilities were selected for one group and children enrolled in regular classrooms were selected for another group. The correlation of .74 between the Bender and Beery test scores was high and statistically significant for the learning-disabled group. The correlation of .36 was low though statistically significant for the regular students, which suggests the groups performed differently on the tests. A significant mean difference of 9 mo. was noted between the Bender and Beery scores.

  5. BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2008-03-01

    Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

  6. Some Comparisons of Biplot Display and Pencil-and-Paper E.D.A. Methods. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    03?7 on Riplot Multivariate Graphics% 1 SOME COMPARISONS OF BIPLOT DISPLAY AND PENCIL-AND-PAPER E.D.A. METHODS Christopher Cox K. Ruben Gabriel...Raleigh, North Carolina June 2-4, 1980 This paper presents some comparisons of EDA and biplot display. By pencil-and-paper EDA we mean the methods advo...methods. We assume that the anal- yses in the book are familiar and show how our biplot analyses differ from them. The paper begins with an introduction to

  7. A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context.

  8. Prevention of Dislocation Risk During Hip Revision Surgery with the Dual Mobility Concept; Study of a New Generation of Dual Mobility Cups.

    PubMed

    Dangin, Antoine; Boulat, Sandrine; Farizon, Frédéric; Philippot, Rémi

    2016-10-26

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgery presenting well-known failures that may require surgical revision. To reduce the risk of hip dislocation after revision THA, we hypothesize the interest of the use of a new generation dual mobility cup by evaluating its survival and complication rates. We analyzed the survival and the failures rate of 91 patients who underwent revision THAs with a specific dual mobility cup Novae® E TH (SERF, Décines-Charpieu, France). The surgical indication for revision THAs were: 59 aseptic loosening or insert advanced wear (61.5%), 10 recurrent dislocations (10.9%), and 22 deep infections (24.1%). All patients underwent the same surgical technique and received a clinical and radiological examination. Failure of the cup was defined as an aseptic loosening; all failures were reported. During the follow up, 17 patients died and five were unaccounted for. The mean follow-up of the 86 patients included was 33 months (0-71) with a mean age of 71 years (41-99) at the time of surgery. The Postel Merle D'Aubigné (PMA) increased by 6.8 points from preoperative until the last consultation. No aseptic loosening was reported. The postoperative dislocation rate was 3.5% and 4.6% for deep infections. The overall rate for re-revision THAs was 8.1%. New choice of design and coating for the cup have demonstrated good results to reduce the rate of aseptic loosening compared to other studies. The three hip dislocations concerned two patients who had a history of recurrent dislocation and psychiatric pathologies. The limit of the study is its short follow-up, partially explained by the occurrence of 10 deaths in the first year of follow-up (lowering the mean). The use of a cementless dual mobility tripod cup for revision THA confirms its place in the possible therapeutic range by its excellent results at medium term.

  9. Comparison of Civilian and Military Overhead Spending: Three Case Studies. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-17

    aDesignations used by the Defense Housing Management Systems Office. TABLE 4 CIVILIAN HOUSING MAINTENANCE SPENDING VS. AGEa (Single unit, owner occupied...I-t9 ONCOMlPARISON OF CIVILIRN iND MILITARY OVERHEAD SPENDING : ,l THREE CASE STUDIES.. (U) CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES RLEXADRIA YR NAVAL PLRNNING RND...ftFL RESEARCH MEMORANDUM 0 COMPARISON OF CIVILIAN AND MILITARY OVERHEAD SPENDING : I THREE CASE STUDIES Daniel B. Levine Colin P. Hammon DTIC ELECTE K

  10. Results of a Second-generation Constrained Condylar Prosthesis in Complex Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Mean 5.5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen-Yi; Xue, De-Ting; Jiang, Shuai; He, Rong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of second-generation constrained condylar knee (CCK) prostheses has not been widely studied. This retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a second-generation CCK prosthesis for complex primary or revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: In total, 51 consecutive TKAs (47 patients) were performed between June 2003 and June 2013 using second-generation modular CCK prostheses. The follow-up was conducted at 3rd day, 1st, 6th, and 12th months postoperatively and later annually. Anteroposterior (AP), lateral, skyline, and long-standing AP radiographs of the affected knees were taken. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Score, the Knee Society Knee Score (KSKS), the Knee Society Function Score (KSFS), and range of motion (ROM) were also recorded. Heteroscedastic two-tailed Student's t-tests were used to compare the HSS score and the Knee Society score between primary and revision TKAs. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four knees (two patients) were lost to follow-up, and 47 knees (31 primary TKAs and 16 revision TKAs) had a mean follow-up time of 5.5 years. The mean HSS score improved from 51.1 ± 15.0 preoperatively to 85.3 ± 8.4 points at the final follow-up (P < 0.05). Similar results were observed in terms of the KSKS and KSFS, which improved from 26.0 ± 13.0 to 80.0 ± 12.2 and from 40.0 ± 15.0 to 85.0 ± 9.3 points, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the HSS, KSKS, KSFS, or ROM was found between primary and revision TKAs (P > 0.05). Two complications were observed in the revision TKA group (one intraoperative distal femur fracture and one recurrence of infection) while one complication (infection) was observed in the primary TKA group. No prosthesis loosening, joint dislocation, patella problems, tibial fracture, or nerve injury were observed. Radiolucent lines were observed in 4% of the knees without progressive

  11. Satisfaction, Challenges, and Interaction in Online Education: A Generational Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Research suggests that multiple generations of students (predominantly Generation X and millennials) are concurrently enrolled in online classes and that the number of online students continues to grow. The problem investigated in this study was to identify the level of satisfaction as well as the preferences of students from Generation X…

  12. Satisfaction, Challenges, and Interaction in Online Education: A Generational Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Research suggests that multiple generations of students (predominantly Generation X and millennials) are concurrently enrolled in online classes and that the number of online students continues to grow. The problem investigated in this study was to identify the level of satisfaction as well as the preferences of students from Generation X…

  13. Generating partially correlated noise—A comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, William M.; Cho, Yun Jin

    2011-01-01

    There are three standard methods for generating two channels of partially correlated noise: the two-generator method, the three-generator method, and the symmetric-generator method. These methods allow an experimenter to specify a target cross correlation between the two channels, but actual generated noises show statistical variability around the target value. Numerical experiments were done to compare the variability for those methods as a function of the number of degrees of freedom. The results of the experiments quantify the stimulus uncertainty in diverse binaural psychoacoustical experiments: incoherence detection, perceived auditory source width, envelopment, noise localization∕lateralization, and the masking level difference. The numerical experiments found that when the elemental generators have unequal powers, the different methods all have similar variability. When the powers are constrained to be equal, the symmetric-generator method has much smaller variability than the other two. PMID:21786899

  14. Revising and assessing explanatory models in a high school genetics class: A comparison of unsuccessful and successful performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Susan K.; Stewart, Jim

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we describe the model-revising problem-solving strategies of two groups of students (one successful, one unsuccessful) as they worked (in a genetics course we developed) to revise Mendel's simple dominance model to explain the inheritance of a trait expressed in any of four variations. The two groups described in this paper were chosen with the intent that the strategies that they employed be used to inform the design of model-based instruction. Differences were found in the groups' abilities to recognize anomalous data, use existing models as templates for revisions, and assess revised models.

  15. Revising and Assessing Explanatory Models in a High School Genetics Class: A Comparison of Unsuccessful and Successful Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Stewart, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes the model-revising problem-solving strategies of two groups of students (one successful, one unsuccessful) as they worked in a genetics course to revise Mendel's simple dominance model to explain the inheritance of a trait expressed in any of four variations. Finds differences in the groups' abilities to recognize anomalous data, use…

  16. Revising and Assessing Explanatory Models in a High School Genetics Class: A Comparison of Unsuccessful and Successful Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Stewart, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes the model-revising problem-solving strategies of two groups of students (one successful, one unsuccessful) as they worked in a genetics course to revise Mendel's simple dominance model to explain the inheritance of a trait expressed in any of four variations. Finds differences in the groups' abilities to recognize anomalous data, use…

  17. Visualizing Revision: Leveraging Student-Generated Between-Draft Diagramming Data in Support of Academic Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmanson, Justin; Kennett, Katrina; Magnifico, Alecia; McCarthey, Sarah; Searsmith, Duane; Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Once writers complete a first draft, they are often encouraged to evaluate their writing and prioritize what to revise. Yet, this process can be both daunting and difficult. This study looks at how students used a semantic concept mapping tool to re-present the content and organization of their initial draft of an informational text. We examine…

  18. Visualizing Revision: Leveraging Student-Generated Between-Draft Diagramming Data in Support of Academic Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmanson, Justin; Kennett, Katrina; Magnifico, Alecia; McCarthey, Sarah; Searsmith, Duane; Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Once writers complete a first draft, they are often encouraged to evaluate their writing and prioritize what to revise. Yet, this process can be both daunting and difficult. This study looks at how students used a semantic concept mapping tool to re-present the content and organization of their initial draft of an informational text. We examine…

  19. A comparison of revision and rerupture rates of ACL reconstruction between autografts and allografts in the skeletally immature.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ian R; Chen, Jason; Love, Rebecca; Davis, Brent R; Maletis, Gregory B; Funahashi, Tadashi T

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) in skeletally immature patients are increasing. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics, graft usage, revision, and re-operation rates in skeletally immature ACLRs in the Kaiser Permanente healthcare system. Skeletally immature patients (<17.0 years old with open physes) were identified using the Kaiser Permanente ACLR registry. Multi-ligament reconstructions and physeal-sparing ACLRs were excluded. Aseptic revision and same-knee re-operation were the outcomes of interest. Exposure of interest was graft type; bone-patellar-tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft, hamstring autograft, and any type of allograft. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and race were evaluated as confounders. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by surgeon were used to analyse the risk of revision and re-operation. A total of 534 primary ACLR cases were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 2.9 years. The majority were hamstring autografts (n = 388, 72.7%), male (n = 339, 63.9%), and White (n = 232, 43.4%). Median age was 14.9 years, and median BMI was 21.9 kg/m(2). There were 44 (8.2%) aseptic revisions and 48 (9.0%) same-knee re-operations. The incidence rate for revision was BPTB autograft 5.5%, hamstring autograft 7.5%, and allograft 13.2%. After adjusting for confounders and surgeon clustering effect, the risk of aseptic revision and revision between allograft and hamstring autograft did not reach statistical significance. Graft selection differs in skeletally immature patients with a preponderance of surgeries being performed with hamstring tendon autografts. High revision rates were identified for all graft types used, though differences in revision rates across different graft types did not reach statistical significance. Surgeons should be aware of high rates of revision in this skeletally immature young population, although type of graft used did not appear to make a difference. III.

  20. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  1. Student Loan Debt Literacy: A Comparison of First-Generation and Continuing-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jason; Mueller, John A.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the increasing debt burden that college students incur, little research examines student's perceptions of debt. This study sought to determine if student loan debt literacy differs by generation status (first-generation and continuing-generation). The data for this study was collected from a sample of 156…

  2. Student Loan Debt Literacy: A Comparison of First-Generation and Continuing-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jason; Mueller, John A.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the increasing debt burden that college students incur, little research examines student's perceptions of debt. This study sought to determine if student loan debt literacy differs by generation status (first-generation and continuing-generation). The data for this study was collected from a sample of 156…

  3. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  4. A comparison of user-generated and automatic graph layouts.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Lee, Bongshin; Fisher, Danyel; Quinn, Kori Inkpen; Isenberg, Petra; Robertson, George; North, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper compares user-generated and automatic graph layouts. Following the methods suggested by van Ham et al. (2008), a group of users generated graph layouts using both multi-touch interaction on a tabletop display and mouse interaction on a desktop computer. Users were asked to optimize their layout for aesthetics and analytical tasks with a social network. We discuss characteristics of the user-generated layouts and interaction methods employed by users in this process. We then report on a web-based study to compare these layouts with the output of popular automatic layout algorithms. Our results demonstrate that the best of the user-generated layouts performed as well as or better than the physics-based layout. Orthogonal and circular automatic layouts were found to be considerably less effective than either the physics-based layout or the best of the user-generated layouts. We highlight several attributes of the various layouts that led to high accuracy and improved task completion time, as well as aspects in which traditional automatic layout methods were unsuccessful for our tasks.

  5. Comparison of measured and calculated aircraft lift generated pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findley, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Lift generated pressures produced by large, heavy aircraft at low altitudes were investigated due to concern over their possible effects on ground objects. Aircraft lift generated pressures were calculated using elementary airfoil theory, and these values were compared with ground level measurements made during an overflight program. The predicted and the measured values were in relatively good agreement. Due to lack of experimental investigations of this phenomenon, opportunity was taken during an overflight program to use a specially instrumented test range to measure the ground pressures produced for a range of aircraft weights and distances.

  6. Comparison of the original and revised structures of the Health Promotion Model in predicting construction workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Ronis, David L; Hong, OiSaeng; Lusk, Sally L

    2006-02-01

    Pender's health promotion model (HPM) has been revised, including substantial changes in its structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the fit and predictive usefulness of the original and revised structures of the HPM as applied to the use of hearing protection devices by 703 construction workers. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the two alternative forms of the model. Both forms of the model fit well, with the revised structure having a better fit and explaining more of the variance in use of hearing protection (28% vs. 18%). Results support the revised structure of the health promotion model (HPM) over the original form, and indicate it may be useful in understanding and predicting use of hearing protection.

  7. A comparison of functional outcomes in patients undergoing revision arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears with and without arthroscopic suprascapular nerve release

    PubMed Central

    Savoie, Felix H; Zunkiewicz, Mark; Field, Larry D; Replogle, William H; O’Brien, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare functional outcomes in patients undergoing revision repair of massive rotator cuff tears (retracted medial to the glenoid) with Goutallier Grade 4 atrophy and concomitant release of the suprascapular nerve to a similar group of patients with Grade 3 atrophy undergoing revision rotator cuff repair (RTCR) without nerve release. We hypothesized that patients undergoing nerve release would have more favorable functional outcomes as measured by the Modified University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating scale (UCLA). Patients and methods Twenty-two patients underwent revision repair of massive rotator cuff tears with release of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch. We compared total preoperative, postoperative, and change in UCLA score in these patients to a similar group of 22 patients undergoing revision RTCR without suprascapular nerve release. Additionally, UCLA subscores between the two groups were compared preoperatively and at final follow-up. Results The average preoperative UCLA score in the nerve-release group was 7.91, and final follow-up average was 27.86; average 3.05 grades of strength were recovered. In the comparison group, average preoperative UCLA score was 11.77, and final follow-up average was 29.09; average 1.32 grades of strength were recovered. The average preoperative UCLA score was significantly worse in the nerve-release group (P=0.007). The average postoperative UCLA score was not significantly different (P=0.590) between the groups, indicating a better improvement in the nerve-release group with significantly greater improvement in active forward flexion, strength, and pain relief. Conclusion Patients who underwent concomitant release of the suprascapular nerve during revision RTCR had greater overall improvement as noted in pain relief, active forward flexion, and strength, than a comparable group without nerve release. PMID:27799834

  8. Comparison of generation 3 polyamidoamine dendrimer and generation 4 polypropylenimine dendrimer on drug loading, complex structure, release behavior, and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Naimin; Su, Yunzhang; Hu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Hongfeng; Cheng, Yiyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers are the commercially available and most widely used dendrimers in pharmaceutical sciences and biomedical engineering. In the present study, the loading and release behaviors of generation 3 PAMAM and generation 4 PPI dendrimers with the same amount of surface amine groups (32 per dendrimer) were compared using phenylbutazone as a model drug. Methods The dendrimer-phenylbutazone complexes were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear Overhauser effect techniques, and the cytotoxicity of each dendrimer was evaluated. Results Aqueous solubility results suggest that the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer has a much higher loading ability towards phenylbutazone in comparison with the generation 4 PPI dendrimer at high phenylbutazone-dendrimer feeding ratios. Drug release was much slower from the generation 3 PAMAM matrix than from the generation 4 PPI dendrimer. In addition, the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer is at least 50-fold less toxic than generation 4 PPI dendrimer on MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Conclusion Although the nuclear Overhauser effect nuclear magnetic resonance results reveal that the generation 4 PPI dendrimer with a more hydrophobic interior encapsulates more phenylbutazone, the PPI dendrimer-phenylbutazone inclusion is not stable in aqueous solution, which poses a great challenge during drug development. PMID:22267921

  9. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral pedicle screw fixation: comparison between primary and revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery.

  10. Comparisons of neutrino event generators from an oscillation-experiment perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Nathan

    2015-05-15

    Monte Carlo generators are crucial to the analysis of high energy physics data, ideally giving a baseline comparison between the state-of-art theoretical models and experimental data. Presented here is a comparison between three of final state distributions from the GENIE, Neut, NUANCE, and NuWro neutrino Monte Carlo event generators. The final state distributions chosen for comparison are: the electromagnetic energy fraction in neutral current interactions, the energy of the leading π{sup 0} vs. the scattering angle for neutral current interactions, and the muon energy vs. scattering angle of ν{sub µ} charged current interactions.

  11. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  12. Comparison of advanced power generation technologies using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, B.R.; Maude, C.M.; IEA Coal Research, London )

    1989-01-01

    The intent of this report was to evaluate advanced technologies' for power generation by comparing examples from each generic type on a common basis. Due to the diversified nature of these technologies, computer process simulations were found to be the only suitable means for obtaining a common basis. A large number of process options significantly effected the performance of the advanced technologies. Independent measurements were made to determine the efficacy of the most important ones, namely, plant size, hot gas cleaning, supercritical steam cycle, air blown versus oxygen blown gasifiers, high sulphur coal, integrated oxygen plant, and advanced high temperature gas turbines. The results are summarized. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Comparison of Polyethylene Wear before and after Hip Revision with Liner Exchange Fixed with the Original Locking Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Tang, Yiwen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the wear of conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CUHMWPE) and highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) in hip revision with liner exchange fixed with original locking mechanism using analysis of history medical data. Methods From Jan. 1, 2000, to Dec. 31, 2007, 26 patients (with 29 involved hips) underwent liner exchange revision fixed with the original locking mechanism due to wear of CUHMWPE and/or osteolysis. The mean age was 53 ± 9 years at the time of the primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 64 ± 9 years at the revision. The exchanged liners (Marathon, Depuy) were made of HCLPE. Annual X-rays were used to measure linear wear and osteolysis. The annual linear penetration was measured using PolyWare® software (Draftware Inc.). Annual Harris Hip Scores(HSS) were recorded. Results The mean follow-up time between the primary and revision THAs was 11 ± 2 years and 8 ± 2 years after revision. The mean Harris Hip Score(HHS) before primary THA, 1 year after primary THA, before revision and 1 year after revision was 43±5, 85±5, 71±6, 83±7 individually. The mean penetration of the CUHMWPE and HCLPE liners occurring in the first year were 0.44 ± 0.28 mm and 0.38 ± 0.14 mm, respectively (p = 0.211). The mean annual linear penetration of CUHMWPE and HCLPE from the second year onward were 0.29±0.09 mm and 0.08 ± 0.03 mm respectively (p <0.01). All THAs with CUHMWPE showed osteolysis on acetabular and/or femoral side before revision. No HCLPE liner showed osteolysis at the last follow-up. Conclusion: The CUHMWPE liner had a significantly higher wear rate than did the HCLPE liner. The HCLPE liner showed a satisfactory liner penetration rate after revision with isolated liner exchange fixed with the original locking mechanism. PMID:27935994

  14. Three generations of family medicine: a comparison of social identities.

    PubMed

    Fox, T G; Cole, D R; Lieberman, J A

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that students and residents choosing Family Medicine career orientations have attained an academic parity with their counterparts in other specialties which was not demonstrated by their general practitioner predecessors. Similarly, the advent of Family Practice residencies and undergraduate course work has significantly altered the educational experience of today's medical students. This study adds to the literature by comparing a third element, the social character of Family Medicine oriented students, residents and practicing physicians. Three subgroups of Family Medicine oriented individuals; students, residents, and physicians, were surveyed through a mailed questionnaire. A study population of 768 individuals yielded a 73% response rate. The findings show that students and residents share a common pattern of identities and that this pattern is not shared with the physician subgroup. This results in rejection of the cohort replication theory. It also suggests a need for Family Practice training to provide role models from the new and emerging generation of family physicians.

  15. Comparison Between Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant-Based Classification for Acute Pancreatitis in Intensive Care Medicine. Why Do Not Use a Modified Determinant-Based Classification?

    PubMed

    Zubia-Olaskoaga, Felix; Maraví-Poma, Enrique; Urreta-Barallobre, Iratxe; Ramírez-Puerta, María-Rosario; Mourelo-Fariña, Mónica; Marcos-Neira, María-Pilar

    2016-05-01

    To compare the classification performance of the Revised Atlanta Classification, the Determinant-Based Classification, and a new modified Determinant-Based Classification according to observed mortality and morbidity. A prospective multicenter observational study conducted in 1-year period. Forty-six international ICUs (Epidemiology of Acute Pancreatitis in Intensive Care Medicine study). Admitted to an ICU with acute pancreatitis and at least one organ failure. Modified Determinant-Based Classification included four categories: In group 1, patients with transient organ failure and without local complications; in group 2, patients with transient organ failure and local complications; in group 3, patients with persistent organ failure and without local complications; and in group 4, patients with persistent organ failure and local complications. A total of 374 patients were included (mortality rate of 28.9%). When modified Determinant-Based Classification was applied, patients in group 1 presented low mortality (2.26%) and morbidity (5.38%), patients in group 2 presented low mortality (6.67%) and high morbidity (60.71%), patients in group 3 presented high mortality (41.46%) and low morbidity (8.33%), and patients in group 4 presented high mortality (59.09%) and morbidity (88.89%). The area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of modified Determinant-Based Classification for mortality was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.85), with significant differences in comparison to Revised Atlanta Classification (0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81; p < 0.01), and Determinant-Based Classification (0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81; p < 0.01). For morbidity, the area under the curve of modified Determinant-Based Classification was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86), with significant differences in comparison to Revised Atlanta Classification (0.63, 95% CI, 0.57-0.70; p < 0.01), but not in comparison to Determinant-Based Classification (0.81, 95% CI, 0.74-0.88; nonsignificant). Modified Determinant

  16. Comparison of next generation sequencing technologies for transcriptome characterization

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We have developed a simulation approach to help determine the optimal mixture of sequencing methods for most complete and cost effective transcriptome sequencing. We compared simulation results for traditional capillary sequencing with "Next Generation" (NG) ultra high-throughput technologies. The simulation model was parameterized using mappings of 130,000 cDNA sequence reads to the Arabidopsis genome (NCBI Accession SRA008180.19). We also generated 454-GS20 sequences and de novo assemblies for the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) and the magnoliid avocado (Persea americana) using a variety of methods for cDNA synthesis. Results The Arabidopsis reads tagged more than 15,000 genes, including new splice variants and extended UTR regions. Of the total 134,791 reads (13.8 MB), 119,518 (88.7%) mapped exactly to known exons, while 1,117 (0.8%) mapped to introns, 11,524 (8.6%) spanned annotated intron/exon boundaries, and 3,066 (2.3%) extended beyond the end of annotated UTRs. Sequence-based inference of relative gene expression levels correlated significantly with microarray data. As expected, NG sequencing of normalized libraries tagged more genes than non-normalized libraries, although non-normalized libraries yielded more full-length cDNA sequences. The Arabidopsis data were used to simulate additional rounds of NG and traditional EST sequencing, and various combinations of each. Our simulations suggest a combination of FLX and Solexa sequencing for optimal transcriptome coverage at modest cost. We have also developed ESTcalc http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/NG_Sims/ngsim.pl, an online webtool, which allows users to explore the results of this study by specifying individualized costs and sequencing characteristics. Conclusion NG sequencing technologies are a highly flexible set of platforms that can be scaled to suit different project goals. In terms of sequence coverage alone, the NG sequencing is a dramatic advance over capillary

  17. Comparison of dual-mobility cup and unipolar cup for prevention of dislocation after revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Amanda Inez; Bartolone, Placido; Lubbeke, Anne; Dupuis Lozeron, Elise; Peter, Robin; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with higher dislocation rates than primary THA. We compared the risk of dislocation within 6 months and all-cause re-revision during the whole study period using either the dual-mobility cup or the unipolar cup. Methods — We used a prospective hospital registry-based cohort including all total and cup-only revision THAs performed between 2003 and 2013. The cups used were either dual-mobility or unipolar; the choice was made according to the preference of the surgeon. 316 revision THAs were included. The mean age of the cohort was 69 (25–98) years and 160 THAs (51%) were performed in women. The dual-mobility group (group 1) included 150 THAs (48%) and the mean length of follow-up was 31 (0–128) months. The unipolar group (group 2) included 166 THAs (53%) and the mean length of follow-up was 52 (0–136) months. Results — The incidence of dislocation within 6 months was significantly lower with the dual-mobility cup than with the unipolar cup (2.7% vs. 7.8%). The unadjusted risk ratio (RR) was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.11–1.02) and the adjusted RR was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.09–0.87). The number of patients needed to treat with a dual-mobility cup in order to prevent 1 case of dislocation was 19. The unadjusted incidence rate ratio for all-cause re-revision in the dual-mobility group compared to the unipolar group was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.3–1.4). Interpretation — Use of a dual-mobility rather than a unipolar cup in revision THA reduced the risk of dislocation within 6 months. PMID:27841712

  18. New Generation of Catalogues for the New Generation of Users: A Comparison of Six Library Catalogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercun, Tanja; Zumer, Maja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the problems and issues faced by online library catalogues. It aims to establish how libraries have undertaken the mission of developing the next generation catalogues and how they compare to new tools such as Amazon. Design/methodology/approach: An expert study was carried out in January…

  19. A Cross-National Comparison of Mexican and Mexican American Couples Using the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.; Diaz-Loving, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of the Marital Satisfaction InventoryRevised (MSI-R) in a sample of 71 Spanish-speaking couples in Mexico. Results from this sample were compared to findings obtained from 65 Mexican American couples who completed the MSI-R in Spanish. Both the internal consistency and factor…

  20. Different Moves, Similar Outcomes: A Comparison of Chinese and Swedish Preschool Teacher Education Programmes and the Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Keang-ieng Peggy; Hu, Bi Ying; Xia, Yan-ping

    2015-01-01

    A Chinese and a Swedish preschool teacher education programme were examined in search for commonalities and differences of the curriculum decision-making considerations involved in the respective programme revision process. Findings include: (1) the two programmes have shifted orientations and become similar, yet there was no fundamental…

  1. Different Moves, Similar Outcomes: A Comparison of Chinese and Swedish Preschool Teacher Education Programmes and the Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Keang-ieng Peggy; Hu, Bi Ying; Xia, Yan-ping

    2015-01-01

    A Chinese and a Swedish preschool teacher education programme were examined in search for commonalities and differences of the curriculum decision-making considerations involved in the respective programme revision process. Findings include: (1) the two programmes have shifted orientations and become similar, yet there was no fundamental…

  2. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised and Bender-Gestalt in Predicting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney

    1993-01-01

    Investigated whether Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPD-R) or Bender-Gestalt Test (BG) would more accurately predict achievement at first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels. Administered both tests to 84 children in counterbalanced order. Results indicated that MPD-R was better predictor of achievement than BG, especially at first- and…

  3. Teacher Recruitment in Turkey: Analysis of Teacher Selection Exams in Comparison with Revised Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Oktay Cem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the content validity of Public Personnel Selection Exam (KPSS), which is used for teacher recruitment in Turkey, in accordance with the teaching profession courses and Bloom's revised taxonomy of educational aims. For this purpose, the study was designed as a descriptive survey model. The data were…

  4. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised and Bender-Gestalt in Predicting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney

    1993-01-01

    Investigated whether Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPD-R) or Bender-Gestalt Test (BG) would more accurately predict achievement at first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels. Administered both tests to 84 children in counterbalanced order. Results indicated that MPD-R was better predictor of achievement than BG, especially at first- and…

  5. Classifying the Standards via Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: A Comparison of Pre-Service and In- Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakaya, Serhat; Kotluk, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is (a) to investigate the usefulness of Bloom's revised taxonomy (RBT) for classification of standards, (b) to examine the differences and similarities between pre-service teachers' and in-service teachers' classification of the same standards and (c) to determine which standards are vague and broad. The 45 standards, in the…

  6. Contractual Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mary F.; Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Contractual revision promotes cooperation between teachers and tutors and, being student initiated, provides a method to increase student control over the revision process and encourage students to communicate their strengths and weaknesses in writing to their teachers or tutors. The contractual revision process requires students to form contracts…

  7. A comparison of reliability and construct validity between the original and revised versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    PubMed

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Tinakon, Wongpakaran; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Nahathai, Wongpakaran

    2012-03-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is a widely used instrument that has been tested for reliability and validity in many settings; however, some negative-worded items appear to have caused it to reveal low reliability in a number of studies. In this study, we revised one negative item that had previously (from the previous studies) produced the worst outcome in terms of the structure of the scale, then re-analyzed the new version for its reliability and construct validity, comparing it to the original version with respect to fit indices. In total, 851 students from Chiang Mai University (mean age: 19.51±1.7, 57% of whom were female), participated in this study. Of these, 664 students completed the Thai version of the original RSES - containing five positively worded and five negatively worded items, while 187 students used the revised version containing six positively worded and four negatively worded items. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied, using a uni-dimensional model with method effects and a correlated uniqueness approach. The revised version showed the same level of reliability (good) as the original, but yielded a better model fit. The revised RSES demonstrated excellent fit statistics, with χ²=29.19 (df=19, n=187, p=0.063), GFI=0.970, TFI=0.969, NFI=0.964, CFI=0.987, SRMR=0.040 and RMSEA=0.054. The revised version of the Thai RSES demonstrated an equivalent level of reliability but a better construct validity when compared to the original.

  8. a Comparison of Different Coherent Deep Ultraviolet Generations Using Second Harmonic Generation with Blue Laser Diode Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangtrongbenchasil, C.; Nonaka, K.

    2008-11-01

    Nano-focus beam applications of short wavelength approximately 220 nm now play important roles in engineering and industrial sections. At present, light sources at approximately 220 nm are commercially available but large size, difficult to maintain, and expensive. Compact wavelength tunable and cost effective light sources at approximately 220 nm are required. Laser diode with sum-frequency generation methods are employed to generated the shorter wavelength approximately 220 nm. This paper presents comparison of second harmonic generation schemes using a nonlinear optic crystal and two types of laser diode, which are a 440 nm single mode blue laser diode and a 450 nm multimode Fabry-Perot blue laser diode, has potential to generate wide tunable coherent deep ultraviolet-c at approximately 220 nm. Using the blue laser diode with the sum-frequency technique, a high second harmonic power is hardly observed due to low conversion efficiency. The best performance of second harmonic generation using blue laser diode, nonlinear optic crystal, and an high-Q external cavity laser diode was observed as 1.1 μW second harmonic ultraviolet-c power at 224.45 nm ultraviolet-c wavelength and 5.75 nm ultraviolet wavelength tunability. In addition, the improvement of increasing second harmonic power approximately 220 nm and the limitation of wavelength tuning of short wavelength are also theoretically discussed in this paper.

  9. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  10. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  11. Comparison of Subconjunctival Mitomycin C and 5-Fluorouracil Injection for Needle Revision of Early Failed Trabeculectomy Blebs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Jianrong; Zhang, Miaomiao; Tao, Yuan; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To compare the efficacy of needle revision with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) on dysfunctional filtration blebs shortly after trabeculectomy. Methods. It is a prospective randomized study comparing needle revision augmented with MMC or 5-FU for failed trabeculectomy blebs. Results. To date 71 patients (75 eyes) have been enrolled, 40 eyes in the MMC group and 35 in the 5-FU group. 68 patients (72 eyes) have completed 12-month follow-up, 38 eyes in the MMC group and 34 in the 5-FU group. The mean IOP before and that after needle revision in the MMC group were 26.5 ± 4.3 mmHg and 11.3 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.05), and in the 5-FU group were 27.1 ± 3.8 mmHg and 10.9 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.05). At 12-month follow-up, complete success rates were 57.5% for MMC group and 34.3% for 5-FU group (P = 0.042; log-rank test) and 75% and 60% (P = 0.145; log-rank test), respectively, for the qualified success. Complication rates between the two groups were not statistically different (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Needle revision and subconjunctival MMC injection were more effective than needling and subconjunctival 5-FU injection for early dysfunctional filtration blebs after trabeculectomies. PMID:26989499

  12. Comparison of educationally handicapped students scores on the Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Breen, M J

    1982-06-01

    32 elementary-aged boys enrolled in a program for the emotionally disturbed were administered the Revised Beery and Bender-Gestalt. A significant correlation of .73 was found between Beery and Bender age-equivalent scores. A t test for correlated data indicated mean scores did not differ significantly from one another, but scores were quite varied. The implications of such variability are discussed.

  13. A comparison between different fractal grid generation methods coupled with lattice Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, D.; Donno, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of three different grids generated with a fractal method and used for fluid dynamic simulations through a kinetic approach. We start from the theoretical element definition and we introduce some optimizations in order to fulfil requirements. The study is performed with analysing results both in terms of friction factor at different Reynolds regimes and streamlines paths.

  14. Retrospective audit of blood transfusion and comparison with haemoglobin concentration in patients undergoing elective primary and revision lower limb arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Evans, S; O'Loughlin, E; Bruce, J

    2011-05-01

    We retrospectively audited the incidence of blood transfusion and related this to preoperative haemoglobin levels in 181 patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty over a six-month period. This included 102 primary total knee replacements, 52 primary total hip replacements, 11 revision total knee replacements and 16 revision total hip replacements. The overall incidence of transfusion was 16.0%. The incidence in primary arthroplasty was 11% (9.8% for total knee replacements and 13.5% for total hip replacements), and in revision surgery was 44.4% (27.3% for total knee replacements and 56.3% for total hip replacements). Combining data for primary total knee replacements and primary total hip replacements, a preoperative haemoglobin threshold of 120 g/l divided patients into high and low risk groups for transfusion. Below or equal to this threshold the incidence of transfusion was 47.7%; above this threshold the incidence was 7.2%. We suggest that patients having primary lower limb arthroplasty with a preoperative haemoglobin of 120 g/l or less should undergo investigation of their anaemia and optimisation of erythropoeisis.

  15. New developments of alignment-free sequence comparison: measures, statistics and next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Ren, Jie; Reinert, Gesine; Deng, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, a large amount of short read data has been generated. Assembly of these short reads can be challenging for genomes and metagenomes without template sequences, making alignment-based genome sequence comparison difficult. In addition, sequence reads from NGS can come from different regions of various genomes and they may not be alignable. Sequence signature-based methods for genome comparison based on the frequencies of word patterns in genomes and metagenomes can potentially be useful for the analysis of short reads data from NGS. Here we review the recent development of alignment-free genome and metagenome comparison based on the frequencies of word patterns with emphasis on the dissimilarity measures between sequences, the statistical power of these measures when two sequences are related and the applications of these measures to NGS data. PMID:24064230

  16. A comparison using APPL and PVM for a parallel implementation of an unstructured grid generation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Bockelie, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to parallelize the VGRIDSG unstructured surface grid generation program are described. The inherent parallel nature of the grid generation algorithm used in VGRIDSG was exploited on a cluster of Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D workstations using the message passing libraries Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) and Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM). Comparisons of speed up are presented for generating the surface grid of a unit cube and a Mach 3.0 High Speed Civil Transport. It was concluded that for this application, both APPL and PVM give approximately the same performance, however, APPL is easier to use.

  17. NUISANCE: a neutrino cross-section generator tuning and comparison framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowell, P.; Wret, C.; Wilkinson, C.; Pickering, L.; Cartwright, S.; Hayato, Y.; Mahn, K.; McFarland, K. S.; Sobczyk, J.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L.; Wascko, M. O.; Uchida, Y.

    2017-01-01

    NUISANCE is an open source C++ framework which facilitates detailed studies of neutrino interaction cross-section models implemented in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators. It provides a host of automated methods to perform comparisons of multiple generators to published cross-section measurements and each other. External reweighting libraries are used to allow the end-user to evaluate the impact of model parameters variations in the generators with data, or to tune the generator predictions to arbitrary dataset combinations. The design is modular and focusses on ease-of-use to allow new datasets and more generators to be added without requiring detailed understanding of the entire NUISANCE package. We discuss the motivation for the NUISANCE framework and suggested usage cases, alongside a description of its core structure.

  18. High-Resolution Snapshots of Proteasome Inhibitors in Action Revise Inhibition Paradigms and Inspire Next-Generation Inhibitor Design.

    PubMed

    Carmony, Kimberly; Lee, Wooin; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2016-11-17

    New high-resolution crystal structures reported by Schrader and colleagues refine our understanding of how peptide epoxyketone anticancer drugs inactivate their target: the human proteasome. These findings provide important clues for the design of next-generation proteasome inhibitor drugs. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Quality of life before reconstructive breast surgery: A preoperative comparison of patients with immediate, delayed, and major revision reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rosson, Gedge D; Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manahan, Michele A; Basdag, Basak; Gilson, Marta M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2013-05-01

    Women undergo breast reconstruction at different time-points in their cancer care; knowing patients' preoperative quality of life (QoL) is critical in the overall care of the patient with breast cancer. Our objective was to describe presurgical QoL among women undergoing immediate, delayed, or major revision breast reconstructive surgery at our institution. From March 2008 to February 2009, we administered preoperative BREAST-Q questionnaires to women who presented to our institution for breast reconstruction. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare patient cohorts across multiple QoL domains including body image, physical well-being, psychosocial well-being, and sexual well-being. Of the 231 patients who presented for preoperative consultation, 176 returned the questionnaire (response rate 76%; 117 from the immediate, 21 from the delayed, and 32 from the major revision reconstruction groups, plus 6 mixed or unknown). The three groups differed significantly (P < 0.05) across four of the six domains: body image (satisfaction with breasts), psychosocial well-being, sexual well-being, and physical well-being of the chest and upper body. The immediate reconstruction group had higher (better) scores than the delayed reconstruction group, which had higher (better) scores than the major revision group. These data suggest that women presenting for breast reconstruction at different stages of reconstruction have different baseline QoL. Such data may help us better understand patient selection, education, and expectations, and may lead to improved patient-surgeon communication. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Guidelines for generators to meet HWHF acceptance requirements for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Berkeley Lab. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides performance standards that one, as a generator of hazardous chemical, radioactive, or mixed wastes at the Berkeley Lab, must meet to manage their waste to protect Berkeley Lab staff and the environment, comply with waste regulations and ensure the continued safe operation of the workplace, have the waste transferred to the correct Waste Handling Facility, and enable the Environment, Health and Safety (EH and S) Division to properly pick up, manage, and ultimately send the waste off site for recycling, treatment, or disposal. If one uses and generates any of these wastes, one must establish a Satellite Accumulation Area and follow the guidelines in the appropriate section of this document. Topics include minimization of wastes, characterization of the wastes, containers, segregation, labeling, empty containers, and spill cleanup and reporting.

  1. Non-infected penile prosthesis cultures during revision surgery; comparison between antibiotic coated and non - coated devices

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Seyfettin; Nemut, Tijen; Culha, Mustafa Melih; Yilmaz, Hasan; Ustuner, Murat; Yavuz, Ufuk; Ozkan, Levend; Karadenizli, Aynur; Turkan, Sadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Aim of this study is to investigate bacterial growth on non-infected devices and compare antibiotic-coated and non-coated implants. Materials and methods: The charts of 71 patients who underwent revision surgeries for penile prosthesis between 1995 and 2013 were reviewed. Of those, 31 devices were antibiotic-coated prostheses, while 40 of the implants were non-coated. Swab cultures were routinely obtained from corporal, pump or reservoir site during the operation. If a bacterial biofilm was determined on the prosthesis, it was also cultured. Results: A total of 5 different organisms were cultured from 18 patients. Of them, 4 devices were antibiotic-coated and the other 14 were non-coated devices. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common organism, while Staphylococcus hominis, beta hemolitic streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were also cultured. All patients who had positive cultures were treated with appropriate antibiotics for four weeks postoperatively. Median follow-up time was 41 months, ranging between 8 and 82 months. One prosthesis (non-coated) became clinically infected in the follow-up period with a totally different organism. Culture positivity rates of antibiotic-coated and non-coated devices were 13% and 35% respectively and the result was significant (p=0.00254). Conclusions: Positive bacterial cultures are present on non-infected penile prostheses at revision surgeries in some of the patients. Antibiotic coated prostheses have much less positive cultures than non-coated devices. PMID:27622281

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of tibial bone adaptation after revision total knee arthroplasty: A comparison of different implant systems.

    PubMed

    Quilez, María Paz; Seral, Belen; Pérez, María Angeles

    2017-01-01

    The best methods to manage tibial bone defects following total knee arthroplasty remain under debate. Different fixation systems exist to help surgeons reconstruct knee osseous bone loss (such as tantalum cones, cement, modular metal augments, autografts, allografts and porous metaphyseal sleeves) However, the effects of the various solutions on the long-term outcome remain unknown. In the present work, a bone remodeling mathematical model was used to predict bone remodeling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision. Five different types of prostheses were analyzed: one with a straight stem; two with offset stems, with and without supplements; and two with sleeves, with and without stems. Alterations in tibia bone density distribution and implant Von Mises stresses were quantified. In all cases, the bone density decreased in the proximal epiphysis and medullary channels, and an increase in bone density was predicted in the diaphysis and around stem tips. The highest bone resorption was predicted for the offset prosthesis without the supplement, and the highest bone formation was computed for the straight stem. The highest Von Mises stress was obtained for the straight tibial stem, and the lowest was observed for the stemless metaphyseal sleeves prosthesis. The computational model predicted different behaviors among the five systems. We were able to demonstrate the importance of choosing an adequate revision system and that in silico models may help surgeons choose patient-specific treatments.

  3. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans David

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  4. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... corrects skin changes (disfigurement) caused by an injury, wound, poor healing, or previous surgery. Description Scar tissue forms as ... stiffening of the joint, you may need physical therapy after surgery. Apply sunscreen to keep sunlight from permanently ... Keloid revision; Hypertrophic scar revision; ...

  5. America Revising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Myron

    1982-01-01

    Reviews Frances FitzGerald's book, "America Revised," and discusses FitzGerald's critique of recent revisions in secondary-level U.S. history textbooks. The author advocates the implementation of a core curriculum for U.S. history which emphasizes political and local history. (AM)

  6. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  7. Mitomycin C-DNA adducts generated by DT-diaphorase. Revised mechanism of the enzymatic reductive activation of mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, G; Lipman, R; Cummings, J; Tomasz, M

    1997-11-18

    Mitomycin C (MC) was reductively activated by DT-diaphorase [DTD; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase] from rat liver carcinoma cells in the presence of Micrococcus lysodeicticus DNA at pH 5.8 and 7.4. The resulting alkylated MC-DNA complexes were digested to the nucleoside level and the covalent MC-nucleoside adducts were separated, identified, and quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. In analogous experiments, two other flavoreductases, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, as well as two chemical reductive activating agents Na2S2O4 and H2/PtO2 were employed as activators for the alkylation of DNA by MC. DTD as well as all the other activators generated the four known major guanine-N2-MC adducts at both pHs. In addition, at the lower pH, the guanine-N7-linked adducts of 2,7-diaminomitosene were detectable in the adduct patterns. At a given pH all the enzymatic and chemical reducing agents generated very similar adduct patterns which, however, differed dramatically at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. Overall yield of MC adducts was 3-4-fold greater at pH 7.4 than at 5. 8 except in the case of DTD when it was 4-fold lower. Without exception, however, cross-link adduct yields were greater at the acidic pH (2-10-fold within the series). The ratio of adducts of bifunctional activation to those of monofunctional activation was 6-20-fold higher at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. A comprehensive mechanism of the alkylation of DNA by activated MC was derived from the DNA adduct analysis which complements earlier model studies of the activation of MC. The mechanism consists of three competing activation pathways yielding three different DNA-reactive electrophiles 11, 12, and 17 which generate three unique sets of DNA adducts as endproducts. The relative amounts of these adducts are diagnostic of the relative rates of the competing pathways in vitro, and most likely, in vivo. Factors that influence the relative rates of individual pathways

  8. Comparison of measured and calculated sound pressure levels around a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a large number of simultaneous acoustic measurements around a large horizontal axis downwind configuration wind turbine generator. In addition, comparisons are made between measurements and calculations of both the discrete frequency rotational harmonics and the broad band noise components. Sound pressure time histories and noise radiation patterns as well as narrow band and broadband noise spectra are presented for a range of operating conditions. The data are useful for purposes of environmental impact assessment.

  9. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchard, D. Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-08-29

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  10. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-08-01

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  11. A cross-national comparison of Mexican and Mexican American couples using the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (Spanish).

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K; Diáz-Loving, Rolando

    2004-03-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R) in a sample of 71 Spanish-speaking couples in Mexico. Results from this sample were compared to findings obtained from 65 Mexican American couples who completed the MSI-R in Spanish. Both the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish MSI-R with Mexican couples were found to be comparable to findings on the Spanish MSI-R for Mexican American couples. Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated no significant mean profile differences between these two groups as a function of nationality, gender, or nationality-by-gender interaction. These findings offer initial evidence toward establishing the appropriateness of the Spanish MSI-R for use with Spanish-dominant Mexican couples.

  12. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  13. An Algorithm to Generate Deep-Layer Temperatures from Microwave Satellite Observations for the Purpose of Monitoring Climate Change. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Fleming, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for generating deep-layer mean temperatures from satellite-observed microwave observations is presented. Unlike traditional temperature retrieval methods, this algorithm does not require a first guess temperature of the ambient atmosphere. By eliminating the first guess a potentially systematic source of error has been removed. The algorithm is expected to yield long-term records that are suitable for detecting small changes in climate. The atmospheric contribution to the deep-layer mean temperature is given by the averaging kernel. The algorithm computes the coefficients that will best approximate a desired averaging kernel from a linear combination of the satellite radiometer's weighting functions. The coefficients are then applied to the measurements to yield the deep-layer mean temperature. Three constraints were used in deriving the algorithm: (1) the sum of the coefficients must be one, (2) the noise of the product is minimized, and (3) the shape of the approximated averaging kernel is well-behaved. Note that a trade-off between constraints 2 and 3 is unavoidable. The algorithm can also be used to combine measurements from a future sensor (i.e., the 20-channel Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)) to yield the same averaging kernel as that based on an earlier sensor (i.e., the 4-channel Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)). This will allow a time series of deep-layer mean temperatures based on MSU measurements to be continued with AMSU measurements. The AMSU is expected to replace the MSU in 1996.

