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Sample records for generator ng-150 opredelenie

  1. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  2. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  3. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  4. Wind Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  5. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  6. Generative Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  7. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.

  8. Generation Wrecked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Noshua

    2002-01-01

    Young adults in Generation X are facing financial problems. Because of their college and credit card debt, many in worse financial shape than anyone since the Depression and have little or no retirement savings. (JOW)

  9. Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, T.

    1985-01-01

    Small modular alkali metal thermoelectric generator with no moving parts directly converts heat to electrical energy with efficiency of 20 to 40 percent. Unit uses closed regenerative electrochemical concentration cell based on sodium-ion conductor beta alumina.

  10. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  11. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  12. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    Generator is simple in construction, efficient, and extremely easy to start and regulate. It can be of such small size and weight that it can be installed easily inside a model. Size can be changed to suit needs, as long as operating temperatures can be attained and identified controls are utilized.

  13. Generation Next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of accounting professors with Ph.D.s who can prepare the next generation. To help reverse the faculty deficit, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) has created the new Accounting Doctoral Scholars program by pooling more than $17 million and soliciting commitments from more than 70 of the nation's…

  14. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOEpatents

    Pettibone, J.S.; Wheeler, P.C.

    1981-06-08

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing providing a housing chamber with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber, from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  15. Cluster generator

    DOEpatents

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  16. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  17. Thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Pryslak, N.E.

    1974-02-26

    A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

  18. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  19. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  20. Tide generator

    SciTech Connect

    Feltenberger, B.D.

    1981-06-16

    A tidewater power system consisting of a high tide reservoir and a low tide reservoir. The high tide reservoir has an inlet adapted to be supported at high tide level and an outlet with a water wheel and generator between the outlet of the high tide reservoir and the low tide reservoir. The low tide reservoir has an outlet at the low tide level. The outlet from the high tide reservoir is adjustable to control the flow rate and the high tide reservoir can be closed at high tide to retain water for use over a period of time.

  1. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

  2. HEAT GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1963-12-01

    Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

  3. Piezoelectrostatic generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piezoelectrostatic generator includes a plurality of elongated piezoelectric elements having first and second ends, with the first ends fixedly mounted in a cylindrical housing and the second extending radially inwardly toward an axis. A shaft movable along the axis is connected to the inner ends of the elements to produce bending forces in piezoelectric strips within the elements. Each element includes a pair of strips mounted in surface contact and in electrical series to produce a potential upon bending. Electrodes spaced from the strips by a solid dielectric material act as capacitor plates to collect the potential charge.

  4. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOEpatents

    Pettibone, Joseph S.; Wheeler, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing (100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105) providing a housing chamber (106) with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber (106) forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber (106), from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers (107, 108) disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber (106) which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  5. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.

    1963-09-17

    This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)

  6. Triboelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Fan, Fengru; Lin, Long; Zhu, Guang; Pan, Caofeng; Zhou, Yusheng

    2015-11-03

    A generator includes a thin first contact charging layer and a thin second contact charging layer. The thin first contact charging layer includes a first material that has a first rating on a triboelectric series. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer includes a second material that has a second rating on a triboelectric series that is more negative than the first rating. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer is disposed adjacent to the first contact charging layer so that the second side of the second contact charging layer is in contact with the second side of the first contact charging layer.

  7. Wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, F.R.

    1980-01-29

    A wind operated generator is disclosed herein having a stationary frame or base rotatably supporting at least four sets of pivotal blades intended to be driven by impinging wind currents. Each set of blades operates in unison for opening and closing air passageways between adjacent ones of the blades as the sets of blades rotate about a common vertical axis. A wind direction sensor is provided which moves into the direction of the wind, and electro-mechanical or mechanical interface networks operably couple the wind direction sensor to the respective sets of blades whereby the blades are responsive to wind direction so as to be properly feathered to propel the sets of blades. By employment of the interface network, those blades that are in position to actuate or rotate the windmill will receive the full force of the wind while other blades which are not in a position to accomplish the proper operation will be turned to permit passage of the wind thereby.

  8. Saving the "Lost Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.

    2007-01-01

    Since the beginning of the American experience, labels have been used to describe generations. Among them are the "Puritan generation," the "greatest generation," the "baby boomer generation" and the "MTV generation." Today, people are creating a new generation--the "lost generation." The lost generation represents a large and growing population…

  9. Generational Dynamics and Librarianship: Managing Generation X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Julie F.; Cooper, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the abilities of Generation X (individuals born 1961 to 1981) librarians to respond to the evolving needs of society. Highlights include age demographics, generational attributes, technology, and the seniority system. (PEN)

  10. Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

  11. Talkin' 'bout My Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickes, Persis C.

    2010-01-01

    The monikers are many: (1) "Generation Y"; (2) "Echo Boomers"; (3) "GenMe"; (4) the "Net Generation"; (5) "RenGen"; and (6) "Generation Next". One name that appears to be gaining currency is "Millennials," perhaps as a way to better differentiate the current generation from its predecessor, Generation X. Millennials are those individuals born…

  12. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  13. Minding the Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    Generational conflict is back. After years of relative silence, and mutual ignorance, the young and old are once more at war. With youth unemployment high on the political agenda, the fortunes of the "jobless generation" are being contrasted with those of the "golden generation" of baby boomers, but is one generation really being mugged by the…

  14. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  15. Gamma ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  16. Supersonic MHD generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.A.

    1983-11-29

    An improved MHD electrical power generating system of the type having a MHD topping cycle and a steam generating bottoming cycle is disclosed. The system typically includes a combustion system, a conventional MHD generator and a first diffuser radiant boiler. The improvement comprises a first supersonic MHD generator and ramjet engine configuration operatively connected in series with each other and with the conventional MHD generator. The first supersonic MHD generator and ramjet engine configuration increase the power output and improve the operating efficiency of the electrical generating system. A diffuser system is also disclosed which is in fluid communication with the supersonic MHD generator and the ramjet engine for collecting bypass plasma gas to be used for heating a second radiant boiler adapted for powering a steam turbine generator.

  17. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  18. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  19. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2009-12-29

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  20. Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    Shows that substantial inequality of economic opportunity exists in the U.S. and that the educational system is a major vehicle for the transmission of economic status from one generation to the next. (RJ)

  1. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  2. Diversity and Generation X.

    PubMed

    Davis, S K

    2001-09-01

    Managing Generation X (1965-1980) to be of better service to patients and organizations is a challenge for nurse managers. This article provides action scenarios that assist in understanding diversity and generations.

  3. Quantum random number generator

    DOEpatents

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  4. Creative Test Generators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, F. D.

    1973-01-01

    A brief description of a test generating program which generates questions concerning the Fortran programming language in a random but guided fashion and without resorting to an item bank.'' (Author/AK)

  5. Generating Customized Verifiers for Automatically Generated Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Program verification using Hoare-style techniques requires many logical annotations. We have previously developed a generic annotation inference algorithm that weaves in all annotations required to certify safety properties for automatically generated code. It uses patterns to capture generator- and property-specific code idioms and property-specific meta-program fragments to construct the annotations. The algorithm is customized by specifying the code patterns and integrating them with the meta-program fragments for annotation construction. However, this is difficult since it involves tedious and error-prone low-level term manipulations. Here, we describe an annotation schema compiler that largely automates this customization task using generative techniques. It takes a collection of high-level declarative annotation schemas tailored towards a specific code generator and safety property, and generates all customized analysis functions and glue code required for interfacing with the generic algorithm core, thus effectively creating a customized annotation inference algorithm. The compiler raises the level of abstraction and simplifies schema development and maintenance. It also takes care of some more routine aspects of formulating patterns and schemas, in particular handling of irrelevant program fragments and irrelevant variance in the program structure, which reduces the size, complexity, and number of different patterns and annotation schemas that are required. The improvements described here make it easier and faster to customize the system to a new safety property or a new generator, and we demonstrate this by customizing it to certify frame safety of space flight navigation code that was automatically generated from Simulink models by MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop.

  6. Understanding Generation X employees.

    PubMed

    Kupperschmidt, B R

    1998-12-01

    Understanding Generation X employees--those born between 1961 and 1981--is essential if they are to be recruited into and retained in nursing and their potential maximized. The author discusses the times, characteristics, and work values and demands of Generation X. Armed with an enhanced understanding, nurse administrators are better prepared to maximize the potential of Generation X employees.

  7. Uniform random number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  8. Generation and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  9. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  10. Managing the new generation.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Cane, K M; Gonzalez, J L; Stewart, H P

    1999-05-01

    As the Silent Generation quickly approaches retirement, and the Baby Boomer generation moves into management and supervisory roles, a new generation is entering the workforce. Generation Xers were born between 1965 and 1975, at a time when the country experienced high prices, wage inflation, stagnant consumer demands, and increased unemployment. Perhaps as a result, newcomers to today's workforce often have different characteristics, behavioral traits, and belief systems from their predecessors. To effectively supervise and motivate individuals from this unique generation, health care managers must begin by understanding the evolutions that have shaped each generation and influenced the workforce. In doing so, managers can create a thriving multigenerational work environment and embrace supervisory concepts that attract and motivate the new generation.

  11. Solar thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  12. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  13. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  14. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  15. Quantum random number generation

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  16. Steam generator performance degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, J.T.; Dow, B.L. )

    1991-09-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the range and severity of steam generator performance degradation effects experienced by PWRs in the United States. The survey results were tabulated and correlated with steam generator age and design. Operating experience at several PWRs was examined in detail. The operating experience at US PWRs was compared to that of PWRs in Japan and Germany. Possible causes for the performance degradation were postulated and evaluated. The sensitivity of steam generator output pressure to changes in various parameters (such as fouling factor, average reactor coolant temperature, and percentage of steam generator tubes plugged) was calculated. These calculations were used in the evaluation of possible causes of steam generator performance degradation. Several deposit exfoliation scenarios were evaluated in terms of the calculated effect on fouling factor trends and associated steam generator output pressure trends. 15 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Solar fuels generator

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  18. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  19. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  20. Hybrid thermoelectric piezoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Hewitt, C. A.; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an integration of flexible thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials into a single device structure. This device architecture overcomes several prohibitive issues facing the combination of traditional thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, while optimizing performance of the combined power output. The structure design uses a carbon nanotube/polymer thin film as a flexible thermoelectric generator that doubles as an electrode on a piezoelectric generator made of poly(vinylidene fluoride). An example 2 × 2 array of devices is shown to generate 89% of the maximum thermoelectric power, and provide 5.3 times more piezoelectric voltage when compared with a traditional device.

  1. Thermophotovoltaic energy generation

    DOEpatents

    Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter

    2015-08-25

    Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.

  2. Apollo - A pioneering generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first generation of engineers - the generation which accomplished the United States' first major achievements in manned space exploration. Combining statistical analysis with personal interviews, the study explores questions such as the origins, motivations, and career histories of NASA's first generation of engineers; that generation's role in NASA's current leadership; the relationships of science, engineering, and management in NASA's institutional culture; and changes experienced within NASA during and after the Apollo program.

  3. Innovative revenue generation.

    PubMed

    Pink, G H; Deber, R B; Lavoie, J N; Aserlind, E

    1991-01-01

    Innovative revenue generation by Canadian hospitals is drawing increasing attention. After a critical examination of the literature, we classified these into six areas: clinical/diagnostic insured services, clinical/diagnostic non-insured services, hotel services, retail services, administrative services and financial activities. We concluded that many Canadian hospitals are engaging in innovative revenue generation activities, the success of such activities has been mixed, there are many factors to consider when selecting revenue generation activities, many aspects of innovative revenue generation involve sophisticated business and risk management skills not traditionally required in hospital management, and implementation of many such activities requires support from the hospital board, hospital staff and medical staff.

  4. NEGATIVE GATE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jones, C.S.; Eaton, T.E.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to pulse generating circuits and more particularly to rectangular pulse generators. The pulse generator of the present invention incorporates thyratrons as switching elements to discharge a first capacitor through a load resistor to initiate and provide the body of a Pulse, and subsequently dlscharge a second capacitor to impress the potential of its charge, with opposite potential polarity across the load resistor to terminate the pulse. Accurate rectangular pulses in the millimicrosecond range are produced across a low impedance by this generator.

  5. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  6. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  7. Arbitrary waveform generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Fletcher A.