  14. Empirical third-generation cephalosporin therapy for adults with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Li, Ming-Chi; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) [ceftriaxone (CRO) and cefotaxime (CTX)] have remarkable potency against Enterobacteriaceae and are commonly prescribed for the treatment of community-onset bacteraemia. However, clinical evidence supporting the updated interpretive criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is limited. Adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia treated empirically with CRO or CTX were recruited. Clinical information was collected from medical records and CTX MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method. Eligible patients (n=409) were categorised into de-escalation (260; 63.6%), no switch (115; 28.1%) and escalation (34; 8.3%) groups according to the type of definitive antibiotics. Multivariate regression revealed five independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities based on McCabe classification [odds ratio (OR)=19.96; P<0.001]; high Pitt bacteraemia score (≥4) at bacteraemia onset (OR=13.91; P<0.001); bacteraemia because of pneumonia (OR=5.45; P=0.007); de-escalation after empirical therapy (OR=0.28; P=0.03); and isolates with a CTX MIC≤1mg/L (OR=0.17; P=0.02). Of note, isolates with a CTX MIC≤8mg/L (indicated as susceptible by previous CLSI breakpoints) were not associated with mortality. Furthermore, clinical failure and 28-day mortality rates had a tendency to increase with increasing CTX MIC (γ=1.00; P=0.01). Conclusively, focusing on patients with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia receiving empirical 3GC therapy, the present study provides clinically critical evidence to validate the proposed reduction in the susceptibility breakpoint of CTX to MIC≤1mg/L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of Generative and Discriminative Appliance Recognition Models for Load Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoha, Ahmed; Imran, Muhammad Ali; Gluhak, Alexander; Nati, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Appliance-level Load Monitoring (ALM) is essential, not only to optimize energy utilization, but also to promote energy awareness amongst consumers through real-time feedback mechanisms. Non-intrusive load monitoring is an attractive method to perform ALM that allows tracking of appliance states within the aggregated power measurements. It makes use of generative and discriminative machine learning models to perform load identification. However, particularly for low-power appliances, these algorithms achieve sub-optimal performance in a real world environment due to ambiguous overlapping of appliance power features. In our work, we report a performance comparison of generative and discriminative Appliance Recognition (AR) models for binary and multi-state appliance operations. Furthermore, it has been shown through experimental evaluations that a significant performance improvement in AR can be achieved if we make use of acoustic information generated as a by-product of appliance activity. We demonstrate that our a discriminative model FF-AR trained using a hybrid feature set which is a catenation of audio and power features improves the multi-state AR accuracy up to 10 %, in comparison to a generative FHMM-AR model.

  16. Comparison of Single Event Transients Generated by Short Pulsed X-Rays, Lasers and Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoza, David; LaLumondiere, Stephen D.; Tockstein, Michael A.; Brewe, Dale L.; Wells, Nathan P.; Koga, Rokutaro; Gaab, K. M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Moss, Steven C.

    2014-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the transients generated by pulsed x-rays, heavy ions, and different laser wavelengths in a Si p-i-n photodiode. We compare the charge collected by all of the excitation methods to determine the equivalent LET for pulsed x-rays relative to heavy ions. Our comparisons show that pulsed x-rays from synchrotron sources can generate a large range of equivalent LET and generate transients similar to those excited by laser pulses and heavy ion strikes. We also look at how the pulse width of the transients changes for the different excitation methods. We show that the charge collected with pulsed x-rays is greater than expected as the x-ray photon energy increases. Combined with their capability of focusing to small spot sizes and of penetrating metallization, pulsed x-rays are a promising new tool for high resolution screening of SEE susceptibility

  17. A Comparison of Forecast Error Generators for Modeling Wind and Load Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2013-12-18

    This paper presents four algorithms to generate random forecast error time series, including a truncated-normal distribution model, a state-space based Markov model, a seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, and a stochastic-optimization based model. The error time series are used to create real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast time series that statistically match historically observed forecasting data sets, used for variable generation integration studies. A comparison is made using historical DA load forecast and actual load values to generate new sets of DA forecasts with similar stoical forecast error characteristics. This paper discusses and compares the capabilities of each algorithm to preserve the characteristics of the historical forecast data sets.

  18. A Comparison of Forecast Error Generators for Modeling Wind and Load Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2013-07-25

    This paper presents four algorithms to generate random forecast error time series. The performance of four algorithms is compared. The error time series are used to create real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast time series that statistically match historically observed forecasting data sets used in power grid operation to study the net load balancing need in variable generation integration studies. The four algorithms are truncated-normal distribution models, state-space based Markov models, seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, and a stochastic-optimization based approach. The comparison is made using historical DA load forecast and actual load values to generate new sets of DA forecasts with similar stoical forecast error characteristics (i.e., mean, standard deviation, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation). The results show that all methods generate satisfactory results. One method may preserve one or two required statistical characteristics better the other methods, but may not preserve other statistical characteristics as well compared with the other methods. Because the wind and load forecast error generators are used in wind integration studies to produce wind and load forecasts time series for stochastic planning processes, it is sometimes critical to use multiple methods to generate the error time series to obtain a statistically robust result. Therefore, this paper discusses and compares the capabilities of each algorithm to preserve the characteristics of the historical forecast data sets.

  19. Acetabular revision with impaction bone grafting and a cemented polyethylene acetabular component: comparison of the Kaplan-Meier analysis to the competing risk analysis in 62 revisions with 25 to 30 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Te Stroet, M A J; Keurentjes, J C; Rijnen, W H C; Gardeniers, J W M; Verdonschot, N; Slooff, T J J H; Schreurs, B W

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of 62 consecutive acetabular revisions using impaction bone grafting and a cemented polyethylene acetabular component in 58 patients (13 men and 45 women) after a mean follow-up of 27 years (25 to 30). All patients were prospectively followed. The mean age at revision was 59.2 years (23 to 82). We performed Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and also a Competing Risk (CR) analysis because with long-term follow-up, the presence of a competing event (i.e. death) prevents the occurrence of the endpoint of re-revision. A total of 48 patients (52 hips) had died or had been re-revised at final review in March 2011. None of the deaths were related to the surgery. The mean Harris hip score of the ten surviving hips in ten patients was 76 points (45 to 99). The KM survivorship at 25 years for the endpoint 're-revision for any reason' was 58.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38 to 73) and for 're-revision for aseptic loosening' 72.1% (95% CI 51 to 85). With the CR analysis we calculated the KM analysis overestimates the failure rate with respectively 74% and 93% for these endpoints. The current study shows that acetabular impaction bone grafting revisions provide good clinical results at over 25 years.

  20. Alignment-free sequence comparison based on next-generation sequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Ren, Jie; Zhai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xuemei; Deng, Minghua; Sun, Fengzhu

    2013-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have generated enormous amounts of shotgun read data, and assembly of the reads can be challenging, especially for organisms without template sequences. We study the power of genome comparison based on shotgun read data without assembly using three alignment-free sequence comparison statistics, D(2), D(*)(2) and D(s)(2), both theoretically and by simulations. Theoretical formulas for the power of detecting the relationship between two sequences related through a common motif model are derived. It is shown that both D(*)(2) and D(s)(2), outperform D(2) for detecting the relationship between two sequences based on NGS data. We then study the effects of length of the tuple, read length, coverage, and sequencing error on the power of D(*)(2) and D(s)(2). Finally, variations of these statistics, d(2), d(*)(2) and d(s)(2), respectively, are used to first cluster five mammalian species with known phylogenetic relationships, and then cluster 13 tree species whose complete genome sequences are not available using NGS shotgun reads. The clustering results using d(s)(2) are consistent with biological knowledge for the 5 mammalian and 13 tree species, respectively. Thus, the statistic d(s)(2) provides a powerful alignment-free comparison tool to study the relationships among different organisms based on NGS read data without assembly.

  1. Comparison of different mechanisms of low-frequency radio wave ionospheric generation by powerful RF facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, A.; Kotik, D.

    2011-12-01

    Generation of ELF/VLF waves in the ionosphere using powerful RF facilities were studied both theoretically and experimentally since the 70th. During this time, it was suggested a several different physical mechanisms for explaining the processes occurring in the plasma, which caused the low-frequency radiation from the ionosphere. The firstly discovered phenomena of generation the VLF signals in experiments with 100kW facility in Russia (Radiophysical Research Institute) was attribute to modulation of ionospheric currents based on thermal nonlinearity. This mechanism was confirmed by numerous experiments at powerful instruments like SURA, Arecibo, EISCAT/Tromso heater, HAARP. It was shown in experiments at SURA facility in the end of 80th the possibility of generation the VLF signals at frequency bands 10-20 kHz which was caused by cubic nonlinearity and possibility of formation of the ionospheric traveling VLF wave antenna. The last experiments at HAARP displayed the effectiveness of ponderomotive mechanisms for generation both VLF and ELF signals (Popadopoulos, Kuo). The results of numerical simulation of nonlinear currents caused by different mechanisms of ULF/VLF ionospheric generations are presented in this report. The comparison of different mechanisms in low and upper ionosphere under daytime and night conditions is presented. This work was supported by a RFBR grant 11-02-00419-a.

  2. Measuring disability in ankylosing spondylitis: comparison of bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index with revised Leeds Disability Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Eyres, Sophie; Tennant, Alan; Kay, Lesley; Waxman, Robin; Helliwell, Philip S

    2002-05-01

    Disability has been identified as a core outcome measure in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Dougados Functional Index (DFI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) have been selected as core measures of function in this disease. However, neither of these instruments has undergone rigorous psychometric testing. The psychometric properties of 2 measures of disability, the BASFI and the revised Leeds Disability Questionnaire (RLDQ), were compared in a cohort of 208 outpatients with AS. Rasch analysis was used to examine the properties of each measure and to compare them on a common scale. Test-retest was assessed in a cohort of 149 subjects who completed each instrument twice over an interval of 2 weeks. Both instruments gave an even spread of scores across the study group, but BASFI responses were positively skewed and RLDQ responses negatively skewed. There was a highly significant difference between perceived severity groups for both instruments (Kruskal-Wallis chi-squared: RLDQ, 75.1; BASFI, 80.4; both p < 0.0001). Both instruments gave acceptable test-retest scores (RLDQ ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.97; BASFI ICC = 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96). Both instruments were found to be unidimensional according to the Rasch model, but the BASFI had more items displaying differential item functioning. Category disordering was apparent with the BASFI but not the RLDQ. However, both instruments displayed disordered item thresholds. Neither instrument can be used as an interval measure. Both measures had "towers" of thresholds whereby several thresholds were marking the same point on the underlying disability construct. This was particularly notable in the case of the BASFI. Both the BASFI and RLDQ provide a unidimensional measure of function in AS that is in accord with patient perception of disease severity. Neither instrument can be used as an interval measure. Changing the way that the instruments are scored, for example by collapsing categories, may improve

  3. Comparison between the abuse assessment screen and the revised conflict tactics scales for measuring physical violence during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Reichenheim, M; Moraes, C

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Because of the promise of its ability to quickly identify cases of violence against women during pregnancy, the abuse assessment screen (AAS) should be the focus of numerous psychometric evaluations. This paper assesses its measurement accuracy compared with the revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) used as standard. Design: Cross sectional study. Besides several ancillary questions, the AAS consists of three anchor questions about violence against pregnant women. These are inclusive, respectively covering lifetime, preceding 12 months, and pregnancy periods. These questions are the main focus of this article. The CTS2 physical aggression scale consists of 12 items divided into minor and severe subscales. A positive event is defined as having at least one positive item in the respective subscale. The 12 item score is also used. Setting and participants: The instruments were applied to 748 women, 24 to 72 hours after delivery in three major public sector maternity wards of Rio de Janeiro from March to September 2000. Main results: According to the CTS2, prevalences of minor and severe physical violence perpetrated against a pregnant woman are 18.4% (95% CI 15.7 to 21.4) and 7.6% (95% CI 5.8 to 9.8), respectively. Taking these subscales as standards, sensitivities are 31.9% (95% CI 24.9 to 40.3) and 61.4% (95% CI 47.6 to 74.0), respectively. Specificities are above 97%. Conclusion: These findings are somewhat worrying because the number of victims who are not identified and offered assistance is considerable. On a practical note, it would be sensible not to use the AAS as a stand alone screening tool until more evidence is gathered. PMID:15143123

  4. Joint DoD versus Navy Specific Lead Generation Advertising: Comparison of Conversion Rates to Quality Enlistments and Marginal Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    7D-Rt46 982 JOINT DOD VERSUS NAVY SPECIFIC LEAD GENERATION j/j ADVERTISING : COMPARISON OF..(U) J B FUGUR SCHOOL OF N BUSINESS DURHAM NC R C MOREY...REPORT I PEPIO0 COV9cO JOINT DOD VERSUS NAVY SPECIFIC LEAD GENERATION Technical Report ADVERTISING : Comparison of Conversion Rates to (0 Quality...block number) . Upper-Mental, High School Degree, enlistment contracts, national leads, Z Joint DOD advertising , Service Specific Advertising , conversion

  5. A robust random number generator based on differential comparison of chaotic laser signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Liu, Ming; Xue, Lugang; Li, Pu; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-03-26

    We experimentally realize a robust real-time random number generator by differentially comparing the signal from a chaotic semiconductor laser and its delayed signal through a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter. The probability density distribution of the output chaotic signal based on the differential comparison method possesses an extremely small coefficient of Pearson's median skewness (1.5 × 10⁻⁶), which can yield a balanced random sequence much easily than the previously reported method that compares the signal from the chaotic laser with a certain threshold value. Moveover, we experimently demonstrate that our method can stably generate good random numbers at rates of 1.44 Gbit/s with excellent immunity from external perturbations while the previously reported method fails.

  6. Benchmarking AMBER Force Fields for RNA: Comparisons to NMR Spectra for Single-Stranded r(GACC) Are Improved by Revised χ Torsions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accurately modeling unpaired regions of RNA is important for predicting structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics of folded RNA. Comparisons between NMR data and molecular dynamics simulations provide a test of force fields used for modeling. Here, NMR spectroscopy, including NOESY, 1H–31P HETCOR, DQF-COSY, and TOCSY, was used to determine conformational preferences for single-stranded GACC RNA. The spectra are consistent with a conformational ensemble containing major and minor A-form-like structures. In a series of 50 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the AMBER99 force field in explicit solvent, initial A-form-like structures rapidly evolve to disordered conformations. A set of 50 ns simulations with revised χ torsions (AMBER99χ force field) gives two primary conformations, consistent with the NMR spectra. A single 1.9 μs MD simulation with the AMBER99χ force field showed that the major and minor conformations are retained for almost 68% of the time in the first 700 ns, with multiple transformations from A-form to non-A-form conformations. For the rest of the simulation, random-coil structures and a stable non-A-form conformation inconsistent with NMR spectra were seen. Evidently, the AMBER99χ force field improves structural predictions for single-stranded GACC RNA compared to the AMBER99 force field, but further force field improvements are needed. PMID:21721539

  7. Revision Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Loyo, Myriam; Wang, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging operations the facial plastic surgeon performs given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nose and the psychological impact it has on patients. The intricate interplay of cartilages, bone, and soft tissue in the nose gives it its aesthetic and function. Facial harmony and attractiveness depends greatly on the nose given its central position in the face. In the following article, the authors review common motivations and anatomic findings for patients seeking revision rhinoplasty based on the senior author's 30-year experience with rhinoplasty and a review of the literature.

  8. Revised Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Miller, Lisa D.

    2009-01-01

    Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Southern Delivery System (SDS) project is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated wastewater into the reservoir. Wastewater plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (year 2006 demand conditions) were compared to the No Action scenario (projected demands in

  9. Comparison of a quantum random number generator with pseudorandom number generators for their use in molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly

    2017-09-18

    Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparison of the dipolar magnetic field generated by two Ising-like models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo

    2015-04-01

    We consider two Ising-like models named respectively the "domino" model and the Rikitake disk dynamo model. Both models are based on some collective interactions that can generate a dipolar magnetic field which reproduces the well-known features of the geomagnetic field: the reversals and secular variation (SV). The first model considers the resultant dipolar magnetic field as formed by the superposition of the magnetic fields generated by the dynamo elements called macrospins, while the second one, starting from the two-disk dynamo action, takes in consideration the collective interactions of several disk dynamo elements. We will apply two versions of each model: the short-range and the long-range coupled dynamo elements. We will study the statistical properties of the time series generated by the simulation of all models. The comparison of these results with the paleomagnetic data series and long series of SV enables us to conclude which of these Ising-like models better match with the geomagnetic field time series. Key words: geomagnetic field, domino model, Rikitake disk dynamo, dipolar moment

  11. Integrated Space Transportation Plan: Defining Technology Requirements and Next Generation Launch Systems to Meet Commercial and Government Needs. Revision 20 Oct. 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidoff, Larry D.; Reichert, Jack M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA continues to focus on improving safety and reliability while reducing the annual cost of meeting human space flight and unique ISS and exploration needs. NASA's Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) Phase 2 in early 1998 focused on space transportation options. Subsequently, NASA directed parallel industry and government teams to conduct the Integrated Space Transportation Plan effort (STAS Phase 3). The objective of ISTP was to develop technology requirements, roadmaps, and risk reduction portfolio that considered expanded definition of "clean-sheet" and Shuttle-derived second generation ETO transportation systems in support of a 2005 RLV competition for NASA missions beginning 2010. NASA provided top-level requirements for improvements in safety, reliability, and cost and a set of design reference missions representing NASA ISS, human exploration, commercial, and other civil and government needs. This paper addresses the challenges of meeting NASA's objectives while servicing the varied market segments represented in the ISTP design reference missions and provides a summary of technology development needs and candidate system concepts. A comparison of driving requirements, architectures and technology needs is discussed and descriptions of viable Shuttle-derived and next generation systems to meet the market needs are presented.

  12. Pain and Function Recovery Trajectories following Revision Hip Arthroplasty: Short-Term Changes and Comparison with Primary Hip Arthroplasty in the ADAPT Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Michael R.; Wylde, Vikki; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients report similar or better pain and function before revision hip arthroplasty than before primary arthroplasty but worse results are reported after revision surgery than after primary surgery. The trajectory of post-operative recovery during the first months and any differences by type of surgery have received little attention. We explored the trajectories of change in pain and function after revision hip arthroplasty to 12-months post-operatively and compare them with those observed after primary hip arthroplasty. Methods This study is a prospective cohort study of patients undergoing primary (n = 80 with 92% for an indication of osteoarthritis) and revision (n = 43) hip arthroplasties. WOMAC pain and function scores and walking speed were collected pre-operatively, at 3 and 12-months post-operatively. Multilevel regression models were used to chart and compare the trajectories of change (0–3 months and 3–12 months) between types of surgery. Results The improvements in pain and function following revision arthroplasty occurred within the first 3-months with no evidence of further change beyond this initial period. While the pattern of recovery was similar to the one observed after primary arthroplasty, improvements in the first 3-months were smaller after revision compared to primary arthroplasty. Patients listed for revision surgery reported lower pre-operative pain levels but similar post-operative levels compared to those undergoing primary surgery. At 12-months post-operation patients who underwent a revision arthroplasty had not reached the same level of function achieved by those who underwent primary arthroplasty. Conclusion The post-operative improvements in pain and function are larger following primary hip arthroplasty than following revision hip arthroplasty. Irrespectively of surgery type, most of the improvements occur in the first three post-operative months. More research is required to identify whether the recovery

  13. Comparison of methods for acid quantification: impact of resist components on acid-generating efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, James F.; Fradkin, Leslie; Moore, Kathryn; Pohlers, Gerd

    2000-06-01

    Chemically amplified deep UV (CA-DUV) positive resists are the enabling materials for manufacture of devices at and below 0.18 micrometer design rules in the semiconductor industry. CA-DUV resists are typically based on a combination of an acid labile polymer and a photoacid generator (PAG). Upon UV exposure, a catalytic amount of a strong Bronsted acid is released and is subsequently used in a post-exposure bake step to deprotect the acid labile polymer. Deprotection transforms the acid labile polymer into a base soluble polymer and ultimately enables positive tone image development in dilute aqueous base. As CA-DUV resist systems continue to mature and are used in increasingly demanding situations, it is critical to develop a fundamental understanding of how robust these materials are. One of the most important factors to quantify is how much acid is photogenerated in these systems at key exposure doses. For the purpose of quantifying photoacid generation several methods have been devised. These include spectrophotometric methods, ion conductivity methods and most recently an acid-base type titration similar to the standard addition method. This paper compares many of these techniques. First, comparisons between the most commonly used acid sensitive dye, tetrabromophenol blue sodium salt (TBPB) and a less common acid sensitive dye, Rhodamine B base (RB) are made in several resist systems. Second, the novel acid-base type titration based on the standard addition method is compared to the spectrophotometric titration method. During these studies, the make up of the resist system is probed as follows: the photoacid generator and resist additives are varied to understand the impact of each of these resist components on the acid generation process.

  14. Comparison of petroleum generation kinetics by isothermal hydrous and nonisothermal open-system pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Ruble, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares kinetic parameters determined by open-system pyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis using aliquots of source rocks containing different kerogen types. Kinetic parameters derived from these two pyrolysis methods not only differ in the conditions employed and products generated, but also in the derivation of the kinetic parameters (i.e., isothermal linear regression and non-isothermal nonlinear regression). Results of this comparative study show that there is no correlation between kinetic parameters derived from hydrous pyrolysis and open-system pyrolysis. Hydrous-pyrolysis kinetic parameters determine narrow oil windows that occur over a wide range of temperatures and depths depending in part on the organic-sulfur content of the original kerogen. Conversely, open-system kinetic parameters determine broad oil windows that show no significant differences with kerogen types or their organic-sulfur contents. Comparisons of the kinetic parameters in a hypothetical thermal-burial history (2.5 ??C/my) show open-system kinetic parameters significantly underestimate the extent and timing of oil generation for Type-US kerogen and significantly overestimate the extent and timing of petroleum formation for Type-I kerogen compared to hydrous pyrolysis kinetic parameters. These hypothetical differences determined by the kinetic parameters are supported by natural thermal-burial histories for the Naokelekan source rock (Type-IIS kerogen) in the Zagros basin of Iraq and for the Green River Formation (Type-I kerogen) in the Uinta basin of Utah. Differences in extent and timing of oil generation determined by open-system pyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis can be attributed to the former not adequately simulating natural oil generation conditions, products, and mechanisms.

  15. Comparison of short pulse generation schemes for a soft x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I. P. S.; Bartolini, R.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the performance of two complementary short pulse generation schemes as applied to a soft x-ray free electron laser. The first scheme, recently proposed by Saldin et al., makes use of a laser pulse consisting of only a few optical cycles to give an energy chirp to a short section of an electron bunch and tapers the main radiator undulator in order to compensate the chirped region. The second scheme investigated takes a low-charge, high brightness electron bunch and compresses it to ˜1fs in order to operate in the so-called “single-spike” regime. We perform start-to-end simulations of both these schemes, assess the sensitivity of each scheme to realistic jitter sources, and provide a direct comparison of the respective strengths and drawbacks.

  16. Do initial conditions matter? A comparison of model climatologies generated from different initial states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    A coarse mesh (8 by 10) 7 layer global climate model was used to compute 15 months of meteorological history in two perpetual January experiments on a water planet (without continents) with a zonally symmetric climatological January sea surface temperature field. In the first of the two water planet experiments the initial atmospheric state was a set of zonal mean values of specific humidity, temperature, and wind at each latitude. In the second experiment the model was initialized with globally uniform mean values of specific humidity and temperature on each sigma level surface, constant surface pressure (1010 mb), and zero wind everywhere. A comparison was made of the mean January climatic states generated by the two water planet experiments. The first two months of each 15 January run were discarded, and 13 month averages were computed from months 3 through 15.

  17. An exploratory propensity score matched comparison of second-generation and first-generation baroreflex activation therapy systems.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Rolf; Halbach, Marcel; Bakris, George L; Bisognano, John D; Haller, Hermann; Beige, Joachim; Kroon, Abraham A; Nadim, Mitra K; Lovett, Eric G; Schafer, Jill E; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2017-02-01

    Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) is a device-based therapy for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. In a randomized, controlled trial, the first-generation system significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) versus sham. Although an open-label validation study of the second-generation system demonstrated similar BP reductions, controlled data are not presently available. Therefore, this investigation compares results of first- and second-generation BAT systems. Two cohorts of first-generation BAT system patients were generated with propensity matching to compare against the validation group of 30 second-generation subjects. The first cohort was drawn from the first-generation randomized trial sham group and the second cohort from the active therapy group. Safety and efficacy were compared for the second-generation group relative to the first generation. At 6 months, second-generation BAT outperformed first-generation sham systolic BP reduction by 20 ± 28 mm Hg (mean ± standard deviation, P = .008), while BP reduction in first- and second-generation active groups was similar. At 12 months, efficacy was comparable between all three groups after the sham group had received 6 months of therapy; 47% of second-generation patients achieved goal systolic BP of 140 mm Hg or less after 12 months, comparable to 50% of patients at goal in the first-generation group (P > .999). Implant procedure time, system/procedural safety, and pulse generator longevity improved with the second-generation system. Propensity-matched cohort analysis of the first- and second-generation BAT systems suggests similar therapeutic benefit and superior BP reduction of the second-generation system relative to sham control. Implantation procedure duration and perioperative safety were improved with the second-generation device. These findings should be validated in a prospective randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of solution-based exome capture methods for next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Techniques enabling targeted re-sequencing of the protein coding sequences of the human genome on next generation sequencing instruments are of great interest. We conducted a systematic comparison of the solution-based exome capture kits provided by Agilent and Roche NimbleGen. A control DNA sample was captured with all four capture methods and prepared for Illumina GAII sequencing. Sequence data from additional samples prepared with the same protocols were also used in the comparison. Results We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for quality control, short read alignment, variant identification and annotation of the sequence data. In our analysis, a larger percentage of the high quality reads from the NimbleGen captures than from the Agilent captures aligned to the capture target regions. High GC content of the target sequence was associated with poor capture success in all exome enrichment methods. Comparison of mean allele balances for heterozygous variants indicated a tendency to have more reference bases than variant bases in the heterozygous variant positions within the target regions in all methods. There was virtually no difference in the genotype concordance compared to genotypes derived from SNP arrays. A minimum of 11× coverage was required to make a heterozygote genotype call with 99% accuracy when compared to common SNPs on genome-wide association arrays. Conclusions Libraries captured with NimbleGen kits aligned more accurately to the target regions. The updated NimbleGen kit most efficiently covered the exome with a minimum coverage of 20×, yet none of the kits captured all the Consensus Coding Sequence annotated exons. PMID:21955854

  19. Quantitative comparison of 3D third harmonic generation and fluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Kuzmin, Nikolay V; Groot, Marie Louise; de Munck, Jan C

    2017-05-02

    Third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy is a label-free imaging technique that shows great potential for rapid pathology of brain tissue during brain tumor surgery. However, the interpretation of THG brain images should be quantitatively linked to images of more standard imaging techniques, which so far has been done qualitatively only. We establish here such a quantitative link between THG images of mouse brain tissue and all-nuclei-highlighted fluorescence images, acquired simultaneously from the same tissue area. For quantitative comparison of a substantial pair of images, we present here a segmentation workflow that is applicable for both THG and fluorescence images, with a precision of 91.3 % and 95.8 % achieved respectively. We find that the correspondence between the main features of the two imaging modalities amounts to 88.9 %, providing quantitative evidence of the interpretation of dark holes as brain cells. Moreover, 80 % bright objects in THG images overlap with nuclei highlighted in the fluorescence images, and they are 2 times smaller than the dark holes, showing that cells of different morphologies can be recognized in THG images. We expect that the described quantitative comparison is applicable to other types of brain tissue and with more specific staining experiments for cell type identification. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  1. Comparison of the Spectral Properties of Pansharpened Images Generated from AVNIR-2 and Prism Onboard Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, M.

    2012-07-01

    A considerable number of methods for pansharpening remote-sensing images have been developed to generate higher spatial resolution multispectral images by the fusion of lower resolution multispectral images and higher resolution panchromatic images. Because pansharpening alters the spectral properties of multispectral images, method selection is one of the key factors influencing the accuracy of subsequent analyses such as land-cover classification or change detection. In this study, seven pixel-based pansharpening methods (additive wavelet intensity, additive wavelet principal component, generalized Laplacian pyramid with spectral distortion minimization, generalized intensity-hue-saturation (GIHS) transform, GIHS adaptive, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and block-based synthetic variable ratio) were compared using AVNIR-2 and PRISM onboard ALOS from the viewpoint of the preservation of spectral properties of AVNIR-2. A visual comparison was made between pansharpened images generated from spatially degraded AVNIR-2 and original images over urban, agricultural, and forest areas. The similarity of the images was evaluated in terms of the image contrast, the color distinction, and the brightness of the ground objects. In the quantitative assessment, three kinds of statistical indices, correlation coefficient, ERGAS, and Q index, were calculated by band and land-cover type. These scores were relatively superior in bands 2 and 3 compared with the other two bands, especially over urban and agricultural areas. Band 4 showed a strong dependency on the land-cover type. This was attributable to the differences in the observing spectral wavelengths of the sensors and local scene variances.

  2. Biomechanical comparison of the human cadaveric pelvis with a fourth generation composite model.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Brandon L; Attia, Tarik; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Willett, Thomas L; Kuzyk, Paul R T

    2016-02-29

    The use of cadavers for orthopaedic biomechanics research is well established, but presents difficulties to researchers in terms of cost, biosafety, availability, and ease of use. High fidelity composite models of human bone have been developed for use in biomechanical studies. While several studies have utilized composite models of the human pelvis for testing orthopaedic reconstruction techniques, few biomechanical comparisons of the properties of cadaveric and composite pelves exist. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of cadaveric pelves to those of the 4th generation composite model. An Instron ElectroPuls E10000 mechanical testing machine was used to load specimens with orientation, boundary conditions and degrees of freedom that approximated those occurring during the single legged phase of walking, including hip abductor force. Each specimen was instrumented with strain gauge rosettes. Overall specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated from the test data. Composite specimens showed significantly higher overall stiffness and slightly less overall variability between specimens (composite K=1448±54N/m, cadaver K=832±62N/m; p<0.0001). Strains measured at specific sites in the composite models and cadavers were similar (but did differ) only when the applied load was scaled to overall construct stiffness. This finding regarding strain distribution and the difference in overall stiffness must be accounted for when using these composite models for biomechanics research. Altering the cortical wall thickness or tuning the elastic moduli of the composite material may improve future generations of the composite model.

  3. Next-Generation Mitogenomics: A Comparison of Approaches Applied to Caecilian Amphibian Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, Simon T.; Briscoe, Andrew G.; Wilkinson, Mark; Waeschenbach, Andrea; San Mauro, Diego; Day, Julia J.; Littlewood, D. Tim J.; Foster, Peter G.; Nussbaum, Ronald A.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences are being generated with increasing speed due to the advances of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and associated analytical tools. However, detailed comparisons to explore the utility of alternative NGS approaches applied to the same taxa have not been undertaken. We compared a ‘traditional’ Sanger sequencing method with two NGS approaches (shotgun sequencing and non-indexed, multiplex amplicon sequencing) on four different sequencing platforms (Illumina’s HiSeq and MiSeq, Roche’s 454 GS FLX, and Life Technologies’ Ion Torrent) to produce seven (near-) complete mitogenomes from six species that form a small radiation of caecilian amphibians from the Seychelles. The fastest, most accurate method of obtaining mitogenome sequences that we tested was direct sequencing of genomic DNA (shotgun sequencing) using the MiSeq platform. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses using seven different partitioning strategies were unable to resolve compellingly all phylogenetic relationships among the Seychelles caecilian species, indicating the need for additional data in this case. PMID:27280454

  4. Student Growth from Service-Learning: A Comparison of First-Generation and Non-First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelco, Lynn E.; Ball, Christopher T.; Lockeman, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of service-learning courses on student growth was compared for 321 first-generation and 782 non-first-generation undergraduate students at a large urban university. Student growth encompassed both academic and professional skill development. The majority of students reported significant academic and professional development after…

  5. A comparison of three stochastic multi-site precipitation occurrence generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, R.; Srikanthan, R.; Sharma, Ashish

    2006-11-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a comparison of three multi-site stochastic weather generators for simulation of point rainfall occurrences at a network of 30 raingauge stations around Sydney, Australia. The approaches considered include a parametric hidden Markov model (HMM), a multi-site stochastic precipitation generation model (proposed by [Wilks, D.S., 1998. Multi-site generalization of a daily stochastic precipitation model, J. Hydrol. 210, 178-191.]) and a non-parametric K-nearest neighbour (KNN) model. The HMM generates the precipitation distribution conditional on a discrete weather state representing certain identified spatial rainfall distribution patterns. The spatial dependence is maintained by assumption of a common weather state across all stations while the temporal dependence is simulated by assuming the weather state to be Markovian in nature. The Wilks model preserves serial dependence through the assumption of an order one Markov dependence at each location. The spatial dependence is simulated by prescribing a dependence pattern on the uniform random variates used to generate the rainfall occurrence at each location from the associated conditional probability distribution. The K-nearest neighbour approach simulates spatial dependence by simultaneously generating precipitation occurrence at all locations. Temporal persistence is simulated through Markovian assumptions on the rainfall occurrence process. The three methods are evaluated for their ability to model spatial and temporal dependence in the rainfall occurrence field and also the relative ease with which the assumptions of spatial and temporal dependence can be accommodated. Our results indicate that all the approaches are successful in reproducing spatial dependence in the multi-site rainfall occurrence field. However, the different orders of assumed Markovian dependence in the observed data limit their ability in representing temporal dependence at time scales longer than a few days. While

  6. Comparison of joint angles and electromyographic activity of the lower extremities during standing with wearing standard and revised high-heeled shoes: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Mansoo; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-04-29

    Revised high-heeled shoes (HHSs) were designed to improve the shortcomings of standard HHSs. This study was conducted to compare revised and standard HHSs with regard to joint angles and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower extremities during standing. The participants were five healthy young women. Data regarding joint angles and EMG activity of the lower extremities were obtained under three conditions: barefoot, when wearing revised HHSs, and when wearing standard HHSs. Lower extremity joint angles in the three dimensional plane were confirmed using a VICON motion capture system. EMG activity of the lower extremities was measured using active bipolar surface EMG. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by rank applied to analyze differences during three standing conditions. Compared with the barefoot condition, the standard HHSs condition was more different than the revised HHSs condition with regard to lower extremity joint angles during standing. EMG activity of the lower extremities was different for the revised HHSs condition, but the differences among the three conditions were not significant. Wearing revised HHSs may positively impact joint angles and EMG activity of the lower extremities by improving body alignment while standing.

  7. Comparison of Revision Rates of Non-modular Constrained Versus Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty: a Propensity Score Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Mohamed E; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Mehta, Nabil; Lyman, Stephen; Marx, Robert G

    2017-02-01

    Attaining stability during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is essential for a successful outcome. Although traditional constrained total knee prostheses have generally been used in conjunction with intramedullary stems, some devices have been widely used without the use of stems, referred to as non-modular constrained condylar total knee arthroplasty (NMCCK). The aim of this study was to compare revisions rates after total knee replacement with a non-modular constrained condylar total knee (NMCCK) compared to a posterior-stabilized (PS) design. Between 2007 and 2012, primary PS total knees were compared with NMCCK implants from the same manufacturer. Propensity score matching was performed, and implant survivorship was examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cohort consisted of 817 PS knees and 817 NMCCKs matched for patient demographics, surgeon volume, and pre-operative diagnosis. All cause revisions occurred in 11 of 817 (1.35%) in the PS group compared to 28 of 817 (3.43%) in the NMCCK group (p = 0.0168). Excluding revisions for infection and fracture, 8 of 817 (0.98%) PS knees required revision for mechanical failure compared to 18 of 817 (2.20%) NMCCK knees (p = 0.0193). While revisions rates in both cohorts were low, there was a significantly higher revision rate with NMCCKs. Given that cases requiring the use of NMCCK implants are likely more complex than those in which PS implants are used, our findings support the judicious use of NMCCK prostheses.

  8. SU-E-T-303: Dosimetric Comparison of a LINAC Fallback Plan Generated From Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C; Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitatively evaluate the Multi Criteria Optimization (MCO) based MLC step and shoot (sMLC) fallback plan derived from Tomotherapy of multiple lesions lung SBRT Methods: Inter-comparison of various IMRT planning systems tends to be difficult due to the vendor-specific functionalities. The methodology of defining dose constraints and beam geometries is challenging. Raysearch™ planning system offers an alternative replanning to deliver same intensity map from Tomotherapy without modifying original fluence. This intuitive comparison comes from the final fluence map converted without any embedded system dependent dose optimization. This planner independent approach could be utilized to study the merits of individual machines. The term “fallback” was utilized to (A) transfer plans in among treatment delivery systems; (B) maintain acceptable plan qualities; and (C) minimize the biological dose impact due to machine breakdown. The Tomotherapy specific DICOM RT dose and plan are retrieved into Raystation’s pre-defined sMLC protocol. Based on specific machine characteristics, same fluence maps were converted to generate equivalent deliverable segments. Therefore, the treatment plans were evaluated among two planning tools, Tomotherapy and MCO based sMLC delivery plans. Results: By converting the fluence map with the pre-defined machine characteristics, the 9-fields fallback plan has similar ITV coverage compared to the original Tomotherapy plan. ITV average doses, the D95 consisted of 0.9% variation. The total lung doses of fallback plan drifted from 17.4% to 30.5% which represents the limitations of the static beam delivery. D2 of fallback spinal cord increased from 22.4% to 36.4% but still within tolerances. Ipsilateral lung changed from 11.0% to 22.6%. Low dose region between ITVs presented increased dose to the normal lung tissues. Conclusion: Acceptable fallback plan for Tomotherapy SBRT has similar ITVs coverage, but lack of the normal tissues

  9. a Comparison of Morphological Taxonomy and Next Generation DNA Sequencing for the Assessment of Zooplankton Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Fisher, J. L.; Johnson, S.; Morgan, S.; Peterson, W. T.; Satterthwaite, E. V.; Vrijenhoek, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Our ability to accurately characterize the diversity of planktonic organisms is affected by both the methods we use to collect water samples and our approaches to assessing sample contents. Plankton nets collect organisms from high volumes of water, but integrate sample contents along the net's path. In contrast, plankton pumps collect water from discrete depths. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can collect water samples with pinpoint accuracy from physical features such as upwelling fronts or biological features such as phytoplankton blooms, but sample volumes are necessarily much smaller than those possible with nets. Characterization of plankton diversity and abundances in water samples may also vary with the assessment method we apply. Morphological taxonomy provides visual identification and enumeration of organisms via microscopy, but is labor intensive. Next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) shows great promise for assessing plankton diversity in water samples but accurate assessment of relative abundances may not be possible in all cases. Comparison of morphological taxonomy to molecular approaches is necessary to identify areas of overlap and also areas of disagreement between these methods. We have compared morphological taxonomic assessments to mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA NGS results for plankton net samples collected in Monterey bay, California. We have made a similar comparison for plankton pump samples, and have also applied our NGS methods to targeted, small volume water samples collected by an AUV. Our goal is to communicate current results and lessons learned regarding application of traditional taxonomy and novel molecular approaches to the study of plankton diversity in spatially and temporally variable, coastal marine environments.

  10. Applicability Comparison of Methods for Acid Generation Assessment of Rock Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chamteut; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae; Cheong, Youngwook

    2014-05-01

    Minerals including various forms of sulfur could generate AMD (Acid Mine Drainage) or ARD (Acid Rock Drainage), which can have serious effects on the ecosystem and even on human when exposed to air and/or water. To minimize the hazards by acid drainage, it is necessary to assess in advance the acid generation possibility of rocks and estimate the amount of acid generation. Because of its relatively simple and effective experiment procedure, the method of combining the results of ABA (Acid Base Accounting) and NAG (Net Acid Generation) tests have been commonly used in determining acid drainage conditions. The simplicity and effectiveness of the above method however, are derived from massive assumptions of simplified chemical reactions and this often leads to results of classifying the samples as UC (Uncertain) which would then require additional experimental or field data to reclassify them properly. This paper therefore, attempts to find the reasons that cause samples to be classified as UC and suggest new series of experiments where samples can be reclassified appropriately. Study precedents on evaluating potential acid generation and neutralization capacity were reviewed and as a result three individual experiments were selected in the light of applicability and compatibility of minimizing unnecessary influence among other experiments. The proposed experiments include sulfur speciation, ABCC (Acid Buffering Characteristic Curve), and Modified NAG which are all improved versions of existing experiments of Total S, ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), and NAG respectively. To assure the applicability of the experiments, 36 samples from 19 sites with diverse geologies, field properties, and weathering conditions were collected. The samples were then subject to existing experiments and as a result, 14 samples which either were classified as UC or could be used as a comparison group had been selected. Afterwards, the selected samples were used to conduct the suggested

  11. Intrinsic Radiation Source Generation with the ISC Package: Data Comparisons and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Clell J. Jr.

    2012-04-26

    The characterization of radioactive emissions from unstable isotopes (intrinsic radiation) is necessary for shielding and radiological-dose calculations from radioactive materials. While most radiation transport codes, e.g., MCNP [X-5 Monte Carlo Team, 2003], provide the capability to input user prescribed source definitions, such as radioactive emissions, they do not provide the capability to calculate the correct radioactive-source definition given the material compositions. Special modifications to MCNP have been developed in the past to allow the user to specify an intrinsic source, but these modification have not been implemented into the primary source base [Estes et al., 1988]. To facilitate the description of the intrinsic radiation source from a material with a specific composition, the Intrinsic Source Constructor library (LIBISC) and MCNP Intrinsic Source Constructor (MISC) utility have been written. The combination of LIBISC and MISC will be herein referred to as the ISC package. LIBISC is a statically linkable C++ library that provides the necessary functionality to construct the intrinsic-radiation source generated by a material. Furthermore, LIBISC provides the ability use different particle-emission databases, radioactive-decay databases, and natural-abundance databases allowing the user flexibility in the specification of the source, if one database is preferred over others. LIBISC also provides functionality for aging materials and producing a thick-target bremsstrahlung photon source approximation from the electron emissions. The MISC utility links to LIBISC and facilitates the description of intrinsic-radiation sources into a format directly usable with the MCNP transport code. Through a series of input keywords and arguments the MISC user can specify the material, age the material if desired, and produce a source description of the radioactive emissions from the material in an MCNP readable format. Further details of using the MISC utility can

  12. ACL Revision

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Paz, Matias; Dubois, Julieta Puig; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Rasumoff, Alejandro; Yacuzzi, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a series of patients one year after an ACL revision with clinical evaluation and MRI, to consider their condition before returning to sports activities. Methods: A descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study was performed. A series of patients who underwent an ACL revision between March 2014 and March 2015 were evaluated after one year post surgery. They were evaluated using the Lysholm score, IKDC, Tegner, artrometry and MRI (3.0 t). A signal pattern and osteointegration was determined in the MRI. Graft signal intensity of the ACL graft using the signal/noise quotient value (SNQ) was also determined to evaluate the ligamentatization process state. Results: A total of 18 male patients were evaluated with a mean age of 31 years old.Average scores were: Lysholm 88 points, IKDC 80 points, Pre-surgical Tegner 9 points and postoperative 4 points. Artrhometry (KT1000) at 20 newtons showed a side to side difference of less than 3 mm in 88%. Only 44% of patients returned to their previous sport activity one year after revision.The MRI showed a heterogeneous signal in neoligaments in 34% of patients. SNQ showed graft integration in only 28%. Synovial fluid was found in bone-graft interphase in 44% of tunnels, inferring partial osteointegration. The heterogeneous signal was present in 50% of patients who did not return to the previous sport level activity. (Fisher statistics: p = 0.043) There were no meaningful differences in patients with auto or allografts. Conclusion: Although the clinical evaluation was satisfactory, only 44% of patients returned to the previous level of sport activity one year after the ACL surgery. The ligamentatization process was found in 28% of knees evaluated with MRI one year later. Partial osteointegration is inferred in 44%. Results showed a meaningful relation between the signal of neoligaments in the MRI and the return to sport activity in said series of patients. MRI is a useful tool

  13. Comparison of the risk of revision in cementless total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene bearings

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma B; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings were introduced in total hip arthroplasty (THA) to reduce problems related to polyethylene wear. We compared the 9-year revision risk for cementless CoC THA and for cementless metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods In this prospective, population-based study from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry, we identified all the primary cementless THAs that had been performed from 2002 through 2009 (n = 25,656). Of these, 1,773 THAs with CoC bearings and 9,323 THAs with MoP bearings were included in the study. To estimate the relative risk (RR) of revision, we used regression with the pseudo-value approach and treated death as a competing risk. Results 444 revisions were identified: 4.0% for CoC THA (71 of 1,773) and 4.0% for MoP THA (373 of 9,323). No statistically significant difference in the risk of revision for any reason was found for CoC and MoP bearings after 9 years of follow-up (adjusted RR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.72–2.4). Revision rates due to component failure were 0.5% (n = 8) for CoC bearings and 0.1% (n = 6) for MoP bearings (p < 0.001). 6 patients with CoC bearings (0.34%) underwent revision due to ceramic fracture. Interpretation When compared to the “standard” MoP bearings, CoC THA had a 33% higher (though not statistically significantly higher) risk of revision for any reason at 9 years. PMID:25637339

  14. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  15. A modeling comparison between a two-stage and three-stage cascaded thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanimba, Eurydice; Pearson, Matthew; Sharp, Jeff; Stokes, David; Priya, Shashank; Tian, Zhiting

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a comparison between the performance of two- and three-stage cascaded thermoelectric generator (TEG) devices is analyzed based on a prescribed maximum hot side temperature of 973 K, an imposed maximum heat input of 505 W, and a fixed cold side temperature of 473 K. Half-Heusler is used as a thermoelectric (TE) material in the top higher temperature stage and skutterudite as a TE in the bottom lower temperature stage for the two-stage structure. Lead telluride is added in the middle stage to form the three-stage structure. Based on the prescribed constraints, the two-stage cascaded TEG is found to produce a power output of 42 W with an efficiency of 8.3%. The three-stage cascaded TEG produces a power output of 51 W with an efficiency of 10.2%. The three-stage cascaded TEG produces 21% more power than the two-stage does; however, if the system complexity, mechanical robustness, manufacturability, and/or cost of three-stage cascaded TEG outweigh the 21% percent power production increase, the two-stage TEG could be preferable.

  16. Effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite based generated by existing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Rozmie R.; Ahmad, Mohd Zamri Zahir; Ali, Mohd Shaiful Aziz Rashid; Zakaria, Hasneeza Liza; Rahman, Md. Mostafijur

    2015-05-01

    Consuming 40 to 50 percent of software development cost, software testing is one of the most resource consuming activities in software development lifecycle. To ensure an acceptable level of quality and reliability of a typical software product, it is desirable to test every possible combination of input data under various configurations. Due to combinatorial explosion problem, considering all exhaustive testing is practically impossible. Resource constraints, costing factors as well as strict time-to-market deadlines are amongst the main factors that inhibit such consideration. Earlier work suggests that sampling strategy (i.e. based on t-way parameter interaction or called as t-way testing) can be effective to reduce number of test cases without effecting the fault detection capability. However, for a very large system, even t-way strategy will produce a large test suite that need to be executed. In the end, only part of the planned test suite can be executed in order to meet the aforementioned constraints. Here, there is a need for test engineers to measure the effectiveness of partially executed test suite in order for them to assess the risk they have to take. Motivated by the abovementioned problem, this paper presents the effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite generated by existing strategies using tuples coverage method. Here, test engineers can predict the effectiveness of the testing process if only part of the original test cases is executed.