    1992-04-01

    It is a general purpose and object of the present invention to provide an arbitrary waveform generator. It is a further object that the generator has the ability to produce both pulse waveforms and continuous waveforms. Other objects are that the generator be compact and only require low power for lending itself to battery powered operation. These objects are accomplished with the present invention by providing a system in which digital waveforms are created using a software package such as DADiSP. The software package forms signals that are then transferred to an EPROM. Each signal type occupies a certain block of address space within the EPROM. A great number of signals may be digitally stored in this way. The operator then constructs simple microprocessor computer codes to access any signal, any combination of signals, or all signals to form a unique waveform generation sequence. Therefore the operator selects arbitrarily which of the previously stored signals to generate. Key features include the EPROM storing a single pulse for pulse waveforms and a single period of waveform for continuous waveforms. Other key features are the ability to control the sequence of generation, the number of times each signal is generated, the time between pulses, and the time between the generation of different signal types. These features are controlled by the microprocessor codes residing in a microprocessor.

  8. The fifth generation computer

    SciTech Connect

    Moto-Oka, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The leader of Japan's Fifth Generation computer project, known as the 'Apollo' project, and a young computer scientist elucidate in this book the process of how the idea came about, international reactions, the basic technology, prospects for realization, and the abilities of the Fifth Generation computer. Topics considered included forecasting, research programs, planning, and technology impacts.

  9. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skytland, Nicholas; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Garret

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the perception of NASA and the importance of engaging those people born between 1977 and 2000, also known as Generation Y. It examines some of the differences in attitudes and experiences, and how it reflects on how they view NASA. It also discusses use of the internet in connecting to the people from that generation.

  10. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider.

  11. Managing Generational Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Many school leaders have explored the issue of diversity when it comes to students, teachers and staff. Their focus typically has been on gender and ethnicity. However, generational diversity, an area of diversity that warrants serious consideration, has received less attention. Generational intelligence is important today for two reasons. First…

  12. The Next Great Generation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  13. Geometric grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

  14. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat; ,Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  15. Cross-Generational Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Thurston, Judy Kay

    2007-01-01

    What happens when you combine senior citizens, pre-service art teachers, and elementary students? Cross-generational connections based on sharing memories, ideas, skills, laughter, tears, and creativity. The authors describe the cross-generational book exchange project. This project was initiated when a group of Central Michigan University (CMU)…

  16. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  17. Generative Processes: Thick Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallick, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article presents techniques and theories of generative drawing as a means for developing complex content in architecture design studios. Appending the word "generative" to drawing adds specificity to the most common representation tool and clarifies that such drawings are not singularly about communication or documentation but are also…

  18. Generativity and Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  19. When Generations Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2009-01-01

    As members of Generations X and Y face a workplace dominated by boomers, they are all starting to chafe. Some colleges are having trouble attracting, managing, and sometimes retaining people younger than 35. Members of the younger generations grew up watching their parents sacrifice for their careers, and they want something different: balance and…

  20. When Generations Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    When four generations converge in the academic workplace, it can create serious culture clashes. It is happening across college campuses--in offices as diverse as admissions, student affairs, legal affairs, and technology. It is especially striking in the faculty ranks, where generational challenges have extra significance amid recruiting efforts,…

  1. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  2. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  3. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  4. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider. PMID:10127850

  5. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  6. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    2001-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator is intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter. Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic mode were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations resulted in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included a turbine inlet manifold, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  7. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    1999-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator was intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter, Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic modes were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations occurred in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included the turbine inlet manifold simulator, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  8. Wind power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Schachle, Ch.; Schachle, E. C.; Schachle, J. R.; Schachle, P. J.

    1985-03-12

    Normally feathered propeller blades of a wind power generating system unfeather in response to the actuation of a power cylinder that responds to actuating signals. Once operational, the propellers generate power over a large range of wind velocities. A maximum power generation design point signals a feather response of the propellers so that once the design point is reached no increase in power results, but the system still generates power. At wind speeds below this maximum point, propeller speed and power output optimize to preset values. The propellers drive a positive displacement pump that in turn drives a positive displacement motor of the swash plate type. The displacement of the motor varies depending on the load on the system, with increasing displacement resulting in increasing propeller speeds, and the converse. In the event of dangerous but not clandestine problems developing in the system, a control circuit dumps hydraulic pressure from the unfeathering cylinder resulting in a predetermined, lower operating pressure produced by the pump. In the event that a problem of potentially cladestine consequence arises, the propeller unfeathering cylinder immediately unloads. Upon startup, a bypass around the motor is blocked, applying a pressure across the motor. The motor drives the generator until the generator reaches a predetermined speed whereupon the generator is placed in circuit with a utility grid and permitted to motor up to synchronous speed.

  9. Higher harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-01-01

    Higher harmonic-generation, including second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation, leaves no energy deposition to the interacted matters due to its virtual-level transition characteristic, providing a truly non-invasive modality and is ideal for in vivo imaging of live specimens without any preparation. Second harmonic generation microscopy provides images on stacked membranes and arranged proteins with organized nano-structures due to the bio-photonic crystalline effect. Third harmonic generation microscopy provides general cellular or subcellular interface imaging due to optical inhomogeneity. Due to their virtual-transition nature, no saturation or bleaching in the generated signal is expected. With no energy release, continuous viewing without compromising sample viability can thus be achieved. Combined with its nonlinearity, higher harmonic generation microscopy provides sub-micron three-dimensional sectioning capability and millimeter penetration in live samples without using fluorescence and exogenous markers, offering morphological, structural, functional, and cellular information of biomedical specimens without modifying their natural biological and optical environments.

  10. Spin hydrodynamic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.

  11. Compact neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  12. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  13. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  14. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  15. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lothian, Josh; Powers, Sarah S; Sullivan, Blair D; Baker, Matthew B; Schrock, Jonathan; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  16. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  17. Owl: electronic datasheet generator.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Evan; Tao, Jenhan; Wheatley, F Carter; Desai, Devina H; Lozanoski, Thomas M; Shah, Pooja D; Awtry, Jake A; Jin, Shawn S; Haddock, Traci L; Densmore, Douglas M

    2014-12-19

    Owl ( www.owlcad.org ) is a biodesign automation tool that generates electronic datasheets for synthetic biological parts using common formatting. Data can be retrieved automatically from existing repositories and modified in the Owl user interface (UI). Owl uses the data to generate an HTML page with standard typesetting that can be saved as a PDF file. Here we present the Owl software tool in its alpha version, its current UI, its description of input data for generating a datasheet, its example datasheets, and the vision of the tool's role in biodesign automation.