  17. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  18. Comparison of runoff and soil loss generated on two plot sizes during rainfall simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Dostál, Tomáš; Bauer, Miroslav; Jáchymová, Barbora; Neumann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    square meter) and suspended solids concentration which allows two plots with different dimensions comparison. Our results show influence of the field plot length and a clear increase in the soil loss with increasing plot length. The results suggest that the specific sediment concentration (related to one meter of the plot length) measured at the large plot gauge is about twice the concentration generated by the small plot. A sample for grain size estimation was taken during experiments in last year. The information was used for calculation and comparison of the dragging forces on both plots, the particle size distribution of the eroded particles was also compared to the topsoil texture. The experiments were analysed also with the aim to validate the surface runoff parameters in the mathematical model SMODERP. The input parameters for validation were based on measured: rainfall intensity, time of surface runoff initiation, infiltration and surface runoff discharge, mean velocity and velocity in runoff preferential paths. The research has been supported by the grants No. SGS14/180/OHK1/3T/11 and No. TA02020647.

  19. A Comparison of Family Care Responsibilities of First-Generation and Non-First-Generation Female Administrators in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2010-01-01

    Greater numbers of women are entering and working in higher education. Some of these women are the first in their families to attain academic degrees. They are known as first-generation students, and the care of children and others is often responsible for their withdrawal from academic study. This study addressed the void of information…

  20. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  1. Sequenced Peer Revision: Creating Competence and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ingrid K.; Robertson, John

    2013-01-01

    Mastering techniques of self- and peer revision is a valuable tool for all writers, especially US-educated Generation 1.5 students, whose near fluency enables them to dialogue successfully about their writing. Using action research, 2 academic writing instructors systematically trained students to more responsibly and effectively revise their…

  2. Scar revision

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

  3. Generation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Aerodynamic Data Book and Comparison To Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X.; Krist, Steven E.; Compton, William B.

    2011-01-01

    A 3.5-year effort to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (AIX FTV) is described in this paper. The AIX FTV was designed to be representative of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). While there are several differences in the outer mold line from the current revision of the CLV, the overall length, mass distribution, and flight systems of the two vehicles are very similar. This paper briefly touches on each of the aerodynamic databases developed in the program, describing the methodology employed, experimental and computational contributions to the generation of the databases, and how well the databases and underlying computations compare to actual flight test results.

  4. Comparison of Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Brazil with Thermopower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerio, J. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.; Matvienko, B.; dos Santos, E.; Rocha, C. H.; Sikar, E.; Junior, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Widespread interest in human impacts on the Earth has prompted much questioning in fields of concern to the general public. One of these issues is the extent of the impacts on the environment caused by hydro-based power generation, once viewed as a clean energy source. From the early 1990s onwards, papers and studies have been challenging this assumption through claims that hydroelectric dams also emit greenhouse gases, generated by the decomposition of biomass flooded by filling these reservoirs. Like as other freshwater bodies, hydroelectric reservoirs produce gases underwater by biology decomposition of organic matter. Some of these biogenic gases are effective in terms of Global Warming. The decomposition is mainly due by anaerobically regime, emitting methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This paper compare results obtained from gross greenhouse fluxes in Brazilian hydropower reservoirs with thermo power plants using different types of fuels and technology. Measurements were carried in the Manso, Serra da Mesa, Corumbá, Itumbiara, Estreito, Furnas and Peixoto reservoirs, located in Cerrado biome and in Funil reservoir located at Atlantic forest biome with well defined climatologically regimes. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in each of the reservoirs selected, whether through bubbles and/or diffusive exchange between water and atmosphere, were assessed by sampling. The intensity of emissions has a great variability and some environmental factors could be responsible for these variations. Factors that influence the emissions could be the water and air temperature, depth, wind velocity, sunlight, physical and chemical parameters of water, the composition of underwater biomass and the operational regime of the reservoir. Based in this calculations is possible to conclude that the large amount of hydro-power studied is better than thermopower source in terms of atmospheric greenhouse emissions. The comparisons between the reservoirs studied

  5. Seismic generated infrasounds on Telluric Planets: Modeling and comparisons between Earth, Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.; Karakostas, F. G.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Banerdt, W. B.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth, Venus and Mars are all planets in which infrasounds can propagate and interact with the solid surface. This leads to infrasound generation for internal sources (e.g. quakes) and to seismic waves generations for atmospheric sources (e.g. meteor, impactor explosions, boundary layer turbulences). Both the atmospheric profile, surface density, atmospheric wind and viscous/attenuation processes are however greatly different, including major differences between Mars/Venus and Earth due to the CO2 molecular relaxation. We present modeling results and compare the seismic/acoustic coupling strength for Earth, Mars and Venus. This modeling is made through normal modes modelling for models integrating the interior, atmosphere, both with realistic attenuation (intrinsic Q for solid part, viscosity and molecular relaxation for the atmosphere). We complete these modeling, made for spherical structure, by integration of wind, assuming the later to be homogeneous at the scale of the infrasound wavelength. This allows us to compute either the Seismic normal modes (e.g. Rayleigh surface waves), or the acoustic or the atmospheric gravity modes. Comparisons are done, for either a seismic source or an atmospheric source, on the amplitude of expected signals as a function of distance and frequency. Effects of local time are integrated in the modeling. We illustrate the Rayleigh waves modelling by Earth data (for large quakes and volcanoes eruptions). For Venus, very large coupling can occur at resonance frequencies between the solid part and atmospheric part of the planet through infrasounds/Rayleigh waves coupling. If the atmosphere reduced the Q (quality coefficient) of Rayleigh waves in general, the atmosphere at these resonance soffers better propagation than Venus crust and increases their Q. For Mars, Rayleigh waves excitations by atmospheric burst is shown and discussed for the typical yield of impacts. The new data of the Nasa INSIGHT mission which carry both seismic and

  6. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Computerized Revised Token Test: Comparison of Reading and Listening Versions in Persons with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Malcolm R.; Pratt, Sheila R.; Szuminsky, Neil; Sung, Jee Eun; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Lim, Kyoung Yuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the reliability and validity of intermodality associations and differences in persons with aphasia (PWA) and healthy controls (HC) on a computerized listening and 3 reading versions of the Revised Token Test (RTT; McNeil & Prescott, 1978). Method: Thirty PWA and 30 HC completed the test versions, including a…

  8. A Comparison between Revised NCEP ATP III and IDF Definitions in Diagnosing Metabolic Syndrome in an Urban Sri Lankan Population: The Ragama Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chackrewarthy, S.; Gunasekera, D.; Pathmeswaren, A.; Wijekoon, C. N.; Ranawaka, U. K.; Kato, N.; Takeuchi, F.; Wickremasinghe, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) within individual cohorts varies with the definition used. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of MetS between IDF and revised NCEP ATP III criteria in an urban Sri Lankan population and to investigate the characteristics of discrepant cases. Methods. 2985 individuals, aged 35–65 years, were recruited to the study. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and laboratory investigations were carried out following standard protocols. Results. Age and sex-adjusted prevalences of MetS were 46.1% and 38.9% by revised NCEP and IDF definitions, respectively. IDF criteria failed to identify 21% of men and 7% of women identified by the revised NCEP criteria. The discrepant group had more adverse metabolic profiles despite having a lower waist circumference than those diagnosed by both criteria. Conclusion. MetS is common in this urban Sri Lankan cohort regardless of the definition used. The revised NCEP definition was more appropriate in identifying the metabolically abnormal but nonobese individuals, especially among the males predisposed to type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to determine the suitability of the currently accepted Asian-specific cut-offs for waist circumference in Sri Lankan adults. PMID:23533799

  9. Rules for Cataloging Audiovisual Media: A Comparison of the Revised Chapter 12 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules with the 1967 Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Robert P.; Chen, Carrie C.

    Because of prevailing dissatisfaction with the 1967 version, a revised version of Chapter 12 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules was published in 1975. The scope of the chapter was greatly expanded to cover charts, dioramas, flash cards, games, kits, microscope slides, models, realia, slides, transparencies, and videorecordings as well as…

  10. A Comparison of Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised and Qualitative Reading Inventory-II Instructional Reading Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Patrick P.; Margolis, Howard; Barenbaum, Edna

    2001-01-01

    Administers the Qualitative Reading Inventory-II and the reading subtests of the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised to 34 fourth-grade males reading at or below the 25th percentile on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. Considers the different results obtained by each test. Discusses implications for placing poor readers in…

  11. A Comparison Study of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. Spencer

    1983-01-01

    Compared the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the WAIS-Revised (WAIS-R) in a sample of college students (N=70). A highly significant test order interaction was found. The WAIS-R will result in significantly higher ability estimates when administered following the WAIS than the WAIS will when following the WAIS-R. (JAC)

  12. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Computerized Revised Token Test: Comparison of Reading and Listening Versions in Persons with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Malcolm R.; Pratt, Sheila R.; Szuminsky, Neil; Sung, Jee Eun; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Lim, Kyoung Yuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the reliability and validity of intermodality associations and differences in persons with aphasia (PWA) and healthy controls (HC) on a computerized listening and 3 reading versions of the Revised Token Test (RTT; McNeil & Prescott, 1978). Method: Thirty PWA and 30 HC completed the test versions, including a…

  14. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Modular Cementless Stem Prostheses and Coated Cementless Long-Stem Prostheses on Bone Defect in Hip Revision Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huibin; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the clinical efficacy of modular cementless stem and coated cementless long-stem prostheses in hip revision arthroplasty. Material/Methods Sixty-five patients with complete hip revision surgery data during January 2005 to March 2015 were selected from the People’s Hospital of Linyi City and randomly divided into a S-ROM group (implanted with cementless modular stem prostheses, n=32) and a SLR-PLUS group (implanted with cementless coated long-stem prostheses, n=33). Harris score was used to evaluate the hip function of the patients in order to measure the clinical efficacy of the prostheses in total hip arthroplasty. Anteroposterior pelvic radiographs and lateral pelvic radiographs were taken and each patient’s hip arthroplasty condition was recorded. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to compare the cumulative 5-year non-revision rate between the 2 prostheses and log-rank method was used to inspect the statistical data. Results The Harris scores of both the S-ROM group and the SLR-PLUS group were significantly higher at 12 months after the operation than those before the operation (both P<0.05). The Harris scores of the patients with type I/II bone defects in the S-ROM group were not significantly different from those of the same types in the SLR-PLUS group at all time points (all P>0.05), while the Harris scores of the patients with type IIIA/IIIB in the S-ROM group were both significantly higher than those of the same types in the SLR-PLUS group at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the operation (all P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the cumulative 5-year non-revision rate between the type I/II patients in the S-ROM group (92.31%) and the patients of the same types in the SLR-PLUS group (85.71%) (P>0.05). However, the cumulative 5-year non-revision rate of the type IIIA/IIIB patients in the S-ROM group (89.47%) was significantly different from the patients of the same types in

  15. Chronic rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon: comparison of 2-year results following primary versus revision open subpectoral biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Euler, Simon A; Horan, Marilee P; Ellman, Michael B; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Millett, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of surgical repair for proximal long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon ruptures comparing chronic primary and postsurgical revision LHB tendon ruptures. Patients who underwent subpectoral LHB tenodesis for chronic ruptures with a minimum of 2 years from surgery were identified. ASES and SF-12 PCS scores and surgical and demographic data were collected prospectively. At final follow-up, patients were interviewed regarding symptoms related to their biceps. Symptoms were converted into a Subjective Proximal Biceps Score (SPBS). Twenty-seven patients (22 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 61 years (range 40-76 years) underwent LHB tenodeses. Twenty patients (74.1 %) were primary repairs for chronic ruptures and seven patients (25.9 %) were revision repairs after failed prior LHB tenodesis. Twenty-five patients (92.6 %; n = 18 primary; n = 7 revision) were available for follow-up a mean of 3.8 years (range 2-6.1). The overall median postoperative SPBS showed significant improvement over the preoperative baseline (p < 0.001). Individual components of the SPBS showed substantial improvements. The SPBS significantly correlated with the postoperative ASES score (r = -0.478; p = 0.038). There were no differences in postoperative SPBSs between the primary and revision tenodesis groups. The mean postoperative ASES score was 90.3 and SF-12 PCS was 52.6. Open subpectoral LHB tenodesis was a safe and effective method for the treatment of chronic LHB tendon ruptures and for the revision of failed post-surgical LHB ruptures. Patients had less pain, cramping, and deformity after LHB tenodesis. The SPBS, ASES, and SF-12 PCS scores significantly improved among this group of patients. Level III; Retrospective comparative study.

  16. Comparison of Wells and Revised Geneva Rule to Assess Pretest Probability of Pulmonary Embolism in High-Risk Hospitalized Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Di Marca, Salvatore; Cilia, Chiara; Campagna, Andrea; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Tripepi, Giovanni; Puccia, Giuseppe; Pisano, Marcella; Mastrosimone, Gianluca; Terranova, Valentina; Cardella, Antonella; Buonacera, Agata; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Zoccali, Carmine; Malatino, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    To assess and compare the diagnostic power for pulmonary embolism (PE) of Wells and revised Geneva scores in two independent cohorts (training and validation groups) of elderly adults hospitalized in a non-emergency department. Prospective clinical study, January 2011 to January 2013. Unit of Internal Medicine inpatients, University of Catania, Italy. Elderly adults (mean age 76 ± 12), presenting with dyspnea or chest pain and with high clinical probability of PE or D-dimer values greater than 500 ng/mL (N = 203), were enrolled and consecutively assigned to a training (n = 101) or a validation (n = 102) group. The clinical probability of PE was assessed using Wells and revised Geneva scores. Clinical examination, D-dimer test, and multidetector computed angiotomography were performed in all participants. The accuracy of the scores was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analyses. PE was confirmed in 46 participants (23%) (24 training group, 22 validation group). In the training group, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-0.98) for the Wells score and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.56-0.82) for the revised Geneva score (P < .001). These results were confirmed in the validation group (P < .05). The positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) (two indices combining sensitivity and specificity) of the Wells score were superior to those of the revised Geneva score in the training (LR+, 7.90 vs 1.34; LR-, 0.23 vs 0.66) and validation (LR+, 13.5 vs 1.46; LR-, 0.47 vs 0.54) groups. In high-risk elderly hospitalized adults, the Wells score is more accurate than the revised Geneva score for diagnosing PE. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  18. Comparison of the unstructured clinician gestalt, the wells score, and the revised Geneva score to estimate pretest probability for suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Penaloza, Andrea; Verschuren, Franck; Meyer, Guy; Quentin-Georget, Sybille; Soulie, Caroline; Thys, Frédéric; Roy, Pierre-Marie

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of clinical probability (as low, moderate, or high) with clinical decision rules has become a cornerstone of diagnostic strategy for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, but little is known about the use of physician gestalt assessment of clinical probability. We evaluate the performance of gestalt assessment for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective observational cohort of consecutive suspected pulmonary embolism patients in emergency departments. Accuracy of gestalt assessment was compared with the Wells score and the revised Geneva score by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves. Agreement between the 3 methods was determined by κ test. The study population was 1,038 patients, with a pulmonary embolism prevalence of 31.3%. AUC differed significantly between the 3 methods and was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.84) for gestalt assessment, 0.71 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.75) for Wells, and 0.66 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.70) for the revised Geneva score. The proportion of patients categorized as having low clinical probability was statistically higher with gestalt than with revised Geneva score (43% versus 26%; 95% CI for the difference of 17%=13% to 21%). Proportion of patients categorized as having high clinical probability was higher with gestalt than with Wells (24% versus 7%; 95% CI for the difference of 17%=14% to 20%) or revised Geneva score (24% versus 10%; 95% CI for the difference of 15%=13% to 21%). Pulmonary embolism prevalence was significantly lower with gestalt versus clinical decision rules in low clinical probability (7.6% for gestalt versus 13.0% for revised Geneva score and 12.6% for Wells score) and non-high clinical probability groups (18.3% for gestalt versus 29.3% for Wells and 27.4% for revised Geneva score) and was significantly higher with gestalt versus Wells score in high clinical probability groups (72.1% versus 58.1%). Agreement

  19. Efficient Signal Processing in Random Networks that Generate Variability: A Comparison of Internally Generated and Externally Induced Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Nishikawa, Isao; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Toyoizumi, Taro

    Source of cortical variability and its influence on signal processing remain an open question. We address the latter, by studying two types of balanced randomly connected networks of quadratic I-F neurons, with irregular spontaneous activity: (a) a deterministic network with strong connections generating noise by chaotic dynamics (b) a stochastic network with weak connections receiving noisy input. They are analytically tractable in the limit of large network-size and channel time-constant. Despite different sources of noise, spontaneous activity of these networks are identical unless majority of neurons are simultaneously recorded. However, the two networks show remarkably different sensitivity to external stimuli. In the former, input reverberates internally and can be read out over long time, but in the latter, inputs rapidly decay. This is further enhanced with activity-dependent plasticity at input synapses producing marked difference in decoding inputs from neural activity. We show, this leads to distinct performance of the two networks to integrate temporally separate signals from multiple sources, with the deterministic chaotic network activity serving as reservoir for Monte Carlo sampling to perform near optimal Bayesian integration, unlike its stochastic counterpart.

  20. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    PubMed

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  1. Portuguese Immigrant Women's Perspectives on Wife Abuse: A Cross-Generational Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.; McNally, Mary Jane; Sales, Isabel M.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive study seeks to understand what first and second generation Portuguese women believe about wife abuse and what actions they believe are appropriate for an abused wife. Eighty first generation and 54 second generation women participated. The researcher read the questionnaire items aloud in one-on-one meetings. Overall, participants…

  2. Validation of a Brief Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Davis, Sandra A.; Todd, Richard D.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Gross, Maggie M.; Brophy, Susan L.; Metzger, Lisa M.; Shoushtari, Christiana S.; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in 61 children (ages 4-16) with autism. Correlations between the test scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. (Contains references.)…

  3. Do medical student stress, health, or quality of life foretell step 1 scores? A comparison of students in traditional and revised preclinical curricula.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Phebe; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Sener, Ugur; Arvidson, Megan; Khalafian, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    We explored the theory that measures of medical students' well-being and stress from different types of preclinical curricula are linked with performance on standardized assessment. Self-reported stress and quality of life among sophomore medical students having different types of preclinical curricula will vary in their relationships to USMLE Step 1 scores. Voluntary surveys in 2010 and 2011 compared self-reported stress, physical and mental health, and quality of life with Step 1 scores for beginning sophomore students in the final year of a traditional, discipline-based curriculum and the 1st year of a revised, systems-based curriculum with changed grading system. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations were used to analyze data, significant at p <.05. New curriculum students reported worse physical health, subjective feelings, leisure activities, social relationships and morale, and more depressive symptoms and life stress than traditional curriculum students. However, among curriculum-related stressors, few differences emerged; revised curriculum sophomores reported less stress working with real and standardized patients than traditional students. There were no class differences in respondents' Step 1 scores. Among emotional and physical health measures, only feelings of morale correlated negatively with Step 1 performance. Revised curriculum students' Step 1 scores correlated negatively with stress from difficulty of coursework. Although revised curriculum students reported worse quality of life, general stress, and health and less stress from patient interactions than traditional students, few measures were associated with performance differences on Step 1. Moreover, curriculum type did not appear to either hinder or help students' Step 1 performance. To identify and help students at risk for academic problems, future assessments of correlates of Step 1 performance should be repeated after the new curriculum is well established, relating them

  4. Parametric vs. non-parametric daily weather generator: validation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, Martin

    2016-04-01

    As the climate models (GCMs and RCMs) fail to satisfactorily reproduce the real-world surface weather regime, various statistical methods are applied to downscale GCM/RCM outputs into site-specific weather series. The stochastic weather generators are among the most favourite downscaling methods capable to produce realistic (observed like) meteorological inputs for agrological, hydrological and other impact models used in assessing sensitivity of various ecosystems to climate change/variability. To name their advantages, the generators may (i) produce arbitrarily long multi-variate synthetic weather series representing both present and changed climates (in the latter case, the generators are commonly modified by GCM/RCM-based climate change scenarios), (ii) be run in various time steps and for multiple weather variables (the generators reproduce the correlations among variables), (iii) be interpolated (and run also for sites where no weather data are available to calibrate the generator). This contribution will compare two stochastic daily weather generators in terms of their ability to reproduce various features of the daily weather series. M&Rfi is a parametric generator: Markov chain model is used to model precipitation occurrence, precipitation amount is modelled by the Gamma distribution, and the 1st order autoregressive model is used to generate non-precipitation surface weather variables. The non-parametric GoMeZ generator is based on the nearest neighbours resampling technique making no assumption on the distribution of the variables being generated. Various settings of both weather generators will be assumed in the present validation tests. The generators will be validated in terms of (a) extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics (annual and 30 years extremes and maxima of duration of hot/cold/dry/wet spells); (b) selected validation statistics developed within the frame of VALUE project. The tests will be based on observational weather series

  5. In vitro comparison of noise levels produced by different CPAP generators.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Lieselotte; Wald, Martin; Jeitler, Valerie; Pollak, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of noise exposure is an important aim of modern neonatal intensive care medicine. Binasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generators are among the most important sources of continuous noise in neonatal wards. The aim of this study was to find out which CPAP generator creates the least noise. In an experimental setup, two jet CPAP generators (Infant Flow® generator and MediJet®) and two conventional CPAP generators (Bubble CPAP® and Baby Flow®) were compared. Noise production was measured in decibels in an A-weighted scale [dB(A)] in a closed incubator at 2 mm lateral distance from the end of the nasal prongs. Reproduction of constant airway pressure and air leak was achieved by closure of the nasal prongs with a type of adhesive tape that is semipermeable to air. The noise levels produced by the four generators were significantly different (p < 0.001). Values measured at a continuous constant flow rate of 8 l/min averaged 83 dB(A) for the Infant Flow® generator with or without sound absorber, 72 dB(A) for the MediJet®, 62 dB(A) for the Bubble CPAP® and 55 dB(A) for the Baby Flow®. Conventional CPAP generators work more quietly than the currently available jet CPAP generators. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of tire-related particles: comparison of particles generated using different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M; McAtee, Britt L; Sweet, Leonard I; Finley, Brent L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of particles generated from the interaction of tires and road surfaces. Morphology, size distribution, and chemical composition were compared between particles generated using different methods, including on-road collection, laboratory generation under simulated driving conditions, and cryogenic breaking of tread rubber. Both on-road collected and laboratory generated particles exhibited the elongated shape typical of tire wear particles, whereas tread particles were more angular. Despite similar morphology for the on-road collected and the laboratory generated particles, the former were smaller on average. It is not clear at this stage if the difference is significant to the physical and chemical behavior of the particles. The chemical composition of the particles differed, with on-road generated particles containing chemical contributions from sources other than tires, such as pavement or particulates generated from other traffic-related sources. Understanding the differences between these particles is essential in apportioning contaminant contributions to the environment between tires, roadways, and other sources, and evaluating the representativeness of toxicity studies using different types of particulate generated.

  7. Comparison of markers of coagulation activation and thrombin generation test in uncomplicated pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Joly, Berangere; Barbay, Virginie; Borg, Jeanne-Yvonne; Le Cam-Duchez, Veronique

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy is a well-established risk factor for venous thromboembolism, and is associated with a state of hypercoagulability or parameters of thrombin generation. Currently, there is a lack of consensual data on thrombin generation during pregnancy. This study aimed to find a sensitive and specific biological marker of coagulation activation and to identify parameters of thrombin generation. The population included 101 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. The objective of this study was to correlate thrombin generation test (measured at 5pM tissue factor, 4μM lipids and without thrombomodulin), with fibrinogen and markers of blood coagulation activation: D-dimer, prothrombin fragments 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) and fibrin monomer complexes (FMC) in these women. Internal quality control was performed in each set of experiments. Fibrinogen, D-dimer, F1+2, and TAT concentrations increased significantly throughout pregnancy, and were correlated with term of pregnancy. In our study, thrombin generation seemed to increase early on, and then remained stable throughout normal pregnancy, in contrast with other markers of blood coagulation activation, excepting FMC. The latter are subject to large inter-individual variations, especially during second trimester. No correlation was demonstrated between thrombin generation parameters and other activation markers. While markers of coagulation activation significantly increased during pregnancy, thrombin generation increased only early on and remains stable during pregnancy. Finding a sensitive and specific biological marker for vascular pregnancy complications, such as FMC and thrombin generation levels, requires further investigation. © 2013.

  8. A Language-Related Comparison of Generation 1.5 and L1 Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    "Generation 1.5" is a term being used to describe a type of second language (L2) long-term U.S. resident who may demonstrate persistent language-related challenges (Roberge, Siegel, & Harklau, 2009). Among the difficulties commonly noted with Generation 1.5 students are problems in controlling the academic register expected in…

  9. Generation Validation: The Role of Social Comparison in Use of Instagram Among Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Peta; Luiz, Gabriella; Chatwin, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide emerging adults with extreme and unprecedented transparency, exposing them to a plethora of opportunities for social comparison. In light of the growing use of the popular SNS, Instagram, among emerging adults, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. The study recruited 237 participants through social media. The sample was narrowed to young adults aged 18-29 years. The study used a correlational nonexperimental approach to investigate two mediation models proposed in the literature. First, the study investigated the mediating role of social comparison on Instagram in the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and self-esteem. Second, the study examined the mediating role of social comparison in the relationship between self-worth contingent on approval from others and self-esteem. Although the first model was found to be nonsignificant, results observed a significant indirect pathway that confirmed the second model. Thus, social comparison on Instagram mediated the relationship between contingent self-worth and self-esteem. Furthermore, moderation analyses found that self-worth contingent on approval from others moderated the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and social comparison on Instagram. Thus, although Instagram did not directly affect self-esteem, the significant moderation suggested that intensity of Instagram use is influential when the young person's self-worth is contingent on approval from others. Overall, the findings are consistent with previous research and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that link SNS use to low self-esteem.

  10. Comparison between a second and a third generation parathyroid hormone assay in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Farès, Chirine; Ibrahim, Tony; Rahal, Zeina Abou; Elias, Michele; Chelala, Dania

    2013-10-01

    Third generation parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays are new generation assays that do not recognize the PTH7-84 fragment whereas second generation assays detect both PTH1-84 and PTH7-84 fragments. Despite the excellent correlation between both assays in chronic renal failure (CRF) subjects, the mean PTH levels are typically 50% lower with the third compared to the second generation assays. The assessment of third generation PTH assays has not been extensively studied in hemodialysis subjects. The purpose of our study was to compare a third generation PTH assay to a second generation one in a population of hemodialysis subjects. 92 haemodialysis subjects (36 women and 56 men) with a mean age of 67±12.9 years were included in this study. Anthropometric and clinical parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) and blood pressure) were measured. Second and third generation PTH assays (Cis biomedical and Diasorin respectively) were performed in each subject. In addition, the following biochemical tests were measured: 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D), 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D), crosslaps and alkaline phosphatase. The mean second and third generation PTHs are respectively 211±205 pg/ml and 151±164 pg/ml. The mean third generation PTH values are 28.4% lower compared to the second generation ones. Both methods are strongly correlated (r=0.923, p<0.001). This correlation persisted without any significant difference after controlling for gender, age, BMI and Blood Pressure. However, the difference between both methods increases when baseline PTH increases. Each of the second and third generation method is significantly correlated with hemodialysis duration (p<0.01), crosslaps (p<0.001), alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05), but not with age, BMI, Blood Pressure, 25-(OH)D or 1,25-(OH) 2D levels. Our results show that both second and third generation PTH methods are strongly correlated in hemodialysis patients mainly when PTH values are low. However, the difference between both methods

  11. Comparison of stainless and mild steel welding fumes in generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Welding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can be deposited in all regions of the respiratory tract. The welding aerosol is not homogeneous and is generated mostly from the electrode/wire. Over 390,000 welders were reported in the U.S. in 2008 while over 1 million full-time welders were working worldwide. Many health effects are presently under investigation from exposure to welding fumes. Welding fume pulmonary effects have been associated with bronchitis, metal fume fever, cancer and functional changes in the lung. Our investigation focused on the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species from stainless and mild steel welding fumes generated by a gas metal arc robotic welder. An inhalation exposure chamber located at NIOSH was used to collect the welding fume particles. Results Our results show that hydroxyl radicals (.OH) were generated from reactions with H2O2 and after exposure to cells. Catalase reduced the generation of .OH from exposed cells indicating the involvement of H2O2. The welding fume suspension also showed the ability to cause lipid peroxidation, effect O2 consumption, induce H2O2 generation in cells, and cause DNA damage. Conclusion Increase in oxidative damage observed in the cellular exposures correlated well with .OH generation in size and type of welding fumes, indicating the influence of metal type and transition state on radical production as well as associated damage. Our results demonstrate that both types of welding fumes are able to generate ROS and ROS-related damage over a range of particle sizes; however, the stainless steel fumes consistently showed a significantly higher reactivity and radical generation capacity. The chemical composition of the steel had a significant impact on the ROS generation capacity with the stainless steel containing Cr and Ni causing more damage than the mild steel. Our results suggest that welding fumes may cause acute lung injury. Since type of

  12. A Comparison of Three Random Number Generators for Aircraft Dynamic Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2017-01-01

    Three random number generators, which produce Gaussian white noise sequences, were compared to assess their suitability in aircraft dynamic modeling applications. The first generator considered was the MATLAB (registered) implementation of the Mersenne-Twister algorithm. The second generator was a website called Random.org, which processes atmospheric noise measured using radios to create the random numbers. The third generator was based on synthesis of the Fourier series, where the random number sequences are constructed from prescribed amplitude and phase spectra. A total of 200 sequences, each having 601 random numbers, for each generator were collected and analyzed in terms of the mean, variance, normality, autocorrelation, and power spectral density. These sequences were then applied to two problems in aircraft dynamic modeling, namely estimating stability and control derivatives from simulated onboard sensor data, and simulating flight in atmospheric turbulence. In general, each random number generator had good performance and is well-suited for aircraft dynamic modeling applications. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each generator are discussed. For Monte Carlo simulation, the Fourier synthesis method is recommended because it most accurately and consistently approximated Gaussian white noise and can be implemented with reasonable computational effort.

  13. An exploratory comparison of name generator content: Data from rural India

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1970s sociologists have explored the best means for measuring social networks, although few name generator analyses have used sociocentric data or data from developing countries, partly because sociocentric studies in developing countries have been scant. Here, we analyze 12 different name generators used in a sociocentric network study conducted in 75 villages in rural Karnataka, India. Having unusual sociocentric data from a non-Western context allowed us to extend previous name generator research through the unique analyses of network structural measures, an extensive consideration of homophily, and investigation of status difference between egos and alters. We found that domestic interaction questions generated networks that were highly clustered and highly centralized. Similarity between respondents and their nominated contacts was strongest for gender, caste, and religion. We also found that domestic interaction name generators yielded the most homogeneous ties, while advice questions yielded the most heterogeneous. Participants were generally more likely to nominate those of higher social status, although certain questions, such as who participants talk to uncovered more egalitarian relationships, while other name generators elicited the names of social contacts distinctly higher or lower in status than the respondent. Some questions also seemed to uncover networks that were specific to the cultural context, suggesting that network researchers should balance local relevance with global generalizability when choosing name generators. PMID:28845086

  14. Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1994--FY 2001. Environmental Restoration Program, September 1993 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project. FY 1994--FY 2001 is the third in a series of documents that report current estimates of the waste volumes expected to be generated as a result of Environmental Restoration activities at Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), sites. Considered in the scope of this document are volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of remedial action and decontamination and decommissioning activities taking place at these sites. Sites contributing to the total estimates make up the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the off-site contaminated areas adjacent to the Oak Ridge facilities (collectively referred to as the Oak Ridge Reservation Off-Site area). Estimates are available for the entire fife of all waste generating activities. This document summarizes waste estimates forecasted for the 8-year period of FY 1994-FY 2001. Updates with varying degrees of change are expected throughout the refinement of restoration strategies currently in progress at each of the sites. Waste forecast data are relatively fluid, and this document represents remediation plans only as reported through September 1993.

  15. Comparison of Head Center Position and Screw Fixation Options Between a Jumbo Cup and an Offset Center of Rotation Cup in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Computer Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Ahmad; Black, Brandon J; Fay, Brian D; Heffernan, Christopher D; Ries, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Jumbo acetabular cups are commonly used in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A straightforward reaming technique is used which is similar to primary THA. However, jumbo cups may also be associated with hip center elevation, limited screw fixation options, and anterior soft tissue impingement. A partially truncated hemispherical shell was designed with an offset center of rotation, thick superior rim, and beveled anterior and superior rims as an alternative to a conventional jumbo cup. A three dimensional computer simulation was used to assess head center position and safe screw trajectories. Results of this in vitro study indicate that a modified hemispherical implant geometry can reduce head center elevation while permitting favorable screw fixation trajectories into the pelvis in comparison to a conventional jumbo cup.

  16. Comparison of enamel and dentin shear bond strengths of current dental bonding adhesives from three bond generations.

    PubMed

    Meharry, M R; Moazzami, S M; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    generally showed stronger SBS values than the seventh-generation all-in-one DBAs. The new sixth-generation DBA OptiBond XTR (Kerr) showed strong SBS values to both substrates and performed well in comparison to the other DBAs tested.

  17. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  18. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  19. Mid-peripheral collisions around the Fermi energy: comparison with an event generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudan, Sylvie; McIntosh, A. B.; Gosser, Z.; Metelko, C.; Rudolph, M.; Yanez, R.; de Souza, R.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Fregeau, M. O.; Gauthier, J.; Moisan, J.; Roy, R.; Bianchin, S.; Schwarz, C.; Trautmann, W.; Durand, D.

    2009-05-01

    The reactions ^124Xe+^112,124Sn at E/A=50MeV have been recently measured. For mid-peripheral collisions, the projectile-like-fragment has been measured in coincidence with emitted particles (charged particles and neutrons). Experimental data will be compared to those obtained by the event generator Elie[1]. This two-step event generator consists of an entrance channel phase using a random process to determine the initial partition; and of kinematic propagation and secondary decay as the second phase. Experimental and generated energy distributions, angular distributions, and Z distributions of charged products will be examined. Yields of isotopically resolved fragments will be studied, including the effect of the target N/Z. [1] Elie: an event generator for nuclear reactions, Dominique Durand, arXiv:0803.2159

  20. A comparison of expert systems and neural networks applications in power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Mejia-Lavalle, M.

    1994-12-31

    Two application systems, Tube Failure Diagnosis (TFD) and Electric Generator Failure Diagnosis (EGFD), are discussed in the paper. The TFD system was built using two different approaches: one with rule-chaining search algorithms and the other with a new neural network paradigm. The EGFD system combines the two artificial intelligence approaches: rule-chaining and neural networks. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the two technologies, as applied to power generation applications, is included.

  1. Quantitative Comparison of Photothermal Heat Generation between Gold Nanospheres and Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yiru; Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Raeesi, Vahid; Chan, Warren C. W.; Lipiński, Wojciech; Bischof, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are widely used for biomedical applications due to unique optical properties, established synthesis methods, and biological compatibility. Despite important applications of plasmonic heating in thermal therapy, imaging, and diagnostics, the lack of quantification in heat generation leads to difficulties in comparing the heating capability for new plasmonic nanostructures and predicting the therapeutic and diagnostic outcome. This study quantifies GNP heat generation by experimental measurements and theoretical predictions for gold nanospheres (GNS) and nanorods (GNR). Interestingly, the results show a GNP-type dependent agreement between experiment and theory. The measured heat generation of GNS matches well with theory, while the measured heat generation of GNR is only 30% of that predicted theoretically at peak absorption. This then leads to a surprising finding that the polydispersity, the deviation of nanoparticle size and shape from nominal value, significantly influences GNR heat generation (>70% reduction), while having a limited effect for GNS (<10% change). This work demonstrates that polydispersity is an important metric in quantitatively predicting plasmonic heat generation and provides a validated framework to quantitatively compare the heating capabilities between gold and other plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:27445172

  2. Quantitative Comparison of Photothermal Heat Generation between Gold Nanospheres and Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yiru; Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Raeesi, Vahid; Chan, Warren C. W.; Lipiński, Wojciech; Bischof, John C.

    2016-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are widely used for biomedical applications due to unique optical properties, established synthesis methods, and biological compatibility. Despite important applications of plasmonic heating in thermal therapy, imaging, and diagnostics, the lack of quantification in heat generation leads to difficulties in comparing the heating capability for new plasmonic nanostructures and predicting the therapeutic and diagnostic outcome. This study quantifies GNP heat generation by experimental measurements and theoretical predictions for gold nanospheres (GNS) and nanorods (GNR). Interestingly, the results show a GNP-type dependent agreement between experiment and theory. The measured heat generation of GNS matches well with theory, while the measured heat generation of GNR is only 30% of that predicted theoretically at peak absorption. This then leads to a surprising finding that the polydispersity, the deviation of nanoparticle size and shape from nominal value, significantly influences GNR heat generation (>70% reduction), while having a limited effect for GNS (<10% change). This work demonstrates that polydispersity is an important metric in quantitatively predicting plasmonic heat generation and provides a validated framework to quantitatively compare the heating capabilities between gold and other plasmonic nanostructures.

  3. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule, and other Part B payment policies for CY 2008; revisions to the payment policies of ambulance services under the ambulance fee schedule for CY 2008; and the amendment of the e-prescribing exemption for computer generated facsimile transmissions. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2007-11-27

    This final rule with comment period addresses certain provisions of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, as well as making other proposed changes to Medicare Part B payment policy. We are making these changes to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. This final rule with comment period also discusses refinements to resource-based practice expense (PE) relative value units (RVUs); geographic practice cost indices (GPCI) changes; malpractice RVUs; requests for additions to the list of telehealth services; several coding issues including additional codes from the 5-Year Review; payment for covered outpatient drugs and biologicals; the competitive acquisition program (CAP); clinical lab fee schedule issues; payment for renal dialysis services; performance standards for independent diagnostic testing facilities; expiration of the physician scarcity area (PSA) bonus payment; conforming and clarifying changes for comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities (CORFs); a process for updating the drug compendia; physician self referral issues; beneficiary signature for ambulance transport services; durable medical equipment (DME) update; the chiropractic services demonstration; a Medicare economic index (MEI) data change; technical corrections; standards and requirements related to therapy services under Medicare Parts A and B; revisions to the ambulance fee schedule; the ambulance inflation factor for CY 2008; and amending the e-prescribing exemption for computer-generated facsimile transmissions. We are also finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2007 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for CY 2008. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2008 is -10.1 percent, the initial estimate for the sustainable growth rate for CY 2008 is -0.1 percent, and the conversion factor (CF) for CY 2008 is $34.0682.

  4. Comparison of UVA-induced ROS and sunscreen nanoparticle-generated ROS in human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cenchao; Turney, Terence W; Piva, Terrence J; Feltis, Bryce N; Wright, Paul F A

    2014-05-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues from free radicals induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be attenuated by sunscreen components, such as ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Although it is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by cells upon exposure to ZnO and TiO2 NPs, it is unknown to what extent the amount generated is altered with UV co-exposure. As it is a critical component for determining the relative risk of these NPs when used in sunscreen formulations, we have investigated ROS generation by these NPs in human THP-1 monocyte immune cells following UVA co-exposure. Whilst the applied UVA dose (6.7 J cm(-2)) did not alter cell viability after 24 h, it induced significant ROS production - causing a 7-fold increase in intracellular peroxide and 3.3-fold increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels after 1 h. However, co-exposure to NPs and UVA generated the same or less ROS than with UVA exposure alone, with the exception of anatase TiO2, which showed significantly increased levels. These findings indicate that ROS generation from nanosunscreens is, in most cases, an insignificant contributor to the overall risk associated with oxidative stress from UVA exposure itself.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene for Forensic Soil Comparison: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Jesmok, Ellen M; Hopkins, James M; Foran, David R

    2016-05-01

    Soil has the potential to be valuable forensic evidence linking a person or item to a crime scene; however, there is no established soil individualization technique. In this study, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was examined for associating soils with their place of origin. Soil samples were collected from ten diverse and nine similar habitats over time, and within three habitats at various horizontal and vertical distances. Bacterial profiles were analyzed using four methods: abundance charts and nonmetric multidimensional scaling provided simplification and visualization of the massive datasets, potentially aiding in expert testimony, while analysis of similarities and k-nearest neighbor offered objective statistical comparisons. The vast majority of soil bacterial profiles (95.4%) were classified to their location of origin, highlighting the potential of bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing for the forensic analysis of soil samples.

  6. Comparison of acid-generating efficiencies in 248 and 193-nm photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, James F.; Chan, Nicholas; Moore, Kathryn; Pohlers, Gerd

    2001-08-01

    Photoacid generation is a critical step in the application of chemically amplified (CA) resist technology. During the key exposure step, a catalytic amount of a strong Bronsted acid is released within these resists. The photoacid is subsequently used in a post-exposure bake step to catalytically react with the resist polymer. In the case of a positive tone resist, an acid sensitive polymer is deprotected to render the exposed areas soluble in dilute aqueous base thereby allowing for pattern development. As the semicondutor industry beings to focus on developing 193 nm photoresists for production, it si important to identify and understand differences between prototype 193nm CA resists and current state of the art 248nm production worth photoresists. The major difference between 193 and 248 nm photoresists is the exposure wavelength, which isr educed to achieve higher resolution based on the Rayleigh equation. However, this change in wavelength has several ramifications: Firstly, the tried, tested and true phenolic polymers used in DUV resists are too absorbent to be used fo 193nm application and had to be replaced by low absorbing, non-aromatic systems. Second, since even these new platforms are still more absorbing at 193 nm than the phenolic matrices are at 248nm, the PAG loading had to be lowered significantly in order to keep the overall absorbance of the resist down. This paper descibes the results of our systematic studies on understanding the reasons for observed differences in photoacid generating efficincy between 193 and 248nm chemically amplified resist systems. First the wavelength effect is studied by comparing the relative acid generating efficiency of onium type PAGs in a prototype 193nm and a DUV photoresist at both 193 nm and 248 nm exposure. Second, the photoacid generating efficiency for these PAGs at 238 nm is compared in both phenolic and non-phenolic based photoresists to probe resist polymer matrix effects. Third, these experiments were

  7. Comparison of exciplex generation under optical and X-ray excitation.

    PubMed

    Kipriyanov, A A; Melnikov, A R; Stass, D V; Doktorov, A B

    2017-09-07

    Exciplex generation under optical and X-ray excitation in identical conditions is experimentally compared using a specially chosen model donor-acceptor system, anthracene (electron acceptor) and N,N-dimethylaniline (electron donor) in non-polar solution, and the results are analyzed and interpreted based on analytically calculated luminescence quantum yields. Calculations are performed on the basis of kinetic equations for multistage schemes of bulk exciplex production reaction under optical excitation and combination of bulk and geminate reactions of radical ion pairs under X-ray excitation. These results explain the earlier experimentally found difference in the ratio of the quantum yields of exciplexes and excited electron acceptors (exciplex generation efficiency) and the corresponding change in the exciplex generation efficiency under X-irradiation as compared to the reaction under optical excitation.

  8. Heat Generation During Bone Drilling: A Comparison Between Industrial and Orthopaedic Drill Bits.

    PubMed

    Hein, Christopher; Inceoglu, Serkan; Juma, David; Zuckerman, Lee

    2017-02-01

    Cortical bone drilling for preparation of screw placement is common in multiple surgical fields. The heat generated while drilling may reach thresholds high enough to cause osteonecrosis. This can compromise implant stability. Orthopaedic drill bits are several orders more expensive than their similarly sized, publicly available industrial counterparts. We hypothesize that an industrial bit will generate less heat during drilling, and the bits will not generate more heat after multiple cortical passes. We compared 4 4.0 mm orthopaedic and 1 3.97 mm industrial drill bits. Three types of each bit were drilled into porcine femoral cortices 20 times. The temperature of the bone was measured with thermocouple transducers. The heat generated during the first 5 drill cycles for each bit was compared to the last 5 cycles. These data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The industrial drill bit generated the smallest mean increase in temperature (2.8 ± 0.29°C) P < 0.0001. No significant difference was identified comparing the first 5 cortices drilled to the last 5 cortices drilled for each bit. The P-values are as follows: Bosch (P = 0.73), Emerge (P = 0.09), Smith & Nephew (P = 0.08), Stryker (P = 0.086), and Synthes (P = 0.16). The industrial bit generated less heat during drilling than its orthopaedic counterparts. The bits maintained their performance after 20 drill cycles. Consideration should be given by manufacturers to design differences that may contribute to a more efficient cutting bit. Further investigation into the reuse of these drill bits may be warranted, as our data suggest their efficiency is maintained after multiple uses.

  9. A Comparison of Second and Third Generations Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills’ Effect on Mood

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Ranjbar Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gaza Banoi, Kamal; Nahaee, Jila; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are satisfied with their contraceptive method. However, one of the most common reasons reported for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is mood deterioration. Objectives: This study aimed to compare effects of the second and third generation oral contraceptive pills on the mood of reproductive women. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in reproductive women at health centers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomized into the second and third generation oral contraceptive groups. Positive and negative moods were recorded using positive affect, negative affect scale (PANAS) tools at the end the second and fourth months of the study. Data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and P Values < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen in positive and negative mood changes in women receiving contraceptive pills. The second generation oral contraceptive pills resulted in a decrease in positive mood (95% CI: 43.39 to 38.32 in second month and 43.39 to 26.05 in four month) and increase in negative mood (95% CI: 14.23 to 22.04 in second month and 14.23 to 32.26 in four month - P < 0.001), but the third generation led to an increase in positive mood (95% CI: 22.42 to 25.60 in second month and 22.42 to 33.87 in four month) and decrease in negative mood (95% CI: 36.78 to 31.97 in second month and 36.78 to 22.65 in four month - P < 0.001). Conclusions: Third generation combined oral contraceptive pills have a better effect on mood in women in reproductive ages than the second generation pills. It can be recommended as a proper combined oral contraceptive in Iran. PMID:25389478

  10. User's guide for the Data Analysis, Retrieval, and Tabulation System (DARTS), revised edition: A mainframe computer code for generating cross-tabulation reports

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1990-10-01

    A computer system unknown as the Data Analysis, Retrieval, and Tabulation System (DARTS) was developed by the Energy Systems Division at Argonne National Laboratory to generate tables of descriptive statistics derived from analyses of housing and energy data sources. Through a simple input command, the user can request the preparation of a hierarchical table based on any combination of several hundred of the most commonly analyzed variables. The system was written in the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) language and designed for use on a large-scale IBM mainframe computer.

  11. Reading on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and parental education as predictors of IQ: comparison with the Barona formula.

    PubMed

    Kareken, D A; Gur, R C; Saykin, A J

    1995-03-01

    It is frequently necessary in research and clinical evaluations to obtain estimates of premorbid intelligence (IQ) which are separate from measured IQ. There is evidence that word reading may be useful in this aim. In order to determine the potential of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) reading subtest (READ) as an estimate of premorbid IQ, the present study examined the relationship between READ and IQ in healthy subjects. Consistent with other findings, READ accounted for a significant amount of variance in Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Race and parental education, the latter being a variable not previously examined in this literature, accounted for incrementally valid variance in IQ beyond READ. The predictive power of these variables compares favorably with estimates made by the Barona IQ estimation formula, which uses only demographic information.

  12. Positive impression management and its influence on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: a comparison of analog and differential prevalence group designs.