  18. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  20. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  1. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  2. Solid expellant plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  3. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  5. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  6. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  7. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  8. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Edward W.; Simms, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  9. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Financing Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2001-06-29

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market.

  11. Next Generation Internet Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, R.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation Internet are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Internet architecture; 2) NASA's advanced networking; 3) Internet capability, capacity and applications; and 4) Systems engineering.

  12. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, E.W.; Simms, R.

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  13. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  14. Vector generator scan converter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  15. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  16. Wind electric generator project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-09-01

    A wind generator was installed and connected at Iowa Western Community College. It is heating water through four hot water tanks and proved to be an excellent demonstration project for the community. The college gets frequent inquiries about the windmill and has been very cooperative in informing the public about the success. The windmill generates more electricity than is needed to heat four hot water heaters and future plans are to hook up more. The project requires very little maintenance.

  17. Interactive DIF Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, Larry E.; Amy, Laraine; Young, Jimmie D.

    1993-01-01

    Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) computer program serves as utility to generate and manipulate directory interchange format (DIF) files. Creates and updates DIF files, sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as International Global Change Directory at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many government and university data systems use Master Directory to advertise availability of research data. IDG is interactive software tool and requires mouse or trackball to operate. Written in C language.

  18. Liquid propellant gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design of gas generators intended to provide hot gases for turbine drive is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the design and operation of bipropellant gas generators because of their wider use. Problems and limitations involved in turbine operation due to temperature effects are analyzed. Methods of temperature control of gas turbines and combustion products are examined. Drawings of critical sections of gas turbines to show their operation and areas of stress are included.

  19. Compact Mesh Generator

    2007-02-02

    The CMG is a small, lightweight, structured mesh generation code. It features a simple text input parser that allows setup of various meshes via a small set of text commands. Mesh generation data can be output to text, the silo file format, or the API can be directly queried by applications. It can run serially or in parallel via MPI. The CMG includes the ability to specify varius initial conditions on a mesh via meshmore » tags.« less

  20. Meshes: The next generation

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M.; Hardin, D.; Compton, J.; Zosel, M.

    1994-08-29

    Building complex meshes for large-scale numerical simulations presents immense difficulties in exploiting high-performance computers. Industry and research leaders will describe the current state of the art for generating meshes for such large scientific problems. This will be followed by a panel and general audience discussion of the algorithmic and architectural issues surrounding the generation of meshes with10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} grid points. (Note: The terms ``mesh`` and ``grid`` are used interchangeably in the literature.)

  1. Wind turbine generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1982-11-02

    Wind turbine generator systems incorporating a multi-speed pole amplitude modulated type dynamo electric machine allow efficient operation at consecutive speeds in a ratio preferably less than 2:1. A current limiting reactor, preferably including an inductance coil, and an over-running clutch, are utilized in conjunction with any multi-speed generation system to alleviate impact on a utility grid during switching among operational speeds.

  2. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  3. Next generation initiation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The

  4. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  5. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  6. Fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Makiel, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber.

  7. Electronic signal generators: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Electronic signal generator data based on solid state concepts were simplified or refined to meet requirements, such as reliability, simplicity, fail-safe characteristics, and the capability of withstanding environmental extremes. Pulse generators, high voltage pulse generators, oscillators, analog signal generators, square wave signal generators, and special function signal generators are described.

  8. New Generator Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Roy S.

    2015-02-17

    New generator technology project is driven by the need to be able to remotely deploy generator technology where it is needed, when it is needed. Both the military and aid programs that provide assistance after disasters could use the ability to deploy energy generation that fits the needs of the situation. Currently, pre-specified generators are deployed, sometime more than half way around the world to provide electricity. Through our Phase-I to Phase III DARPA grant, we will provide a mechanism where a 3d print station and raw materials could be shipped to a deployment site and remotely deployed personnel. These remote personnel can collaborate with engineers at a home location where 3d print plans can be optimized for the remote purpose. The plans can then be sent electronically to the remote location for printing, much like NASA sent the plans for a socket wrench to the International Space Station for printing in . If multiple generators need to be deployed at different remote locations, within miles of each other the printer rig can be moved to print the generators where they are needed. 3d printing is growing in the field of manufacturing. 3d printing has matured to the point where many types of materials are now available for many types of manufacturing. Both magnetic and electrically conductive material materials have recently been developed which can now lead to 3d printing of engines and generators. Our project will provide a successful printer rig that can be remotely deployed, to print a generator design in the field as well as provide a process for deploying the printed generator as well. This Systems Engineering Management Plan(SEMP) will provide the planning required for a Phase I DARPA grant that may also include goals for Phase II and Phase II grants. The SEMP provides a proposed project schedule, references, system engineering processes, specialty engineering system deployment and product support sections. Each section will state how our company

  9. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Noah A.

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  10. Simple sweep frequency generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorov, I.

    1985-01-01

    A sweep frequency generator is described whose center frequency can be varied from 10 kHz to 50 MHz, with seven 1 to 3 and 3 to 10 scales covering the 10 kHz to 30 MHz range and one 3 to 5 scale for the 30 to 50 MHz range. It consists of a tunable pulse generator with output voltage attenuator, a diode mixer for calibration, and a sawtooth voltage generator as a source of frequency deviation. The pulse generator is a multivibrator with two emitter coupled transistors and two diodes in the collector circuit of one. The first diode extends the tuning range and increases the frequency deviation, the second diode provides the necessary base bias to the other transistor. The pulse repetition rate is modulated either directly by the sweep voltage of the calibrating oscilloscope, this voltage being applied to the base of the transistor with the two diodes in its collector circuit through an additional attenuator or a special emitter follower, or by the separate sawtooth voltage generator. The latter is a conventional two transistor multivibrator and produces signals at any constant frequency within the 40 to 60 Hz range. The mixer receives unmodulated signals from a reference frequency source and produces different frequency signals which are sent through an RCR-filter to a calibrating oscilloscope.

  11. MHD Generating system

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  12. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  13. Liquid droplet generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntz, E. P.; Orme, Melissa; Farnham, Tony; Vandiep, G. Pham; Huerre, P.