    PubMed

    Bagby, R Michael; Marshall, Margarita B

    2003-09-01

    Participants (n = 22) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) as part of an authentic job application. Protocols produced by this group were compared with "analog" participants (n = 23) who completed the NEO PI-R under standard instructions and again under instructions designed to mimic the test-taking scenario of the job applicants (the "fake-good" condition). Participants completing the NEO PI-R under fake-good instructions and the job applicants scored lower on the Neuroticism and higher on the Extraversion scales than did the participants responding under standard instructions. Analog participants in the fake-good condition scored higher on the Extraversion and lower on the Agreeableness scales than did the job applicants. These results suggest that outcomes from analog designs are generalizable to real-world samples where response dissimulation is probable.

  13. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n  =  26, 55%) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (n  =  21, 45%). Analysis showed that the full sample received significantly higher scores on the Leiter-R than SB5 (mean discrepancy of 20.91 points), specific diagnosis was not a significant factor, and younger children had a larger discrepancy between tests. These analyses strongly suggest that the Leiter-R and the SB5 may not be equivalent measures of intellectual functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders, and that use of one or the other exclusively could lead to misclassification of intellectual capacity.

  14. Comparison of simplified score with the revised original score for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis: a new or a complementary diagnostic score?

    PubMed

    Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Zachou, Kalliopi; Papamichalis, Panagiotis; Koukoulis, George K; Gabeta, Stella; Dalekos, George N; Rigopoulou, Eirini I

    2010-11-01

    The International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group developed a simplified score for autoimmune hepatitis. We assessed this "new scoring system" and compared it with the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group original revised score. 502 patients were evaluated namely, 428 had liver diseases of various etiology [hepatitis B (n=109), hepatitis C (n=100), hepatitis D (n=4), alcoholic liver disease (n=28), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n=55), autoimmune cholestatic diseases (n=77), liver disorders of undefined origin (n=32) and miscellaneous hepatic disorders (n=23)], 13 had autoimmune hepatitis/overlap syndromes, 18 had autoimmune hepatitis/concurrent with other liver diseases and 43 had autoimmune hepatitis. The specificity of the simplified score was similar to that of the revised score (97% vs. 97.9%). The sensitivity in unmasking autoimmune hepatitis in autoimmune hepatitis/overlap syndromes was also similar in both systems (53.8% and 61.5%). However, the sensitivity for autoimmune hepatitis diagnosis in autoimmune hepatitis patients with concurrent liver disorders was lower by the new score (p=0.001). Liver biopsy proved to be the only independent factor for unmasking autoimmune hepatitis component among patients (p=0.003). The simplified score is a reliable and simple tool for excluding autoimmune hepatitis. However, both systems cannot unmask autoimmune hepatitis component efficiently in autoimmune hepatitis patients with concurrent autoimmune or non-autoimmune liver diseases. This study also strongly reiterates the importance of liver biopsy in the work-up of patients. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aqueous fullerene aggregates (nC60) generate minimal reactive oxygen species and are of low toxicity in fish: a revision of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Henry, Theodore B; Petersen, Elijah J; Compton, Robert N

    2011-08-01

    This review aims to clarify inconsistencies in previous reports regarding the potential for aqueous aggregates of fullerenes (nC60) to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause toxicity in fish. Methods for evaluation of ROS production and toxicity of aqueous nC60 have evolved over time and limitations in initial studies have led to unintentional erroneous reports of nC60 ROS generation and toxicity. Some of these reports continue to lead to misconceptions of the environmental effects of C60. Critical review of the evidence (2007-2011) indicates that aqueous nC60 have minimal potential to produce ROS and that oxidative stress in fish is not induced by environmentally relevant exposure to nC60. Future studies should acknowledge that current evidence indicates low toxicity of nC60 and refrain from citing articles that attribute toxicity in fish to nC60 based on methods shown to be compromised by experimental artifacts. Despite low toxicity of nC60 in fish, an emerging environmental issue is that nC60 can affect environmental fate, transport, and bioavailability of co-contaminants in aquatic environments in a similar manner to that observed for other anthropogenic particulates (e.g., microplastics).

  16. Comparisons of Learner-Generated versus Instructor-Provided Multimedia Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chiu-Jung; Liu, Pei-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using learner-generated and instructor-provided multimedia annotations on foreign language reading comprehension and attitudes. The four research questions are: (1) what are the effects of using different multimedia annotations on reading comprehension for learners of different…

  17. COMPARISON OF MERCURY CAPTURE EFFICIENCIES OF THREE DIFFERENT IN SITU GENERATED SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different sorbent materials (Ti, Si and Ca based) were compared for their mercury capture efficiencies in an entrained flow reactor. Agglomerated particles with a high specific surface area were generated in situ by injecting gas phase sorbent precursors into a high tempera...

  18. Bringing Next-Generation Sequencing into the Classroom through a Comparison of Molecular Biology Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Bethany; Zimmer, Erin; Pyatt, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the development of next-generation (NextGen) sequencing technologies has revolutionized genomic research and medicine, the incorporation of these topics into the classroom is challenging, given an implied high degree of technical complexity. We developed an easy-to-implement, interactive classroom activity investigating the similarities…

  19. Grandparents in the United States and the Republic of China: A Comparison of Generations and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Shirley K.; Wang, Chih-Mei; Shen, Yuh-Ling; Griswold, Dianne; Chan, Hou-Sheng; Yang, Chu-Yin

    1999-01-01

    Examines grandparent behaviors in the United States and in the Republic of China to identify curriculum themes for helping them learn to adjust to their changing roles. Results revealed significant differences in perceptions about grandparents across cultures as well as between generations within cultures. Provides specific guidelines and…

  20. Bringing Next-Generation Sequencing into the Classroom through a Comparison of Molecular Biology Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Bethany; Zimmer, Erin; Pyatt, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the development of next-generation (NextGen) sequencing technologies has revolutionized genomic research and medicine, the incorporation of these topics into the classroom is challenging, given an implied high degree of technical complexity. We developed an easy-to-implement, interactive classroom activity investigating the similarities…

  1. A Comparison of Diary Method Variations for Enlightening Form Generation in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babapour, Maral; Rehammar, Bjorn; Rahe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two studies in which an empirical approach was taken to understand and explain form generation and decisions taken in the design process. In particular, the activities addressing aesthetic aspects when exteriorising form ideas in the design process have been the focus of the present study. Diary methods were the starting point…

  2. Generative Perspectives on Language Acquisition: Empirical Findings, Theoretical Considerations, and Crosslinguistic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald, Ed.

    The collection of essays and studies concerning generative grammar and first and second language acquisition includes: "The Optional-Infinitive Stage in Child English: Evidence from Negation" (Tony Harris, Ken Wexler); "Towards a Structure-Building Model of Acquisition" (Andrew Radford); "The Underspecification of…

  3. Generative Perspectives on Language Acquisition: Empirical Findings, Theoretical Considerations, and Crosslinguistic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald, Ed.

    The collection of essays and studies concerning generative grammar and first and second language acquisition includes: "The Optional-Infinitive Stage in Child English: Evidence from Negation" (Tony Harris, Ken Wexler); "Towards a Structure-Building Model of Acquisition" (Andrew Radford); "The Underspecification of…

  4. Reinforcing Obligations and Responsibilities between Generations: Policy Options from Cross-National Comparisons. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Maureen

    This discussion paper addresses two policy questions: (1) Can Canada afford to maintain its income security programs and social services, given the higher costs expected with an aging population? and (2) Do generous social programs discourage family responsibility or reinforce expectations of assistance within and between generations? The paper…

  5. A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2010-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

  6. Comparison of Two Methods for the Generation of Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Elegbe, Etana C.; Menon, Manoj G.; McAleavey, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially modulated ultrasound radiation force (SMURF) imaging is an elastographic technique that involves generating a radiation force beam with a lateral intensity variation of a defined spatial frequency. This results in a shear wave of known wavelength. By using the displacements induced by the shear wave and standard Doppler or speckle-tracking methods, the shear wave frequency, and thus material shear modulus, is estimated. In addition to generating a pushing beam pattern with a specified lateral intensity variation, it is generally desirable to induce larger displacements so that the displacement data signal-to-noise ratio is higher. We provide an analysis of two beam forming methods for generating SMURF in an elastic material: the focal Fraunhofer and intersecting plane wave methods. Both techniques generate beams with a defined spatial frequency. However, as a result of the trade-offs associated with each technique, the peak acoustic intensity outputs in the region of interest differs for the same combinations of parameters (e.g., the focal depth, the width of the area of interest, and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient). Assuming limited transducer drive voltage, we provide a decision plot to determine which of the two techniques yields the greater pushing force for a specific configuration. PMID:21768019

  7. Comparison of intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Amraei, K; Amirsalari, S; Ajalloueyan, M

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a common type of sensory loss in children. Studies indicate that children with hearing impairment are deficient in social, cognitive and communication skills. This study compared the intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. This research is causal-comparative. All 15 deaf children investigated had deaf parents and were selected from Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. The 15 children with cochlear implants were paired with similar children with hearing parents using purposive sampling. The findings show that the Hotelling trace of multivariate analysis of variance (F = 6.78, p < 0.01, ηP(2) = 0.73) was significant. The tests of between-subjects effects for second-generation children was significantly higher than for first-generation children for all intelligence scales except knowledge. It can be assumed that second-generation children joined their family in the use of sign language as the primary experience before a cochlear implant. The use of sign language before cochlear implants is recommended.

  8. Performance comparison of second- and third-generation sequencers using a bacterial genome with two chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mari; Motooka, Daisuke; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Imai, Takamasa; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Goto, Naohisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Yasunaga, Teruo; Horii, Toshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Kasahara, Masahiro; Nakamura, Shota

    2014-08-21

    The availability of diverse second- and third-generation sequencing technologies enables the rapid determination of the sequences of bacterial genomes. However, identifying the sequencing technology most suitable for producing a finished genome with multiple chromosomes remains a challenge. We evaluated the abilities of the following three second-generation sequencers: Roche 454 GS Junior (GS Jr), Life Technologies Ion PGM (Ion PGM), and Illumina MiSeq (MiSeq) and a third-generation sequencer, the Pacific Biosciences RS sequencer (PacBio), by sequencing and assembling the genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which consists of a 5-Mb genome comprising two circular chromosomes. We sequenced the genome of V. parahaemolyticus with GS Jr, Ion PGM, MiSeq, and PacBio and performed de novo assembly with several genome assemblers. Although GS Jr generated the longest mean read length of 418 bp among the second-generation sequencers, the maximum contig length of the best assembly from GS Jr was 165 kbp, and the number of contigs was 309. Single runs of Ion PGM and MiSeq produced data of considerably greater sequencing coverage, 279× and 1,927×, respectively. The optimized result for Ion PGM contained 61 contigs assembled from reads of 77× coverage, and the longest contig was 895 kbp in size. Those for MiSeq were 34 contigs, 58× coverage, and 733 kbp, respectively. These results suggest that higher coverage depth is unnecessary for a better assembly result. We observed that multiple rRNA coding regions were fragmented in the assemblies from the second-generation sequencers, whereas PacBio generated two exceptionally long contigs of 3,288,561 and 1,875,537 bps, each of which was from a single chromosome, with 73× coverage and mean read length 3,119 bp, allowing us to determine the absolute positions of all rRNA operons. PacBio outperformed the other sequencers in terms of the length of contigs and reconstructed the greatest portion of the genome, achieving a genome

  9. Performance of OSC's initial Amtec generator design, and comparison with JPL's Europa Orbiter goals

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-07-01

    The procedure for the analysis (with overpotential correction) of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells described in Paper IECEC 98-243 was applied to a wide range of multicell radioisotope space power systems. System design options consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 stacked GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) modules, identical to those used on previous NASA missions, were analyzed and performance-mapped. The initial generators analyzed by OSC had 8 AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack, with five beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tubes per cell. The heat source and converters in the Orbital generator designs are embedded in a thermal insulation system consisting of Min-K fibrous insulation surrounded by graded-length molybdenum multifoils. Detailed analyses in previous Orbital studies found that such an insulation system could reduce extraneous heat losses to about 10%. For the above design options, the present paper presents the system mass and performance (i.e., the EOM system efficiency and power output and the BOM evaporator and clad temperatures) for a wide range of heat inputs and load voltages, and compares the results with JPL's preliminary goals for the Europa Orbiter mission to be launched in November 2003. The analytical results showed that the initial 16-cell generator designs resulted in either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures and/or insufficient power outputs to meet the JPL-specified mission goals. The computed performance of modified OSC generators with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell are described in Paper IECEC.98.245 in these proceedings.

  10. Comparison of Attitudes between Generation X and Baby Boomer Veterinary Faculty and Residents

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Lisa M.; Trower, Cathy A.; Tan, Rachael J.B.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics and preferences of the different generations in the veterinary workforce is important if we are to help optimize current and future veterinary schools and teaching hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes of different generations of veterinary faculty and those of faculty and house officers. A survey administered to faculty and house officers asked respondents to identify their level of agreement with a series of statements addressing work and lifestyle issues and feedback preferences. In addition, the survey included an open-ended question on non-monetary rewards for hard work. Thirty-eight of 48 faculty members (79%) and 45 of 54 house officers (83%) completed the survey. Among faculty, there were no significant differences between the Generation X and Baby Boomer subgroups or between genders. More faculty than house officers responded that delayed gratification is acceptable (p =0.03 and that it is difficult to balance home and work life (p < 0.001). Compared to faculty, house officers preferred more frequent (p =0.03) and critical (p = 0.02) feedback. The most common responses to the question on effective non-monetary rewards for hard work, from both faculty and house officers, were recognition and time off. No attitudinal differences were detected between generations within the faculty group, but a number of significant differences emerged between faculty and house officers. Increased awareness of the importance of balance and rewards for hard work, as well as modification of feedback styles, may be beneficial in teaching and mentoring current and future generations. PMID:19436000

  11. A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

    2010-09-01

    Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of rainfall sampling schemes using a calibrated stochastic rainfall generator

    SciTech Connect

    Welles, E.

    1994-12-31

    Accurate rainfall measurements are critical to river flow predictions. Areal and gauge rainfall measurements create different descriptions of the same storms. The purpose of this study is to characterize those differences. A stochastic rainfall generator was calibrated using an automatic search algorithm. Statistics describing several rainfall characteristics of interest were used in the error function. The calibrated model was then used to generate storms which were exhaustively sampled, sparsely sampled and sampled areally with 4 x 4 km grids. The sparsely sampled rainfall was also kriged to 4 x 4 km blocks. The differences between the four schemes were characterized by comparing statistics computed from each of the sampling methods. The possibility of predicting areal statistics from gauge statistics was explored. It was found that areally measured storms appeared to move more slowly, appeared larger, appeared less intense and have shallower intensity gradients.

  13. Mechanical and free living comparisons of four generations of the Actigraph activity monitor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More studies include multiple generations of the Actigraph activity monitor. So far no studies have compared the output including the newest generation and investigated the impact on the output of the activity monitor when enabling the low frequency extension (LFE) option. The aims were to study the responses of four generations (AM7164, GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+) of the Actigraph activity monitor in a mechanical setup and a free living environment with and without enabling the LFE option. Methods The monitors were oscillated in a mechanical setup using two radii in the frequency range 0.25-3.0 Hz. Following the mechanical study a convenience sample (N = 20) wore three monitors (one AM7164 and two GT3X) for 24 hours. Results The AM7164 differed from the newer generations across frequencies (p < 0.05) in the mechanical setup. The AM7164 produced a higher output at the lower and at the highest intensities, whereas the output was lower at the middle intensities in the mid-range compared to the newer generations. The LFE option decreased the differences at the lower frequencies, but increased differences at the higher. In free living, the mean physical activity level (PA) of the GT3X was 18 counts per minute (CPM) (8%) lower compared to the AM7164 (p < 0.001). Time spent in sedentary intensity was 26.6 minutes (95% CI 15.6 to 35.3) higher when assessed by the GT3X compared to the AM7164 (p < 0.001). Time spend in light and vigorous PA were 23.3 minutes (95% CI 31.8 to 14.8) and 11.7 minutes (95% CI 2.8 to 0.7) lower when assessed by the GT3X compared to the AM7164 (p < 0.05). When enabling the LFE the differences in the sedentary and light PA intensity (<333 counts*10 sec-1) were attenuated (p > 0.05 for differences between generations) thus attenuated the difference in mean PA (p > 0.05) when the LFE option was enabled. However, it did not attenuate the difference in time spend in vigorous PA and it introduced a difference

  14. Comparison of different simulation methods for effective medium computer generated holograms.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Wiebke; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-05-20

    The arrangement of binary subwavelength structures is a promising alternative to the conventional multiheight level technique to generate computer generated holograms (CGHs). However, the current heuristic design approach leads to a slight mismatch between the target signal and experimental data. To evaluate this deviation, a diffractive beam splitter design is investigated rigorously using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Since the use of a rigorous Maxwell-equation solver like FDTD requires a massive computational effort, an alternative scalar approach, a fast Fourier transform beam propagation method (FFT-BPM), is investigated with a substantial higher computing speed, showing still a good agreement with the FDTD simulation and experimental data. Therefore, an implementation of this scalar approach into the CGH design process offers the possibility to significantly increase the accuracy.

  15. Process latitude comparison of advanced DUV photoresists to latest-generation 193-nm photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joesten, Lori A.; Reilly, Michael T.; Linskens, Frank T.; Jehoul, Christiane; Parker, Colin R.

    2001-09-01

    The introduction of resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) and higher numerical aperture (NA) scanners has pushed the capability of 248nm (DUV) processes to below 130nm. This extension of DUV technology has made the decision to insert 193nm difficult. The decision to either extend the current DUV processes or to change to 193nm will depend on several things: mask costs, tool costs, material availability and photoresist performance. The focus of this paper is on photoresist performance. The process latitudes of advanced DUV photoresists are compared to the latest generation of 193nm resists and simulation is used to estimate the performance obtained on the next generation scanners. This paper examines resist process latitude at several feature sizes to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each platform. The feature sizes to be examined include 130nm, 120nm and 110nm with a pitch ratio of 1:1 Lines/Spaces. The resists are processed on the appropriate anti-reflectant and a resist film thickness of approximately 3,000 angstrom is used. The measured lithographic response will be the individual process windows. The examination of each platform's performance will clarify the differences between the two resists on current scanners and estimate the differences on the next generation scanners. The results show experimentally that the current 193nm resist has slightly better process latitudes than the DUV resist for 1:1 Line/Spaces below 130nm. The estimation of performance on the next generation higher NA scanners indicate that the DUV resist will have better performance than the current 193nm resist. However, when the 193nm resists reach the same maturity as the DUV resist and respond to the aerial images accordingly, the 193nm resist will have better process latitude. While few resolution enhancement techniques are used in the experiments, the results do provide a piece of information required to decide between DUV and 193nm.

  16. Computing the flow past Vortex Generators: Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolesos, M.; Sørensen, N. N.; Troldborg, N.; Florentie, L.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.

    2016-09-01

    The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental data. The best results are obtained with the more expensive fully resolved VG approach. The cost efficient BAY model can also provide acceptable results, if grid related numerical diffusion is minimized and only force coefficient polars are considered.

  17. A first generation whole genome RH map of the river buffalo with comparison to domestic cattle

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, M Elisabete J; Grant, Jason R; Riggs, Penny K; Stafuzza, Nedenia B; Filho, Edson A Rodrigues; Goldammer, Tom; Weikard, Rosemarie; Brunner, Ronald M; Kochan, Kelli J; Greco, Anthony J; Jeong, Jooha; Cai, Zhipeng; Lin, Guohui; Prasad, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Saradhi, G Pardha; Mathew, Boby; Kumar, M Aravind; Miziara, Melissa N; Mariani, Paola; Caetano, Alexandre R; Galvão, Stephan R; Tantia, Madhu S; Vijh, Ramesh K; Mishra, Bina; Kumar, ST Bharani; Pelai, Vanderlei A; Santana, Andre M; Fornitano, Larissa C; Jones, Brittany C; Tonhati, Humberto; Moore, Stephen; Stothard, Paul; Womack, James E

    2008-01-01

    Background The recently constructed river buffalo whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000) has already been used to generate preliminary radiation hybrid (RH) maps for several chromosomes, and buffalo-bovine comparative chromosome maps have been constructed. Here, we present the first-generation whole genome RH map (WG-RH) of the river buffalo generated from cattle-derived markers. The RH maps aligned to bovine genome sequence assembly Btau_4.0, providing valuable comparative mapping information for both species. Results A total of 3990 markers were typed on the BBURH5000 panel, of which 3072 were cattle derived SNPs. The remaining 918 were classified as cattle sequence tagged site (STS), including coding genes, ESTs, and microsatellites. Average retention frequency per chromosome was 27.3% calculated with 3093 scorable markers distributed in 43 linkage groups covering all autosomes (24) and the X chromosomes at a LOD ≥ 8. The estimated total length of the WG-RH map is 36,933 cR5000. Fewer than 15% of the markers (472) could not be placed within any linkage group at a LOD score ≥ 8. Linkage group order for each chromosome was determined by incorporation of markers previously assigned by FISH and by alignment with the bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0). Conclusion We obtained radiation hybrid chromosome maps for the entire river buffalo genome based on cattle-derived markers. The alignments of our RH maps to the current bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0) indicate regions of possible rearrangements between the chromosomes of both species. The river buffalo represents an important agricultural species whose genetic improvement has lagged behind other species due to limited prior genomic characterization. We present the first-generation RH map which provides a more extensive resource for positional candidate cloning of genes associated with complex traits and also for large-scale physical mapping of the river buffalo genome. PMID:19108729

  18. Comparison of Man-Portable Power Generation Alternatives Based on Fuel-Cell Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    drocarbons, as well as fuel processing for hydrogen or syngas generation and subsequent oxidation of these intermediates in a fuel cell. Micro power...high temper- atures, under water operation. 4 ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED As possible fuel/chemicals we consider hydrocar- bons, methanol, ammonia and...production from ammonia decomposition on ruthenium. In- dustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 2986–2999. [Douglas(1988)] Douglas, J. M., 1988

  19. Vacuum extraction: a randomized controlled comparison of the New Generation cup with the original Bird cup.

    PubMed

    Carmody, F; Grant, A; Somchiwong, M

    1986-01-01

    A new design of vacuum extractor cup--'the New Generation cup'--has recently been introduced into clinical practice. Its major modification is a traction cord which passes around the rim of the cup for 180 degrees and is free to slide within the rim. Claims that this design 'enables the operator to pull obliquely without causing the cup to tilt' and thereby 'reduces failure rates, reduces the incidence of scalp trauma and increases operator confidence' have been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. 123 women with singleton pregnancies of 37 completed weeks or more, with a cephalic presentation and for whom a decision to deliver by vacuum extraction had been taken, were randomly allocated to the 'New Generation' cup or BIRD's original vacuum extractor cup; 50 mm anterior and posterior cups were used in both groups as appropriate. The two groups were comparable at entry and delivered by obstetricians of similar status. The two types of cup were similar in respect of number of failures to deliver with the vacuum extractor, correct positioning of the cup, number of pulls required for delivery and time taken to expedite delivery. Cup detachments occurred in nine cases allocated to the 'New Generation' cup compared with four allocated to the original BIRD cup. The babies in the two groups were in similar condition at birth and sustained similar amounts of scalp trauma. Neonatal jaundice, both clinical and biochemical, was more common in babies delivered with the 'New Generation cup' and this was reflected in greater use of phototherapy in this group. Operators were equally divided in their preference of cup.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Comparison between First- and Second-Generation Cryoballoon for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Sergio; Moltrasio, Massimo; Fassini, Gaetano; Tundo, Fabrizio; Riva, Stefania; Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Majocchi, Benedetta; Marino, Vittoria; De Iuliis, Pasquale; Catto, Valentina; Pala, Salvatore; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cryoballoon (CB) ablation has emerged as a novel treatment for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The second-generation Arctic Front Advance (ADV) was redesigned with technical modifications aiming at procedural and outcome improvements. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the two different technologies over a long-term follow-up. Methods. A total of 120 patients with PAF were enrolled. Sixty patients underwent PVI using the first-generation CB and 60 patients with the ADV catheter. All patients were evaluated over a follow-up period of 2 years. Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients. Procedures performed with the first-generation CB showed longer fluoroscopy time (36.3 ± 16.8 versus 14.2 ± 13.5 min, resp.; p = 0.00016) and longer procedure times as well (153.1 ± 32 versus 102 ± 24.8 min, resp.; p = 0.019). The overall long-term success was significantly different between the two groups (68.3 versus 86.7%, resp.; p = 0.017). No differences were found in the lesion areas of left and right PV between the two groups (resp., p = 0.61 and 0.57). There were no significant differences in procedural-related complications. Conclusion. The ADV catheter compared to the first-generation balloon allows obtaining a significantly higher success rate after a single PVI procedure during the long-term follow-up. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were significantly shortened using the ADV catheter. PMID:27069711

  1. A Comparison of Three Second-generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Podboy, Derek P.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2016-01-01

    Three variations of a low emissions aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept were developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. All three variations were based on the baseline 9- point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. The three second generation SV-LDI variations are called the 5-recess configuration, the flat dome configuration, and the 9- recess configuration. These three configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center medium pressure flametube. All three second generation variations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. All three configurations had low NO(sub x) emissions, with the 5-recess configuration generally having slightly lower NO(x) than the flat dome or 9-recess configurations. Due to the limitations of the flametube that prevented testing at pressures above 20 atm, correlation equations were developed for the at dome and 9-recess configurations so that the landing-takeoff NO(sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome and 9-recess landing-takeoff NO(x) emissions are estimated to be 81-88% below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the project goal of 75% reduction.

  2. Comparison of two generation-recombination terms in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model.

    PubMed

    Lelidis, I; Barbero, G; Sfarna, A

    2012-10-21

    Two phenomenological forms proposed to take into account the generation-recombination phenomenon of ions are investigated. The first form models the phenomenon as a chemical reaction, containing two coefficients describing the dissociation of neutral particles in ions, and the recombination of ions to give neutral particles. The second form is based on the assumption that in thermodynamical equilibrium, a well-defined density of ions is stable. Any deviation from the equilibrium density gives rise to a source term proportional to the deviation, whose phenomenological coefficient plays the role of a life time. The analysis is performed by evaluating the electrical response of an electrolytic cell to an external stimulus for both forms. For simplicity we assume that the electrodes are blocking, that there is only a group of negative and positive ions, and that the negative ions are immobile. For the second form, two cases are considered: (i) the generation-recombination phenomenon is due to an intrinsic mechanism, and (ii) the production of ions is triggered by an external source of energy, as in a solar cell. We show that the predictions of the two models are different at the impedance as well as at the admittance level. In particular, the first model predicts the existence of two plateaux for the real part of the impedance, whereas the second one predicts just one. It follows that impedance spectroscopy measurements could give information on the model valid for the generation-recombination of ions.

  3. T-wave generation and propagation: a comparison between data and spectral element modeling.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Guillaume; Guennou, Claude; Guillon, Laurent; Mazoyer, Camille; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2013-10-01

    T-waves are underwater acoustic waves generated by earthquakes. Modeling of their generation and propagation is a challenging problem. Using a spectral element code-SPECFEM2D, this paper presents the first realistic simulations of T-waves taking into account major aspects of this phenomenon: The radiation pattern of the source, the propagation of seismic waves in the crust, the seismic to acoustic conversion on a non-planar seafloor, and the propagation of acoustic waves in the water column. The simulated signals are compared with data from the mid-Atlantic Ridge recorded by an array of hydrophones. The crust/water interface is defined by the seafloor bathymetry. Different combinations of water sound-speed profiles and sub-seafloor seismic velocities, and frequency content of the source are tested. The relative amplitudes, main arrival-times, and durations of simulated T-phases are in good agreement with the observed data; differences in the spectrograms and early arrivals are likely due to too simplistic source signals and environmental model. These examples demonstrate the abilities of the SPECFEM2D code for modeling earthquake generated T-waves.

  4. Comparison of Resonance Parameter Covariance Generation using CONRAD and SAMMY Computer Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Luiz C; De Saint Jean, C; Noguere, G

    2010-01-01

    Cross section evaluations in the resolved resonance region are based on formalisms derived from the R-matrix theory. As a result, the evaluations provide a set of resonance parameters that can be used to reproduce the experimental data reasonably well. The evaluated nuclear data are used in neutron transport calculations for the analysis and design of nuclear reactor systems, nuclear criticality safety analyses, etc. To achieve the desired accuracy on the nuclear system calculations, the questions frequently asked are how well the nuclear data are known and how the uncertainty in the nuclear data can be propagated into the final nuclear system results. There have been ongoing efforts at several research centers for generating data uncertainties in the resonance and high-energy regions. The biggest issue in relation to the covariance data is how good the calculated uncertainties are or whether the calculated uncertainties are in agreement with realistic uncertainties derived from an experimental nuclear system or nuclear benchmark. In this work an attempt is made to use two distinct and independently developed computer codes, CONRAD and SAMMY, to evaluate and generate covariance data in the resonance region. The verification study has been performed in support of the U.S. Nuclear Criticality Safety program (NCSP) as the NCSP is working to provide improved nuclear data files to support criticality safety analyses. The objective is to check the procedures and the methodologies used in the resonance region for covariance generation. The studies have been carried out using the 48Ti resolved resonance parameters.

  5. Comparison of the optoacoustic signal generation efficiency of different nanoparticular contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bost, Wolfgang; Lemor, Robert; Fournelle, Marc

    2012-11-20

    Optoacoustic imaging represents a new modality that allows noninvasive in vivo molecular imaging with optical contrast and acoustical resolution. Whereas structural or functional imaging applications such as imaging of vasculature do not require contrast enhancing agents, nanoprobes with defined biochemical binding behavior are needed for molecular imaging tasks. Since the contrast of this modality is based on the local optical absorption coefficient, all particle or molecule types that show significant absorption cross sections in the spectral range of the laser wavelength used for signal generation are suitable contrast agents. Currently, several particle types such as gold nanospheres, nanoshells, nanorods, or polymer particles are used as optoacoustic contrast agents. These particles have specific advantages with respect to their absorption properties, or in terms of biologically relevant features (biodegradability, binding to molecular markers). In the present study, a comparative analysis of the signal generation efficiency of gold nanorods, polymeric particles, and magnetite particles using a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for signal generation is described.

  6. A comparison of the revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) in a palliative care cohort with DSM-IV delirium.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Roisin; Meagher, David; Leonard, Maeve; Watne, Leiv Otto; Hall, Roanna J; Maclullich, Alasdair M J; Trzepacz, Paula; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    Assessment of delirium is performed with a variety of instruments, making comparisons between studies difficult. A conversion rule between commonly used instruments would aid such comparisons. The present study aimed to compare the revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) in a palliative care population and derive conversion rules between the two scales. Both instruments were employed to assess 77 consecutive patients with DSM-IV delirium, and the measures were repeated at three-day intervals. Conversion rules were derived from the data at initial assessment and tested on subsequent data. There was substantial overall agreement between the two scales [concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.70 (CI 95 = 0.60-0.78)] and between most common items (weighted κ ranging from 0.63 to 0.86). Although the two scales overlap considerably, there were some subtle differences with only modest agreement between the attention (weighted κ = 0.42) and thought process (weighted κ = 0.61) items. The conversion rule from total MDAS score to DRS-R98 severity scores demonstrated an almost perfect level of agreement (r = 0.86, CCC = 0.86; CI 95 = 0.79-0.91), similar to the conversion rule from DRS-R98 to MDAS. Overall, the derived conversion rules demonstrated promising accuracy in this palliative care population, but further testing in other populations is certainly needed.

  7. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing in Molecular Subtyping of Lower-Grade Diffuse Gliomas: Application of the World Health Organization's 2016 Revised Criteria for Central Nervous System Tumors.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jamal H; McNulty, Samantha N; Cimino, Patrick J; Cottrell, Catherine E; Heusel, Jonathan W; Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A; Duncavage, Eric J

    2017-03-01

    The 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System classifies lower-grade gliomas [LGGs (grades II to III diffuse gliomas)] morphologically as astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas, and tumors with unclear ambiguous morphology as oligoastrocytomas. The World Health Organization's newly released (2016) classification incorporates molecular data. A single, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel was used for detecting single-nucleotide variation and copy number variation in 50 LGG cases originally classified using the 2007 criteria, including 36 oligoastrocytomas, 11 oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocytomas, and 1 LGG not otherwise specified. NGS results were compared with those from IHC analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess concordance and to categorize the tumors according to the 2016 criteria. NGS results were concordant with those from IHC analysis in all cases. In 3 cases, NGS was superior to fluorescence in situ hybridization in distinguishing segmental chromosomal losses from whole-arm deletions. The NGS approach was effective in reclassifying 36 oligoastrocytomas as 30 astrocytomas (20 IDH1/2 mutant and 10 IDH1/2 wild type) and 6 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 oligodendroglioma as an astrocytoma (IDH1/2 mutant). Here we show that a single, targeted NGS assay can serve as the sole testing modality for categorizing LGG according to the World Health Organization's 2016 diagnostic scheme. This modality affords greater accuracy and efficiency while reducing specimen tissue requirements compared with multimodal approaches.

  8. A comparison of HYSPLIT backward trajectories generated from two GDAS datasets.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin; Yuan, Zibing; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lau, Alexis K H

    2015-02-15

    The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is widely used to generate backward trajectories in given starting locations. However, differences exist between trajectories generated from the model with different input datasets. In this study, backward trajectories in Hong Kong in the entire year of 2011 are derived by HYSPLIT model. Two sets of Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) output data associated with different horizontal and vertical resolutions (GDAS1 and GDAS0P5) are used as drivers in an attempt to quantify the differences between the results and discover the underlying reasons responsible for discrepancy. The results reveal that the significant differences between back trajectories generated from the two GDAS datasets can be mainly attributed to different vertical velocity calculation methods due to the absence of vertical velocity in GDAS0P5 dataset. The HYSPLIT trajectories are also sensitive to the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the input meteorological data, but to lesser extents. Results of cluster analysis indicate that when the air mass is from the north, northeast, or west with a long-to-medium range, the HYSPLIT backward trajectories are sensitive to the vertical advection calculation method and data resolution, whereas when the air mass is from the south or southwest with a long range, the trajectories are more likely to remain unchanged with the shifting of vertical velocity or data resolution. By comparing the vertical velocities with the observations and the performance in retrieving PM contributions from different directions, we conclude that GDAS1 dataset is more plausible in backward trajectory analysis in the Pearl River Delta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LASIK ablation centration: an objective digitized assessment and comparison between two generations of an excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2015-03-01

    To objectively define the effective centration of myopic femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK ablation pattern, evaluate the difference between achieved versus planned excimer laser ablation centration, and compare these results from two different generations of an excimer laser system. The study retrospectively evaluated 280 eyes subjected to myopic LASIK. Digital image analysis was performed on Scheimpflug sagittal curvature maps (difference of preoperative to postoperative). Centration was assessed via proprietary software digital analysis of the coordinate displacement between the achieved ablation geometric center and the planned ablation center, which was the corneal vertex. Results from two different excimer laser generations (Eye-Q 400 [140 eyes] and EX500 [140 eyes]; Alcon/WaveLight, Fort Worth, TX) were compared. Radial displacement was on average 360 ± 220 µm (range: 0 to 1,030 µm) in the Eye-Q 400 laser group and 120 ± 110 µm (range: 0 to 580 µm) in the EX500 laser group (P < .01). The percentage of eyes with displacement of greater than 300 µm was 52% in the Eye-Q 400 laser group and 4% in the EX500 laser group. Displacement of ablation pattern may depend on the laser platform used. The improvement in the efficiency of centration indicates that newer generation excimer lasers with faster eye tracking and active centration control appear to achieve a significantly more accurate centration of myopic ablation patterns. The authors propose this novel, objective technique for laser refractive surgeon evaluation may point out significant outcome measures not currently used in standard metrics of refractive laser efficiency. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. The generation of NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes: A comparison of different transfer methods

    PubMed Central

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Geley, Stephan; Reindl, Markus; Humpel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is responsible for the maintenance and survival of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The degeneration of cholinergic neurons and reduced acetycholine levels are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as associated with learning and memory deficits. Thus far, NGF has proven the most potent neuroprotective molecule against cholinergic neurodegeneration. However, delivery of this factor into the brain remains difficult. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the potential use of monocytes as vehicles for therapeutic delivery into the brain. In this study, we employed different transfection and transduction methods to generate NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. Specifically, we compared five methods for generating NGF-secreting monocytes: (1) cationic lipid-mediated transfection (Effectene and FuGene), (2) classical electroporation, (3) nucleofection, (4) protein delivery (Bioporter) and (5) lentiviral vectors. Here, we report that classical transfection methods (lipid-mediated transfection, electroporation, nucleofection) are inefficient tools for proper gene transfer into primary rat monocytes. We demonstrate that lentiviral infection and Bioporter can successfully transduce/load primary rat monocytes and produce effective NGF secretion. Furthermore, our results indicate that NGF is bioactive and that Bioporter-loaded monocytes do not appear to exhibit any functional disruptions (i.e. in their ability to differentiate and phagocytose beta-amyloid). Taken together, our results show that primary monocytes can be effectively loaded or transduced with NGF and provides information on the most effective method for generating NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. This study also provides a basis for further development of primary monocytes as therapeutic delivery vehicles to the diseased AD brain. PMID:23474426

  11. Comparison of two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, V. W.

    1979-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations, as well as the associated costs for two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant are compared. Both systems utilize waste heat from engine cooling water and waste heat from exhaust gases. Pressurized water heat recovery system is simple in nature and requires no engine modifications, but operates at lower temperature ranges. On the other hand, a two-phase ebullient system operates the engine at constant temperature, provides higher temperature water or steam to the load, but is more expensive.

  12. A comparison of tools for the simulation of genomic next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Merly; Rocha, Sara; Posada, David

    2016-08-01

    Computer simulation of genomic data has become increasingly popular for assessing and validating biological models or for gaining an understanding of specific data sets. Several computational tools for the simulation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data have been developed in recent years, which could be used to compare existing and new NGS analytical pipelines. Here we review 23 of these tools, highlighting their distinct functionality, requirements and potential applications. We also provide a decision tree for the informed selection of an appropriate NGS simulation tool for the specific question at hand.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis and comparison on oxy-fuel power generation process - article no. 053001

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.M.; Hynes, R.

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, pressurized oxy-fuel combustion power generation processes are modeled and analyzed based on a 350 MW subcritical reheat boiler associated with a condensing steam turbine. The performance results are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of slurry concentration and coal properties on power plant performance are investigated. An oxy-fuel configuration operating at ambient pressure is studied to compare the performance with pressurized oxy-fuel configuration. Thermodynamic analysis reveals the true potentials of the pressurized oxy-fuel process. Based on the system integration, an improved configuration is proposed in which plant efficiency of pressurized oxy-fuel process is increased by 1.36%.

  14. Comparison of two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, V. W.

    1979-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations, as well as the associated costs for two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant are compared. Both systems utilize waste heat from engine cooling water and waste heat from exhaust gases. Pressurized water heat recovery system is simple in nature and requires no engine modifications, but operates at lower temperature ranges. On the other hand, a two-phase ebullient system operates the engine at constant temperature, provides higher temperature water or steam to the load, but is more expensive.

  15. A comparison of tools for the simulation of genomic next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Escalona, Merly; Rocha, Sara; Posada, David

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation of genomic data has become increasingly popular for assessing and validating biological models or to gain understanding about specific datasets. Multiple computational tools for the simulation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data have been developed in recent years, which could be used to compare existing and new NGS analytical pipelines. Here we review 23 of these tools, highlighting their distinct functionality, requirements and potential applications. We also provide a decision tree for the informed selection of an appropriate NGS simulation tool for the specific question at hand. PMID:27320129

  16. Radcalc for windows benchmark study: A comparison of software results with Rocky Flats hydrogen gas generation data

    SciTech Connect

    MCFADDEN, J.G.

    1999-07-19

    Radcalc for Windows Version 2.01 is a user-friendly software program developed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations for the U.S. Department of Energy (McFadden et al. 1998). It is used for transportation and packaging applications in the shipment of radioactive waste materials. Among its applications are the classification of waste per the US. Department of Transportation regulations, the calculation of decay heat and daughter products, and the calculation of the radiolytic production of hydrogen gas. The Radcalc program has been extensively tested and validated (Green et al. 1995, McFadden et al. 1998) by comparison of each Radcalc algorithm to hand calculations. An opportunity to benchmark Radcalc hydrogen gas generation calculations to experimental data arose when the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) Residue Stabilization Program collected hydrogen gas generation data to determine compliance with requirements for shipment of waste in the TRUPACT-II (Schierloh 1998). The residue/waste drums tested at RFETS contain contaminated, solid, inorganic materials in polyethylene bags. The contamination is predominantly due to plutonium and americium isotopes. The information provided by Schierloh (1 998) of RFETS includes decay heat, hydrogen gas generation rates, calculated G{sub eff} values, and waste material type, making the experimental data ideal for benchmarking Radcalc. The following sections discuss the RFETS data and the Radcalc cases modeled with the data. Results are tabulated and also provided graphically.

  17. Comparison of predictive ability of water solubility QSPR models generated by MLR, PLS and ANN methods.

    PubMed

    Erös, Dániel; Kéri, György; Kövesdi, István; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Mészáros, György; Orfi, László

    2004-02-01

    ADME/Tox computational screening is one of the most hot topics of modern drug research. About one half of the potential drug candidates fail because of poor ADME/Tox properties. Since the experimental determination of water solubility is time-consuming also, reliable computational predictions are needed for the pre-selection of acceptable "drug-like" compounds from diverse combinatorial libraries. Recently many successful attempts were made for predicting water solubility of compounds. A comprehensive review of previously developed water solubility calculation methods is presented here, followed by the description of the solubility prediction method designed and used in our laboratory. We have selected carefully 1381 compounds from scientific publications in a unified database and used this dataset in the calculations. The externally validated models were based on calculated descriptors only. The aim of model optimization was to improve repeated evaluations statistics of the predictions and effective descriptor scoring functions were used to facilitate quick generation of multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), partial least squares method (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) models with optimal predicting ability. Standard error of prediction of the best model generated with ANN (with 39-7-1 network structure) was 0.72 in logS units while the cross validated squared correlation coefficient (Q(2)) was better than 0.85. These values give a good chance for successful pre-selection of screening compounds from virtual libraries, based on the predicted water solubility.

  18. [Comparison of power generation in microbial fuel cells of two different structures].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Li; Zhang, Ren-Duo; Jin, Song

    2009-02-15

    Low electricity productivity and high cost are two problems facing the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Comparative studies on electricity generation in MFCs of different designs while under the same conditions are important in enhancing the power output. Single-chamber MFC and dual-chamber MFC were constructed and acetate was used as the fuel. Power outputs in these MFC were compared side by side with a resistance of 1,000 Omega connected to each. Experimental results showed that the electricity was generated continuously and steadily in the MFCs. The average maximum output voltages obtained by the single-chamber and dual-chamber MFCs were 600 and 650 mV, respectively. The electric cycles were operated for 110 and 90 h for the single-chamber and dual-chamber MFCs, respectively. From the single-chamber and dual-chamber MFCs, the maximum area power densities were 113.8 and 382.4 mW/m2 respectively, and the maximum volumetric power densities were 1.3 and 2.2 mW/m3 respectively. The internal resistances of single-chamber and dual-chamber MFC were 188 and 348 Omega, respectively. Results indicated that the dual-chamber MFC had a better performance than the single-chamber MFC. The effective area of anode and the proton exchange membrane had a significant effect on the performance of MFCs.

  19. Paralleled comparison of vectors for the generation of CAR-T cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Di-Yuan; Huang, Yong; Li, Dan; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-09-01

    T-lymphocytes genetically engineered with the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) have shown great therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. A variety of preclinical researches and clinical trials of CAR-T therapy have been carried out to lay the foundation for future clinical application. In these researches, several gene-transfer methods were used to deliver CARs or other genes into T-lymphocytes, equipping CAR-modified T cells with a property of recognizing and attacking antigen-expressing tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner. Here, we summarize the gene-transfer vectors commonly used in the generation of CAR-T cell, including retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, the transposon/transposase system, the plasmid-based system, and the messenger RNA electroporation system. The following aspects were compared in parallel: efficiency of gene transfer, the integration methods in the modified T cells, foreground of scale-up production, and application and development in clinical trials. These aspects should be taken into account to generate the optimal CAR-gene vector that may be suitable for future clinical application.

  20. Calibration of Kinect for Xbox One and Comparison between the Two Generations of Microsoft Sensors.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2015-10-30

    In recent years, the videogame industry has been characterized by a great boost in gesture recognition and motion tracking, following the increasing request of creating immersive game experiences. The Microsoft Kinect sensor allows acquiring RGB, IR and depth images with a high frame rate. Because of the complementary nature of the information provided, it has proved an attractive resource for researchers with very different backgrounds. In summer 2014, Microsoft launched a new generation of Kinect on the market, based on time-of-flight technology. This paper proposes a calibration of Kinect for Xbox One imaging sensors, focusing on the depth camera. The mathematical model that describes the error committed by the sensor as a function of the distance between the sensor itself and the object has been estimated. All the analyses presented here have been conducted for both generations of Kinect, in order to quantify the improvements that characterize every single imaging sensor. Experimental results show that the quality of the delivered model improved applying the proposed calibration procedure, which is applicable to both point clouds and the mesh model created with the Microsoft Fusion Libraries.

  1. Calibration of Kinect for Xbox One and Comparison between the Two Generations of Microsoft Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the videogame industry has been characterized by a great boost in gesture recognition and motion tracking, following the increasing request of creating immersive game experiences. The Microsoft Kinect sensor allows acquiring RGB, IR and depth images with a high frame rate. Because of the complementary nature of the information provided, it has proved an attractive resource for researchers with very different backgrounds. In summer 2014, Microsoft launched a new generation of Kinect on the market, based on time-of-flight technology. This paper proposes a calibration of Kinect for Xbox One imaging sensors, focusing on the depth camera. The mathematical model that describes the error committed by the sensor as a function of the distance between the sensor itself and the object has been estimated. All the analyses presented here have been conducted for both generations of Kinect, in order to quantify the improvements that characterize every single imaging sensor. Experimental results show that the quality of the delivered model improved applying the proposed calibration procedure, which is applicable to both point clouds and the mesh model created with the Microsoft Fusion Libraries. PMID:26528979

  2. Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4N2H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  3. Comparison of the different approaches to generate holograms from data acquired with a Kinect sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Leportier, Thibault; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Song, Jin Dong; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Data of real scenes acquired in real-time with a Kinect sensor can be processed with different approaches to generate a hologram. 3D models can be generated from a point cloud or a mesh representation. The advantage of the point cloud approach is that computation process is well established since it involves only diffraction and propagation of point sources between parallel planes. On the other hand, the mesh representation enables to reduce the number of elements necessary to represent the object. Then, even though the computation time for the contribution of a single element increases compared to a simple point, the total computation time can be reduced significantly. However, the algorithm is more complex since propagation of elemental polygons between non-parallel planes should be implemented. Finally, since a depth map of the scene is acquired at the same time than the intensity image, a depth layer approach can also be adopted. This technique is appropriate for a fast computation since propagation of an optical wavefront from one plane to another can be handled efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. Fast computation with depth layer approach is convenient for real time applications, but point cloud method is more appropriate when high resolution is needed. In this study, since Kinect can be used to obtain both point cloud and depth map, we examine the different approaches that can be adopted for hologram computation and compare their performance.