    1989-01-01

    A pre-prototype segment of a droplet sheet generator for a liquid droplet radiator was designed, constructed and tested. The ability to achieve a uniform, non-diverging droplet sheet is limited by manufacturing tolerances on nozzle parallelism. For an array of 100, 100 micrometer diameters nozzles spaced 5 stream diameters apart, typical standard deviations in stream alignment were plus or minus 10 mrad. The drop to drop fractional speed variations of the drops in typical streams were similar and independent of position in the array. The absolute value of the speed dispersion depended on the amplitude of the disturbance applied to the stream. A second generation preliminary design of a 5200 stream segment of a droplet sheet generator was completed. The design is based on information developed during testing of the pre-prototype segment, along with the results of an acoustical analysis for the stagnation cavity pressure fluctuations used to break-up the streams into droplets.

  14. Relativistic multiwave Cerenkov generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, S.P.; Cherepenin, V.A.; Kanavets, V.I.; Klimov, A.I.; Kopenkin, A.D.; Koshelev, V.I.; Popov, V.A.; Slepkov, A.I. )

    1990-06-01

    A review of research on relativistic multiwave Cherenkov generators (MWCG) is provided. Presented is the linear theory of these devices, allowing a detailed description of multiwave interaction of a relativistic electron beam with an electromagnetic field in an electro-dynamic superdimensional MWCG system. The results of theoretical research on the starting parameters of generation, power flows, and the structure of the radiated field in a MWCG of a 3-cm-wave band are reported. The experiments on obtaining and investigating high-power pulses of microwave radiation in a MWCG of 3-cm- and 8-mm-wavelength bands are described. In particular, the results of research on a MWCG with the power of 15 GW in a 3-cm-wavelength band and the power of 3 GW in a 8-mm-wavelength band are presented. The results of research of spatial and temporal coherence of such generator radiation are reported.

  15. Next-generation computers

    SciTech Connect

    Torrero, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Developments related to tomorrow's computers are discussed, taking into account advances toward the fifth generation in Japan, the challenge to U.S. supercomputers, plans concerning the creation of supersmart computers for the U.S. military, a U.S. industry response to the Japanese challenge, a survey of U.S. and European research, Great Britain, the European Common Market, codifying human knowledge for machine reading, software engineering, the next-generation softwave, plans for obtaining the million-transistor chip, and fabrication issues for next-generation circuits. Other topics explored are related to a status report regarding artificial intelligence, an assessment of the technical challenges, aspects of sociotechnology, and defense advanced research projects. Attention is also given to expert systems, speech recognition, computer vision, function-level programming and automated programming, computing at the speed limit, VLSI, and superpower computers.

  16. Spherical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  17. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  18. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  19. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  20. A new droplet generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    A new droplet generator is described. A loud speaker driven extractor needle was immersed in a pendant drop. Pulsing the speaker extracted the needle forming a fluid ligament which will decay into a droplet. The droplets were sized by stroboscopic photographs. The droplet's size was changed by varying the amplitude of the speaker pulses and the extractor needle diameter. The mechanism of droplet formation is discussed and photographs of ligament decay are presented. The droplet generator worked well on both oil and water based pesticide formulations. Current applications and results are discussed.

  1. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  2. SOME BILINEAR GENERATING FUNCTIONS*

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    In the present paper, the author applies some of his earlier results which extend the well-known Hille-Hardy formula for the Laguerre polynomials to certain classes of generalized hypergeometric polynomials in order to derive various generalizations of a bilinear generating function for the Jacobi polynomials proved recently by Carlitz. The corresponding results for the polynomials of Legendre, Gegenbauer (or ultraspherical), Laguerre, etc., can be obtained fairly easily as the specialized or limiting cases of the generating functions presented here. It is also shown how the formula of Carlitz follows rather rapidly from a result of Weisner involving the Gaussian hypergeometric functions. PMID:16591787

  3. Some bilinear generating functions.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, H M

    1969-10-01

    In the present paper, the author applies some of his earlier results which extend the well-known Hille-Hardy formula for the Laguerre polynomials to certain classes of generalized hypergeometric polynomials in order to derive various generalizations of a bilinear generating function for the Jacobi polynomials proved recently by Carlitz. The corresponding results for the polynomials of Legendre, Gegenbauer (or ultraspherical), Laguerre, etc., can be obtained fairly easily as the specialized or limiting cases of the generating functions presented here. It is also shown how the formula of Carlitz follows rather rapidly from a result of Weisner involving the Gaussian hypergeometric functions. PMID:16591787

  4. A new droplet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, W. E.

    1982-03-01

    A new droplet generator is described. A loud speaker driven extractor needle was immersed in a pendant drop. Pulsing the speaker extracted the needle forming a fluid ligament which will decay into a droplet. The droplets were sized by stroboscopic photographs. The droplet's size was changed by varying the amplitude of the speaker pulses and the extractor needle diameter. The mechanism of droplet formation is discussed and photographs of ligament decay are presented. The droplet generator worked well on both oil and water based pesticide formulations. Current applications and results are discussed.

  5. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  6. Energy-Spread Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzela, Grzegorz

    2007-11-01

    Nowadays people are very dependent on electricity. All devices like mobile phones, laptops and even watches have batteries that must be charged. That is not a problem while staying close to sources of electricity, but if we travel some problems may occur with energy availability. Why not then use the most basic and ecological ways to become self-dependent, i.e., use small power plants which would provide energy for all devices we have? This paper presents a review of environmental friendly independent mechanisms and devices to generate electricity using sunlight (photovoltaic), fuel cells and thermoelectric power generation based mostly on semiconductors.

  7. Sidetone generator flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, R.J.

    1983-11-03

    A flowmeter is provided which uses the sidetones generated in a cavity formed in the wall of a flowpipe or the like in response to fluid flowing past the cavity to provide a measure of the flow velocity of that fluid. The dimensions of the cavity are such as to provide a dominant vibratory frequency which is sensed by a pressure sensor. The flowmeter is adapted for use for a range of frequencies in which the Strouhal number is constant and under these conditions the vibratory frequency is directly related to the flow rate. The tone generator cavity and pressure transducer form a unit which is connected in-line in the flowpipe.

  8. Wave Motion Electric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, E. F.; Winkler, R. J.

    1983-12-27

    Set out herein is an electrical generator conformed for installation in a buoy, the generator comprising an inverted pendulum having two windings formed at the free end thereof and aligned to articulate between two end stops each provided with a magnetic circuit. As the loops thus pass through the magnetic circuit, electrical current is induced which may be rectified through a full way rectifier to charge up a storage battery. The buoy itself may be ballasted to have its fundamental resonance at more than double the wave frequency with the result that during each passing of a wave at least two induction cycles occur.

  9. Engaging Generation Now, Inspiring Generation Next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike; Gay, P.

    2008-05-01

    generation of astronomers.

  10. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR NO. 1, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR NO. 1, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL BOX ABOVE GENERATOR - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  11. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR BAY, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING TURBINEGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR BAY, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING TURBINE-GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT IN FOREGROUND, ACCESS BULKHEAD TO TURBINE IN BACKGROUND - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  12. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  13. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  14. Teaching Generation Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Today's college students are significantly different from previous generations. On average, they are overconfident, have high expectations, report higher narcissism, are lower in creativity, are less interested in civic issues, and are less inclined to read long passages of text. They are highly confident of their abilities and received…

  15. Diversity-generating retroelements.

    PubMed

    Medhekar, Bob; Miller, Jeff F

    2007-08-01

    Parasite adaptation to dynamic host characteristics is a recurrent theme in biology. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are a newly discovered family of genetic elements that function to diversify DNA sequences and the proteins they encode. The prototype DGR was identified in a temperate bacteriophage, BPP-1, on the basis of its ability to generate variability in a gene that specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is a template-dependent, reverse transcriptase mediated process that introduces nucleotide substitutions at defined locations within a target gene. This cassette-based mechanism is theoretically capable of generating trillions of different amino acid sequences in a distal tail fiber protein, providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions. Variable residues are displayed in the context of a specialized C-type lectin fold, which has evolved a unique solution for balancing protein diversity against structural stability. Homologous DGRs have been identified in the chromosomes of diverse bacterial species. These unique genetic elements have the potential to confer powerful selective advantages to their hosts, and their ability to generate novel binding specificities and dynamic antimicrobial agents suggests numerous applications.

  16. Diversity-Generating Retroelements

    PubMed Central

    Medhekar, Bob; Miller, Jeff F

    2009-01-01

    Summary Parasite adaptation to dynamic host characteristics is a recurrent theme in biology. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are a newly discovered family of genetic elements that function to diversify DNA sequences and the proteins they encode. The prototype DGR was identified in a temperate bacteriophage, BPP-1, on the basis of its ability to generate variability in a gene that specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is a template-dependent, reverse transcriptase mediated process that introduces nucleotide substitutions at defined locations within a target gene. This cassette-based mechanism is theoretically capable of generating trillions of different amino acid sequences in a distal tail fiber protein, providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions. Variable residues are displayed in the context of a specialized C-type lectin fold, which has evolved a unique solution for balancing protein diversity against structural stability. Homologous DGRs have been identified in the chromosomes of diverse bacterial species. These unique genetic elements have the potential to confer powerful selective advantages to their hosts, and their ability to generate novel binding specificities and dynamic antimicrobial agents suggests numerous applications. “Human subtlety will never devise an invention more beautiful, more simple or more direct than does Nature, because in her inventions, nothing is lacking and nothing is superfluous.”- Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) PMID:17703991

  17. Managing Generational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoorian, Andrew; Good, Pamela; Samuelson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    School leaders who recognize the differing needs of baby boomers and Generation X can create an organization where all employees are working from their strengths. Successful personnel leaders provide boomers with lots of public recognition and opportunities for input, while letting X-ers know that their ideas will be evaluated on merit, not on…

  18. Teaching the DIG Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Instant digital communication is going to say and the wise teacher needs to acknowledge and keep pace with the technology that eases and speeds up the way the DIG (digital immediate gratification) generation learns. Some DIG- friendly strategies that teachers can employ to make learning more attractive and meaningful are presented.

  19. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  20. Robotics: Generation soft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2016-08-01

    Meet the octobot, the first robot to be made entirely from soft materials. Powered by a chemical reaction and controlled by a fluidic logic circuit, it heralds a generation of soft robots that might surpass conventional machines. See Letter p.451

  1. Arbitrary waveform generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Fletcher A.

    1993-11-01

    An arbitrary waveform generator is capable of producing pulse or continuous waveform signals. It utilizes an EPROM that sends out selected stored digital signals under control of a microprocessor and auxiliary equipment comprised of a clock and an address sequencer. A digital to analog converter receives the digital signals from the EPROM and converts them to analog signals.

  2. Active Learning Crosses Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Diane K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of intergenerational programs, highlighting a child care program that offers age-appropriate and mutually beneficial activities for children and elders within a nearby retirement community. The program has adopted High/Scope's active learning approach to planning and implementing activities that involve both generations. The…

  3. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  4. Generating "Random" Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2011-01-01

    One of the author's undergraduate students recently asked him whether it was possible to generate a random positive integer. After some thought, the author realised that there were plenty of interesting mathematical ideas inherent in her question. So much so in fact, that the author decided to organise a workshop, open both to undergraduates and…

  5. Iridium 191-m generator

    DOEpatents

    Treves, S.; Cheng, C.C.

    1988-03-08

    Potassium osmate, of the formula K[sub 2]OsO[sub 2](OH)[sub 4], is used to make a column for the generation of Ir-191 m, which is used in first pass angiography to detect cardiac defects in patients. 2 figs.

  6. Volcanoes generate devastating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lockridge, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

  7. The Plague Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity to simulate the geometries of a spreading pathogen such as HIV throughout a generation. Students exchange "bodily fluids" three times and are then tested for the presence of "infection." Materials used include base solutions (NaOH or KOH), phenolphthalein (pH indicator), clear plastic cups, and an eye dropper. (PR)

  8. Computer Generated Lenticular Stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Shaun T.; McAllister, David F.

    1989-09-01

    Computer generated true three dimensional hardcopy using lenticular sheets offers advantages over alternative hardcopy methods. Easier to record than holographic stereograms and offering full color, lenticular displays have image quality similar to barrier displays but without problems of brightness. Two different means of computer generation are possible. For both, a sequence of perspective views are calculated then merged into a single composite image or stereogram. Interlacing these views is usually done optically but a computational method is also considered. Efforts have been made at direct writing of holograms but can be achieved much more readily for lenticular stereograms since a much lower spatial frequency will suffice. The resolution needed depends upon the pitch of the cylindrical lenses in the lenticular sheet and the number of perspective views to be interlaced. We consider the use of 300 dpi laser printers and show that while the resolution is sufficient, linewidth and spacing are problematic. We also consider production of full color stereograms and discuss the problems caused by dithering for color palette generation. Higher resolution output devices such as digital film recorders offer much greater potential for panoramic, full color display and direct writing of lenticular stereograms is considered a viable, cost effective technique to generate autostereoscopic 3D display.