  4. Comparison of initial seed electron generation mechanisms in kinetic simulations of positive streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Fierro, Andrew; Jorgenson, Roy; Biedermann, Laura; Clem, Paul; Hjalmarson, Harold; Hopkins, Matthew; Martinez, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Positive streamer simulations typically resort to initiation by artificially seeding a small region with an initial plasma. However, in order to simulate observed variations in breakdown voltages and times in pulsed voltage experiments, a more physical model for the generation of the initial plasma/electrons is necessary. This work will investigate several models of generating the initial seed plasma in an air-filled gap with a dielectric present: a ``typical'' artificial initial plasma, ionization of the background air due to cosmic rays, field emission from the dielectric, and simulation of radiation incident on surfaces prior to applying the voltage resulting in diffuse e- and O2-densities. 2D axisymmetric PIC-DSMC simulations using a detailed e--air collision model including field-dependent detachment and photon transport will be compared to experiments of an air gap with a dielectric cylinder and a 10 GV/s applied potential. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Automatic GROMACS topology generation and comparisons of force fields for solvation free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2015-01-22

    Free energy calculation has long been an important goal for molecular dynamics simulation and force field development, but historically it has been challenged by limited performance, accuracy, and creation of topologies for arbitrary small molecules. This has made it difficult to systematically compare different sets of parameters to improve existing force fields, but in the past few years several authors have developed increasingly automated procedures to generate parameters for force fields such as Amber, CHARMM, and OPLS. Here, we present a new framework that enables fully automated generation of GROMACS topologies for any of these force fields and an automated setup for parallel adaptive optimization of high-throughput free energy calculation by adjusting lambda point placement on the fly. As a small example of this automated pipeline, we have calculated solvation free energies of 50 different small molecules using the GAFF, OPLS-AA, and CGenFF force fields and four different water models, and by including the often neglected polarization costs, we show that the common charge models are somewhat underpolarized.

  6. Comparison of voiding cystourethrography and urosonography with second-generation contrast agents in simultaneous prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Świętoń, Dominik; Rybczyńska, Dorota; Czarniak, Piotr; Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Kaszubowski, Mariusz; Szurowska, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Background The invasiveness and exposure to radiation in voiding cystourethrography led to the introduction of alternative methods of diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, including contrast enhanced voiding urosonography. While there is a limited number of studies comparing these methods using new generation ultrasound contrast agents, none of them compared both methods simultaneously. This study is aimed at assessing agreement between contrast enhanced voiding urosonography with second-generation ultrasound contrast agents and voiding cystourethrography. Methods From April 2013 to May 2014, 83 children (37 female and 46 male), mean age 3.5 years, age range from 1 month to 17.5 years, underwent prospective simultaneous assessment by contrast enhanced voiding urosonography and voiding cystourethrography, with a total of 166 uretero-renal units evaluated. Results The sensitivity of voiding cystourethrography and contrast enhanced voiding urosonography were comparable, amounting to 88%, however, neither reached 100% for the entire studied population. The negative predictive value of voiding urosonography and voiding cystourethrography was 97%, and there was no difference between both methods. Conclusion Voiding cystourethrography and contrast enhanced voiding urosonography are comparable methods in diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, and can be performed alternatively. However, some limitations of contrast enhanced voiding urosonography must be remembered. PMID:28138405

  7. Amino acids generated from hydrated Titan tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey electric discharge products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, H. James; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernández, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-07-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed ‘tholins’) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FD/ToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4/N2/H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  8. MOX and MOX with 237Np/241Am Inert Fission Gas Generation Comparison in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. Robel; W. J. Carmack; D. J. Utterbeck

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of spent fuel produced in nuclear power generation is one of the most important issues to both the nuclear community and the general public. One of the viable options to long-term geological disposal of spent fuel is to extract plutonium, minor actinides (MA), and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in currently operating light-water reactors (LWR), thus reducing the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. One of the challenges is to demonstrate that the burnup-dependent characteristic differences between Reactor-Grade Mixed Oxide (RG-MOX) fuel and RG-MOX fuel with MA Np-237 and Am 241 are minimal, particularly, the inert gas generation rate, such that the commercial MOX fuel experience base is applicable. Under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), developmental fuel specimens in experimental assembly LWR-2 are being tested in the northwest (NW) I-24 irradiation position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment uses MOX fuel test hardware, and contains capsules with MOX fuel consisting of mixed oxide manufactured fuel using reactor grade plutonium (RG-Pu) and mixed oxide manufactured fuel using RG-Pu with added Np/Am. This study will compare the fuel neutronics depletion characteristics of Case-1 RG-MOX and Case-2 RG-MOX with Np/Am.

  9. Audience Analysis: A Guide to Revision in Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Describes a comparison of the function of audience in students' writing processes with that of experienced technical writers. Examines students' rough and final drafts for content and style as audience considerations influenced revisions. (HTH)

  10. Comparison of hybrid and pure Monte Carlo shower generators on an event by event basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Drescher, H.-J.; Farrar, G.

    SENECA is a hybrid air shower simulation written by H. Drescher that utilizes both Monte Carlo simulation and cascade equations. By using the cascade equations only in the high energy portion of the shower, where they are extremely accurate, SENECA is able to utilize the advantages in speed from the cascade equations yet still produce complete, three dimensional particle distributions at ground level. We present a comparison, on an event by event basis, of SENECA and CORSIKA, a well trusted MC simulation. By using the same first interaction in both SENECA and CORSIKA, the effect of the cascade equations can be studied within a single shower, rather than averages over many showers. Our study shows that for showers produced in this manner, SENECA agrees with CORSIKA to a very high accuracy as to densities, energies, and timing information for individual species of ground-level particles from both iron and proton primaries with energies between 1EeV and 100EeV. Used properly, SENECA produces ground particle distributions virtually indistinguishable from those of CORSIKA in a fraction of the time. For example, for a shower induced by a 40 EeV proton simulated with 10-6 thinning, SENECA is 10 times faster than CORSIKA.

  11. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Comino, J; Iserloh, T; Lassu, T; Cerdà, A; Keestra, S D; Prosdocimi, M; Brings, C; Marzen, M; Ramos, M C; Senciales, J M; Ruiz Sinoga, J D; Seeger, M; Ries, J B

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to enable a quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes in European vineyards using the same methodology and equipment. The study was conducted in four viticultural areas with different characteristics (Valencia and Málaga in Spain, Ruwer-Mosel valley and Saar-Mosel valley in Germany). Old and young vineyards, with conventional and ecological planting and management systems were compared. The same portable rainfall simulator with identical rainfall intensity (40mmh(-1)) and sampling intervals (30min of test duration, collecting the samples at 5-min-intervals) was used over a circular test plot with 0.28m(2). The results of 83 simulations have been analysed and correlation coefficients were calculated for each study area to identify the relationship between environmental plot characteristics, soil texture, soil erosion, runoff and infiltration. The results allow for identification of the main factors related to soil properties, topography and management, which control soil erosion processes in vineyards. The most important factors influencing soil erosion and runoff were the vegetation cover for the ecological German vineyards (with 97.6±8% infiltration coefficients) and stone cover, soil moisture and slope steepness for the conventional land uses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas combined-cycle and combustion turbine power plants accounted for 96% of the total generating capacity added in the US between 1999 and 2002--138 GW out of a total of 144 GW. Looking ahead, the EIA expects that gas-fired technology will account for 61% of the 355 GW new generating capacity projected to come on-line in the US up to 2025, increasing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2025. While the data are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in other countries as well. Regardless of the explanation for (or interpretation of) the empirical findings, however, the basic implications remain the same: one should not blindly rely on gas price forecasts when comparing fixed-price renewable with variable-price gas-fired generation contracts. If there is a cost to hedging, gas price forecasts do not capture and account for it. Alternatively, if the forecasts are at risk of being biased or out of tune with the market, then one certainly would not want to use them as the basis for resource comparisons or investment decisions if a more certain source of data (forwards) existed. Accordingly, assuming that long-term price stability is valued, the most appropriate way to compare the levelized cost of these resources in both cases would be to use forward natural gas price data--i.e. prices that can be locked in to create price certainty--as opposed to uncertain natural gas price forecasts. This article suggests that had utilities and analysts in the US done so over the sample period from November 2000 to November 2003, they would have found gas-fired generation to be at least 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh more expensive (on a levelized cost basis) than otherwise thought. With some renewable resources, in particular wind

  13. Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method

  14. Perceived attributes of health-promoting laughter: a cross-generational comparison.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Diana L; Burroughs, W Jeffrey; Lippman, Louis G

    2002-03-01

    A small but growing body of empirical data support the popular belief that laughter benefits health. However, there are many varieties of laughter and no reason to assume all varieties should be, or would be, perceived as equally beneficial. The authors examined which types of laughter and which characteristics of laughter people associate with health and whether there are generational differences in this perception. Young adults and older participants rated 12 laughter terms (e.g., chuckle, giggle, belly laugh) on their contribution to health and assessed various aspects of each laughter type on 11 scales. The young adults characterized health-promoting laughter as strong, active, uninhibited, and involving movement; the older participants characterized it as socially appropriate. Both groups associated health-promoting laughter strongly with positive emotion and absence of malice. Implications for placebo effects in laughter interventions are discussed. Differences between humor and laughter and among the proposed mechanisms by which they affect health are clarified.

  15. Comparison of in situ and ex situ bioconjugation of Au nanoparticles generated by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutisya, S.; Franzel, L.; Barnstein, B. O.; Faber, T. W.; Ryan, J. J.; Bertino, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Au nanoparticles were generated by laser ablation in PBS buffer and conjugated to immunoglobulin E (IgE) during ablation (in situ) and after ablation (ex situ). Exposure for 5 min to 532 nm pulses with a duration of 150 ps, an energy of 8 mJ and a repetition rate of 10 Hz yielded nanoparticles with a mean diameter of about 4 nm for in situ conjugation and of about 5 nm for ex situ conjugation. ELISA analysis showed that the conjugation efficiency was comparable for in situ and ex situ fabrication. ELISA for cytokine (IL-6) production by IgE-activated mast cells showed that the Au-IgE conjugates induced a response which coincided within error for conjugates prepared in situ and ex situ.

  16. A comparison of traditional and computer-generated psychological reports in an adolescent inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Rubenzer, S

    1992-11-01

    Although individual personality tests and occasionally test batteries have been the focus of considerable research, the psychological report itself has largely escaped direct scrutiny. This study examined the perceived accuracy, utility, and specificity of traditional psychological reports and compared these values with those obtained for the computer-generated report for the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI). Analyses indicated no difference in rated accuracy by either therapists or nursing staff. Both reports were judged as mediocre in accuracy and usefulness. The MAPI was judged to offer more specific interpretations than was the traditional psychological report and to be superior in quality of writing. A variety of substantive and extraneous variables were examined and found not to alter these results.

  17. Comparison Between Dust Particle Generation In CH4 or CH4/N2 Mixing RF Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Jeremy; Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre

    2005-10-31

    Dust particles have been spontaneously generated either in pure CH4 or in CH4/N2 r.f. plasmas. The dust particle formation results from homogeneous nucleation in the plasma and is detected by laser light scattering (Ar+, {lambda} = 514.5 nm). The temporal and spatial behaviour of dust particles is studied. In pure methane gas, particles are trapped in well defined clouds at the plasma sheath boundaries. In a CH4/N2 mixture, the nitrogen addition leads to an expansion of the clouds. For nitrogen contents higher than 50%, the space between the electrodes is nearly completely filled with dust particles leading to plasma instabilities and a void appears in the center of the discharge. The particles are spherical with diameters in the range 0.8-2 {mu}m. For nitrogen-rich plasmas, the particles growth is improved and leads to a rough shape with an orange-peel-type surface texture.

  18. Comparison of nuclear and solar power plants with turboelectric generators for application in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, Jürgen; Ruppe, Harry O.

    The aim of the analysis is to determine and to compare the specific mass of nuclear and solar power plants for application in space depending on technological data as well as on data subject to the mission. On the basis of the known theory of Ruppe and Blumenberg[1-3], nuclear power plants with turboelectric generators as well as solar-thermal power plants with parabolic or spheric mirrors are being analysed. The following thermodynamic processes are applied: the Rankine process, the Brayton process and—as an ideal comparative process—the Carnot process. An important parameter of the analysis for nuclear power plants is the net electric power, for the solar-thermal power plant the distance to the sun is of importance.

  19. [Research on HBsAg: comparison between two methods of the third generation, RPHA and IEA].

    PubMed

    Moretti, R; Vujovic, A; Benda, N

    1982-06-01

    Two tests of the 3rd generation were evaluated for the identification of HBsAg: the reverse hemoagglutination and the enzymatic immunoassay. The results of the study, carried out on 2,434 sera of occasional and periodic donors, have been slightly discordant. It was confirmed the greater sensibility of the IEA test over the RHA and there was a high incidence of false positive results of the IEA test probably caused by the presence in the sera of an elevated concentration of lipid and/or Hb. However, we can consider the RHA a useful test adaptable as an emergency test while the IEA method, being more sensible, can be used as a basic screening test.

  20. Comparison of workload measures on computer-generated primary flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataupsky, Mark; Abbott, Terence S.

    1987-01-01

    Four Air Force pilots were used as subjects to assess a battery of subjective and physiological workload measures in a flight simulation environment in which two computer-generated primary flight display configurations were evaluated. A high- and low-workload task was created by manipulating flight path complexity. Both SWAT and the NASA-TLX were shown to be effective in differentiating the high and low workload path conditions. Physiological measures were inconclusive. A battery of workload measures continues to be necessary for an understanding of the data. Based on workload, opinion, and performance data, it is fruitful to pursue research with a primary flight display and a horizontal situation display integrated into a single display.

  1. Comparison between landfill gas and waste incineration for power generation in Astana, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis; Kim, Jong; Aitbekova, Aisulu; Ismailova, Aizada

    2015-05-01

    The city of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, which has a population of 804,474, and has been experiencing rapid growth over the last 15 years, generates approximately 1.39 kg capita(-1) day(-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW). Nearly 700 tonnes of MSW are collected daily, of which 97% is disposed of at landfills. The newest landfill was built using modern technologies, including a landfill gas (LFG) collection system.The rapid growth of Astana demands more energy on its path to development, and the viability analysis of MSW to generate electricity is imperative. This paper presents a technical-economic pre-feasibility study comparing landfill including LFG utilization and waste incineration (WI) to produce electricity. The performance of LFG with a reciprocating engine and WI with steam turbine power technologies were compared through corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction, cost of energy production (CEP), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) from the analyses. Results demonstrate that in the city of Astana, WI has the potential to reduce more than 200,000 tonnes of GHG per year, while LFG could reduce slightly less than 40,000 tonnes. LFG offers a CEP 5.7% larger than WI, while the latter presents a BCR two times higher than LFG. WI technology analysis depicts a NPV exceeding 280% of the equity, while for LFG, the NPV is less than the equity, which indicates an expected remarkable financial return for the WI technology and a marginal and risky scenario for the LFG technology. Only existing landfill facilities with a LFG collection system in place may turn LFG into a viable project.

  2. Comparison of seismic and infrasound wave fields generated by snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriñach, Emma; Tapia, Mar; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Roig, Pere

    2016-04-01

    Snow avalanches are a source of waves that are transmitted through the ground and the air. These wave fields are detected by seismic and infrasound sensors. During the winter seasons 2008 -2016, a good quality database of avalanches was obtained at the VdlS test site with an accurate instrumentation. These avalanches were both natural and artificially triggered and were of varying types and sizes. Distances involved were 0.5 -3 km. Seismic signals were acquired using three seismometers (3-components, 1Hz) spaced 600 m apart along the avalanche track. One infrasound sensor (0.1Hz) and one seismometer (3-components, 1Hz) were placed one next to the other with a common base of time on the slope opposite the path. The database obtained enables us to compare the different signals generated. Differences in the frequency content and shape of the signals depending on the type and size of the avalanche are detected. A clear evolution of the recorded seismic signals along the path is observed. The cross correlation of the infrasound and seismic signals generated by the avalanches allows us to determine different characteristics for powder, transitional and wet avalanches concerning their wave fields. The joint analysis of infrasound and seismic waves enables us to obtain valuable information about the internal parts of the avalanche as a source of each wave field. This study has repercussions on avalanche dynamics and on the selection of the appropriate avalanche detection system. This study is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R), and RISKNAT group (2014GR/1243).

  3. Computational comparison of mediated current generation capacity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in photosynthetic and respiratory growth modes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses many potential advantages to be exploited as a biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. In the present study, we performed computational studies based on flux balance analysis (FBA) to probe the maximum potential of C. reinhardtii for current output and identify the metabolic mechanisms supporting a high current generation in three different cultivation conditions, i.e., heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth. The results showed that flux balance limitations allow the highest current output for C. reinhardtii in the mixotrophic growth mode (2.368 A/gDW), followed by heterotrophic growth (1.141 A/gDW) and photoautotrophic growth the lowest (0.7035 A/gDW). The significantly higher mediated electron transfer (MET) rate in the mixotrophic mode is in complete contrast to previous findings for a photosynthetic cyanobacterium, and was attributed to the fact that for C. reinhardtii the photophosphorylation improved the efficiency of converting the acetate into biomass and NADH production. Overall, the cytosolic NADH-dependent current production was mainly associated with five reactions in both mixotrophic and photoautotrophic nutritional modes, whereas four reactions participated in the heterotrophic mode. The mixotrophic and photoautotrophic metabolisms were alike and shared the same set of reactions for maximizing current production, whereas in the heterotrophic mode, the current production was additionally contributed by the metabolic activities in the two organelles: glyoxysome and chloroplast. In conclusion, C. reinhardtii has a potential to be exploited in MFCs of MET mode to produce a high current output. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Barnette, Anna L; Lee, Christopher; Bradley, Laura C; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Heenae; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2012-07-01

    The non-centrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy allows the detection and quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. This paper shows a correlation between the amount of crystalline cellulose in biomass and the SFG signal intensity. Model biomass samples were prepared by mixing commercially available cellulose, xylan, and lignin to defined concentrations. The SFG signal intensity was found sensitive to a wide range of crystallinity, but varied non-linearly with the mass fraction of cellulose in the samples. This might be due to the matrix effects such as light scattering and absorption by xylan and lignin, as well as the non-linear density dependence of the SFG process itself. Comparison with other techniques such as XRD, FT-Raman, FT-IR and NMR demonstrate that SFG can be a complementary and sensitive tool to assess crystalline cellulose in biomass.

  5. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  6. Comparison of pretreatment methods for rye straw in the second generation biorefinery: effect on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin recovery.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cantu, Lilia; Schreiber, Andreas; Schütt, Fokko; Saake, Bodo; Kirsch, Christian; Smirnova, Irina

    2013-08-01

    The increasing interest in lignocellulose-based biorefineries boosts the further development of the needed pretreatment methods for preprocessing biomass. There are a large number of different processes that are being investigated; however research is made mostly based on different types of biomass with the same pretreatment or several modifications of the same process for a given type of biomass. In this work a comparison of promising chemical pretreatments using the same biomass was performed. Organosolv (OS), Steam (SE) and Liquid-Hot-Water (LHW) processes were used for the pretreatment of rye straw and the treated solids further enzymatically hydrolyzed. Best results for carbohydrate and lignin yield were found for the OS pretreatment followed close by the LHW and SE with similar results. All of the processes showed satisfactory performance for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for application in the second generation biorefinery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining real-time PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing to provide quantitative comparisons of fungal aerosol populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Rudich, Yinon; Peccia, Jordan

    2014-02-01

    We examined fungal communities associated with the PM10 mass of Rehovot, Israel outdoor air samples collected in the spring and fall seasons. Fungal communities were described by 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal ribosomal RNA encoding gene. To allow for a more quantitative comparison of fungal exposure in humans, the relative abundance values of specific taxa were transformed to absolute concentrations through multiplying these values by the sample's total fungal spore concentration (derived from universal fungal qPCR). Next, the sequencing-based absolute concentrations for Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. were compared to taxon-specific qPCR concentrations for A. alternata, C. cladosporioides, E. nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. derived from the same spring and fall aerosol samples. Results of these comparisons showed that the absolute concentration values generated from pyrosequencing were strongly associated with the concentration values derived from taxon-specific qPCR (for all four species, p < 0.005, all R > 0.70). The correlation coefficients were greater for species present in higher concentrations. Our microbial aerosol population analyses demonstrated that fungal diversity (number of fungal operational taxonomic units) was higher in the spring compared to the fall (p = 0.02), and principal coordinate analysis showed distinct seasonal differences in taxa distribution (ANOSIM p = 0.004). Among genera containing allergenic and/or pathogenic species, the absolute concentrations of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Cladosporium were greater in the fall, while Cryptococcus, Penicillium, and Ulocladium concentrations were greater in the spring. The transformation of pyrosequencing fungal population relative abundance data to absolute concentrations can improve next-generation DNA sequencing-based quantitative aerosol exposure

  8. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  9. Revision of encapsulated blebs after trabeculectomy: Long-term comparison of standard bleb needling and modified needling procedure combined with transconjunctival scleral flap sutures

    PubMed Central

    Culmann, P. D.; Grus, F. H.; Prokosch-Willing, V.; Poplawksi, A.; Pfeiffer, N.; Hoffmann, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare two surgical approaches for treating encapsulated blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, in terms of the development of intraocular pressure and progression of glaucoma in a long-term follow up: 1. bleb needling alone vs. 2. a combined approach of needling with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures, to prevent early ocular hypotony. Methods Forty-six patients with failing blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were enrolled in this study. Patients received either needling revision alone (group 1; n = 23) or a combined needling with additional transconjuctival flap sutures, if intraoperatively the intraocular pressure was estimated to be low (group 2; n = 23). Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, visual fields, and optic nerve head configuration by means of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT®) were analysed over time. Results from both groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test for single timepoints. Results IOP did not differ significantly between the two groups during follow-up at three months (P = 0.13), six months (P = 0.12), one year (P = 0.92) and two years (P = 0.57) after surgery. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the course of glaucoma concerning the optic nerve anatomy between the two groups (Rim Area Change in the Moorfields Regression Analysis of HRT®) till two years after surgery (P = 0.289). No functional impairment in visual acuity and visual fields was found in the groups of the study. Conclusions Single needling procedure is a standard successful method for restoring the function of encapsulated blebs. Postoperative hypotony represents a possible hazard, which can be minimized by additional transconjunctival flap sutures. Long-term results suggest that this modification is equally effective in lowering the IOP and preventing the progression of glaucoma as the standard needling procedure. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the long-term effect of

  10. Revision of encapsulated blebs after trabeculectomy: Long-term comparison of standard bleb needling and modified needling procedure combined with transconjunctival scleral flap sutures.

    PubMed

    Laspas, P; Culmann, P D; Grus, F H; Prokosch-Willing, V; Poplawksi, A; Pfeiffer, N; Hoffmann, E M

    2017-01-01

    To compare two surgical approaches for treating encapsulated blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, in terms of the development of intraocular pressure and progression of glaucoma in a long-term follow up: 1. bleb needling alone vs. 2. a combined approach of needling with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures, to prevent early ocular hypotony. Forty-six patients with failing blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were enrolled in this study. Patients received either needling revision alone (group 1; n = 23) or a combined needling with additional transconjuctival flap sutures, if intraoperatively the intraocular pressure was estimated to be low (group 2; n = 23). Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, visual fields, and optic nerve head configuration by means of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT®) were analysed over time. Results from both groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test for single timepoints. IOP did not differ significantly between the two groups during follow-up at three months (P = 0.13), six months (P = 0.12), one year (P = 0.92) and two years (P = 0.57) after surgery. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the course of glaucoma concerning the optic nerve anatomy between the two groups (Rim Area Change in the Moorfields Regression Analysis of HRT®) till two years after surgery (P = 0.289). No functional impairment in visual acuity and visual fields was found in the groups of the study. Single needling procedure is a standard successful method for restoring the function of encapsulated blebs. Postoperative hypotony represents a possible hazard, which can be minimized by additional transconjunctival flap sutures. Long-term results suggest that this modification is equally effective in lowering the IOP and preventing the progression of glaucoma as the standard needling procedure. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the long-term effect of tranconjunctival sutures for the prevention of

  11. Comparison of latest generation transfemoral self-expandable and balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Andreas; Linder, Matthias; Seiffert, Moritz; Schoen, Gerhard; Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Schneeberger, Yvonne; Blankenberg, Stefan; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Schaefer, Ulrich; Conradi, Lenard

    2017-06-26

    We herein aimed to compare acute 30-day outcomes of latest-generation self-expandable and balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves. From 2012 through 2016, 104 consecutive patients (study group, 69.2% female, 81.7 ± 5.5 years, logEuroSCORE I 15.9 ± 9.3%) received transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the Symetis ACURATE neo ® transcatheter heart valve. A control group of patients after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Edwards Sapien 3™ transcatheter heart valve was retrieved from our database and matched to the study group. Data were retrospectively analysed according to updated Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. Device success was 94.2% (98 of 104) and 98.1% (102 of 104) in study and control groups, respectively ( P  = 0.157). All-cause 30-day mortality was 3.9 (4 of 104) vs 0.9% (1 of 104) ( P =  0.317). Resultant transvalvular peak/mean gradients and effective orifice area were 14.2 ± 5.7 vs 22.6 ± 6.8 mmHg ( P  < 0.001)/7.3 ± 2.8 vs 11.8 ± 3.5 mmHg ( P  < 0.001) and 2.0 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.4 cm 2 ( P =  0.063). Paravalvular leakage ≥moderate was observed in 4.8% (5 of 104) and 1.9% (2 of 104) ( P =  0.257). Rate of permanent pacemaker implantation was 10.6% (11 of 104) vs 16.4% (17 of 104) ( P =  0.239). Next-generation self-expandable transcatheter heart valves preserve superiority in terms of post-interventional haemodynamics without presenting former drawbacks: rate of postoperative permanent pacemaker implantation and severity of residual paravalvular leakage were similar to balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves.

  12. Comparison of voice-automated transcription and human transcription in generating pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Al-Aynati, Maamoun M; Chorneyko, Katherine A

    2003-06-01

    Software that can convert spoken words into written text has been available since the early 1980s. Early continuous speech systems were developed in 1994, with the latest commercially available editions having a claimed accuracy of up to 98% of speech recognition at natural speech rates. To evaluate the efficacy of one commercially available voice-recognition software system with pathology vocabulary in generating pathology reports and to compare this with human transcription. To draw cost analysis conclusions regarding human versus computer-based transcription. Two hundred six routine pathology reports from the surgical pathology material handled at St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, were generated simultaneously using computer-based transcription and human transcription. The following hardware and software were used: a desktop 450-MHz Intel Pentium III processor with 192 MB of RAM, a speech-quality sound card (Sound Blaster), noise-canceling headset microphone, and IBM ViaVoice Pro version 8 with pathology vocabulary support (Voice Automated, Huntington Beach, Calif). The cost of the hardware and software used was approximately Can 2250 dollars. A total of 23 458 words were transcribed using both methods with a mean of 114 words per report. The mean accuracy rate was 93.6% (range, 87.4%-96%) using the computer software, compared to a mean accuracy of 99.6% (range, 99.4%-99.8%) for human transcription (P <.001). Time needed to edit documents by the primary evaluator (M.A.) using the computer was on average twice that needed for editing the documents produced by human transcriptionists (range, 1.4-3.5 times). The extra time needed to edit documents was 67 minutes per week (13 minutes per day). Computer-based continuous speech-recognition systems in pathology can be successfully used in pathology practice even during the handling of gross pathology specimens. The relatively low accuracy rate of this voice-recognition software with resultant increased editing

  13. Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Sebastian E W; Smrke, Samo; Goodman, Bernard A; Keller, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-11-12

    Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants; some are present in the green bean, whereas others are generated during roasting. However, there is no single accepted analytical method for their routine determination. This paper describes the adaption of three complementary assays (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ABTS and ORAC) for the routine assessment of antioxidant capacity of beverages, their validation, and use for determining the antioxidant capacities of extracts from coffee beans at different stages in the roasting process. All assays showed a progressive increase in antioxidant capacity during roasting to a light roast state, consistent with the production of melanoidins having a higher antioxidant effect than the degradation of CGAs. However, the three assays gave different numbers for the total antioxidant capacity of green beans relative to gallic acid (GA), although the range of values was much smaller when chlorogenic acid (CGA) was used as reference. Therefore, although all three assays indicated that there was an increase in antioxidant activity during coffee roasting, and the large differences in responses to GA and CGA illustrate their different sensitivities to different types of antioxidant molecule.

  14. A comparison of torque generating capabilities of three different electrical stimulating currents.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, L; Garrett, M; Roberts, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the torque generating capabilities of three commercially available neuromuscular electrical stimulators (NMES) having different current characteristics. Twenty healthy adults were positioned in sitting on an isokinetic dynamometer. Maximum voluntary isometric knee extension torque was determined. Subsequently, two 10-sec, maximally tolerated contractions were elicited with each machine. The order of stimulation was randomized and there were 2-minute rest periods between contractions. Electrically elicited torque values were expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric torque (%MVIT).Analysis of variance with one repeated measure showed a significant difference among %MVIT produced by the stimulators. NMES 2 (Nemectrodyn 7) produced significantly less %MVIT than either NMES 1 (Electrostim 180-2) or NMES 3 (Chattanooga VMS). In all but three cases, NMES 2's maximal current output was reached. Although all three devices were capable of producing %MVIT that has been shown to be sufficient for strengthening, it appears that NMES 2 does not have the capacity to provide "overload" as strength increases. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989;10(8):297-301.

  15. Performance comparison of next-generation sequencing platforms for determining HIV-1 coreceptor use

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Stéphanie; Nicot, Florence; Jeanne, Nicolas; Delfour, Olivier; Carcenac, Romain; Lefebvre, Caroline; Cazabat, Michelle; Sauné, Karine; Delobel, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The coreceptor used by HIV-1 must be determined before a CCR5 antagonist, part of the arsenal of antiretroviral drugs, is prescribed because viruses that enter cells using the CXCR4 coreceptor are responsible for treatment failure. HIV-1 tropism is also correlated with disease progression and so must be determined for virological studies. Tropism can be determined by next-generation sequencing (NGS), but not all of these new technologies have been fully validated for use in clinical practice. The Illumina NGS technology is used in many laboratories but its ability to predict HIV-1 tropism has not been evaluated while the 454 GS-Junior (Roche) is used for routine diagnosis. The genotypic prediction of HIV-1 tropism is based on sequencing the V3 region and interpreting the results with an appropriate algorithm. We compared the performances of the MiSeq (Illumina) and 454 GS-Junior (Roche) systems with a reference phenotypic assay. We used clinical samples for the NGS tropism predictions and assessed their ability to quantify CXCR4-using variants. The data show that the Illumina platform can be used to detect minor CXCR4-using variants in clinical practice but technical optimization are needed to improve quantification. PMID:28186189

  16. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  17. Comparison of the microbial population in rabbits and guinea pigs by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Edward J.; King, Jonathan M.; Wilkinson, Toby; Worgan, Hilary J.; Huson, Kathryn M.; Rose, Michael T.; McEwan, Neil R.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the microbial composition of faeces from two groups of caecotrophagic animals; rabbits and guinea pigs. In addition the study aimed to determine the community present in the different organs in the rabbit. DNA was extracted from seven of the organs in wild rabbits (n = 5) and from faecal samples from domesticated rabbits (n = 6) and guinea pigs (n = 6). Partial regions of the small ribosomal sub-unit were amplified by PCR and then the sequences present in each sample were determined by next generation sequencing. Differences were detected between samples from rabbit and guinea pig faeces, suggesting that there is not a microbial community common to caecotrophagic animals. Differences were also detected in the different regions of the rabbits’ digestive tracts. As with previous work, many of the organisms detected were Firmicutes or unclassified species and there was a lack of Fibrobacteres, but for the first time we observed a high number of Bacteroidetes in rabbit samples. This work re-iterates high levels of Firmicutes and unclassified species are present in the rabbit gut, together with low number of Fibrobacteres. This suggests that in the rabbit gut, organisms other than the Fibrobacteres must be responsible for fibre digestion. However observation of high numbers of Bacteroidetes suggests that this phylum may indeed have a role to play in digestion in the rabbit gut. PMID:28182658

  18. Generation and comparison of globally isotropic space-filling truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Klang, Eric C.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to present a rationale for obtaining space-filling truss structures that behave like a globally isotropic continuum and to use continuum modeling to investigate their relative structural efficiencies (e.g., modulus-to-density, strength-to-density, and part-count-to-volume ratios). The trusses considered herein are generated by replication of a characteristic truss cell uniformly through space. The characteristic cells are categorized by one of a set of possible geometric symmetry groups derived using the techniques of crystallography. The implied elastic symmetry associated with each geometric symmetry group is identified to simplify the task of determining stiffness tailoring rules for guaranteeing global isotropy. Four truss geometries are analyzed to determine stiffness tailoring necessary for isotropy. All geometries exhibit equivalent isotropic Poisson's ratios of 1/4 and equivalent modulus-to-density ratios of 1/6 times the modulus-to-density ratio of the material used in their members. The truss configuration that has the lowest percent difference in member lengths is shown to have the lowest component part-count-to-volume ratios of all geometries considered when compared on a basis of equal stiffness, equal strength, and equal mass.

  19. Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Smrke, Samo; Goodman, Bernard A.; Keller, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants; some are present in the green bean, whereas others are generated during roasting. However, there is no single accepted analytical method for their routine determination. This paper describes the adaption of three complementary assays (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ABTS and ORAC) for the routine assessment of antioxidant capacity of beverages, their validation, and use for determining the antioxidant capacities of extracts from coffee beans at different stages in the roasting process. All assays showed a progressive increase in antioxidant capacity during roasting to a light roast state, consistent with the production of melanoidins having a higher antioxidant effect than the degradation of CGAs. However, the three assays gave different numbers for the total antioxidant capacity of green beans relative to gallic acid (GA), although the range of values was much smaller when chlorogenic acid (CGA) was used as reference. Therefore, although all three assays indicated that there was an increase in antioxidant activity during coffee roasting, and the large differences in responses to GA and CGA illustrate their different sensitivities to different types of antioxidant molecule. PMID:28234339

  20. Comparison of Frameworks for Next Generation Multiphase Flow Solver, MFIX: A Group Decision-Making Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Gel, Aytekin; Pannala, Sreekanth; Syamlal, M; O'Brien, T. J.; Gel, Esma

    2007-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have emerged as a powerful tool for understanding multiphase flows that occur in a wide range of engineering applications and natural processes. A multiphase CFD code called MFIX has been under development at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) since the 1980s for modeling multiphase flows that occur in fossil fuel reactors. CFD codes such as MFIX are equipped with a number of numerical algorithms to solve a large set of coupled partial differential equations over three-dimensional grids consisting of hundreds of thousands of cells on parallel computers. Currently, the next generation version of MFIX is under development with the goal of building a multiphase problem solving environment (PSE) that would facilitate the simple reuse of modern software components by application scientists. Several open-source frameworks were evaluated to identify the best-suited framework for the multiphase PSE. There are many requirements for the multiphase PSE, and each of these open-source frameworks offers functionalities that satisfy the requirements to varying extents. Therefore, matching the requirements and the functionalities is not a simple task and requires a systematic and quantitative decision making procedure. We present a multi-criteria decision making approach to determining a major system design decision, and demonstrate its application on the framework selection problem.

  1. Systems performance comparison of three all-optical generation schemes for quasi-Nyquist WDM.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Arthur James; Xie, Yiwei; Zhu, Chen

    2015-08-24

    Orthogonal time division multiplexing (OrthTDM) interleaves sinc-shaped pulses to form a high baud-rate signal, with a rectangular spectrum suitable for multiplexing into a Nyquist WDM (N-WDM)-like signal. The problem with generating sinc-shaped pulses is that they theoretically have infinite durations, and even if time bounded for practical implementation, they still require a filter with a long impulse response, hence a large physical size. Previously a method of creating chirped-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) pulses with a chirped arrayed waveguide (AWG) filter, then converting them into interleaved quasi-sinc pulses using dispersive fiber (DF), has been proposed. This produces a signal with a wider spectrum than the equivalent N-WDM signal. We show that a modification to the scheme enables the spectral extent to be reduced for the same data rate. We then analyse the key factors in designing an OrthTDM transmitter, and relate these to the performance of a N-WDM system. We show that the modified transmitter reduces the required guard band between the N-WDM channels. We also simulate a simpler scheme using an unchirped finite-impulse response filter of similar size, which directly creates truncated-sinc pulses without needing a DF. This gives better system performance than either chirped scheme.

  2. Comparison between model predictions and observations of ELF radio atmospherics generated by rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, N. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Model predictions of the ELF radio atmospheric generated by rocket-triggered lightning are compared with observations performed at Arrival Heights, Antarctica. The ability to infer source characteristics using observations at great distances may prove to greatly enhance the understanding of lightning processes that are associated with the production of transient luminous events (TLEs) as well as other ionospheric effects associated with lightning. The modeling of the sferic waveform is carried out using a modified version of the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code developed by the Naval Ocean Systems Center over a period of many years. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. ELF observations performed at Arrival Heights, Antarctica during rocket-triggered lightning experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) located at Camp Blanding, Florida are presented. The lightning current waveforms directly measured at the base of the lightning channel (at the ICLRT) are used together with LWPC to predict the sferic waveform observed at Arrival Heights under various ionospheric conditions. This paper critically compares observations with model predictions.

  3. Numerical simulation of convectively generated gravity waves in West Africa and comparisons with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, P.; Blanc, E.

    2012-04-01

    Convective clouds in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) are a major source of nonstationary gravity waves, that propagate to the stratosphere and result in upward displacements at low levels, which induces new convection. Simulations of wind fields are performed by the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting) over a period of 2 days during active thunderstorm days. Simulations are carried out in a domain covering the ITCZ in West Africa using 2 nested grids with horizontal grid spacing of 27 and 9 km respectively. Simulations are driven by ECMWF winds (defined by 91 levels from surface to 80 km), using 100 levels from surface to 50 Pa and a sponge layer above 45 km. The waves characteristics are compared to observations at the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) infrasound station in Ivory Coast. The aim of this study is to further understand the mechanisms of wave generation by deep convection and propagation to the stratosphere. In a second part, we also study the effects of gravity waves on the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere and perform sensitivity simulations to the top height of the model.

  4. Comparison of metallurgical coke and lignite coke for power generation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanakuakangwan, Sudlop; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents and compares two alternatives of cokes in power generation which are the metallurgical coke with coke oven gas and the coke from lignite under the consideration of the energy and the environment. These alternatives not only consume less fuel due to their higher heat content than conventional coal but also has less SO2 emission. The metallurgical coke and its by-product which is coke oven gas can be obtained from the carbonization process of coking coal. According to high grade coking coal, the result in the energy attitude is not profitable but its sulfur content that directly affects the emission of SO2 is considered to be very low. On the other hand, the coke produced from lignite is known as it is the lowest grade from coal and it causes the high pollution. Regarding to energy profitability, the lignite coke is considered to be much more beneficial than the metallurgical coke in contrast to the environmental concerns. However, the metallurgical coke has the highest heating value. Therefore, a decision making between those choices must be referred to the surrounding circumstances based on energy and environment as well as economic consideration in the further research.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Comparison of Experimental Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vivien, Régis; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are a common group of freshwater benthic invertebrates known to be very sensitive to environmental changes and currently used as bioindicators in some countries. However, more extensive application of oligochaetes for assessing the ecological quality of sediments in watercourses and lakes would require overcoming the difficulties related to morphology-based identification of oligochaetes species. This study tested the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) of a standard cytochrome c oxydase I (COI) barcode as a tool for the rapid assessment of oligochaete diversity in environmental samples, based on mixed specimen samples. To know the composition of each sample we Sanger sequenced every specimen present in these samples. Our study showed that a large majority of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit) could be detected by NGS analyses. We also observed congruence between the NGS and specimen abundance data for several but not all OTUs. Because the differences in sequence abundance data were consistent across samples, we exploited these variations to empirically design correction factors. We showed that such factors increased the congruence between the values of oligochaetes-based indices inferred from the NGS and the Sanger-sequenced specimen data. The validation of these correction factors by further experimental studies will be needed for the adaptation and use of NGS technology in biomonitoring studies based on oligochaete communities. PMID:26866802

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Comparison of Experimental Communities.

    PubMed

    Vivien, Régis; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are a common group of freshwater benthic invertebrates known to be very sensitive to environmental changes and currently used as bioindicators in some countries. However, more extensive application of oligochaetes for assessing the ecological quality of sediments in watercourses and lakes would require overcoming the difficulties related to morphology-based identification of oligochaetes species. This study tested the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) of a standard cytochrome c oxydase I (COI) barcode as a tool for the rapid assessment of oligochaete diversity in environmental samples, based on mixed specimen samples. To know the composition of each sample we Sanger sequenced every specimen present in these samples. Our study showed that a large majority of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit) could be detected by NGS analyses. We also observed congruence between the NGS and specimen abundance data for several but not all OTUs. Because the differences in sequence abundance data were consistent across samples, we exploited these variations to empirically design correction factors. We showed that such factors increased the congruence between the values of oligochaetes-based indices inferred from the NGS and the Sanger-sequenced specimen data. The validation of these correction factors by further experimental studies will be needed for the adaptation and use of NGS technology in biomonitoring studies based on oligochaete communities.

  7. HLA genotyping in the clinical laboratory: comparison of next-generation sequencing methods.

    PubMed

    Profaizer, T; Lázár-Molnár, E; Close, D W; Delgado, J C; Kumánovics, A

    2016-07-01

    Implementation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical lab brings new challenges to the laboratories performing this testing. With the advent of commercially available HLA-NGS typing kits, labs must make numerous decisions concerning capital equipment and address labor considerations. Therefore, careful and unbiased evaluation of available methods is imperative. In this report, we compared our in-house developed HLA NGS typing with two commercially available kits from Illumina and Omixon using 10 International Histocompatibility Working Group (IHWG) and 36 clinical samples. Although all three methods employ long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and have been developed on the Illumina MiSeq platform, the methodologies for library preparation show significant variations. There was 100% typing concordance between all three methods at the first field when a HLA type could be assigned. Overall, HLA typing by NGS using in-house or commercially available methods is now feasible in clinical laboratories. However, technical variables such as hands-on time and indexing strategies are sufficiently different among these approaches to impact the workflow of the clinical laboratory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu. Frolova, V. P.; Oks, E. M.

    2016-02-15

    Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%.

  9. Comparisons Between Unsteady Aerodynamic Events in a Gas Turbine Generator and an Identical Compressor Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, A. Karl

    1996-01-01

    Extensive testing done on a T55-L-712 turboshaft engine compressor in a compressor test rig is being followed by engine tests in progress as part of the Army Non-Recoverable Stall Program. Goals include a greater understanding of the gas turbine engine start cycle and compressor/engine operation in the regions 'beyond' the normal compressor stall line (rotating stall/surge). Rig steady state instrumentation consisted of 497 steady state pressure sensors and 153 temperature sensors. Engine instrumentation was placed in similar radial/axial locations and consists of 122 steady state pressure sensors and 65 temperature sensors. High response rig instrumentation consisted of 34 wall static pressure transducers. Rig and engine high response pressure transducers were located in the same axial/radial/circumferential locations in front of the first three stages. Additional engine high response instrumentation was placed in mach probes in front of the engine and on the compressor hub. This instrumentation allows for the generation of detailed stage characteristics, overall compressor mapping, and detailed analysis of dynamic compressor events.

  10. Comparison of two new generation pulse oximeters with arterial oxygen saturation in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Jose, Bipin; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2014-12-01

    To compare the performance of two new generation pulse oximeters, one with enhanced signal extraction technology (SET) and other without enhanced SET in detecting hypoxemia and to correlate it with arterial blood gas analysis. Forty-eight patients, admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a teritiary care teaching hospital in India for critical care and support during the study period, who had an arterial catheter in situ were included. Children with those disease conditions known to interfere with pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis were excluded.184 set of observations were made during the study period. Each set had oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured from both the pulse oximeters and the corresponding arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). The values were compared for occurrence of true and false alarms during periods of normal BP, hypotension and varying degrees of hypoxia. The mean arterial SaO2 in the study was 94.4 % ± 4.9. The mean SpO2 recorded in conventional and enhanced signal extraction technology (SET) pulse oximeters were 94.9 % ± 4.5 and 97.2 % ± 4.7 respectively. Enhanced signal extraction technology pulse oximeter detected 4/27 (15 %) of true hypoxemic events and 1 event was a false alarm. Conventional pulse oximeter detected 11/27 (41 %) true hypoxemic events but recorded 6 false alarms. Both pulse oximeters were not found to be performing satisfactorily in picking up hypoxemia in the study. There was good correlation with mean SpO2 from pulse oximeters and arterial SaO2. The reliability of pulse oximetry decreases with worsening hypoxemia and hypotension, and the sensitivity for picking up hypoxemia can be as low as 15 %.

  11. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William L; Boulet, John; Sandella, Jeanne

    2017-02-21

    When the safety of the public is at stake, it is particularly relevant for licensing and credentialing exam agencies to use defensible standard setting methods to categorize candidates into competence categories (e.g., pass/fail). The aim of this study was to gather evidence to support change to the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation standard setting design and administrative process. Twenty-two video recordings of candidates assessed for clinical competence were randomly selected from the 2014-2015 Humanistic domain test score distribution ranging from the highest to lowest quintile of performance. Nineteen panelists convened at the same site to receive training and practice prior to generating judgments of qualified or not qualified performance to each of the twenty videos. At the end of training, one panel remained onsite to complete their judgments and the second panel was released and given 1 week to observe the same twenty videos and complete their judgments offsite. The two one-sided test procedure established equivalence between panel group means at the 0.05 confidence level, controlling for rater errors within each panel group. From a practical cost-effective and administrative resource perspective, results from this study suggest it is possible to diverge from typical panel groups, who are sequestered the entire time onsite, to larger numbers of panelists who can make their judgments offsite with little impact on judged samples of qualified performance. Standard setting designs having panelists train together and then allowing those to provide judgments yields equivalent ratings and, ultimately, similar cut scores.

  12. Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Design Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Participants Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Main outcome measure Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Conclusions Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children. PMID:18156227

  13. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  14. A new generation of self-etching adhesives: comparison with traditional acid etch technique.

    PubMed

    Holzmeier, Marcus; Schaubmayr, Martin; Dasch, Walter; Hirschfelder, Ursula

    2008-03-01

    differences among the self-etching adhesives used in Restorative Dentistry or in comparison to the Transbond Plus SE Primer. No significant differences were apparent even when compared to the Transbond XT Primer after phosphoric acid-etching. Both experimental bonding agents and SE Zement without acid etching performed significantly worse than the products mentioned above, failing to demonstrate sufficient adhesive strength. SEM examination revealed less distinctive enamel-etching patterns for self-etching products than for phosphoric acid-etching. CLSM analysis revealed etching depths between 0.5 and 20 microm depending on the product. When self-etching products were used, less residual composite remained on the enamel surface than after phosphoric acid-etching. All the adhesives tested are suitable for bonding orthodontic brackets and to reduce the risk of enamel fracture while minimizing etching depth, which in turns means less conditioning-related enamel loss. More development is needed to improve the etching performance of both experimental bonding agents and SE Zement.

  15. In vitro comparison of the effect of two factor XI (FXI) concentrates on thrombin generation in major FXI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pike, G N; Cumming, A M; Hay, C R M; Sempasa, B; Sutherland, M; Thachil, J; Burthem, J; Bolton-Maggs, P H B

    2016-05-01

    Bleeding risk in factor XI (FXI) deficiency following surgery may be reduced by treatment with either of two FXI concentrates, but indications for their use are unclear and treatment has been associated with thrombosis. To quantify and compare the effects of two different FXI concentrates on thrombin generation (TG) in major FXI deficiency (FXI:C < 15 IU dL(-1) ). Thrombin generation was measured in controls (n = 50), FXI-deficient individuals pre and post in vitro spiking with FXI concentrates (n = 10), and in ex vivo samples following treatment with FXI concentrate (n = 3). Thrombin generation was significantly impaired in FXI deficiency but improved following FXI replacement in vitro and in vivo. LFB Hemoleven(®) had greater effect on TG than BPL FXI concentrate in vitro (equivalent in vivo doses 10, 20 and 30 U kg(-1) ): higher endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (P < 0.0001), peak height (P < 0.01) velocity (P < 0.0002) and shorter lag time and time to peak (both P < 0.003). Some measurements with LFB Hemoleven(®) exceeded the reference range. At lower dose (5 U kg(-1) ), BPL FXI concentrate normalized all TG parameters and LFB Hemoleven(®) normalized the ETP but exceeded the reference range with other parameters. Both FXI concentrates improve TG in vitro in major FXI deficiency but differ in dose response, and for both products, doses lower than previously recommended normalized TG in vitro. Comparison of in vitro spiked and ex vivo samples suggest that in vitro results could be used to estimate an expected in vivo response to FXI replacement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Stripping for Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-step process by which students are taught to revise their writing by listing each sentence on another paper, combining sentences by eliminating redundancy, reducing information to appositives, and reducing information to participles, as well as revising the reduced number of sentences by including verbals, action verbs,…

  17. Writing as Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.; Endo, George T.

    This proposal for a longitudinal experimental study with a treatment intervention focuses on the process of writing as revision. Revision refers to the process which occurs prior to and throughout the writing of a work, rather than the final editing. According to this process, the writer goes through five stages: preconceptions concerning style…

  18. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  19. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  20. Revision of the DELFIC Particle Activity Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J

    2010-09-01

    The Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) was originally released in 1968 as a tool for modeling fallout patterns and for predicting exposure rates. Despite the continual advancement of knowledge of fission yields, decay behavior of fission products, and biological dosimetry, the decay data and logic of DELFIC have remained mostly unchanged since inception. Additionally, previous code revisions caused a loss of conservation of radioactive nuclides. In this report, a new revision of the decay database and the Particle Activity Module is introduced and explained. The database upgrades discussed are replacement of the fission yields with ENDF/B-VII data as formatted in the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code, revised decay constants, revised exposure rate multipliers, revised decay modes and branching ratios, and revised boiling point data. Included decay logic upgrades represent a correction of a flaw in the treatment of the fission yields, extension of the logic to include more complex decay modes, conservation of nuclides (including stable nuclides) at all times, and conversion of key variables to double precision for nuclide conservation. Finally, recommended future work is discussed with an emphasis on completion of the overall radiation physics upgrade, particularly for dosimetry, induced activity, decay of the actinides, and fractionation.

  1. Food safety: revising the statute.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D A

    1984-03-09

    There is increasing recognition that federal food safety laws and policies need to be revised. Congressional debate on proposed amendments to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has generated several different perspectives on how the food safety laws should be changed. Before a consensus can be reached, scientists, regulators, the food industry, and consumers will have to review such complex and controversial issues as the level of acceptable risk, the value of risk-benefit analysis, the proper role of independent scientific review, and the reliability of quantitative risk assessment.

  2. Performance of dose calculation algorithms from three generations in lung SBRT: comparison with full Monte Carlo-based dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Jarkko J; Kapanen, Mika K; Hyödynmaa, Simo J; Wigren, Tuija K; Pitkänen, Maunu A

    2014-03-06

    threshold criteria showed larger discrepancies. The TPS algorithm comparison results showed large dose discrepancies in the PTV mean dose (D50%), nearly 60%, for the PBC algorithm, and differences of nearly 20% for the AAA, occurring also in the small PTV size range. This work suggests the application of independent plan verification, when the AAA or the AXB algorithm are utilized in lung SBRT having PTVs smaller than 20-25 cc. The calculated data from this study can be used in converting the SBRT protocols based on type 'a' and/or type 'b' algorithms for the most recent generation type 'c' algorithms, such as the AXB algorithm.

  3. How to improve the performances of Fecal Immunological Tests (FIT): Need for standardization of the sampling and pre-analytical phases and revision of the procedures for comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rapi, Stefano; Rubeca, Tiziana; Fraser, Callum G

    2015-02-24

    Lack of reference materials and standard procedures, on faecal tests leads to major problems in harmonisation of methods and do not allow the comparison of outcome data. In particular the absence of standardisation of pre-analytical characteristic was noted for faecal test methods for haemoglobin since different manufacturers have developed different sampling procedures and report units. Moreover the physical characteristics of the faecal specimen and the designs of specimen collection devices do not allow analysis of samples on different systems in consequence, faecal tests cannot be compared using standard evaluation protocols. To improve the harmonization of results generated using different analytical systems and the overall performances of test on faecal materials we propose the introduction of standard procedures for sampling and pre-analytical phase and the adoption of specific procedures based on the use of artificial biological samples for comparison of methods. Harmonization of sampling devices with the use of a standard design for pickers and a standard ratio between analyte and buffer for different manufacturers represent a mandatory step in the roadmap for harmonization of clinical laboratory measurement on faecal materials and can allow a significant standardisation of results generated by different devices.The creation of specific protocols for the evaluation and comparison of analytical methods for analyse of faeces could lead to a significant improvement in the performance of methods and systems.

  4. Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair.

    PubMed

    Abouali, Jihad Alexander Karim; Hatzantoni, Katerina; Holtby, Richard; Veillette, Christian; Theodoropoulos, John

    2013-09-01

    Failed anterior shoulder stabilization procedures have traditionally been treated with open procedures. Recent advances in arthroscopic techniques have allowed for certain failed stabilization procedures to be treated by arthroscopic surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the outcomes of revision arthroscopic Bankart repair. We searched Medline, Embase, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) for articles on revision arthroscopic Bankart repairs. Key words included shoulder dislocation, anterior shoulder instability, revision surgery, and arthroscopic Bankart repair. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodologic quality, and extracted data. We included 16 studies comprising 349 patients. All studies were retrospective (1 Level II study and 15 Level IV studies). The mean incidence of recurrent instability after revision arthroscopic Bankart repair was 12.7%, and the mean follow-up period was 35.4 months. The most common cause for failure of the primary surgeries was a traumatic injury (62.1%), and 85.1% of patients returned to playing sports. The reasons for failure of revision cases included glenohumeral bone loss, hyperlaxity, and return to contact sports. With proper patient selection, the outcomes of revision arthroscopic Bankart repair appear similar to those of revision open Bankart repair. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are required to confirm these findings. Level IV, systematic review of Level II and Level IV studies. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cementless acetabular revision arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rina; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of clinical factors on outcome after acetabular revision with a cementless beaded cup. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary care referral centre. Patients Forty-one patients who underwent acetabular revision with a cementless cup were followed up for a mean of 3.4 years. Interventions Acetabular revision with a beaded cementless cup in all patients. A morcellized allograft was used in 10 patients. Outcome measures A modified Harris hip score (range of motion measurement omitted), the SF-36 health survey, and the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effects of age, gender, morcellized allografting, time to revision from the previous operation, acetabular screw fixation and concurrent femoral revision on outcome. Results Gender accounted for a significant portion of the variation seen in the SF-36 physical component scores (r = 0.36, p = 0.02), with women tending to have worse results. Increasing age was associated with lower WOMAC index function scores (r = 0.36, p = 0.03), whereas concurrent femoral revision tended to have a positive effect on WOMAC index function (r = 0.39, p = 0.01). None of the potential clinical predictors had any significant effect on the SF-36 mental component scores, or WOMAC index pain and stiffness scores. Conclusions In cementless acetabular revision arthroplasty, physical function, as measured by generic and limb-specific scales, may be affected by gender, age and the presence of a concurrent femoral revision. Time to revision from the previous operation, morcellized allografting and screw fixation of the acetabulum did not affect outcomes. This information may provide some prognostic value for patients’ expectations. PMID:10948687

  6. Comparison of hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA expression profiling as evaluated by next generation sequencing and microarray.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiki; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Okada, Rina; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kumada, Takashi; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi; Taguchi, Y-h; Azuma, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling has proven useful in diagnosing and understanding the development and progression of several diseases. Microarray is the standard method for analyzing miRNA expression profiles; however, it has several disadvantages, including its limited detection of miRNAs. In recent years, advances in genome sequencing have led to the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which significantly advance genome sequencing speed and discovery. In this study, we compared the expression profiles obtained by next generation sequencing (NGS) with the profiles created using microarray to assess if NGS could produce a more accurate and complete miRNA profile. Total RNA from 14 hepatocellular carcinoma tumors (HCC) and 6 matched non-tumor control tissues were sequenced with Illumina MiSeq 50-bp single-end reads. Micro RNA expression profiles were estimated using miRDeep2 software. As a comparison, miRNA expression profiles for 11 out of 14 HCCs were also established by microarray (Agilent human microRNA microarray). The average total sequencing exceeded 2.2 million reads per sample and of those reads, approximately 57% mapped to the human genome. The average correlation for miRNA expression between microarray and NGS and subtraction were 0.613 and 0.587, respectively, while miRNA expression between technical replicates was 0.976. The diagnostic accuracy of HCC, p-value, and AUC were 90.0%, 7.22×10(-4), and 0.92, respectively. In summary, NGS created an miRNA expression profile that was reproducible and comparable to that produced by microarray. Moreover, NGS discovered novel miRNAs that were otherwise undetectable by microarray. We believe that miRNA expression profiling by NGS can be a useful diagnostic tool applicable to multiple fields of medicine.

  7. Comparison of characteristics of photon and electron beams generated by Philips/Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Song, Haijun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James M

    2002-06-01

    Commissioning data of the common energy of 6 MV photon beams are analyzed for seven Philips/ Elekta linacs of five different models: SL 75/5, SL 15, SL 25, SLi Precise, and SLi. The observed beam quality %dd(10)x of 67.7% +/- 0.3 agrees with the manufacturer's specification of 67.5% +/- 2% but with a much smaller variation, suggesting the possibility of a more accurate beam quality guideline for acceptance commissioning of these linac models. Field size factors are less uniform, especially for the biggest field size of 40 x 40 cm2, but all agree within 1.1% between the five models. These 6 MV photon beams are also shown to be 0.4 MV harder than the Varian 2100C model. For commissioning electron beams generated by the Philips/Elekta models SL 15, SLi Precise and SLi, guidelines can be found from this work for the following parameters: actual field size at 100 SSD (up to +/- 0.6%) (different from manufacturer specified values at 95 SSD), and virtual source distance (up to +/- 0.7%). Significant differences are seen for R50 (up to 3.7 mm), sigma-theta-x, effective source distance, and cone size factor. However, except for R50 where Varian 2100C datasets are not available for comparison, the differences between the different Philips/Elekta models are comparable to those between the same Varian 2100C model linacs measured by us and Watts.

  8. Generation and Comparison of Tls and SFM Based 3d Models of Solid Shapes in Hydromechanic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Schneider, D.; Strauß, B.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of a current study at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Technical Hydromechanics at TU Dresden is to develop a new injection method for quick and economic sealing of dikes or dike bodies, based on a new synthetic material. To validate the technique, an artificial part of a sand dike was built in an experimental hall. The synthetic material was injected, which afterwards spreads in the inside of the dike. After the material was fully solidified, the surrounding sand was removed with an excavator. In this paper, two methods, which applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and structure from motion (SfM) respectively, for the acquisition of a 3D point cloud of the remaining shapes are described and compared. Combining with advanced software packages, a triangulated 3D model was generated and subsequently the volume of vertical sections of the shape were calculated. As the calculation of the volume revealed differences between the TLS and the SfM 3D model, a thorough qualitative comparison of the two models will be presented as well as a detailed accuracy assessment. The main influence of the accuracy is caused by generalisation in case of gaps due to occlusions in the 3D point cloud. Therefore, improvements for the data acquisition with TLS and SfM for such kind of objects are suggested in the paper.

  9. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses.Methods: All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT{sub remove}) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT{sub cut}). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated.Results: Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT{sub cut} significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT{sub remove}. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V{sub 60Gy} reduced by 17.5%{+-} 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p= 0.036) and rectum D{sub mean} by 9.4%{+-} 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p= 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V{sub 60Gy} by another 4.6%{+-} 4.9% (p= 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT{sub cut} plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V{sub 60Gy} was 37.3%{+-} 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p= 0.012) for 15 directions.Conclusions: iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRT{sub cut} strategy) significantly improved OAR

  10. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80-90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  11. The protonmotive force in bovine heart submitochondrial particles. Magnitude, sites of generation and comparison with the phosphorylation potential.

    PubMed

    Sorgato, M C; Ferguson, S J; Kell, D B; John, P

    1978-07-15

    1. The magnitude of the protonmotive force in respiring bovine heart submitochondrial particles was estimated. The membrane-potential component was determined from the uptake of S14CN-ions, and the pH-gradient component from the uptake of [14C]methylamine. In each case a flow-dialysis technique was used to monitor uptake. 2. With NADH as substrate the membrane potential was approx. 145mV and the pH gradient was between 0 and 0.5 unit when the particles were suspended in a Pi/Tris reaction medium. The addition of the permeant NO3-ion decreased the membrane potential with a corresponding increase in the pH gradient. In a medium containing 200mM-sucrose, 50mM-KCl and Hepes as buffer, the total protonmotive force was 185mV, comprising a membrane potential of 90mV and a pH gradient of 1.6 units. Thus the protonmotive force was slightly larger in the high-osmolarity medium. 3. The phosphorylation potential (= deltaG0' + RT ln[ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) was approx. 43.1 kJ/mol (10.3kcal/mol) in all the reaction media tested. Comparison of this value with the protonmotive force indicates that more than 2 and up to 3 protons must be moved across the membrane for each molecule of ATP synthesized by a chemiosmotic mechanism. 4. Succinate generated both a protonmotive force and a phosphorylation potential that were of similar magnitude to those observed with NADH as substrate. 5. Although oxidation of NADH supports a rate of ATP synthesis that is approximately twice that observed with succinate, respiration with either of these substrates generated a very similar protonmotive force. Thus there seemed to be no strict relation between the size of the protonmotive force and the phosphorylation rate. 6. In the presence of antimycin and/or 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, ascorbate oxidation with either NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine or 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine as electron mediator generated a membrane potential of approx. 90mV, but no pH gradient was detected, even

  12. The protonmotive force in bovine heart submitochondrial particles. Magnitude, sites of generation and comparison with the phosphorylation potential.

    PubMed Central

    Sorgato, M C; Ferguson, S J; Kell, D B; John, P

    1978-01-01

    1. The magnitude of the protonmotive force in respiring bovine heart submitochondrial particles was estimated. The membrane-potential component was determined from the uptake of S14CN-ions, and the pH-gradient component from the uptake of [14C]methylamine. In each case a flow-dialysis technique was used to monitor uptake. 2. With NADH as substrate the membrane potential was approx. 145mV and the pH gradient was between 0 and 0.5 unit when the particles were suspended in a Pi/Tris reaction medium. The addition of the permeant NO3-ion decreased the membrane potential with a corresponding increase in the pH gradient. In a medium containing 200mM-sucrose, 50mM-KCl and Hepes as buffer, the total protonmotive force was 185mV, comprising a membrane potential of 90mV and a pH gradient of 1.6 units. Thus the protonmotive force was slightly larger in the high-osmolarity medium. 3. The phosphorylation potential (= deltaG0' + RT ln[ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) was approx. 43.1 kJ/mol (10.3kcal/mol) in all the reaction media tested. Comparison of this value with the protonmotive force indicates that more than 2 and up to 3 protons must be moved across the membrane for each molecule of ATP synthesized by a chemiosmotic mechanism. 4. Succinate generated both a protonmotive force and a phosphorylation potential that were of similar magnitude to those observed with NADH as substrate. 5. Although oxidation of NADH supports a rate of ATP synthesis that is approximately twice that observed with succinate, respiration with either of these substrates generated a very similar protonmotive force. Thus there seemed to be no strict relation between the size of the protonmotive force and the phosphorylation rate. 6. In the presence of antimycin and/or 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, ascorbate oxidation with either NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine or 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine as electron mediator generated a membrane potential of approx. 90mV, but no pH gradient was detected, even

  13. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: comparison of different planning strategies.

    PubMed

    Voet, Peter W J; Dirkx, Maarten L P; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2013-07-01

    To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses. All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT remove) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT cut). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated. Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT cut significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT remove. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V60 Gy reduced by 17.5% ± 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p = 0.036) and rectum D mean by 9.4% ± 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p = 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V 60Gy by another 4.6% ± 4.9% (p = 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT cut plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V 60Gy was 37.3% ± 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p = 0.012) for 15 directions. iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRTcut strategy) significantly improved OAR sparing. Noncoplanar beam arrangements and, to a larger extent, increasing the number of

  14. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  15. Comparison of Retention Factors between First-Generation and Second- and Third-Generation College Students and Development of the Likelihood of Success Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gerri Brown

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retention factors between first-generation college students and second- and third-generation college students in the postsecondary educational setting. This study examined the differences in the preselected retention factors: faculty-student interaction, college mentor, academic support, residential…

  16. Perceived Stress, Mindfulness and Sense of Coherence: A Comparison between First Generation and Non-First Generation Clinical Psychology Doctoral Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Paige Amber

    2014-01-01

    This study compared first generation and non-first generation doctoral students' levels of perceived stress, sense of coherence, and mindfulness. These variables were assessed both separately for each trainee group and in hypothesized relationships with each other. In addition, moderator analyses were conducted to assess whether key relationships…

  17. Perceived Stress, Mindfulness and Sense of Coherence: A Comparison between First Generation and Non-First Generation Clinical Psychology Doctoral Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Paige Amber

    2014-01-01

    This study compared first generation and non-first generation doctoral students' levels of perceived stress, sense of coherence, and mindfulness. These variables were assessed both separately for each trainee group and in hypothesized relationships with each other. In addition, moderator analyses were conducted to assess whether key relationships…

  18. TRAC PF1/MOD1 calculations and data comparisons for mist feed and bleed and steam generator tube rupture experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the Integral System Test (IST) program initiated in June 1983 for the purpose of providing integral system test data on specific issues/phenomena relevant to post-small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, loss of feedwater and other transients in Babcock and Wilcox (BandW) plant designs. The Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) facility is the largest single component in the IST program. MIST is a 2 /times/ 4 (two hot legs and steam generators (SGs), four cold legs and reactor coolant pumps) representation of lowered-loop reactor system of the BandW design. It is a full-height, full-pressure facility with 1/817 power and volume scaling. Two other integral experimental facilities are included in the IST program: test loops at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at SRI International (SRI-2). The objective of the IST tests is to generate high-quality experimental data to be used for assessing thermal-hydraulic safety computer codes. Efforts are under way at Los Alamos to assess TRAC-PF1/MOD1 against data from each of the IST facilities. Calculations and data comparisons for TRAC-PF1/MOD1 assessment are presented for two transients run in the MIST facility. These are MIST Test 330302, a feed and bleed test with delayed high-pressure injection; and Test 3404AA, an SG tube-rupture test with the affected SG isolated. Only MIST assessment results are presented in this paper. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculations completed to date for MIST tests are in reasonable agreement with the data from these tests. Reasonable agreement is defined as meaning that major trends are predicted correctly, although TRAC values are frequently outside the range of data uncertainty. We believe that correct conclusions will be reached if the code is used in similar applications despite minor code/model deficiencies. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Cognitive and language skills of Turkish children in Germany: a comparison of the second and third generation and mixed generational groups.

    PubMed

    Becker, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares several generational groups of Turkish children in Germany with respect to cognitive skills and German language skills at an early age. Empirically, children of inter-marriages outperform the other groups of Turkish children in both tests while children with a first generation mother and a second generation father score worse than all others. All group differences regarding children’s cognitive skills can be explained by the families’ socio-economic status and educational resources. In contrast, with respect to children’s language skills also parents’ endowment with receiving country specific resources (e.g., parental German language proficiency) needs to be taken into account.

  20. Performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches in VQ codebook generation for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to generate vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks by integrating principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm, and evolutionary algorithms (EAs). The EAs include genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), honey bee mating optimisation (HBMO), and firefly algorithm (FF). The study is to provide performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches. The PCA-EA-LBG approaches contain PCA-GA-LBG, PCA-PSO-LBG, PCA-HBMO-LBG, and PCA-FF-LBG, while the PCA-LBG-EA approaches contain PCA-LBG, PCA-LBG-GA, PCA-LBG-PSO, PCA-LBG-HBMO, and PCA-LBG-FF. All training vectors of test images are grouped according to PCA. The PCA-EA-LBG used the vectors grouped by PCA as initial individuals, and the best solution gained by the EAs was given for LBG to discover a codebook. The PCA-LBG approach is to use the PCA to select vectors as initial individuals for LBG to find a codebook. The PCA-LBG-EA used the final result of PCA-LBG as an initial individual for EAs to find a codebook. The search schemes in PCA-EA-LBG first used global search and then applied local search skill, while in PCA-LBG-EA first used local search and then employed global search skill. The results verify that the PCA-EA-LBG indeed gain superior results compared to the PCA-LBG-EA, because the PCA-EA-LBG explores a global area to find a solution, and then exploits a better one from the local area of the solution. Furthermore the proposed PCA-EA-LBG approaches in designing VQ codebooks outperform existing approaches shown in the literature.

  1. Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

  2. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  3. Comparison of two flow generators with a noninvasive ventilator to deliver continuous positive airway pressure: a test lung study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Carolina; Caruso, Pedro; Lucatto, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; de Paula Schettino, Guilherme Pinto; de Souza, Rogério; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    To compare the performance of two continuous flow generators with a ventilator designed for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The performance of flow generators using different oxygen pressure supplies was also compared. Experimental study using a mechanical lung model in a university research laboratory. Two flow generators supplied at 100, 200, and 300 kPa and an NPPV ventilator were compared at CPAP of 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O in: (a) area under the adjusted CPAP level during inspiration, (b) capacity to attain the preset CPAP, and (c) tidal volume. The NPPV ventilator attained the preset CPAP better than flow generators, but its area under adjusted CPAP was similar to or higher than that of flow generators when these were adjusted to their better pressure supply. Both flow generators had better performance with an output flow around 100 l/min, which was achieved at 100 kPa with one flow generator and 300 with the other. Flow generators and the NPPV ventilator generated similar tidal volumes. Flow generators performance showed large variations among different devices and oxygen pressure supplies. Adjusted to their better pressure supply, flow generators had a similar or better capacity to maintain the CPAP level, but the NPPV ventilator was more reliable to attain the preset CPAP. Flow generators could be an alternative to provide CPAP in low-income areas, usually with scarce medical equipment availability.

  4. Rhinoplasty for the multiply revised nose.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the problems encountered on revising a multiply operated nose and the methods used in correcting such problems. The study included 50 cases presenting for revision rhinoplasty after having had 2 or more previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Simultaneous septal surgery was done whenever indicated. All cases were followed for a mean period of 32 months (range, 1.5-8 years). Evaluation of the surgical result depended on clinical examination, comparison of pre- and postoperative photographs, and degree of patients' satisfaction with their aesthetic and functional outcome. Functionally, 68% suffered nasal obstruction that was mainly caused by septal deviations and nasal valve problems. Aesthetically, the most common deformities of the upper two thirds of the nose included pollybeak (64%), dorsal irregularities (54%), dorsal saddle (44%), and open roof deformity (42%), whereas the deformities of lower third included depressed tip (68%), tip contour irregularities (60%), and overrotated tip (42%). Nasal grafting was necessary in all cases; usually more than 1 type of graft was used in each case. Postoperatively, 79% of the patients, with preoperative nasal obstruction, reported improved breathing; 84% were satisfied with their aesthetic result; and only 8 cases (16%) requested further revision to correct minor deformities. Revision of a multiply operated nose is a complex and technically demanding task, yet, in a good percentage of cases, aesthetic as well as functional improvement are still possible.

  5. Proposed Revisions to Method 202

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing the following revisions to Method 202: Revisions to the procedures for determining the systematic error of the method, which is used to correct the results of the measurements made using this method; Removes some procedural options to

  6. Improved visualisation of real-time recordings during third generation cryoballoon ablation: a comparison between the novel short-tip and the second generation device.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, Giacomo; de Asmundis, Carlo; Hünük, Burak; Ströker, Erwin; Moran, Darragh; Hacioglu, Ebru; Ruggiero, Diego; Poelaert, Jan; Verborgh, Christian; Umbrain, Vincent; Beckers, Stefan; Coutino-Moreno, Hugo Enrique; Takarada, Ken; de Regibus, Valentina; Brugada, Pedro; Chierchia, Gian-Battista

    2016-09-01

    The third-generation Cryoballoon Advance Short-tip (CB-ST) has been designed with a 40 % shortened tip length compared with the former second generation CB advance device (CB-A). Ideally, a shorter tip should permit an improved visualisation of real-time recordings in the pulmonary vein (PV) due to a more proximal positioning of the inner lumen mapping catheter. We sought to compare the incidence of visualisation of real-time recordings in patients having undergone ablation with the CB-ST with patients having received CB-A ablation. All patients having undergone CB ablation using CB-ST technology and the last 500 consecutive patients having undergone CB-A ablation were analysed. Exclusion criteria were the presence of an intracavitary thrombus, uncontrolled heart failure, moderate or severe valvular disease, and contraindications to general anaesthesia. A total of 600 consecutive patients (58.1 ± 12.9 years, 64 % males) were evaluated (100 CB-ST and 500 CB-A ablations). Real-time recordings were significantly more prevalent in the CB-ST population compared with CB-A group (85.7 vs 67.2 %, p < 0.0001). Real-time recordings could be more frequently visualised in the CB-ST group in all types of veins (LSPV 89 vs 73.4 %, p = 0.0005; LIPV 84 vs 65.6 %, p = 0.0002; RSPV 87 vs 67.4 %, p < 0.0001; RIPV 83 vs 62.4 %, p < 0.0001). The rate of visualisation of real-time recordings is significantly higher during third-generation CB-ST ablation if compared to the second-generation CB-A device. Real-time recordings can be visualised in approximately 85.7 % of veins with this novel cryoballoon.

  7. Revising Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the production of new history textbooks that appeared after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Argues that the radical revisions in official history in this context are shaped by the Bakhtinian process of "hidden dialogicality." Suggests that the importance of hidden dialogicality between narrative forms must be considered. (SC)

  8. School Safety Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    The revised edition of this handbook represents a concerted effort to bring school safety to the forefront of business managers' daily and long-range planning activities. Although statistics show few fatalities on school grounds, schools appear to have a high frequency and incident rate of nonfatal injuries. According to the introduction, school…

  9. Scar revision - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100098.htm Scar revision - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  10. Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced…

  11. Residential Wiring. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    This competency-based curriculum guide contains materials for conducting a course in residential wiring. A technically revised edition of the 1978 publication, the guide includes 28 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the following basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for teachers and students,…

  12. School Safety Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    The revised edition of this handbook represents a concerted effort to bring school safety to the forefront of business managers' daily and long-range planning activities. Although statistics show few fatalities on school grounds, schools appear to have a high frequency and incident rate of nonfatal injuries. According to the introduction, school…

  13. Comprehensive Operative Note Templates for Primary and Revision Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Electricwala, Ali J.; Amanatullah, Derek F.; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat I.; Huddleston, James I.; Maloney, William J.; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adequate preoperative planning is the first and most crucial step in the successful completion of a revision total joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability, adequacy and accuracy of operative notes of primary surgeries in patients requiring subsequent revision and to construct comprehensive templates of minimum necessary information required in the operative notes to further simplify re-operations, if they should become necessary. Methods: The operative notes of 144 patients (80 revision THA’s and 64 revision TKA’s) who underwent revision total joint arthroplasty at Stanford Hospital and Clinics in the year 2013 were reviewed. We assessed the availability of operative notes and implant stickers prior to revision total joint arthroplasty. The availability of implant details within the operative notes was assessed against the available surgical stickers for adequacy and accuracy. Statistical comparisons were made using the Fischer-exact test and a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The primary operative note was available in 68 of 144 revisions (47%), 39 of 80 revision THAs (49%) and 29 of 66 revision TKAs (44%, p = 0.619). Primary implant stickers were available in 46 of 144 revisions (32%), 26 of 80 revision THAs (32%) and 20 of 66 revision TKAs (30%, p = 0.859). Utilizing the operative notes and implant stickers combined identified accurate primary implant details in only 40 of the 80 revision THAs (50%) and 34 of all 66 revision TKAs (52%, p = 0.870). Conclusion: Operative notes are often unavailable or fail to provide the necessary information required which makes planning and execution of revision hip and knee athroplasty difficult. This emphasizes the need for enhancing the quality of operative notes and records of patient information. Based on this information, we provide comprehensive operative note templates for primary and revision total hip and knee

  14. Coal within a revised energy perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Darmstadter, J.

    2006-07-15

    The author considers the use of coal within a revised energy perspective, focusing on the factors that will drive which fuels are used to generate electricity going forward. He looks at the world markets for fossil fuels and the difficulties of predicting oil and natural gas supply and prices, as demonstrated by the variability in projections from one year to another in the EIA's Annual Energy Outlook. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Generation of intra-oral-like images from cone beam computed tomography volumes for dental forensic image comparison.

    PubMed

    Trochesset, Denise A; Serchuk, Richard B; Colosi, Dan C

    2014-03-01

    Identification of unknown individuals using dental comparison is well established in the forensic setting. The identification technique can be time and resource consuming if many individuals need to be identified at once. Medical CT (MDCT) for dental profiling has had limited success, mostly due to artifact from metal-containing dental restorations and implants. The authors describe a CBCT reformatting technique that creates images, which closely approximate conventional dental images. Using a i-CAT Platinum CBCT unit and standard issue i-CAT Vision software, a protocol is developed to reproducibly and reliably reformat CBCT volumes. The reformatted images are presented with conventional digital images from the same anatomic area for comparison. The authors conclude that images derived from CBCT volumes following this protocol are similar enough to conventional dental radiographs to allow for dental forensic comparison/identification and that CBCT offers a superior option over MDCT for this purpose. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Generation and comparison of CRISPR-Cas9 and Cre-mediated genetically engineered mouse models of sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianguo; Chen, Mark; Whitley, Melodi Javid; Kuo, Hsuan-Cheng; Xu, Eric S.; Walens, Andrea; Mowery, Yvonne M.; Van Mater, David; Eward, William C.; Cardona, Diana M.; Luo, Lixia; Ma, Yan; Lopez, Omar M.; Nelson, Christopher E.; Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N.; Reddy, Anupama; Dave, Sandeep S.; Gersbach, Charles A.; Dodd, Rebecca D.; Kirsch, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models that employ site-specific recombinase technology are important tools for cancer research but can be costly and time-consuming. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted to generate autochthonous tumours in mice, but how these tumours compare to tumours generated by conventional recombinase technology remains to be fully explored. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9 to generate multiple subtypes of primary sarcomas efficiently in wild type and genetically engineered mice. These data demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to generate multiple subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas in mice. Primary sarcomas generated with CRISPR-Cas9 and Cre recombinase technology had similar histology, growth kinetics, copy number variation and mutational load as assessed by whole exome sequencing. These results show that sarcomas generated with CRISPR-Cas9 technology are similar to sarcomas generated with conventional modelling techniques and suggest that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to more rapidly generate genotypically and phenotypically similar cancers. PMID:28691711

  17. Comparison of Performances of Scramjet-Driven Experimental DCW-MHD Generators with Different Cross-Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Toru; Fujino, Takayasu; Ishikawa, Motoo

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of shape of cross-section of scramjet engine driven experimental DCW-MHD generator on generator performance by three-dimensional numerical analyses. We have designed the MHD generators with symmetric square and circular cross-section, based on the experimental MHD generator with asymmetric square cross-section. Under the optimum load condition, the electric power output becomes 26.6kW for the asymmetric square cross-section, 24.6kW for the symmetric square cross-section, and 22.4kW for the circular cross-section. The highest output is obtained for the experimental generator with asymmetric square cross-section. The difference of electric power output is induced by the difference of flow velocity and boundary layer thickness. For the generator with asymmetric square cross-section, the average flow velocity becomes the highest and the boundary layer becomes the thinnest. The compression wave is generated depending on the channel shape. The difference of flow velocity and boundary layer thickness is induced by the superposition of compression wave.

  18. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Exline, Julie J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were…

  19. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  20. The Adolescent Sexual Abuser Project (ASAP) Assessment Measures-Dutch Revised Version: A Comparison of Personality Characteristics between Juvenile Sex Offenders, Juvenile Perpetrators of Non-Sexual Violent Offences and Non-Delinquent Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Outsem, Ron; Beckett, Richard; Bullens, Ruud; Vermeiren, Robert; van Horn, Joan; Doreleijers, Theo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Adolescent Sexual Abuser Project (ASAP) assessment pack-Dutch Revised Version (ASAP-D) is presented. The ASAP-D is an assessment instrument which measures the personality characteristics that are generally considered relevant in the literature for the development and perpetuation of sexually abusive behaviour in juveniles. After…

  1. Thermal hydraulic analysis/data comparisons of two U-tube steam generators using the ATHOS3 code

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Habchi, S.D.; Singhal, A.K.; Srikantiah, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of two full-scale, U-Tube steam generators of the Westinghouse Model 51-type. The selected generators are instrumented and operated by Electricite de France (EdF) at the Bugey-4 and Tricastin-1 power plants. The computer code used is ATHOS3, which is designed for three-dimensional, two-phase, steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of U-Tube I (UTSG) and Once-Through (OTSG) steam generators. The purpose of the study is to verify the ATHOS3 code.

  2. First-generation versus third-generation comprehensive geriatric assessment instruments in the acute hospital setting: a comparison of the Minimum Geriatric Screening Tools (MGST) and the interRAI Acute Care (interRAI AC).

    PubMed

    Wellens, N I H; Deschodt, M; Flamaing, J; Moons, P; Boonen, S; Boman, X; Gosset, C; Petermans, J; Milisen, K

    2011-08-01

    Comparison of the first-generation Minimum Geriatric Screening Tools (MGST) and the third-generation interRAI Acute Care (interRAI AC). Based on a qualitative multiphase exchange of expert opinion, published evidence was critically analyzed and translated into a consensus. Both methods are intended for a multi-domain geriatric assessment in acute hospital settings, but each with a different scope and goal. MGST contains a collection of single-domain, internationally validated instruments. Assessment is usually triggered by care givers' clinical impression based on geriatric expertise. A limited selection of domains is usually assessed only once, by disciplines with domain-specific expertise. Clinical use results in improvement to screen geriatric problems. InterRAI AC, tailored for acute settings, intends to screen a large number of geriatric domains. Based on systematic observational data, risk domains are triggered and clinical guidelines are suggested. Multiple observation periods outline the evolution of patients' functioning over stay in comparison to the premorbid situation. The method is appropriate for application on geriatric and non-geriatric wards, filling geriatric knowledge gaps. The interRAI Suite contains a common set of standardized items across settings, facilitating data transfer in transitional care. The third-generation interRAI AC has advantages compared to the first-generation MGST. A cascade system is proposed to integrate both, complementary methods in practice. The systematic interRAI AC assessment detects risk domains. Subsequently, clinical protocols suggest components of the MGST as additional assessment. This cascade approach unites the strength of exhaustive assessment of the interRAI AC with domain-specific tools of the MGST.

  3. Avoiding revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Waite, Peter D

    2011-02-01

    Reoperation of the nose is challenging and sometimes emotionally difficult for the surgeon and patient. There are multiple pitfalls to be avoided and it is always best to carefully diagnose and establish a surgical treatment plan. Even among the best of plans and surgical techniques, revision may be necessary. The patient and surgeon should understand the limitations of the surgical techniques and the individual anatomy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Grafting in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Bussi, M; Palonta, F; Toma, S

    2013-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most difficult aesthetic surgery procedures with a high rate of revision. In revision rhinoplasty the surgeon should explore the patient's concerns and then verify the possibility to satisfy expectations after complete internal and external examination of the nose. For the vast majority of complex secondaries, an open approach is the only reasonable method. In fact, in secondary nasal surgery, because of the scarring process following the primary operation, dissection is tedious, and landmarks are lost. One of the main objectives for the surgeon who approaches secondary rhinoplasty is to restore the structural support of the nose and to replace the lost volume of soft tissues. To achieve this purpose, the surgeon must often rely on grafts. An ideal grafting material must be easy to sculpt, resistant to trauma, infection and extrusion, mechanically stable, inert and readily available. For all these reasons, autogenous cartilage grafts harvested from septum, auricular concha and rib represent the first choice in rhinoplasty. In order to obtain a camouflage graft that provides natural contouring to the nose, temporalis fascia can be used. All these carefully trimmed grafts are useful in tip revision surgery, in secondary surgery of the dorsum and to resolve or reduce functional problems.

  5. Comparison of a spiking neural network and an MLP for robust identification of generator dynamics in a multimachine power system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cameron; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Mitra, Pinaki

    2009-01-01

    The application of a spiking neural network (SNN) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) for online identification of generator dynamics in a multimachine power system are compared in this paper. An integrate-and-fire model of an SNN which communicates information via the inter-spike interval is applied. The neural network identifiers are used to predict the speed and terminal voltage deviations one time-step ahead of generators in a multimachine power system. The SNN is developed in two steps: (i) neuron centers determined by offline k-means clustering and (ii) output weights obtained by online training. The sensitivity of the SNN to the neuron centers determined in the first step is evaluated on generators of different ratings and parameters. Performances of the SNN and MLP are compared to evaluate robustness on the identification of generator dynamics under small and large disturbances, and to illustrate that SNNs are capable of learning nonlinear dynamics of complex systems.

  6. The subcellular particulate NADPH-dependent O2.(-)-generating oxidase from human blood monocytes: comparison to the neutrophil system.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, A N; Santinga, J T; Gabig, T G

    1982-10-01

    Highly purified preparations of normal human monocytes obtained from peripheral blood were shown to contain a subcellular particulate O2.(-)-generating oxidase system. This O2.(-)-generating activity was present in particulate preparations from monocytes that had been previously stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate but was low or absent in control preparations from unstimulated monocytes or stimulated monocytes from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. In the stimulated preparations from normal monocytes, O2.(-)-generation was linearly proportional to cell protein concentration, insensitive to inhibition by azide, and dependent on NADPH as substrate. These characteristics are similar to the O2.(-)-generating oxidase system from human neutrophils. A significant difference in the apparent Km for NADPH was shown between preparations from stimulated monocytes and neutrophils (monocyte 83 +/- 16 microM, neutrophil 31 +/- 5 microM, mean +/- SE). Additionally, affinity of the stimulated monocyte particulate preparation for NADH was unmeasurably low.

  7. Information loss in approximately bayesian data assimilation: a comparison of generative and discriminative approaches to estimating agricultural yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data assimilation and regression are two commonly used methods for predicting agricultural yield from remote sensing observations. Data assimilation is a generative approach because it requires explicit approximations of the Bayesian prior and likelihood to compute the probability density function...

  8. Comparison of the bonding strengths of second- and third-generation light-emitting diode light-curing units.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Min; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Chang, Na-Young

    2016-11-01

    With the introduction of third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in dental practice, it is necessary to compare their bracket-bonding effects, safety, and efficacy with those of the second-generation units. In this study, 80 extracted human premolars were randomly divided into eight groups of 10 samples each. Metal or polycrystalline ceramic brackets were bonded on the teeth using second- or third-generation LED light-curing units (LCUs), according to the manufacturers' instructions. The shear bond strengths were measured using the universal testing machine, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored by assessing the residual resin on the surfaces of debonded teeth using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, curing times were also measured. The shear bond strengths in all experimental groups were higher than the acceptable clinical shear bond strengths, regardless of the curing unit used. In both LED LCU groups, all ceramic bracket groups showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than did the metal bracket groups except the plasma emulation group which showed no significant difference. When comparing units within the same bracket type, no differences in shear bond strength were observed between the second- and third-generation unit groups. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the groups for the ARI. The bracket-bonding effects and ARIs of second- and third-generation LED LCUs showed few differences, and most were without statistical significance; however, the curing time was shorter for the second-generation unit.

  9. Comparison of the bonding strengths of second- and third-generation light-emitting diode light-curing units

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Min; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective With the introduction of third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in dental practice, it is necessary to compare their bracket-bonding effects, safety, and efficacy with those of the second-generation units. Methods In this study, 80 extracted human premolars were randomly divided into eight groups of 10 samples each. Metal or polycrystalline ceramic brackets were bonded on the teeth using second- or third-generation LED light-curing units (LCUs), according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The shear bond strengths were measured using the universal testing machine, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored by assessing the residual resin on the surfaces of debonded teeth using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, curing times were also measured. Results The shear bond strengths in all experimental groups were higher than the acceptable clinical shear bond strengths, regardless of the curing unit used. In both LED LCU groups, all ceramic bracket groups showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than did the metal bracket groups except the plasma emulation group which showed no significant difference. When comparing units within the same bracket type, no differences in shear bond strength were observed between the second- and third-generation unit groups. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the groups for the ARI. Conclusions The bracket-bonding effects and ARIs of second- and third-generation LED LCUs showed few differences, and most were without statistical significance; however, the curing time was shorter for the second-generation unit. PMID:27896210

  10. Comparison of opportunities to respond and generation effect as potential causal mechanisms for incremental rehearsal with multiplication combinations.

    PubMed

    Zaslofsky, Anne F; Scholin, Sarah E; Burns, Matthew K; Varma, Sashank

    2016-04-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is an intervention with demonstrated effectiveness in increasing retention of information, yet little is known about how specific intervention components contribute to the intervention's effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to further the theoretical understanding of the intervention by comparing the effects of opportunities to respond (OTR) and generation demand on retention of multiplication combinations. Using a between subject 2 × 2 factorial design, 103 4th and 5th grade students were taught seven multiplication combinations using one of four versions of IR that orthogonally varied OTR (high versus low) and generation demands (high versus low). A two-way ANOVA revealed main effects for OTR, generation demands, and an interaction of the two factors. The effect of generation demands was large (d=1.31), whereas the overall effect of OTR was moderate (d=0.66). Critically, the two factors interacted, with the largest learning gains observed when OTR and generation demands were both high. The results of this study suggest that generation demand is an important factor in the effectiveness of rehearsal interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the relative importance of environmental effects, carry-over effects and species differences in thermal stress resistance: a comparison of Drosophilids across field and laboratory generations.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Michele; Hangartner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-10-15

    There is increasing interest in comparing species of related organisms for their susceptibility to thermal extremes in order to evaluate potential vulnerability to climate change. Comparisons are typically undertaken on individuals collected from the field with or without a period of acclimation. However, this approach does not allow the potential contributions of environmental and carry-over effects across generations to be separated from inherent species differences in susceptibility. To assess the importance of these different sources of variation, we here considered heat and cold resistance in Drosophilid species from tropical and temperate sites in the field and across two laboratory generations. Resistance in field-collected individuals tended to be lower when compared with F1 and F2 laboratory generations, and species differences in field flies were only weakly correlated to differences established under controlled rearing conditions, unlike in F1-F2 comparisons. This reflected large environmental effects on resistance associated with different sites and conditions experienced within sites. For the 8 h cold recovery assay there was no strong evidence of carry-over effects, whereas for the heat knockdown and 2 h cold recovery assays there was some evidence for such effects. However, for heat these were species specific in direction. Variance components for inherent species differences were substantial for resistance to heat and 8 h cold stress, but small for 2 h cold stress, though this may be a reflection of the species being considered in the comparisons. These findings highlight that inherent differences among species are difficult to characterise accurately without controlling for environmental sources of variation and carry-over effects. Moreover, they also emphasise the complex nature of carry-over effects that vary depending on the nature of stress traits and the species being evaluated.

  12. A comparison of reproductive characteristics of boars generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer to highly related conventionally produced boars.

    PubMed

    Williams, N E; Walker, S C; Reeves, D E; Sherrer, E; Galvin, J M; Polejaeva, I; Rampacek, G; Benyshek, L; Christenson, R K; Graves, W M; Pratt, S L

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the reproductive performance of boars produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer versus conventional breeding. Two different genotypes were selected for comparison: terminal cross line 1 (TX1) and terminal cross line 2 (TX2). The boars selected for comparison from TX1 were three cloned boars, produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and the conventionally produced progenitor of the clones. The boars selected for comparison from TX2 were a cloned boar produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and two conventionally produced half sibling boars that were offspring of the progenitor of the clone. Semen from each boar was collected, extended, evaluated and shipped offsite. Upon arrival, the semen was reevaluated and utilized for artificial insemination of 89 commercial gilts, at least 12 gilts per boar, producing 625 piglets. Pregnancy rates were determined at day 30 and 110 of gestation; and farrowing rate and gestation length were recorded. Differences were observed in some of the semen characteristics analyzed with the clones usually possessing superior semen quality to the control, this likely being a result of age differences amongst the clones and controls. Additionally no differences were noted between the clones and controls (progenitor) or between individual boars within genetic line for pregnancy rates, gestation length or any of the litter parameters examined between the clones and controls. These data further support previous reports with limited numbers that the reproductive capabilities of cloned boars are equal to that of conventionally produced boars.

  13. Comparison of hydroxyl radical generation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Motoo; Aoyagi, Kazumasa; Hirakawa, Akiko; Nakajima, Motoo; Jikuya, Tomoaki; Shigeta, Osamu; Sakakibara, Yuzuru

    2006-02-01

    We measured the hydroxyl radical (.OH) generation in fourteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), of whom seven patients underwent on-pump CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and seven patients underwent off-pump CABG without CPB. To detect .OH generation, we measured the urinary excretion of .OH products of creatinine (Cr), creatol (CTL; 5-hydroxycreatinine) and methylguanidine (MG) with HPLC using the one point sampling and collected urine during and after the operation. The urinary CTL value corrected urinary Cr value of on-pump CABG significantly increased about 3-5 times from the beginning of CPB to 4 h after operation compared to the baseline value before CPB in both the collected urine and the one point sampling urine. The urinary MG/Cr value in both groups did not change significantly. Significantly increased .OH generation was found during and soon after on-pump CABG.