  9. Disk MHD generator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Retallick, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    Directly-fired, separately-fired, and oxygen-augmented MHD power plants incorporating a disk geometry for the MHD generator were studied. The base parameters defined for four near-optimum-performance MHD steam power systems of various types are presented. The finally selected systems consisted of (1) two directly fired cases, one at 1920 K (2996F) preheat and the other at 1650 K (2500 F) preheat, (2) a separately-fired case where the air is preheated to the same level as the higher temperature directly-fired cases, and (3) an oxygen augmented case with the same generator inlet temperature of 2839 (4650F) as the high temperature directly-fired and separately-fired cases. Supersonic Mach numbers at the generator inlet, gas inlet swirl, and constant Hall field operation were specified based on disk generator optimization. System pressures were based on optimization of MHD net power. Supercritical reheat stream plants were used in all cases. Open and closed cycle component costs are summarized and compared.

  10. Laser generating metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  11. CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-11-18

    ''The Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' prescribes an approach to the methodology for performing postclosure criticality analyses within the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An essential component of the methodology is the ''Configuration Generator Model for In-Package Criticality'' that provides a tool to evaluate the probabilities of degraded configurations achieving a critical state. The configuration generator model is a risk-informed, performance-based process for evaluating the criticality potential of degraded configurations in the monitored geologic repository. The method uses event tree methods to define configuration classes derived from criticality scenarios and to identify configuration class characteristics (parameters, ranges, etc.). The probabilities of achieving the various configuration classes are derived in part from probability density functions for degradation parameters. The NRC has issued ''Safety Evaluation Report for Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, Revision 0''. That report contained 28 open items that required resolution through additional documentation. Of the 28 open items, numbers 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, and 19 were concerned with a previously proposed software approach to the configuration generator methodology and, in particular, the k{sub eff} regression analysis associated with the methodology. However, the use of a k{sub eff} regression analysis is not part of the current configuration generator methodology and, thus, the referenced open items are no longer considered applicable and will not be further addressed.

  12. Z' generation with PYTHIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ciobanu, Catalin; Junk, Thomas; Veramendi, Gregory; Lee, Jedong; De Lentdecker, Gilles; McFarland, Kevin; Maeshima, Kaori; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    This document is intended as a guide for getting started with the Z' generation with PYTHIA[1]. Several different conventions used in literature are discussed, and the conversion among these is given. The Z' couplings to fermions are given for the sequential Z', the Z' model-lines of Ref. [2], and the popular E6 Z' models.

  13. Fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1983-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

  14. Mentorship: A Generational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Three major generations are represented in today's workforce: Baby Boomers, Gen X, and Millennials. Each of these groups has a wide range of definitions, but here they are defined according to their most common definitions: Baby boomers include those born in the decade following the end of World War II and are between the ages of 50 and 70 years.…

  15. The New Second Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro, Ed.

    This book compiles findings on the children of recent immigrants to the United States. The dearth of accessible census data and the tendency for school records and scholarly surveys to compress second-generation youth into a classificatory scheme that obliterates their history have obscured a major phenomenon in U.S. society--a rapidly growing…

  16. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  17. Leading Generation Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, David C.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators are facing the perfect storm: a growing number of baby boomers retiring each year, an absence of experienced teachers to take their place, and high turnover among young teachers. The need to hire and retain a new generation of teachers is one of the biggest challenges facing school administrators. To fill these vacancies,…

  18. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  19. Micro electret power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Justin

    The taming of electricity and its widespread use allows people to see in the dark, to speak to one another instantaneously across the earth, and it allows retrieval of data from instruments sent out of the solar system. It is right to expect that the uses and demand for electricity will continue to grow, and to extend the ability to generate electricity; here two new micromachined devices for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy are presented. Aided by the wealth of micromachining process technology, generators that use an oscillatory motion to modify the physical structure of a capacitor with a built-in electric field provided by a permanent electret have been designed, built, and tested. The electret creates an electric field inside the capacitor structure, which induces mirror charge at some potential. The modification of the capacitor then generates an alternating displacement current through an external circuit, which provides useful electrical power. The electret microphone is a similar well known device for converting pressure waves into electrical signals by varying the distance between two charged capacitive plates. This work explores and proves feasible the ability to use mechanical forces to change the overlapping area of a charged capacitor structure and using mechanical forces to move a liquid into the gap of a charged capacitor structure, changing its permittivity to produce electricity. This work demonstrates 2.5mW of power from a 2cm diameter rotary generator at 12kRPM and 10[micro]w for a 0.1cm3 linear shaking generator at 60Hz.

  20. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  1. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    PubMed Central

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security. PMID:27184813

  2. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  3. Phase calibration generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    A phase calibration system was developed for the Deep Space Stations to generate reference microwave comb tones which are mixed in with signals received by the antenna. These reference tones are used to remove drifts of the station's receiving system from the detected data. This phase calibration system includes a cable stabilizer which transfers a 20 MHz reference signal from the control room to the antenna cone. The cable stabilizer compensates for delay changes in the long cable which connects its control room subassembly to its antenna cone subassembly in such a way that the 20 MHz is transferred to the cone with no significant degradation of the hydrogen maser atomic clock stability. The 20 MHz reference is used by the comb generator and is also available for use as a reference for receiver LO's in the cone.

  4. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  5. Next generation vaccines.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines. PMID:22002157

  6. Wave activated generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neuenschwander, V. L.

    1985-09-03

    A wave activated generator utilizes the principle of providing relative movement between a permanent magnet and a coil to induce an electrical current in the coil. The coil is situated in a static tube anchored to the sea bed by means of a ballast tank at the base of the tube and guy wires extending from the tube. A plunger with permanent magnets is mounted in the tube for vertical reciprocation of the plunger, the plunger projecting outwardly from the upper end of the tube and terminating in a hull-shaped float which rides the water surface and provides vertical reciprocation of the plunger responsive to wave motion in order to move the magnets relative to the coil and generate current in the coil.