  14. Computer-generated vs. physician-documented history of present illness (HPI): results of a blinded comparison.

    PubMed

    Almario, Christopher V; Chey, William; Kaung, Aung; Whitman, Cynthia; Fuller, Garth; Reid, Mark; Nguyen, Ken; Bolus, Roger; Dennis, Buddy; Encarnacion, Rey; Martinez, Bibiana; Talley, Jennifer; Modi, Rushaba; Agarwal, Nikhil; Lee, Aaron; Kubomoto, Scott; Sharma, Gobind; Bolus, Sally; Chang, Lin; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare delivery now mandates shorter visits with higher documentation requirements, undermining the patient-provider interaction. To improve clinic visit efficiency, we developed a patient-provider portal that systematically collects patient symptoms using a computer algorithm called Automated Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Symptoms (AEGIS). AEGIS also automatically "translates" the patient report into a full narrative history of present illness (HPI). We aimed to compare the quality of computer-generated vs. physician-documented HPIs. We performed a cross-sectional study with a paired sample design among individuals visiting outpatient adult gastrointestinal (GI) clinics for evaluation of active GI symptoms. Participants first underwent usual care and then subsequently completed AEGIS. Each individual thereby had both a physician-documented and a computer-generated HPI. Forty-eight blinded physicians assessed HPI quality across six domains using 5-point scales: (i) overall impression, (ii) thoroughness, (iii) usefulness, (iv) organization, (v) succinctness, and (vi) comprehensibility. We compared HPI scores within patient using a repeated measures model. Seventy-five patients had both computer-generated and physician-documented HPIs. The mean overall impression score for computer-generated HPIs was higher than physician HPIs (3.68 vs. 2.80; P<0.001), even after adjusting for physician and visit type, location, mode of transcription, and demographics. Computer-generated HPIs were also judged more complete (3.70 vs. 2.73; P<0.001), more useful (3.82 vs. 3.04; P<0.001), better organized (3.66 vs. 2.80; P<0.001), more succinct (3.55 vs. 3.17; P<0.001), and more comprehensible (3.66 vs. 2.97; P<0.001). Computer-generated HPIs were of higher overall quality, better organized, and more succinct, comprehensible, complete, and useful compared with HPIs written by physicians during usual care in GI clinics.

  15. Computer-Generated Versus Physician-Documented History of Present Illness (HPI): Results of a Blinded Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Almario, Christopher V.; Chey, William; Kaung, Aung; Whitman, Cynthia; Fuller, Garth; Reid, Mark; Nguyen, Ken; Bolus, Roger; Dennis, Buddy; Encarnacion, Rey; Martinez, Bibiana; Talley, Jennifer; Modi, Rushaba; Agarwal, Nikhil; Lee, Aaron; Kubomoto, Scott; Sharma, Gobind; Bolus, Sally; Chang, Lin; Spiegel, Brennan M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare delivery now mandates shorter visits with higher documentation requirements, undermining the patient-provider interaction. To improve clinic visit efficiency, we developed a patient-provider portal that systematically collects patient symptoms using a computer algorithm called Automated Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Symptoms (AEGIS). AEGIS also automatically “translates” the patient report into a full narrative history of present illness (HPI). We aimed to compare the quality of computer-generated vs. physician-documented HPIs. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with a paired sample design among individuals visiting outpatient adult gastrointestinal (GI) clinics for evaluation of active GI symptoms. Participants first underwent usual care and then subsequently completed AEGIS. Each individual thereby had both a physician-documented and computer-generated HPI. Forty-eight blinded physicians assessed HPI quality across six domains using 5-point scales: (1) overall impression; (2) thoroughness; (3) usefulness; (4) organization; (5) succinctness; and (6) comprehensibility. We compared HPI scores within patient using a repeated measures model. Results Seventy-five patients had both computer-generated and physician-documented HPIs. The mean overall impression score for computer-generated HPIs was higher versus physician HPIs (3.68 vs. 2.80; p<.001), even after adjusting for physician and visit type, location, mode of transcription, and demographics. Computer-generated HPIs were also judged more complete (3.70 vs. 2.73; p<.001), more useful (3.82 vs. 3.04; p<.001), better organized (3.66 vs. 2.80; p<.001), more succinct (3.55 vs. 3.17; p<.001), and more comprehensible (3.66 vs. 2.97; p<.001). Conclusion Computer-generated HPIs were of higher overall quality, better organized, and more succinct, comprehensible, complete and useful compared to HPIs written by physicians during usual care in GI clinics. PMID:25461620

  16. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies for Comprehensive Assessment of Full-Length Hepatitis C Viral Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Emma; Ip, Camilla L. C.; Badhan, Anjna; Christiansen, Mette T.; Adamson, Walt; Ansari, M. Azim; Breuer, Judith; Brown, Anthony; Bowden, Rory; Bonsall, David; Da Silva Filipe, Ana; Hinds, Chris; Hudson, Emma; Klenerman, Paul; Lythgow, Kieren; Mbisa, Jean L.; McLauchlan, John; Myers, Richard; Piazza, Paolo; Roy, Sunando; Trebes, Amy; Sreenu, Vattipally B.; Witteveldt, Jeroen; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Affordable next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may potentially identify both viral genotype and resistance genetic motifs in the era of directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapies. This study compared the ability of high-throughput NGS methods to generate full-length, deep, HCV sequence data sets and evaluated their utility for diagnostics and clinical assessment. NGS methods using (i) unselected HCV RNA (metagenomics), (ii) preenrichment of HCV RNA by probe capture, and (iii) HCV preamplification by PCR implemented in four United Kingdom centers were compared. Metrics of sequence coverage and depth, quasispecies diversity, and detection of DAA resistance-associated variants (RAVs), mixed HCV genotypes, and other coinfections were compared using a panel of samples with different viral loads, genotypes, and mixed HCV genotypes/subtypes [geno(sub)types]. Each NGS method generated near-complete genome sequences from more than 90% of samples. Enrichment methods and PCR preamplification generated greater sequence depth and were more effective for samples with low viral loads. All NGS methodologies accurately identified mixed HCV genotype infections. Consensus sequences generated by different NGS methods were generally concordant, and majority RAVs were consistently detected. However, methods differed in their ability to detect minor populations of RAVs. Metagenomic methods identified human pegivirus coinfections. NGS provided a rapid, inexpensive method for generating whole HCV genomes to define infecting genotypes, RAVs, comprehensive viral strain analysis, and quasispecies diversity. Enrichment methods are particularly suited for high-throughput analysis while providing the genotype and information on potential DAA resistance. PMID:27385709

  17. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-w.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor to determine the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for three clay minerals: illite, sodium-rich montmorillonite, and Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. EM is also used to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory and Frenkel, Halsey, and Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-Köhler is a suitable framework, less complex than FHH theory, to describe clay mineral nucleation activity despite apparent differences in κ with respect to size. For dry-generated particles the size dependence is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much lower critical supersaturation for droplet activation than expected. For wet-generated particles, deviation from κ-Köhler theory is likely a result of the dissolution and redistribution of soluble material. (2) Wet-generation is found to be unsuitable for simulating the lofting of fresh dry dust because it changes the size-dependent critical supersaturations by fractionating and re-partitioning soluble material.

  18. A comparison of small-field tissue phantom ratio data generation methods for an Elekta Agility 6 MV photon beam.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Neil; Brackenridge, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-phantom ratios (TPRs) are a common dosimetric quantity used to describe the change in dose with depth in tissue. These can be challenging and time consuming to measure. The conversion of percentage depth dose (PDD) data using standard formulae is widely employed as an alternative method in generating TPR. However, the applicability of these formulae for small fields has been questioned in the literature. Functional representation has also been proposed for small-field TPR production. This article compares measured TPR data for small 6 MV photon fields against that generated by conversion of PDD using standard formulae to assess the efficacy of the conversion data. By functionally fitting the measured TPR data for square fields greater than 4cm in length, the TPR curves for smaller fields are generated and compared with measurements. TPRs and PDDs were measured in a water tank for a range of square field sizes. The PDDs were converted to TPRs using standard formulae. TPRs for fields of 4 × 4cm(2) and larger were used to create functional fits. The parameterization coefficients were used to construct extrapolated TPR curves for 1 × 1 cm(2), 2 × 2-cm(2), and 3 × 3-cm(2) fields. The TPR data generated using standard formulae were in excellent agreement with direct TPR measurements. The TPR data for 1 × 1-cm(2), 2 × 2-cm(2), and 3 × 3-cm(2) fields created by extrapolation of the larger field functional fits gave inaccurate initial results. The corresponding mean differences for the 3 fields were 4.0%, 2.0%, and 0.9%. Generation of TPR data using a standard PDD-conversion methodology has been shown to give good agreement with our directly measured data for small fields. However, extrapolation of TPR data using the functional fit to fields of 4 × 4cm(2) or larger resulted in generation of TPR curves that did not compare well with the measured data.

  19. Interactive Iconography: Using Visual Scope to Promote Writing and Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansiquot, Reneta

    2010-01-01

    A three-month study examined how interactive iconography impacts social studies and promotes critical writing skills. Groups of three middle-school immigrant students constructed museum labels using "Scope Out", an experimental online revision tool that makes iconography interactive. This study included three comparison groups and one…

  20. Interactive Iconography: Using Visual Scope to Promote Writing and Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansiquot, Reneta

    2010-01-01

    A three-month study examined how interactive iconography impacts social studies and promotes critical writing skills. Groups of three middle-school immigrant students constructed museum labels using "Scope Out", an experimental online revision tool that makes iconography interactive. This study included three comparison groups and one…

  1. Validating CAR - A comparison study of experimentally-derived and computer-generated reach envelopes. [Crewstation Assessment of Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R.; Bennett, J.; Stokes, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the present investigation, Crewstation Assessment of Reach (CAR) results in the form of male hand reach envelopes were generated and compared with an anthropometric survey performed by Kennedy (1978) to determine the extent of the validity of the CAR model with respect to experimentally-derived anthropometric data. The CAR-generated reach envelopes extensively matched the Kennedy envelopes. The match was particularly good in the areas to the front and side from which the reach originated. Attention is given to the crewstation model, the operator sample population, the CAR analysis, aspects of validation methodology, and the modeling of experimental parameters.

  2. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  3. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Yixiao

    2014-10-15

    Power source is an important parameter that can affect the characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs), because it can play a key role on the discharge characteristics and ionization process of APPJs. In this paper, the characteristics of helium APPJs sustained by both nanosecond-pulse and microsecond-pulse generators are compared from the aspects of plume length, discharge current, consumption power, energy, and optical emission spectrum. Experimental results showed that the pulsed APPJ was initiated near the high-voltage electrode with a small curvature radius, and then the stable helium APPJ could be observed when the applied voltage increased. Moreover, the discharge current of the nanosecond-pulse APPJ was larger than that of the microsecond-pulse APPJ. Furthermore, although the nanosecond-pulse generator consumed less energy than the microsecond-pulse generator, longer plume length, larger instantaneous power per pulse and stronger spectral line intensity could be obtained in the nanosecond-pulse excitation case. In addition, some discussion indicated that the rise time of the applied voltage could play a prominent role on the generation of APPJs.

  4. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  5. Sediment-generated noise (SGN): Comparison with physical bedload measurements in a small semi-arid watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Passive acoustic techniques for the measurement of Sediment-Generated Noise (SGN) in gravel-bed rivers present a promising alternative to traditional bedload measurement techniques. Where traditional methods are often prohibitively costly, particularly in labor requirements, and produce point-scale ...

  6. MC generator TAUOLA: Implementation of resonance chiral theory for two and three meson modes. Comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhovtsova, O.; Nugent, I. M.; Przedzinski, T.; Roig, P.; Was, Z.

    2012-10-23

    We present a partial upgrade of the Monte Carlo event generator TAUOLA with the two and three hadron decay modes using the theoretical models based on Resonance Chiral Theory. These modes account for 88% of total hadronic width of the tau meson. First results of the model parameters have been obtained using BaBar data for 3{pi} mode.

  7. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  8. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  9. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  10. Having It All: A Comparison of the Expectations about Women and Careers of Three Generations of American Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jan; Polejewski, Shirley

    This study examines the expectations held by three generations of men and women toward women mixing careers with marriage and family. A questionnaire of 9 items was distributed to 46 women and 46 men from 19 years old to 72 years old who were undergraduate students or staff at the College of Saint Thomas (St. Paul, Minnesota) or the University of…

  11. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive.

  12. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  13. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebecca R; Johnson, Shannon M; Exline, Julie J; Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents.

  14. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  15. Neck Pain: Revision 2017.

    PubMed

    Blanpied, Peter R; Gross, Anita R; Elliott, James M; Devaney, Laurie Lee; Clewley, Derek; Walton, David M; Sparks, Cheryl; Robertson, Eric K

    2017-07-01

    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these revised clinical practice guidelines is to review recent peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to neck pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(7):A1-A83. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0302.

  16. Revision Total Elbow Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Cheung, Emilie V; Murthi, Anand M

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability. Tension band fixation, allograft struts with cerclage wire, and/or plate and screw constructs can be used for fracture stabilization.

  17. Theoretical comparison, equivalent transformation, and conjunction operations of electromagnetic induction generator and triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Tang, Wei; Han, Changbao; Fan, Fengru; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-11

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a newly invented technology that is effective using conventional organic materials with functionalized surfaces for converting mechanical energy into electricity, which is light weight, cost-effective and easy scalable. Here, we present the first systematic analysis and comparison of EMIG and TENG from their working mechanisms, governing equations and output characteristics, aiming at establishing complementary applications of the two technologies for harvesting various mechanical energies. The equivalent transformation and conjunction operations of the two power sources for the external circuit are also explored, which provide appropriate evidences that the TENG can be considered as a current source with a large internal resistance, while the EMIG is equivalent to a voltage source with a small internal resistance. The theoretical comparison and experimental validations presented in this paper establish the basis of using the TENG as a new energy technology that could be parallel or possibly equivalently important as the EMIG for general power application at large-scale. It opens a field of organic nanogenerator for chemists and materials scientists who can be first time using conventional organic materials for converting mechanical energy into electricity at a high efficiency.

  18. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Morgan, J.

    1997-01-07

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data th at was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview.

  19. A comparison of small-field tissue phantom ratio data generation methods for an Elekta Agility 6 MV photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Neil Brackenridge, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Tissue-phantom ratios (TPRs) are a common dosimetric quantity used to describe the change in dose with depth in tissue. These can be challenging and time consuming to measure. The conversion of percentage depth dose (PDD) data using standard formulae is widely employed as an alternative method in generating TPR. However, the applicability of these formulae for small fields has been questioned in the literature. Functional representation has also been proposed for small-field TPR production. This article compares measured TPR data for small 6 MV photon fields against that generated by conversion of PDD using standard formulae to assess the efficacy of the conversion data. By functionally fitting the measured TPR data for square fields greater than 4 cm in length, the TPR curves for smaller fields are generated and compared with measurements. TPRs and PDDs were measured in a water tank for a range of square field sizes. The PDDs were converted to TPRs using standard formulae. TPRs for fields of 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} and larger were used to create functional fits. The parameterization coefficients were used to construct extrapolated TPR curves for 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}, 2 × 2-cm{sup 2}, and 3 × 3-cm{sup 2} fields. The TPR data generated using standard formulae were in excellent agreement with direct TPR measurements. The TPR data for 1 × 1-cm{sup 2}, 2 × 2-cm{sup 2}, and 3 × 3-cm{sup 2} fields created by extrapolation of the larger field functional fits gave inaccurate initial results. The corresponding mean differences for the 3 fields were 4.0%, 2.0%, and 0.9%. Generation of TPR data using a standard PDD-conversion methodology has been shown to give good agreement with our directly measured data for small fields. However, extrapolation of TPR data using the functional fit to fields of 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} or larger resulted in generation of TPR curves that did not compare well with the measured data.

  20. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-W.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor for determining the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for two common clay minerals, illite and sodium-rich montmorillonite, and an industrially derived sample, Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used in order to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. It is also used in order to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory (κ-KT) and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-KT is the suitable framework to describe clay mineral nucleation activity. Apparent differences in κ with respect to size arise from an artifact introduced by improper size-selection methodology. For dust particles with mobility sizes larger than ~300 nm, i.e., ones that are within an atmospherically relevant size range, both κ-KT and FHH theory yield similar critical supersaturations. However, the former requires a single hygroscopicity parameter instead of the two adjustable parameters required by the latter. For dry-generated particles, the size dependence of κ is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much

  1. Alternative bearing surface options for revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepan; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the overall success of total hip arthroplasty (THA), there has been an increase in the rate of revision hip surgeries performed each year in the United States. These revision surgeries result in several billion dollars in health care costs. Bearing surface wear can result in the need for revision surgery through a variety of mechanisms. Many implant failures necessitating the need for revision surgeries occur secondary to dislocations, which are often related to prothesis wear and eventual loosening of the components. Wear also can lead to osteolysis and may play a role in aseptic loosening. Specific concerns regarding the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene (the most common bearing surface) have encouraged the manufacture of newer polyethylene implants with improved wear properties, as well as alternative bearing surfaces. The goal is to improve the durability of revision implants and/or reduce the incidence of revision THAs. Revision arthroplasty involves using alternative surfaces, such as replacing the metal femoral head with a ceramic component or changing the entire prosthesis to a metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. It is important to review the characteristics of these alternative bearing surface options and their contributions to improved THA tribology and prolonged prosthesis longevity. The choice of a bearing surface for a revision THA should consider factors such as the patient's age and activity level, the cost of the implant, and both the surgeons' and patients' preferences. Although laboratory studies and small clinical trials have generated optimistic results for these alternative implants in vitro and in vivo, much still needs to be learned about the long-term performance of these materials in patients after total hip revision surgery.

  2. Quality of life outcomes in revision versus primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Greidanus, Nelson V; Peterson, Richard C; Masri, Bassam A; Garbuz, Donald S

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of life and satisfaction outcomes of patients undergoing primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Sixty revision and 199 primary TKA patients were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Oxford-12 Knee Score, Short Form-12, and patient-reported satisfaction. Baseline preoperative scores demonstrate that revision TKA patients have inferior quality of life across all measures (WOMAC, Oxford-12, and Short Form-12) in comparison with primary TKA patients (P < .05). At follow-up revision, TKA patients continue to have inferior outcomes (P < .05) in comparison with primary TKA patients. When adjusting for confounding factors in regression analyses, revisions are inferior to primary TKA by 8.6 (95% confidence interval, 2.7-14.6) normalized WOMAC units. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Failure behavior of internally pressurized flawed and unflawed steam generator tubing at high temperatures -- Experiments and comparison with model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Shack, W.J.; Diercks, D.R.; Mruk, K.; Franklin, J.; Knoblich, L.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory on the failure of internally pressurized steam generator tubing at high temperatures ({le} 700 C). A model was developed for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under internal pressure and temperature histories postulated to occur during severe accidents. The model was validated by failure tests on specimens with part-through-wall axial and circumferential flaws of various lengths and depths, conducted under various constant and ramped internal pressure and temperature conditions. The failure temperatures predicted by the model for two temperature and pressure histories, calculated for severe accidents initiated by a station blackout, agree very well with tests performed on both flawed and unflawed specimens.

  4. A comparison of original aircraft MSS and generated surface water reflectance images as predictors of lake water quality indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, E.W. III; Jensen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Generated reflectance and original MSS images were compared at six blue to near infrared wavelengths at thirty-eight (38) field locations in three different lakes. Both sets of images were evaluated in terms of their importance in explaining the variance of measured reflectances. Subsequently, the generated reflectance images were related to measured chlorophyll /und a/ and total suspended solids using a statistical analysis that uncovered the simplest relationships explaining the greatest amount of each water variables variance. Applying this methodology resulted in predictor equations explaining 82% of the chlorophyll /und a/ variance and 92% of the total suspended solids variance within the thirty-two (32) water samples analyzed. Maps were produced of L Lake depicting the distributions of two water quality indicators: chlorophyll a and total suspended particles. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Marta C; Ivanov, Ivan; Cusick, Roland D; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-28

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m(-3). However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ~1.5× to 118 W h m(-3). Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m(-3) or ~1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  6. Comparison of 'HoBi'-like viral populations among persistent infected calves generated under experimental conditions and to inoculum virus.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Bauermann, F V; Bayles, D O; Canal, C W; Neill, J D; Ridpath, J F

    2016-05-01

    Like other members from the Pestivirus genus, 'HoBi'-like pestiviruses cause economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. The present study analyzed for the first time PI animals derived from a controlled infection with two different 'HoBi'-like strains where the animals were maintained under conditions where superinfection by other pestiviruses could be excluded. The sequence of the region coding for viral glycoproteins E1/E2 of variants within the swarms of viruses present in the PI calves and two viral inoculums used to generate them were compared. Differences in genetic composition of the viral swarms were observed suggesting that host factors can play a role in genetic variations among PIs. Moreover, PIs generated with the same inoculum showed amino acid substitutions in similar sites of the polyprotein, even in serum from PIs with different quasispecies composition, reinforcing that some specific sites in E2 are important for host adaptation.

  7. Revision and Validation of the Revised Teacher Beliefs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane

    This study revised the Teacher Beliefs Survey (S. Wooley and A. Wooley, 1999; TBS), an instrument to assess teachers beliefs related to constructivist and behaviorist theories of learning, and then studied the validity of the revised TBS. Drawing on a literature review, researchers added items for the existing constructs of the TBS and added a new…

  8. Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

    2009-08-15

    In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied.

  9. Comparison of the ballistic contractile responses generated during microstimulation of single human motor axons with brief irregular and regular stimuli.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2017-08-01

    Ballistic contractions are induced by brief, high-frequency (60-100 Hz) trains of action potentials in motor axons. During ramp voluntary contractions, human motoneurons exhibit significant discharge variability of ∼20% and have been shown to be advantageous to the neuromuscular system. We hypothesized that ballistic contractions incorporating discharge variability would generate greater isometric forces than regular trains with zero variability. High-impedance tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into human fibular nerve, and single motor axons were stimulated with both irregular and constant-frequency stimuli at mean frequencies ranging from 57.8 to 68.9 Hz. Irregular trains generated significantly greater isometric peak forces than regular trains over identical mean frequencies. The high forces generated by ballistic contractions are not based solely on high frequencies, but rather a combination of high firing rates and discharge irregularity. It appears that irregular ballistic trains take advantage of the "catchlike property" of muscle, allowing augmentation of force. Muscle Nerve 56: 292-297, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Method for generating unfolded views of organ and its comparison with virtual endoscopy based on undisplayed region rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hiroki; Mori, Kensaku; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes a method for generating an unfolded view of organs based on elastic deformation. When we observe the inside of an organ that has a large cavity with a virtual endoscopy system, the viewpoint and the view direction need to be changed many times. Unfolded views can visualize the entire organ wall at a glance and are very useful for diagnosis. The unfolding process requires creating a model that approximates the shape of the target organ. The approximated shape is generated from the outer wall of the organ by extracting the organ wall. The user interactively specifies a cutting line on the approximated shape. The stretching is performed by adding forces and calculating the elastic deformation. The volumetric image where the target organ is unfolded is reconstructed from the original image by using the relation between the approximated and the stretched shapes. We applied the proposed method to six 3-D abdominal CT images. The experimental results showed that the method generates adequate unfolded views of the target organs.

  11. Comparison of the effects of first and second generation silicone hydrogel contact lens wear on tear film osmolarity

    PubMed Central

    Iskeleli, Guzin; Karakoc, Yunus; Ozkok, Ahmet; Arici, Ceyhun; Ozcan, Omer; Ipcioglu, Osman

    2013-01-01

    AIM To compare the effects of first and second generation silicone hydrogel (SiH) contact lens wear on tear film osmolarity. METHODS The healthy subjects who have never used contact lenses before were enrolled in the study. Tear film osmolarity values of 16 eyes (group 1) who wore first generation SiH contact lenses were compared with those of 18 eyes (group 2) who wore second generation SiH contact lenses after three months follow-up. RESULTS Before contact lens wear, tear film osmolarity of groups 1 and 2 were 305.02±49.08 milliosmole (mOsm) and 284.66±30.18mOsm, respectively. After three months of contact lens wear, osmolarity values were found 317.74±60.23mOsm in group 1 and 298.40±37.77mOsm in group 2. Although osmolarity values for both groups of SiH contact lens wear after three months periods were slightly higher than before the contact lens wear, the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Contact lens wear may cause evaporation from the tear film and can increase tear film osmolarity leading to symptoms of dry eye disease. In the current study, there is a tendency to increase tear film osmolarity for both groups of SiH contact lens wear, but the difference is not statistically significant. PMID:24195046

  12. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code simulation results and comparison with theory scaling laws for photoelectron-generated radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dipp, T.M. |

    1993-12-01

    The generation of radiation via photoelectrons induced off of a conducting surface was explored using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code computer simulations. Using the MAGIC PIC code, the simulations were performed in one dimension to handle the diverse scale lengths of the particles and fields in the problem. The simulations involved monoenergetic, nonrelativistic photoelectrons emitted normal to the illuminated conducting surface. A sinusoidal, 100% modulated, 6.3263 ns pulse train, as well as unmodulated emission, were used to explore the behavior of the particles, fields, and generated radiation. A special postprocessor was written to convert the PIC code simulated electron sheath into far-field radiation parameters by means of rigorous retarded time calculations. The results of the small-spot PIC simulations were used to generate various graphs showing resonance and nonresonance radiation quantities such as radiated lobe patterns, frequency, and power. A database of PIC simulation results was created and, using a nonlinear curve-fitting program, compared with theoretical scaling laws. Overall, the small-spot behavior predicted by the theoretical scaling laws was generally observed in the PIC simulation data, providing confidence in both the theoretical scaling laws and the PIC simulations.

  13. Comparison of three transposons for the generation of highly productive recombinant CHO cell pools and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Rajendra, Yashas; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-06-01

    Several naturally occurring vertebrate transposable elements have been genetically modified to enable the transposition of recombinant genes in mammalian cells. We compared three transposons-piggyBac, Tol2, and Sleeping Beauty-for their ability to generate cell pools (polyclonal cultures of recombinant cells) and clonal cell lines for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-DG44) as the host. Transfection with each of the dual-vector transposon systems resulted in cell pools with volumetric yields of tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) that were about ninefold higher than those from cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection. On average, the cell pools had 10-12 integrated copies of the transgene per cell. In the absence of selection, the volumetric productivity of the cell pools decreased by 50% over a 2-month cultivation period and then remained constant. The average volumetric TNFR:Fc productivity of clonal cell lines recovered from cell pools was about 25 times higher than that of cell lines generated by conventional transfection. In 14-day fed-batch cultures, TNFR:Fc levels up to 900 mg/L were obtained from polyclonal cell pools and up to 1.5 g/L from clonal cell lines using any of the three transposons. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1234-1243. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Infrarenal Aneurysms: Comparison of the Results of Second- and Third-Generation Stent Grafts.

    PubMed

    Maudet, Antoine; Daoudal, Anne; Cardon, Alain; Clochard, Elodie; Lucas, Antoine; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Kaladji, Adrien

    2016-07-01

    The stent grafts used for endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR) profited from many technological changes since their appearance. The objective of this study was to compare the medium-term results of the second- and third-generation stent grafts. Three hundred thirty-four patients treated by EVAR between 2005 and 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Demographic, anatomical, perioperative, and follow-up data were collected in a prospective way in an electronic database and compared between 2 groups. The preoperative angio-computed tomographies were all analyzed in depth on a suitable three-dimensional work station. Group 1 (n = 219) represented the patients treated by second-generation stent grafts (Medtronic Talent(®), Cook Medical Zenith Flex(®), Vascutek-Terumo Anaconda(®), Gore Excluder low-porosity(®)) and group 2 (n = 115) represented the patients treated with third-generation stent grafts (Medtronic Enduring I and II(®), Cook Medical Zenith LP(®), Gore Excluder C3(®)). The mean follow-up was 42.4 ± 26.8 months with a longer duration in group 1 (52.4 ± 27.2 vs. 23.2 ± 10.9 months, P < 0.0001). The patients of group 2 had significantly more risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidities (coronary disease, tobacco addiction, dyslipidemia, peripheral arterial disease, chronic renal insufficiency). Anatomical characteristics were similar in the 2 groups, in particular regarding the iliac arteries which were significantly more calcified and had a smaller diameter in group 2. The rate of perioperative complications was similar in the 2 groups, in particular for complications related to the iliac axes (3.7% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.96). During the follow-up, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the rates of survival, reinterventions, or endoleaks and the progression of the aneurysmal sac. This study shows that third-generation stent grafts allow results comparable with those of the second-generation stent grafts

  15. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from second-generation insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant, conventional control or commercial reference corn.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Nemeth, M; Lucas, D; Davis, S

    2007-09-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies were conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when broilers were fed diets containing grain from either second-generation lepidopteran insect-protected corn (MON 89034; study 1) or second-generation lepidopteran combined with second-generation corn rootworm-protected and glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x MON 88017; study 2) with those of diets containing corn grain from the conventional control and 4 conventional corn hybrids. In both studies, broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 55%, wt/wt, corn grain) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 59%, wt/wt, corn grain) from d 21 to 42. Each study used a randomized complete block design with 6 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 12 pens each (6 male and 6 female) and 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). In study 1 (MON 89034), no treatment differences were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, or any measured carcass parameter. A significant difference was noted for adjusted feed conversion between MON 89034 and control birds; however, no differences were detected in individual treatment comparisons between the MON 89034 and 3 of the 4 commercial corn diets. In study 2 (MON 89034 x MON 88017), no treatment differences were observed for feed intake and most carcass parameters. When significant treatment differences were detected, no differences were observed between MON 89034 x MON 88017, its control, and 2 or more of the commercial corn diets. In each study, comparison of all parameters measured showed no differences between birds fed the test diet and the population of birds fed the control and 4 commercial corn diets. In conclusion, the test diets were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing the control and corn grain from commercial hybrids.

  16. SU-E-T-308: Dosimetric Comparison of SBRT VMAT Treatment Plans Generated for 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV FFF Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D; Wang, B; Dunlap, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess differences in treatment plan quality between VMAT stereotactic body plans generated using the 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV FFF modalities available in our clinic. Plans for lung, spine, and other sites were compared to see if there is any advantage of one modality over the other. Methods: Treatment plans done for actual SBRT patients were selected. Groups of ten lung plans, five spine plans, and five plans from other sites were selected. New treatment plans were generated for each plan using the Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm. The constraints were kept the same as used in the actual plans, but the same version of software was used to generate plans for the three modalities. In addition, because there are natural variations in plans re-done with the same dose constraints, one of the lung plans was repeated ten times to assess those differences. Volumes of the 100%, 90%, 50%, 20% and 10% isodose surfaces were compared. Maximum dose two centimeters from the PTV were compared, as well as the volume of the 105% isodose surface outside of the PTV. In addition, the 20 Gray lung volume was compared for the lung plans. The values of these parameters were divided by the values for the 6 MV plans for comparison. Average and standard deviations were obtained for quantities in each group. The Student t test was done to determine if differences were seen at the 95% confidence level. Results: Comparison of the treatment plans showed no significant differences when assessing these volumes and doses. There were not any trends seen when comparing modalities as a function of PTV volume either. Conclusion: There is no obvious dosimetric advantage in selection of one modality over another for these types of SBRT plans.

  17. A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ( rad O 2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and rad OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and rad OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and rad OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of rad OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and rad OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to rad OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30-60 times faster than rad OH generation. The formation of HOOH and rad OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3% and 8% of HOOH converted to rad OH after 4 and 24 h of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than rad OH, since rad OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation.

  18. Survival results after implantation of intrapericardial third-generation centrifugal assist device: an INTERMACS-matched comparison analysis.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Schneider, Stefan R B; Stypmann, Jörg; Ellger, Björn; Redwan, Bassam; Schlarb, Dominik; Martens, Sven; Sindermann, Jürgen R

    2014-05-01

    Reports on third-generation centrifugal intrapericardial pumps (HeartWare International, Inc., Framingham, MA, USA) have shown better survival results than the previous-generation devices. However, outcomes depending on the preoperative level of stability can substantially differ, resulting in a limited analysis of potentialities and drawbacks of a given device. In the present study we sought to compare in our single-center experience the survival results of this third-generation device with previous left ventricular systems taking into account the different preoperative Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) levels. Between February 1993 and March 2012, 287 patients underwent assist device implantation in our university hospital (INTERMACS Level 1-2 = 158 patients; INTERMACS Level 3-4-5 = 129 patients). Assist devices implanted were: Group A (HVAD HeartWare, n = 52), group B (previous continuous-flow ventricular assist device [VAD], InCor [Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany], n = 37; VentrAssist [VentraCor, Inc., Chatswood, NSW, Australia], n = 7; DeBakey [MicroMed Cardiovascular, Inc., Houston, TX, USA], n = 32), and group C (pulsatile systems, n = 159). After cumulative support duration of 54 436 days and a mean follow-up of 6.21 ± 7.46 months (range 0-45.21 months), log-rank analysis revealed a survival for group A of 82.0%, 70.4%, and 70.4%; for group B of 84.0%, 48.2%, 33.7%; and for group C of 71.6%, 46.1%, 33.8%, at 1, 12, and 24 months respectively, with a significantly (P = 0.013) better outcome for group A. When stratifying the survival on the basis of INTERMACS level, no significant survival improvement was observed among all patients who underwent VAD implantation in INTERMACS 1-2 (P = 0.47). However, among patients who underwent elective VAD implantation (INTERMACS 3-4-5), group A had a significantly better outcome (P = 0.005) compared with the other INTERMACS

  19. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  20. Interior Design: Revision as Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smede, Shelly D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author teaches her eighth-grade students to revise their writing, providing "working revision days" in class, offering direction and structure, and thereby helping students learn how much impact going back to a piece of writing and making sweeping changes can have on the end result. (SR)

  1. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  2. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  3. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  4. TRICARE reimbursement revisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-06-27

    This final rule provides several necessary revisions to the regulation in order for TRICARE to be consistent with Medicare. These revisions affect: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and diagnosis-related group values, removing references to specific numeric diagnosis-related group values and replacing them with their narrative description.

  5. Comparison of first and second generation analytical silica monoliths by pore-scale simulations of eddy dispersion in the bulk region.

    PubMed

    Hlushkou, Dzmitry; Hormann, Kristof; Höltzel, Alexandra; Khirevich, Siarhei; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2013-08-16

    We present the first quantitative comparison of eddy dispersion in the bulk macropore (flow-through) space of 1st and 2nd generation analytical silica monoliths. Based on samples taken from the bulk region of Chromolith columns, segments of the bulk macropore space were physically reconstructed by confocal laser scanning microscopy to serve as models in pore-scale simulations of flow and dispersion. Our results cover details of the 3D velocity field, macroscopic Darcy permeability, transient and asymptotic dispersion behavior, and chromatographic band broadening, and thus correlate morphological, microscopic, and macroscopic properties. A complete set of parameters for the individual eddy dispersion contributions in the bulk was obtained from a Giddings analysis of the simulated plate height data. The identified short-range structural heterogeneities correspond to the average domain size of the respective monoliths. Our plate height curves show that structural improvements in the bulk morphology of 2nd generation monoliths play only a minor role for the observed improvement in overall column efficiency. The results also indicate a topological dissimilarity between 1st and 2nd generation analytical silica monoliths, which raises the question how the domain size of silica monoliths can be further decreased without compromising the structural homogeneity of the bed.

  6. Quantitative analysis of structural disorder in intervertebral disks using second harmonic generation imaging: comparison with morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Karen M; Bratton, Clayton; Yankelevich, Diego R; Knoesen, André; Rocha-Mendoza, Israel; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A novel signal processing algorithm for quantifying structural disorder in biological tissue using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is described. Both the magnitude and the pattern of disorder in collagenous tissues can be determined with this method. Mathematical models are used to determine the range of disordered states over which the algorithm can be used, because highly disordered biological samples do not generate second harmonic signals. The method is validated by measuring disorder in heated fascicles using SHG and showing that results are significantly correlated with morphometric determination. Applicability of the method to tissue pathology is demonstrated by analysis of a mouse model of intervertebral disk injury. Disks were subjected to tensile or compressive forces in vivo for one week. Structural disorder in the annulus fibrosus was measured by SHG scanning and by standard morphometric analysis. Values for disorder obtained by SHG scanning were significantly correlated with values obtained by morphometry (p<0.001). Quantitation of disorder using SHG offers significant advantages over morphometric determination. Data obtained in this study suggest that this method can be used to discriminate between reversible and irreversible tissue damage.

  7. Comparison of Volatiles and Mosquito Capture Efficacy For Three Carbohydrate Sources In A Yeast-Fermentation CO2 Generator.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C; Allan, Sandra A; Tsikolia, Maia; Calix, Lesly Carolina; Bernier, Ulrich R; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2016-12-01

    Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO2 source, such as the natural production of CO2 from yeast fermentation. In this study, we investigate differences in mosquito capture rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps baited with dry ice compared with traps baited with yeast fermentation of several carbohydrate sources over 23 trap-nights. Results demonstrated the ability of yeast-generated CO2 to effectively attract mosquitoes to a CDC trap, regardless of carbohydrate source. Total collections of mosquitoes using dry ice were significantly higher than collections from yeast-generated CO2 sources. However, mosquito community structure, i.e., the species and relative capture rate of each species, was represented comparably across collections regardless of CO2 source. Volatiles produced by yeast fermentation were analyzed by carbohydrate source, revealing a suite of compounds, possibly synergistic, enhancing effects with CO2 on mosquito collection capability compared with the amount of CO2 used to attract mosquitoes.

  8. Relative dipolar behavior of the equivalent T wave generator: quantitative comparison with ventricular excitation in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Brody, D A; Mirvis, D M; Ideker, R E; Cox, J W; Keller, F W; Larsen, R A; Bandura, J P

    1977-03-01

    We studied the relative dipolar and nondipolar content of signal energy throughout ventricular excitation and recovery in 34 isolated, perfused rabbit hearts, suspended in an electrolyte-filled spherical chamber. Computer-processed signals were derived from 20 evenly spaced tank-surface electrodes, and a single, moving, equivalent cardiac dipole generator was optimally fitted to the recorded potentials for each 1-msec sampling interval. Superimposed, time-based plots of signal energy for the 34 preparations showed ventricular excitation to be strikingly more nondipolar than was recovery. In terms of the summed square ratio of nondipolar residual energies, overall nondipolarity of QRS exceed that of ST-T by 41%. Furthermore, the maximum instantaneous ratio during QRS was considerably greater than during the ST-T. Evaluation of paired differences, comparing nondipolar behavior throughout QRS with all of ST-T, proved highly significant (P less than .005). We also found that in contrast to the considerable mobility exhibited by the equivalent QRS dipole, the ST-T dipole locus remained nearly stationary during most of ventricular recovery. Presumably because repolarization is temporally and spatially a relatively diffuse process, it may generate electrical fields which are notably more dipolar than those caused by depolarization.

  9. Hydrodistillation and in situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation of fresh and dried mint leaves: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Orio, Laura; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Binello, Arianna; Pignata, Giuseppe; Nicola, Silvana; Chemat, Farid

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) has been used since ancient times for the extraction of essential oils (EO). Despite the intrinsic limitations of this technique, it remains the most common method both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale. The main drawbacks are the long extraction time involved and the risk of thermal degradation. Over the last decade, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and in situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (MGH) have been shown to be the most promising techniques in improving plant extraction and hydrodistillation. In this study we compare HD with MGH in the extraction of several mint species cultivated in Piedmont: Mentha spicata L. var. rubra, Mentha spicata L. var. viridis and Mentha piperita L. MGH requires either fresh plant or rehydrated material, it is extremely fast and allows a reduction in energy consumption and overall cost. All the EO have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A mechanism of microwave-generated essential oil extraction has been proposed to explain the differences in the composition of the oil obtained from this environmentally friendly technique. The yields and composition percentages of the EO obtained by HD and in situ MGH of fresh and dried mint leaves lie in a relatively narrow range, although MGH is faster. MW polarization effects and the water solubility of the components influence extract composition. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparison of two schemes for the generation of ELF/VLF waves in the HF heater-modulated polar electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, S.P.; Lee, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Two schemes for the generation of ELF/VLF waves in the HF heater-modulated polar electrojet has been studied. Under the illumination of an amplitude-modulated HF heater wave, the electron temperature of the electrojet is modulated accordingly. This, in turn, causes the modulation of the conductivity and, thus, the current intensity of the electrojet. Emissions are then produced at the modulation frequency and its harmonics. In one scheme, the HF heater is modulated by a rectangular periodic pulse. The other is the beat-wave scheme, namely, two overlapping heater waves have a frequency difference equal to the selected modulation frequency that is essentially equivalent to a sinusoidal amplitude modulation. The nonlinear evolutions of the generated ELF/VLF waves are determined numerically. Their spectra are also evaluated. The results show that the signal quality of the second (beat-wave) scheme is better. The field intensity of the emissions at the fundamental modulation frequency is found to increase with the modulation frequency in consistence with the Tromso experiments.

  11. Generation of dc pin-hole discharges in liquids: comparison of discharge breakdown in diaphragm and capillary configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozáková, Zdenka; Krčma, František; Vašíček, Michal; Hlavatá, Lucie; Hlochová, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    Electrical discharges in liquids can be generated in several electrode configurations; one of them is called as a pin-hole. The discharge is created inside a small orifice in the dielectric barrier connecting two chambers filled by any conductive solution. Each chamber contains one electrode. Based on the orifice length/diameter ratio, the discharge is called as a capillary or diaphragm discharge. The present paper gives the first detailed observation of the dependence of discharge creation on the orifice shape for selected NaCl solution conductivities (250-1000 μS cm-1). As a dielectric barrier, ceramic discs with thickness varying from 0.3 to 1.5 mm were used. Diameter of one central pin-hole was in the range of 0.25-1.00 mm. The non-pulsing dc high voltage up to 2 kV with power up to 500 W was used for the presented study. The bubble theory of the discharge generation was confirmed at the set conditions.

  12. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  13. Revision Trabeculectomy: Pearls and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Crowston, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Revision trabeculectomy is used to describe any surgical intervention subsequent to an existing trabeculectomy. Mostly, it is used to describe resurgery for failure of trabeculectomy, as defined by inadequate pressure control. Revision may also be performed for unsafe, uncomfortable or leaking blebs. Mostly bleb failure occurs within the subconjunctival space, although the flap and ostium may be involved or causative. Clear surgical principles, meticulous surgical technique and scrupulous postoperative care are key to successful revision surgery. This review is an attempt to elucidate the technique of bleb revision for bleb failure. How to cite this article: Coote M, Crowston J. Revision Trabeculectomy: Pearls and Pitfalls. J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):131-138. PMID:26997769

  14. Revision concepts and distinctive points of the new Japanese classification for biliary tract cancers in comparison with the 7(th) edition of the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Miyakawa, Shuichi; Nagino, Masato; Takada, Tadahiro; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-03-01

    The 3(rd) English edition of the Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers (JC) is now available in this journal. The primary aim of this revision is to provide all clinicians and researchers with a common language of cancer staging at an international level. On the other hand, there are several important issues that should be solved for the optimization of the staging system. Revision concepts and major revision points of the 3(rd) English edition of the JC were reviewed. Furthermore, comparing with the 7(th) edition of staging system developed by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), distinctive points in the JC was discussed. In this edition of the JC, the same stage groupings as those in the UICC/AJCC staging system were basically adopted. T, N, and M categories were also identical in principle with those in the UICC/AJCC staging system, although slight modifications were proposed as the "Japanese rules". As distinctive points, perihilar cholangiocarcinomas and ampullary region carcinomas were clearly defined. Intraepithelial tumor was discriminated from invasive carcinoma at ductal resection margins. Classifications of site-specific surgical margin status remained in this edition. Histological classification was based on that in the former editions of the JC, but adopted some parts of the World Health Organization classification. The JC now share its staging system of the biliary tact carcinomas with the UICC/AJCC staging system. Future validation of the "Japanese rules" could provide important evidence to make globally standardized staging system. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  15. Comparison of the effects of intake-generated swirl and tumble on turbulence characteristics in a 4-valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Floch, A.; Frank, J. Van; Ahmed, A.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental investigation is carried out on the effect of Swirl and Tumble on turbulence and combustion characteristics in four-valve spark ignition engines. This study is conducted on an optically accessed single cylinder research engine. The in-cylinder motion is varied by means of flow-control baffle located between the intake manifold and the cylinder head. Several baffle sizes and shapes have been designed to induce various in-cylinder flow fields. The equivalent angular speed of the tumble and swirl vortices, occurring inside the cylinder, are determined from Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Comparisons with measurements from a conventional steady flow rig which measures air motion speed with a paddle wheel anemometer are presented and show a good correlation between the two measurement techniques. The turbulence and local velocity in the combustion chamber at ignition are measured and correlated with combustion characteristics obtained from analysis of the combustion in the cylinder. The influence of tumble and swirl levels on the characteristics of turbulence and combustion is analyzed. As the tumble intensity increases, the breakdown of the tumbling motion into turbulence occurs earlier in the compression stroke. For swirl configurations, the location of the center of rotation has a significant impact on the characteristics of turbulence at the spark plug location.Turbulence intensity measured at the spark plug location correlates well with combustion characteristics such as stability, delay angle, burn angle obtained from heat release rate analysis.

  16. Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Ellen J

    2012-07-23

    Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75 years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20-60 years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents' generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim immigrants reported a significantly

  17. Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. Method The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75 years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20–60 years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents’ generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Results Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim

  18. Comparison of electrically evoked cortical potential thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Naber, John F.; Ofer Ziv, R.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Kaplan, Henry J.; Enzmann, Volker

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold electrical charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of electrical evoked potentials (EEP) by delivering electrical stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following electrical stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 ± 7 nC (0.023 ± 0.016 mC cm-2) within the subretinal space and 150 ± 122 nC (0.375 ± 0.306 mC cm-2) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm-2, which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). Supported in part by The Charles D Kelman, MD

  19. Evaluation and comparison of two commercially available targeted next-generation sequencing platforms to assist oncology decision making

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Glen J; Hoff, Brandi R; Whitehead, Robert P; Sangal, Ashish; Gingrich, Susan A; Penny, Robert J; Mallery, David W; Morris, Scott M; Thompson, Eric J; Loesch, David M; Khemka, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Background It is widely acknowledged that there is value in examining cancers for genomic aberrations via next-generation sequencing (NGS). How commercially available NGS platforms compare with each other, and the clinical utility of the reported actionable results, are not well known. During the course of the current study, the Foundation One (F1) test generated data on a combination of somatic mutations, insertion and deletion polymorphisms, chromosomal abnormalities, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) copy number changes at ~250× coverage, while the Paradigm Cancer Diagnostic (PCDx) test generated the same type of data at >5,000× coverage, plus provided messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels. We sought to compare and evaluate paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using these two platforms. Methods Samples from patients with advanced solid tumors were submitted to both the F1 and PCDx vendors for NGS analysis. Turnaround time (TAT) was calculated. Biomarkers were considered clinically actionable if they had a published association with treatment response in humans and were assigned to the following categories: commercially available drug (CA), clinical trial drug (CT), or neither option (hereafter referred to as “None”). Results The demographics of the 21 unique patient tumor samples included ten men and eleven women, with a median age of 56 years. Due to insufficient archival tissue from the same collection period, in one case, we used samples from different collections. PCDx reported first results faster than F1 in 20 cases. When received at both vendors on the same day, PCDx reported first results for 14 of 15 cases, with a median TAT of 9 days earlier than F1 (P<0.0001). Categorization of CA compared to CT and none significantly favored PCDx (P=0.012). Conclusion In the current analysis, commercially available NGS platforms provided clinically relevant actionable targets (CA or CT) in 47%–67% of diverse cancer types. In the samples

  20. Comparison of Galvanic Currents Generated Between Different Combinations of Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires Using Potentiostat: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Shafiuddin, Bareera; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Shetty, Smitha V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Technological advances in wire selection and bracket design have led to improved treatment efficiency and allowed longer time intervals between appliance adjustments. The wires remain in the mouth for a longer duration and are subjected to electrochemical reactions, mechanical forces of mastication and generalized wear. These cause different types of corrosion. This study was done to compare the galvanic currents generated between different combinations of brackets and archwires commonly used in orthodontic practices. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study included different commercially available orthodontic archwires and brackets. The galvanic current generated by individual materials and different combinations of these materials was tested and compared. The orthodontic archwires used were 0.019″ × 0.025″ heat-activated nickel-titanium (3M Unitek), 0.019″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium (3M Unitek) and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel (3M Unitek). The orthodontic brackets used were 0.022″ MBT laser-cut (Victory Series, 3M Unitek) and metal-injection molded (Leone Company) maxillary central incisor brackets respectively. The ligature wire used for ligation was 0.009″ stainless steel ligature (HP Company). The galvanic current for individual archwires, brackets, and the different bracket-archwire-ligature combinations was measured by using a Potentiostat machine. The data were generated using the Linear Sweep Voltammetry and OriginPro 8.5 Graphing and Data Analysis Softwares. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I comprised of five groups for open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (I), whereas Phase II comprised of six groups for galvanic current alone. Results: Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the OCP and galvanic current (I) values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. In Phase I, higher mean OCP was recorded in stainless steel archwire, followed by beta

  1. A comparison of InVivoStat with other statistical software packages for analysis of data generated from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robin A; Shoaib, Mohammed; Hewitt, Katherine N; Stanford, S Clare; Bate, Simon T

    2012-08-01

    InVivoStat is a free-to-use statistical software package for analysis of data generated from animal experiments. The package is designed specifically for researchers in the behavioural sciences, where exploiting the experimental design is crucial for reliable statistical analyses. This paper compares the analysis of three experiments conducted using InVivoStat with other widely used statistical packages: SPSS (V19), PRISM (V5), UniStat (V5.6) and Statistica (V9). We show that InVivoStat provides results that are similar to those from the other packages and, in some cases, are more advanced. This investigation provides evidence of further validation of InVivoStat and should strengthen users' confidence in this new software package.

  2. A comparison of the second harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue, and acid purple membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z; Sheves, M; Lewis, A; Bouevitch, O

    1994-01-01

    The second order nonlinear polarizability and dipole moment changes upon light excitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR), dark-adapted BR, blue membrane, and acid purple membrane have been measured by second harmonic generation. Our results indicate that the dipole moment changes of the retinal chromophore, delta mu, are very sensitive to both the chromophore structure and protein/chromophore interactions. Delta mu of light-adapted BR is larger than that of dark-adapted BR. The acid-induced formation of the blue membrane results in an increase in the delta mu value, and formation of acid purple membrane, resulting from further reduction of pH to 0, returns the delta mu to that of light-adapted BR. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:7811928

  3. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Versus Biological Indexing for the Optimal Detection of Viral Pathogens in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Daubert, Steve; Golino, Deborah; Islas, Christina; Rowhani, Adib

    2015-06-01

    A bioassay is routinely used to determine the viral phytosanitary status of commercial grapevine propagation material in many countries around the world. That test is based on the symptoms developed in the field by specific indicator host plants that are graft-inoculated from the vines being tested. We compared the bioassay against next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of grapevine material. NGS is a laboratory procedure that catalogs the genomic sequences of the viruses and other pathogens extracted as DNA and RNA from infected vines. NGS analysis was found to be superior to the standard bioassay in detection of viruses of agronomic significance, including virus infections at low titers. NGS was also found to be superior to the bioassay in its comprehensiveness, the speed of its analysis, and for the discovery of novel, uncharacterized viruses.

  4. Generation of parabolic similaritons in tapered silicon photonic wires: comparison of pulse dynamics at telecom and mid-infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Lavdas, Spyros; Driscoll, Jeffrey B; Jiang, Hongyi; Grote, Richard R; Osgood, Richard M; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2013-10-01

    We study the generation of parabolic self-similar optical pulses in tapered Si photonic nanowires (Si-PhNWs) at both telecom (λ=1.55 μm) and mid-infrared (λ=2.2 μm) wavelengths. Our computational study is based on a rigorous theoretical model, which fully describes the influence of linear and nonlinear optical effects on pulse propagation in Si-PhNWs with arbitrarily varying width. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, in the normal dispersion regime, optical pulses evolve naturally into parabolic pulses upon propagation in millimeter-long tapered Si-PhNWs, with the efficiency of this pulse-reshaping process being strongly dependent on the spectral and pulse parameter regime in which the device operates, as well as the particular shape of the Si-PhNWs.

  5. Comparison of Galvanic Currents Generated Between Different Combinations of Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires Using Potentiostat: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Shafiuddin, Bareera; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Shetty, Smitha V

    2015-07-01

    Technological advances in wire selection and bracket design have led to improved treatment efficiency and allowed longer time intervals between appliance adjustments. The wires remain in the mouth for a longer duration and are subjected to electrochemical reactions, mechanical forces of mastication and generalized wear. These cause different types of corrosion. This study was done to compare the galvanic currents generated between different combinations of brackets and archwires commonly used in orthodontic practices. The materials used for the study included different commercially available orthodontic archwires and brackets. The galvanic current generated by individual materials and different combinations of these materials was tested and compared. The orthodontic archwires used were 0.019″ × 0.025″ heat-activated nickel-titanium (3M Unitek), 0.019″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium (3M Unitek) and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel (3M Unitek). The orthodontic brackets used were 0.022″ MBT laser-cut (Victory Series, 3M Unitek) and metal-injection molded (Leone Company) maxillary central incisor brackets respectively. The ligature wire used for ligation was 0.009″ stainless steel ligature (HP Company). The galvanic current for individual archwires, brackets, and the different bracket-archwire-ligature combinations was measured by using a Potentiostat machine. The data were generated using the Linear Sweep Voltammetry and OriginPro 8.5 Graphing and Data Analysis Softwares. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I comprised of five groups for open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (I), whereas Phase II comprised of six groups for galvanic current alone. Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the OCP and galvanic current (I) values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. In Phase I, higher mean OCP was recorded in stainless steel archwire, followed by beta-titanium archwire, heat-activated nickel

  6. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Panels and Platforms for Detection and Verification of Somatic Tumor Variants for Clinical Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Misyura, Maksym; Zhang, Tong; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Thomas, Mariam; Garg, Swati; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Stockley, Tracy L

    2016-11-01

    Use of next-generation sequencing to detect somatic variants in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues poses a challenge for clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories because of variable DNA quality and quantity, and the potential to detect low allele frequency somatic variants difficult to verify by non-next-generation sequencing methods. We evaluated somatic variant detection performance of the MiSeq and Ion Proton benchtop sequencers using two commercially available panels, the TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel and the AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel Version 2. Both the MiSeq-TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel and Ion Proton-AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel Version 2 were comparable in terms of detection of somatic variants and allele frequency determination using DNA extracted from tumor tissue. Concordance was 100% between the panels for detection of somatic variants in genomic regions tested by both panels, including 27 variants present at low somatic allele frequency (<15%). Use of both the MiSeq and Ion Proton platforms in a combined workflow enabled detection of potentially actionable variants with importance for patient diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment in 49% (305/621) of cases. Overall, a combined workflow using both platforms enabled successful molecular profiling of 96% (621/644) of tumor samples, and provided an approach for verification of somatic variants not amenable to verification by Sanger sequencing (<15% variant allele frequency). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of hematopoietic stem cells derived from fresh and cryopreserved whole cord blood in the generation of humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Scholbach, Johanna; Schulz, Anett; Westphal, Florian; Egger, Dietmar; Wege, Anja Kathrin; Patties, Ina; Köberle, Margarethe; Sack, Ulrich; Lange, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    To study the function and maturation of the human hematopoietic and immune system without endangering individuals, translational human-like animal models are needed. We compare the efficiency of CD34(+) stem cells isolated from cryopreserved cord blood from a blood bank (CCB) and fresh cord blood (FCB) in generating highly engrafted humanized mice in NOD-SCID IL2Rγ(null) (NSG) rodents. Interestingly, the isolation of CD34(+) cells from CCB results in a lower yield and purity compared to FCB. The purity of CD34(+) isolation from CCB decreases with an increasing number of mononuclear cells that is not evident in FCB. Despite the lower yield and purity of CD34(+) stem cell isolation from CCB compared to FCB, the overall reconstitution with human immune cells (CD45) and the differentiation of its subpopulations e.g., B cells, T cells or monocytes is comparable between both sources. In addition, independent of the cord blood origin, human B cells are able to produce high amounts of human IgM antibodies and human T cells are able to proliferate after stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies. Nevertheless, T cells generated from FCB showed increased response to restimulation with anti-CD3. Our study reveals that the application of CCB samples for the engraftment of humanized mice does not result in less engraftment or a loss of differentiation and function of its subpopulations. Therefore, CCB is a reasonable alternative to FCB and allows the selection of specific genotypes (or any other criteria), which allows scientists to be independent from the daily changing birth rate.

  8. Comparison of Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Fresh and Cryopreserved Whole Cord Blood in the Generation of Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Florian; Egger, Dietmar; Wege, Anja Kathrin; Patties, Ina; Köberle, Margarethe; Sack, Ulrich; Lange, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    To study the function and maturation of the human hematopoietic and immune system without endangering individuals, translational human-like animal models are needed. We compare the efficiency of CD34+ stem cells isolated from cryopreserved cord blood from a blood bank (CCB) and fresh cord blood (FCB) in generating highly engrafted humanized mice in NOD-SCID IL2Rγnull (NSG) rodents. Interestingly, the isolation of CD34+ cells from CCB results in a lower yield and purity compared to FCB. The purity of CD34+ isolation from CCB decreases with an increasing number of mononuclear cells that is not evident in FCB. Despite the lower yield and purity of CD34+ stem cell isolation from CCB compared to FCB, the overall reconstitution with human immune cells (CD45) and the differentiation of its subpopulations e.g., B cells, T cells or monocytes is comparable between both sources. In addition, independent of the cord blood origin, human B cells are able to produce high amounts of human IgM antibodies and human T cells are able to proliferate after stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies. Nevertheless, T cells generated from FCB showed increased response to restimulation with anti-CD3. Our study reveals that the application of CCB samples for the engraftment of humanized mice does not result in less engraftment or a loss of differentiation and function of its subpopulations. Therefore, CCB is a reasonable alternative to FCB and allows the selection of specific genotypes (or any other criteria), which allows scientists to be independent from the daily changing birth rate. PMID:23071634

  9. Comparison of thrombin generation assay with conventional coagulation tests in evaluation of bleeding risk in patients with rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Zekavat, Omid R; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Dehghani, Javad; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Peyvandi, Flora; Karimi, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    Based on the premise that the capacity of plasma to generate thrombin in vitro is a comprehensive and precise functional test of the clotting system, we designed a cross-sectional, single-center study involving 83 patients with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) to compare the usefulness of the thrombin generation (TG) assay versus conventional tests including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in predicting bleeding risk in patients with RBD in southern Iran. The TG parameters consisted of endogenous thrombin potential, lag time, peak, time to peak (ttPeak), and start tail. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed statistically significant associations between bleeding risk and lag time, ttPeak, and start tail. We determined cutoff values for these 3 TG parameters and obtained a negative predictive value of 86% to 90% in patients with RBD who had a bleeding score (BS) ≤13. The ROC curves for the association of PT and aPTT with BS did not indicate any significant association. Correlation analysis supported the results of ROC curve analysis, only lag time, ttPeak, and start tail showed significant positive correlations with BS (P < .05). Disease severity based on plasma factor activity was significantly associated with prolonged lag time and ttPeak and with prolonged PT (P <.05). We suggest that TG assay is a potentially more useful tool for predicting the bleeding risk in patients with RBD. However, the small sample size in different RBD subgroups precluded subgroup analysis. Prospective multicenter studies with larger numbers of patients are therefore advisable.

  10. Comparison of Second- and Third-Generation Cephalosporin as Initial Therapy for Women with Community-Onset Uncomplicated Acute Pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook; Wie, Seong-Heon

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the clinical effectiveness of parenteral cefuroxime and cefotaxime as empirical antibiotics for treating hospitalized women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis (APN). This study was based on the clinical and microbiologic data of 255 hospitalized women with APN. Of these 255 women, 144 patients received cefuroxime and 111 received cefotaxime. There were no marked differences in the demographic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment duration between the populations of the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups. The rates of defervescence showed no significant differences in the two groups at 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. The clinical cure rates observed at the follow-up visit 4 to 14 days after the completion of antimicrobial therapy were not statistically different between the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups [94.9% (129 of 136) versus 98.0% (100 of 102), respectively; p=0.307], and the microbiological cure rates were also not significantly different [88.3% (91 of 103) versus 95.0% (76 of 80), respectively; p=0.186]. The median hospitalization periods in the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups were 7 (6-8) and 7 (6-8) days (p=0.157), respectively. Microbiological success rates after 72-96 hours of initial antimicrobial therapy were also not statistically different in the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups, 89.4% (110 of 123) versus 94.9% (93 of 98; p=0.140). Cefuroxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is an appropriate antibiotic option for the initial treatment of uncomplicated APN and its efficacy does not differ from cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, in the initial parenteral therapy for community-onset APN.

  11. Comparison of Second- and Third-Generation Cephalosporin as Initial Therapy for Women with Community-Onset Uncomplicated Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the clinical effectiveness of parenteral cefuroxime and cefotaxime as empirical antibiotics for treating hospitalized women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis (APN). Materials and Methods This study was based on the clinical and microbiologic data of 255 hospitalized women with APN. Of these 255 women, 144 patients received cefuroxime and 111 received cefotaxime. Results There were no marked differences in the demographic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment duration between the populations of the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups. The rates of defervescence showed no significant differences in the two groups at 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. The clinical cure rates observed at the follow-up visit 4 to 14 days after the completion of antimicrobial therapy were not statistically different between the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups [94.9% (129 of 136) versus 98.0% (100 of 102), respectively; p=0.307], and the microbiological cure rates were also not significantly different [88.3% (91 of 103) versus 95.0% (76 of 80), respectively; p=0.186]. The median hospitalization periods in the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups were 7 (6-8) and 7 (6-8) days (p=0.157), respectively. Microbiological success rates after 72-96 hours of initial antimicrobial therapy were also not statistically different in the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups, 89.4% (110 of 123) versus 94.9% (93 of 98; p=0.140). Conclusion Cefuroxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is an appropriate antibiotic option for the initial treatment of uncomplicated APN and its efficacy does not differ from cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, in the initial parenteral therapy for community-onset APN. PMID:26256969

  12. Electrochemical generation of volatile lead species using a cadmium cathode: Comparison with graphite, glassy carbon and platinum cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáenz, María; Fernández, Lenys; Domínguez, José; Alvarado, José

    2012-05-01

    Working electrodes made out of pyrolytic graphite, glassy carbon, platinum and cadmium were compared for the electrochemical generation of volatile lead species. The same electrolytic cell, using each of the different working electrodes was coupled to an atomic absorption spectrometer and the experimental conditions were optimized in each case, using a univariate approach, to produce the maximum possible amount of volatile lead species. The experiments were focused on the variation of cathode hydrogen overvoltage by the application of a constant current during analysis. Under optimum conditions the performance of the electrochemical hydride generator cell should depend on the cathode material selected due to the different hydrogen overpotential of each material. The lead absorbance signal was taken as a measure of the efficiency of volatile lead species production. Best results were obtained using the Cd cathode, due to its relatively highest hydrogen overpotential, a carrier gas (Ar) flow rate of 55 mL min- 1 an electrolytic current of 0.8 A and a catholyte (HCl) concentration 0.05 mol L- 1. The analytical figures of merit of the method using the Cd electrode were evaluated and the susceptibility of the method to interferences was assessed by its application to the determination of trace amounts of lead in the presence of the most significant interferents. The calibration curve was linear between 0.5 and 15 μg L- 1 Pb. Detection limits and characteristic mass values were 0.21 μg L- 1 and 0.26 μg L- 1 respectively. A bovine liver standard reference material and a spiked urine sample were analyzed to check accuracy.

  13. On Comparison of Series and Numerical Solutions for Flow of Eyring-Powell Fluid with Newtonian Heating And Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters. PMID:26402366

  14. On Comparison of Series and Numerical Solutions for Flow of Eyring-Powell Fluid with Newtonian Heating And Internal Heat Generation/Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters.

  15. A quality comparison of protein crystals grown under containerless conditions generated by diamagnetic levitation, silicone oil and agarose gel.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Sun, Li-Hua; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Lu, Hui-Meng; Guo, Yun-Zhu; He, Jin; Liu, Yong-Ming; Xie, Xu-Zhuo; Shen, He-Fang; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Huang, Lin-Jun; Shang, Peng; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2013-10-01

    High-quality crystals are key to obtaining accurate three-dimensional structures of proteins using X-ray diffraction techniques. However, obtaining such protein crystals is often a challenge. Several containerless crystallization techniques have been reported to have the ability to improve crystal quality, but it is unknown which is the most favourable way to grow high-quality protein crystals. In this paper, a quality comparison of protein crystals which were grown under three containerless conditions provided by diamagnetic levitation, silicone oil and agarose gel was conducted. A control experiment on a vessel wall was also simultaneously carried out. Seven different proteins were crystallized under the four conditions, and the crystal quality was assessed in terms of the resolution limit, the mosaicity and the Rmerge. It was found that the crystals grown under the three containerless conditions demonstrated better morphology than those of the control. X-ray diffraction data indicated that the quality of the crystals grown under the three containerless conditions was better than that of the control. Of the three containerless crystallization techniques, the diamagnetic levitation technique exhibited the best performance in enhancing crystal quality. This paper is to our knowledge the first report of improvement of crystal quality using a diamagnetic levitation technique. Crystals obtained from agarose gel demonstrated the second best improvement in crystal quality. The study indicated that the diamagnetic levitation technique is indeed a favourable method for growing high-quality protein crystals, and its utilization is thus potentially useful in practical efforts to obtain well diffracting protein crystals.

  16. Tantalum Cones in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric G; Patel, Nirav K; Chughtai, Morad; Elmallah, Randa D K; Delanois, Ronald E; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    The best strategy to address large bony defects in revision total knee arthroplasty has yet to be determined. The relatively recent development of porous tantalum cones and their use to address massive bone loss in knee arthroplasty has shown promising short- and intermediate-term results. The purpose of this review is to present the current literature on: (1) basic science of porous tantalum, (2) classification and treatment for bone loss, (3) clinical results, and (4) evolution of newer generation cones. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Comparison of strong gravitational lens model software II. HydraLens: Computer-assisted strong gravitational lens model generation and translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefor, A. T.

    2014-07-01

    The behavior of strong gravitational lens model software in the analysis of lens models is not necessarily consistent among the various software available, suggesting that the use of several models may enhance the understanding of the system being studied. Among the publicly available codes, the model input files are heterogeneous, making the creation of multiple models tedious. An enhanced method of creating model files and a method to easily create multiple models, may increase the number of comparison studies. HydraLens simplifies the creation of model files for four strong gravitational lens model software packages, including Lenstool, Gravlens/Lensmodel, glafic and PixeLens, using a custom-designed GUI for each of the four codes that simplifies the entry of the model for each of these codes, obviating the need for user manuals to set the values of the many flags and in each data field. HydraLens is designed in a modular fashion, which simplifies the addition of other strong gravitational lens codes in the future. HydraLens can also translate a model generated for any of these four software packages into any of the other three. Models created using HydraLens may require slight modifications, since some information may be lost in the translation process. However the computer-generated model greatly simplifies the process of developing multiple lens models. HydraLens may enhance the number of direct software comparison studies and also assist in the education of young investigators in gravitational lens modeling. Future development of HydraLens will further enhance its capabilities.

  18. Comparison between a second generation automated multicapillary electrophoresis system with an automated agarose gel electrophoresis system for the detection of M-components.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an interesting alternative to traditional analysis of serum, plasma and urine proteins by agarose gel electrophoresis. Initially there was a considerable difference in resolution between the two methods but the quality of CE has improved significantly. We thus wanted to evaluate a second generation of automated multicapillary instruments (Capillarys, Sebia, Paris, France) and the high resolution (HR) buffer for serum or plasma protein analysis with an automated agarose gel electrophoresis system for the detection of M-components. The comparison between the two systems was performed with patients samples with and without M-components. The comparison included 76 serum samples with M-components > 1 g/L. There was a total agreement between the two methods for detection of these M-components. When studying samples containing oligoclonal bands/small M-components, there were differences between the two systems. The capillary electrophoresis system detected a slightly higher number of samples with oligoclonal bands but the two systems found oligoclonal bands in different samples. When looking at resolution, the agarose gel electrophoresis system yielded a slightly better resolution in the alpha and beta regions, but it required an experienced interpreter to be able to benefit from the increased resolution. The capillary electrophoresis has shorter turn-around times and bar-code reader that allows positive sample identification. The Capillarys in combination with HR buffer gives better resolution of the alpha and beta regions than the same instrument with the beta1-beta2+ buffer or the Paragon CZE2000 (Beckman) which was the first generation of capillary electrophoresis systems.

  19. Direct Determination of Trace Antimony in Natural Waters by Photochemical Vapor Generation ICPMS: Method Optimization and Comparison of Quantitation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltán; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin; Yang, Lu

    2015-08-04

    A novel and sensitive approach for the accurate determination of antimony (Sb) in natural waters is described using photochemical vapor generation (PVG) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for detection. Utilizing a unique flow-through photochemical reactor capable of subjecting the samples to deep-UV (185 nm) radiation, generation efficiency was found to be independent of whether Sb(III), Sb(V), or organometallic species [trimethyltantimony(V)dibromine, TMSb(V)] were present, eliminating the shortcoming of Sb species depended sensitivity encountered during direct solution nebulization by ICPMS. Furthermore, the potentially severe matrix effect from seawater was efficiently eliminated by using a mixture of 5% (v/v) formic and 15% acetic acids (v/v) as the photochemical reductant, making direct determination of Sb in seawater feasible. The proposed method provides a 15-fold improvement in sensitivity over direct solution nebulization. A method detection limit of 0.0006 ng g(-1) based on external calibration was obtained (0.0002 ng g(-1) for isotope dilution), yielding a 15-fold improvement over that for direct solution nebulization. Accuracy is demonstrated by analysis of two water certified reference materials (CRMs, e.g., SLRS-6 and NIST 1640a) with satisfying results. In addition, spike recoveries of 100.6 ± 5.5% and 100.8 ± 3.8% (standard deviation, n = 3) were obtained for NASS-6 and CASS-5 seawater CRMs, respectively, since no certified values for Sb has been established for these materials. The performance of several calibration strategies, including double isotope dilution (ID), multiple and single-point gravimetric standard additions with internal standardization, as well as multiple and single-point gravimetric standard additions alone was examined. High precision of determination of Sb in four natural water samples (0.51-1.4%) was realized based on ID calibration, whereas one-point gravimetric standard addition calibration

  20. Comparison of Depth of Cure, Hardness and Heat Generation of LED and High Intensity QTH Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa; Meyers, Ian

    2011-07-01

    To compare curing performance of a second generation LED curing light with a high power tungsten quartz halogen (QTH). A hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z 250, 3M, USA) was used as test material and cured using a second generation LED light (Translux Power Blue™, Heraus Kulzer ,Germany) or a very high power QTH light unit (EMS, Switzerland). A two split aluminum mold was used to prepare ten samples with LED light source cured for forty seconds and ten samples prepared using high power QTH light unit, cured for four or six seconds recommended exposure time. Hardness, depth of cure (DOC) and thermal rise during exposure time by these light sources were measured. The data submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's and student's t tests at 5% significance level. Significant differences were found in hardness, DOC of samples cured by above mentioned light sources and also in thermal rises during exposure time. The curing performance of the tested QTH was not as well as the LED light. TPB light source produced the maximum hardness (81.25, 73.29, 65.49,55.83 and 24.53 for 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm intervals) and DOC (2.64 mm) values with forty seconds irradiation time and the high power (QTH) the least hardness (73.27, 61.51 and 31.59 for 0 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively) and DOC (2 mm) values with four seconds irradiation time. Thermal rises during 4 s and 6 s curing time using high power QTH and tested LED were 1.88°C, 3°C and 1.87°C, respectively. The used high power LED light produced greater hardness and depth of cure during forty seconds exposure time compared to high power QTH light with four or six seconds curing time. Thermal rise during 6 s curing time with QTH was greater compared to thermal changes occurred during 40 s curing time with tested LED light source. There was no difference seen in thermal changes caused by LED light with 40 s and QTH light with 4 s exposure time.

  1. Performance evaluation of Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria and comparison with targeted next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emma L; Bagg, Eleanor A L; Mueller, Michael; Vandrovcova, Jana; Aitman, Timothy J; Rumsby, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) currently utilizes sequential Sanger sequencing of the AGXT, GRPHR, and HOGA1 genes but efficacy is unproven. This analysis is time-consuming, relatively expensive, and delays in diagnosis and inappropriate treatment can occur if not pursued early in the diagnostic work-up. We reviewed testing outcomes of Sanger sequencing in 200 consecutive patient samples referred for analysis. In addition, the Illumina Truseq custom amplicon system was evaluated for paralleled next-generation sequencing (NGS) of AGXT,GRHPR, and HOGA1 in 90 known PH patients. AGXT sequencing was requested in all patients, permitting a diagnosis of PH1 in 50%. All remaining patients underwent targeted exon sequencing of GRHPR and HOGA1 with 8% diagnosed with PH2 and 8% with PH3. Complete sequencing of both GRHPR and HOGA1 was not requested in 25% of patients referred leaving their diagnosis in doubt. NGS analysis showed 98% agreement with Sanger sequencing and both approaches had 100% diagnostic specificity. Diagnostic sensitivity of Sanger sequencing was 98% and for NGS it was 97%. NGS has comparable diagnostic performance to Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of PH and, if implemented, would screen for all forms of PH simultaneously ensuring prompt diagnosis at decreased cost. PMID:25629080

  2. Comparison of Pd/D co-deposition and DT neutron generated triple tracks observed in CR-39 detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Dea, J. Y.; Forsley, L. P. G.; Morey, M. S.; Tinsley, J. R.; Hurley, J. P.; Gordon, F. E.

    2010-08-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), such as CR-39, have been used to detect energetic charged particles and neutrons. Of the neutron and charged particle interactions that can occur in CR-39, the one that is the most easily identifiable is the carbon breakup reaction. The observation of a triple track, which appears as three alpha particle tracks breaking away from a center point, is diagnostic of the 12C(n, n')3α carbon breakup reaction. Such triple tracks have been observed in CR-39 detectors that have been used in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. In this communication, triple tracks in CR-39 detectors observed in Pd/D co-deposition experiments are compared with those generated upon exposure to a DT neutron source. It was found that both sets of tracks were indistinguishable. Both symmetric and asymmetric tracks were observed. Using linear energy transfer (LET) curves and track modeling, the energy of the neutron that created the triple track can be estimated.

  3. Comparison of Various Generations of Superporous Hydrogels Based on Chitosan-Acrylamide and In Vitro Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Shikha; Nagpal, Manju

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current research work was to prepare and evaluate different generations of superporous hydrogels (SPH) of acrylamide and chitosan using gas blowing technique and evaluate them for swelling, mechanical properties, FTIR, SEM, XRD, and in vitro drug release. The ingredients used were acrylamide, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide, chitosan, Pluronic F127, ammonium per sulfate-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylenediamine, and sodium bicarbonate. All ingredients were mixed sequentially with thorough stirring. The effect of different drying conditions on properties of SPH was also evaluated. Ethanol treated batched showed maximum swelling properties due to uniform pores as indicated in SEM studies. Equilibrium swelling time was less than 10 min in all batches. Freeze drying led to lowering of density which is also supported by porosity and void fraction data. Maximum mechanical strength was found in superporous hydrogel interpenetrating networks due to crosslinked polymeric network. 70% drug was released at the end of 2 h, and further the release was sustained till the end of 24 h. In vitro drug release kinetics showed that drug release occurs by diffusion and follows Super Case II transport indicating that mechanism of drug release is not clear. Superporous hydrogel interpenetrating networks can be successfully used as sustained release gastroretentive devices. PMID:23984106

  4. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    PubMed

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  5. Comparison Between Tsunami Signals Generated by Different Source Models and the Observed Data of the Illapel 2015 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisto, Ignacia; Miller, Matthew; Constanzo, Iván

    2016-04-01

    A major interplate earthquake occurred on September 16th, 2015, near Illapel, central Chile. This event generated a tsunami of moderate height, however, one which caused significant near field damage. In this study, we model the tsunami produced by some rapid and preliminary fault models with the potential to be calculated within tens of minutes of the event origin time. We simulate tsunami signals from two different heterogeneous slip models, a homogeneous source based on parameters from the global CMT Project, and furthermore we used plate coupling data from GPS observations to construct a heterogeneous fault based on a priori knowledge of the subduction zone. We compare the simulated signals with the observed tsunami at tide gauges located along the Chilean coast and at offshore DART buoys. For this event, concerning rapid response, the homogeneous source and coupling model represent the tsunami at least as well as the heterogeneous sources. We suggest that the initial heterogeneous fault models could be better constrained with continuous GPS measurements in the rupture area, and additionally DART records directly in front of the rupture area, to improve the tsunami simulation based on quickly calculated models for near coastal areas. Additionally, in terms of tsunami modeling, the source estimated from prior plate coupling information in this case is representative of the event that later occurs; placing further importance on the need to monitor subduction zones with GPS.

  6. A modeling comparison of projection neuron- and neuromodulator-elicited oscillations in a central pattern generating network.

    PubMed

    Kintos, Nickolas; Nusbaum, Michael P; Nadim, Farzan

    2008-06-01

    Many central pattern generating networks are influenced by synaptic input from modulatory projection neurons. The network response to a projection neuron is sometimes mimicked by bath applying the neuronally-released modulator, despite the absence of network interactions with the projection neuron. One interesting example occurs in the crab stomatogastric ganglion (STG), where bath applying the neuropeptide pyrokinin (PK) elicits a gastric mill rhythm which is similar to that elicited by the projection neuron modulatory commissural neuron 1 (MCN1), despite the absence of PK in MCN1 and the fact that MCN1 is not active during the PK-elicited rhythm. MCN1 terminals have fast and slow synaptic actions on the gastric mill network and are presynaptically inhibited by this network in the STG. These local connections are inactive in the PK-elicited rhythm, and the mechanism underlying this rhythm is unknown. We use mathematical and biophysically-realistic modeling to propose potential mechanisms by which PK can elicit a gastric mill rhythm that is similar to the MCN1-elicited rhythm. We analyze slow-wave network oscillations using simplified mathematical models and, in parallel, develop biophysically-realistic models that account for fast, action potential-driven oscillations and some spatial structure of the network neurons. Our results illustrate how the actions of bath-applied neuromodulators can mimic those of descending projection neurons through mathematically similar but physiologically distinct mechanisms.

  7. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Balcarek, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  8. Comparison and Analysis of Inter-Subject Variability of Simulated Magnetic Activity Generated from Gastric Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komuro, Rie; Cheng, Leo K.; Pullan, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrogastrograms (EGGs) produced from gastric electrical activity (GEA) are used as a non-invasive method to aid in the assessment of a subject’s gastric condition. It has been documented that recordings of the magnetic activity generated from GEA are more reliable. Typically, with magnetic measurements of GEA, only activity perpendicular to the body is recorded. Also, external anatomical landmarks are used to position the magnetic recording devices, SQUIDs, (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) over the stomach with no allowance made for body habitus. In the work presented here, GEA and its corresponding magnetic activity are simulated. Using these data, we investigate the effects of using a standard SQUID location as well as a customized SQUID position and the contribution the magnetic component perpendicular to the body makes to the magnetic field. We also explore the effects of the stomach wall thickness on the resultant magnetic fields. The simulated results show that the thicker the wall, the larger the magnitude of the magnetic field holding the same signal patterns. We conclude that most of the magnetic activity arising from GEA occurs in a plane parallel to the anterior body. We also conclude that using a standard SQUID position can be suboptimal. PMID:18330701

  9. Comparison and analysis of inter-subject variability of simulated magnetic activity generated from gastric electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Rié; Cheng, Leo K; Pullan, Andrew J

    2008-06-01

    Electrogastrograms (EGGs) produced from gastric electrical activity (GEA) are used as a non-invasive method to aid in the assessment of a subject's gastric condition. It has been documented that recordings of the magnetic activity generated from GEA are more reliable. Typically, with magnetic measurements of GEA, only activity perpendicular to the body is recorded. Also, external anatomical landmarks are used to position the magnetic recording devices, SQUIDs, (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) over the stomach with no allowance made for body habitus. In the work presented here, GEA and its corresponding magnetic activity are simulated. Using these data, we investigate the effects of using a standard SQUID location as well as a customized SQUID position and the contribution the magnetic component perpendicular to the body makes to the magnetic field. We also explore the effects of the stomach wall thickness on the resultant magnetic fields. The simulated results show that the thicker the wall, the larger the magnitude of the magnetic field holding the same signal patterns. We conclude that most of the magnetic activity arising from GEA occurs in a plane parallel to the anterior body. We also conclude that using a standard SQUID position can be suboptimal.

  10. Estimation of bacterial diversity using next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA: a comparison of different workflows.

    PubMed

    Barriuso, Jorge; Valverde, Jose R; Mellado, Rafael P

    2011-12-14

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) enables a more comprehensive analysis of bacterial diversity from complex environmental samples. NGS data can be analysed using a variety of workflows. We test several simple and complex workflows, including frequently used as well as recently published tools, and report on their respective accuracy and efficiency under various conditions covering different sequence lengths, number of sequences and real world experimental data from rhizobacterial populations of glyphosate-tolerant maize treated or untreated with two different herbicides representative of differential diversity studies. Alignment and distance calculations affect OTU estimations, and multiple sequence alignment exerts a major impact on the computational time needed. Generally speaking, most of the analyses produced consistent results that may be used to assess differential diversity changes, however, dataset characteristics dictate which workflow should be preferred in each case. When estimating bacterial diversity, ESPRIT as well as the web-based workflow, RDP pyrosequencing pipeline, produced good results in all circumstances, however, its computational requirements can make method-combination workflows more attractive, depending on sequence variability, number and length.

  11. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae

    PubMed Central

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen. PMID:27494134

  12. Analysis and comparison of the wolf microbiome under different environmental factors using three different data of Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Huanxin; Chen, Jun; Shang, Shuai; Yan, Jiakuo; Chen, Yao; Tang, Xuexi; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-09-12

    Next Generation Sequencing has been widely used to characterize the prevalence of fecal bacteria in many different species. In this study, we attempted to employ a low-cost and high-throughput sequencing model to discern information pertaining to the wolf microbiota. It is hoped that this model will allow researchers to elucidate potential protective factors in relation to endangered wolf species. We propose three high-throughput sequencing models to reveal information pertaining to the micro-ecology of the wolf. Our analyses advised that, among the three models, more than 100,000 sequences are more appropriate to retrieve the communities' richness and diversity of micro-ecology. In addition, the top five wolf microbiome OTUs (99%) were members of the following five phyla: Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. While Alloprevotella, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Anaerobiospirillum, Faecalibactreium and Streptococcus were shared by all samples, their relative abundances were differentially represented between domestic dogs and other wolves. Our findings suggest that altitude, human interference, age, and climate all contribute towards the micro-ecology of the wolf. Specifically, we observed that genera Succinivibrio and Turicibacter are significantly related to altitude and human interference (including hunting practices).

  13. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors.

  14. Comparison of high-capacity and first-generation adenoviral vector gene delivery to murine muscle in utero.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Wu, E; Zheng, H; Biermann, V; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2005-01-01

    In utero gene delivery could offer the advantage of treatment at an early stage for genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in which the inevitable process of muscle degeneration is already initiated at birth. Furthermore, treatment of fetal muscle with adenoviral (Ad) vectors is attractive because of a high density of Ad receptors, easy vector accessibility due to immaturity of the basal lamina and the possibility of treating stem cells. Previously, we demonstrated the efficient transduction of fetal muscle by high-capacity Ad (HC-Ad) vectors. In this study, we compared HC-Ad and first-generation Ad (FG-Ad) vectors for longevity of lacZ transgene expression, toxicity and induction of immunity after direct vector-mediated in utero gene delivery to fetal C57BL/6 mice muscle 16 days after conception (E-16). The total amount of beta-galactosidase (betagal) expressed from the HC-Ad vector remained stable for the 5 months of the study, although the concentration of betagal decreased due to muscle growth. Higher survival rates that reflect lower levels of toxicity were observed in those mice transduced with an HC-Ad vector as compared to an FG-Ad vector. The toxicity induced by FG-Ad vector gene delivery was dependent on mouse strain and vector dose. Animals treated with either HC-Ad and FG-Ad vectors developed non-neutralizing antibodies against Ad capsid and antibodies against betagal, but these antibodies did not cause loss of vector genomes from transduced muscle. In a mouse model of DMD, dystrophin gene transfer to muscle in utero using an HC-Ad vector restored the dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that long-term transgene expression can be achieved by HC-Ad vector-mediated gene delivery to fetal muscle, although strategies of vector integration may need to be considered to accommodate muscle growth.

  15. Comparison of different strategies for using fossil calibrations to generate the time prior in Bayesian molecular clock dating.

    PubMed

    Barba-Montoya, Jose; Dos Reis, Mario; Yang, Ziheng

    2017-09-01

    Fossil calibrations are the utmost source of information for resolving the distances between molecular sequences into estimates of absolute times and absolute rates in molecular clock dating analysis. The quality of calibrations is thus expected to have a major impact on divergence time estimates even if a huge amount of molecular data is available. In Bayesian molecular clock dating, fossil calibration information is incorporated in the analysis through the prior on divergence times (the time prior). Here, we evaluate three strategies for converting fossil calibrations (in the form of minimum- and maximum-age bounds) into the prior on times, which differ according to whether they borrow information from the maximum age of ancestral nodes and minimum age of descendent nodes to form constraints for any given node on the phylogeny. We study a simple example that is analytically tractable, and analyze two real datasets (one of 10 primate species and another of 48 seed plant species) using three Bayesian dating programs: MCMCTree, MrBayes and BEAST2. We examine how different calibration strategies, the birth-death process, and automatic truncation (to enforce the constraint that ancestral nodes are older than descendent nodes) interact to determine the time prior. In general, truncation has a great impact on calibrations so that the effective priors on the calibration node ages after the truncation can be very different from the user-specified calibration densities. The different strategies for generating the effective prior also had considerable impact, leading to very different marginal effective priors. Arbitrary parameters used to implement minimum-bound calibrations were found to have a strong impact upon the prior and posterior of the divergence times. Our results highlight the importance of inspecting the joint time prior used by the dating program before any Bayesian dating analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Safety Margin Generation Concepts in Image Guided Radiotherapy to Account for Daily Head and Neck Pose Variations

    PubMed Central

    Stoiber, Eva Maria; Grimm, Sarah; Debus, Jürgen; Bendl, Rolf; Giske, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of head and neck tumors allows a precise conformation of the high-dose region to clinical target volumes (CTVs) while respecting dose limits to organs a risk (OARs). Accurate patient setup reduces translational and rotational deviations between therapy planning and therapy delivery days. However, uncertainties in the shape of the CTV and OARs due to e.g. small pose variations in the highly deformable anatomy of the head and neck region can still compromise the dose conformation. Routinely applied safety margins around the CTV cause higher dose deposition in adjacent healthy tissue and should be kept as small as possible. Materials and Methods In this work we evaluate and compare three approaches for margin generation 1) a clinically used approach with a constant isotropic 3 mm margin, 2) a previously proposed approach adopting a spatial model of the patient and 3) a newly developed approach adopting a biomechanical model of the patient. All approaches are retrospectively evaluated using a large patient cohort of over 500 fraction control CT images with heterogeneous pose changes. Automatic methods for finding landmark positions in the control CT images are combined with a patient specific biomechanical finite element model to evaluate the CTV deformation. Results The applied methods for deformation modeling show that the pose changes cause deformations in the target region with a mean motion magnitude of 1.80 mm. We found that the CTV size can be reduced by both variable margin approaches by 15.6% and 13.3% respectively, while maintaining the CTV coverage. With approach 3 an increase of target coverage was obtained. Conclusion Variable margins increase target coverage, reduce risk to OARs and improve healthy tissue sparing at the same time. PMID:28033416

  17. Comparison of projection skills of deterministic ensemble methods using pseudo-simulation data generated from multivariate Gaussian distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2017-07-01

    The projection skills of five ensemble methods were analyzed according to simulation skills, training period, and ensemble members, using 198 sets of pseudo-simulation data (PSD) produced by random number generation assuming the simulated temperature of regional climate models. The PSD sets were classified into 18 categories according to the relative magnitude of bias, variance ratio, and correlation coefficient, where each category had 11 sets (including 1 truth set) with 50 samples. The ensemble methods used were as follows: equal weighted averaging without bias correction (EWA_NBC), EWA with bias correction (EWA_WBC), weighted ensemble averaging based on root mean square errors and correlation (WEA_RAC), WEA based on the Taylor score (WEA_Tay), and multivariate linear regression (Mul_Reg). The projection skills of the ensemble methods improved generally as compared with the best member for each category. However, their projection skills are significantly affected by the simulation skills of the ensemble member. The weighted ensemble methods showed better projection skills than non-weighted methods, in particular, for the PSD categories having systematic biases and various correlation coefficients. The EWA_NBC showed considerably lower projection skills than the other methods, in particular, for the PSD categories with systematic biases. Although Mul_Reg showed relatively good skills, it showed strong sensitivity to the PSD categories, training periods, and number of members. On the other hand, the WEA_Tay and WEA_RAC showed relatively superior skills in both the accuracy and reliability for all the sensitivity experiments. This indicates that WEA_Tay and WEA_RAC are applicable even for simulation data with systematic biases, a short training period, and a small number of ensemble members.

  18. Comparison of a High-Resolution Melting Assay to Next-Generation Sequencing for Analysis of HIV Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Matthew M.; Ou, San-San; Wawer, Maria J.; Munshaw, Supriya; Swan, David; Magaret, Craig A.; Mullis, Caroline E.; Serwadda, David; Porcella, Stephen F.; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Donnell, Deborah; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently been used for analysis of HIV diversity, but this method is labor-intensive, costly, and requires complex protocols for data analysis. We compared diversity measures obtained using NGS data to those obtained using a diversity assay based on high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA duplexes. The HRM diversity assay provides a single numeric score that reflects the level of diversity in the region analyzed. HIV gag and env from individuals in Rakai, Uganda, were analyzed in a previous study using NGS (n = 220 samples from 110 individuals). Three sequence-based diversity measures were calculated from the NGS sequence data (percent diversity, percent complexity, and Shannon entropy). The amplicon pools used for NGS were analyzed with the HRM diversity assay. HRM scores were significantly associated with sequence-based measures of HIV diversity for both gag and env (P < 0.001 for all measures). The level of diversity measured by the HRM diversity assay and NGS increased over time in both regions analyzed (P < 0.001 for all measures except for percent complexity in gag), and similar amounts of diversification were observed with both methods (P < 0.001 for all measures except for percent complexity in gag). Diversity measures obtained using the HRM diversity assay were significantly associated with those from NGS, and similar increases in diversity over time were detected by both methods. The HRM diversity assay is faster and less expensive than NGS, facilitating rapid analysis of large studies of HIV diversity and evolution. PMID:22785188

  19. Comparison of projection skills of deterministic ensemble methods using pseudo-simulation data generated from multivariate Gaussian distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2016-03-01

    The projection skills of five ensemble methods were analyzed according to simulation skills, training period, and ensemble members, using 198 sets of pseudo-simulation data (PSD) produced by random number generation assuming the simulated temperature of regional climate models. The PSD sets were classified into 18 categories according to the relative magnitude of bias, variance ratio, and correlation coefficient, where each category had 11 sets (including 1 truth set) with 50 samples. The ensemble methods used were as follows: equal weighted averaging without bias correction (EWA_NBC), EWA with bias correction (EWA_WBC), weighted ensemble averaging based on root mean square errors and correlation (WEA_RAC), WEA based on the Taylor score (WEA_Tay), and multivariate linear regression (Mul_Reg). The projection skills of the ensemble methods improved generally as compared with the best member for each category. However, their projection skills are significantly affected by the simulation skills of the ensemble member. The weighted ensemble methods showed better projection skills than non-weighted methods, in particular, for the PSD categories having systematic biases and various correlation coefficients. The EWA_NBC showed considerably lower projection skills than the other methods, in particular, for the PSD categories with systematic biases. Although Mul_Reg showed relatively good skills, it showed strong sensitivity to the PSD categories, training periods, and number of members. On the other hand, the WEA_Tay and WEA_RAC showed relatively superior skills in both the accuracy and reliability for all the sensitivity experiments. This indicates that WEA_Tay and WEA_RAC are applicable even for simulation data with systematic biases, a short training period, and a small number of ensemble members.

  20. Comparison of the performance characteristics of three generations of membrane oxygenators: Univoxregistered, Univoxreqistered Goldtrademark and SpiralGoldtrademark.

    PubMed

    Beckley, P D; Morris, S M; Smith, J J; McNamara, J L; Novak, J A

    1996-01-01

    With continuous enhancement in oxygenator design, the question is raised as to how these changes actually impact the performance of the oxygenator. The recent addition of two new oxygenators by the Bentley Division of Baxter Healthcare Corporation provided us with a unique opportunity to compare the performance of each device and isolate the impact of each design change on performance. While the basic design and flow patterns have remained the same, application of the Duraflo II treatment has produced the Univox Gold and a change in the fibre-winding technique has produced the SpiralGold. This study compared the effects of heparin coating (Univox to Univox Gold) and fibre-winding (Univox Gold to SpiralGold) on gas and heat transfer and resistance to blood flow (pressure drop). Six oxygenators of each model were evaluated utilizing an in vitro single pass circuit, which first conditioned bovine blood to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) venous standards. Blood flows of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 l/min, FiO2 values of 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6, and gas-to-blood flow ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 were chosen as test variables. Data generated included oxygen transfer, carbon dioxide transfer, arterial pO2, resistance to blood flow, and coefficient of heat exchange. The results indicate that the Duraflo II treatment does not have a significant effect on gas and heat transfer or resistance to blood flow. The fibre-winding technique employed with the new SpiralGold, however, has improved significantly gas exchange and arterial pO2 when compared with the previous Univox models. Resistance to blood flow and coefficient of heat exchange were not affected significantly by the winding technique.