  7. Why three generations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kusenko, Alexander; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss an anthropic explanation of why there exist three generations of fermions. If one assumes that the right-handed neutrino sector is responsible for both the matter-antimatter asymmetry and the dark matter, then anthropic selection favors three or more families of fermions. For successful leptogenesis, at least two right-handed neutrinos are needed, while the third right-handed neutrino is invoked to play the role of dark matter. The number of the right-handed neutrinos is tied to the number of generations by the anomaly constraints of the U(1) B - L gauge symmetry. Combining anthropic arguments with observational constraints, we obtain predictions for the X-ray observations, as well as for neutrinoless double-beta decay.

  8. Short pulse neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  9. Generation of energy

    DOEpatents

    Kalina, Alexander I.

    1984-01-01

    A method of generating energy which comprises utilizing relatively lower temperature available heat to effect partial distillation of at least portion of a multicomponent working fluid stream at an intermediate pressure to generate working fluid fractions of differing compositions. The fractions are used to produce at least one main rich solution which is relatively enriched with respect to the lower boiling component, and to produce at least one lean solution which is relatively improverished with respect to the lower boiling component. The pressure of the main rich solution is increased whereafter it is evaporated to produce a charged gaseous main working fluid. The main working fluid is expanded to a low pressure level to release energy. The spent low pressure level working fluid is condensed in a main absorption stage by dissolving with cooling in the lean solution to regenerate an initial working fluid for reuse.

  10. The Advanced Helical Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-10-26

    A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.

  11. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  12. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  13. View generated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, James G.

    1992-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.

  14. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  15. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  16. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  17. Monodisperse aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  18. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  19. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  20. High voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A. J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  1. Generation of monoenergetic positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Dale, J.M.; Miller, P.D. Jr.; Moak, C.D.; Pendyala, S.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many experiments have been performed in the generation and application of monoenergetic positron beams using annealed tungsten moderators and fast sources of /sup 58/Co, /sup 22/Na, /sup 11/C, and LINAC bremstrahlung. This paper will compare the degrees of success from our various approaches. Moderators made from both single crystal and polycrystal tungsten have been tried. Efforts to grow thin films of tungsten to be used as transmission moderators and brightness enhancement devices are in progress.

  2. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  3. Electricity generation and health.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2007-09-15

    The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on lignite, coal, and oil). The health burdens are appreciably smaller for generation from natural gas, and lower still for nuclear power. This same ranking also applies in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions and thus, potentially, to long-term health, social, and economic effects arising from climate change. Nuclear power remains controversial, however, because of public concern about storage of nuclear waste, the potential for catastrophic accident or terrorist attack, and the diversion of fissionable material for weapons production. Health risks are smaller for nuclear fusion, but commercial exploitation will not be achieved in time to help the crucial near-term reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. The negative effects on health of electricity generation from renewable sources have not been assessed as fully as those from conventional sources, but for solar, wind, and wave power, such effects seem to be small; those of biofuels depend on the type of fuel and the mode of combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage is increasingly being considered for reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel plants, but the health effects associated with this technology are largely unquantified and probably mixed: efficiency losses mean greater consumption of the primary fuel and accompanying increases in some waste products. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the health effects of different methods of generating electricity.

  4. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  5. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  6. Electricity generation and health.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2007-09-15

    The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on lignite, coal, and oil). The health burdens are appreciably smaller for generation from natural gas, and lower still for nuclear power. This same ranking also applies in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions and thus, potentially, to long-term health, social, and economic effects arising from climate change. Nuclear power remains controversial, however, because of public concern about storage of nuclear waste, the potential for catastrophic accident or terrorist attack, and the diversion of fissionable material for weapons production. Health risks are smaller for nuclear fusion, but commercial exploitation will not be achieved in time to help the crucial near-term reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. The negative effects on health of electricity generation from renewable sources have not been assessed as fully as those from conventional sources, but for solar, wind, and wave power, such effects seem to be small; those of biofuels depend on the type of fuel and the mode of combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage is increasingly being considered for reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel plants, but the health effects associated with this technology are largely unquantified and probably mixed: efficiency losses mean greater consumption of the primary fuel and accompanying increases in some waste products. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the health effects of different methods of generating electricity. PMID:17876910

  7. Adaptive Phase Delay Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

  8. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onffroy, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.

  9. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  10. Electrical pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating high-voltage, wide dynamic range, shaped electrical pulses in the nanosecond range. Two transmission lines are coupled together by resistive elements distributed along the length of the lines. The conductance of each coupling resistive element as a function of its position along the line is selected to produce the desired pulse shape in the output line when an easily produced pulse, such as a step function pulse, is applied to the input line.

  11. Laboratory development TPV generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmquist, Glenn A.; Wong, Eva M.; Waldman, Cye H.

    1996-02-01

    A laboratory model of a TPV generator in the kilowatt range was developed and tested. It was based on methane/oxygen combustion and a spectrally matched selective emitter/collector pair (ytterbia emitter-silicon PV cell). The system demonstrated a power output of 2.4 kilowatts at an overall efficiency of 4.5% without recuperation of heat from the exhaust gases. Key aspects of the effort include: 1) process development and fabrication of mechanically strong selective emitter ceramic textile materials; 2) design of a stirred reactor emitter/burner capable of handling up to 175,000 Btu/hr fuel flows; 3) support to the developer of the production silicon concentrator cells capable of withstanding TPV environments; 4) assessing the apparent temperature exponent of selective emitters; and 5) determining that the remaining generator efficiency improvements are readily defined combustion engineering problems that do not necessitate breakthrough technology. The fiber matrix selective emitter ceramic textile (felt) was fabricated by a relic process with the final heat-treatment controlling the grain growth in the porous ceramic fiber matrix. This textile formed a cylindrical cavity for a stirred reactor. The ideal stirred reactor is characterized by constant temperature combustion resulting in a uniform reactor temperature. This results in a uniform radiant emission from the emitter. As a result of significant developments in the porous emitter matrix technology, a TPV generator burner/emitter was developed that produced kilowatts of radiant energy.

  12. Optical harmonic generator

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").

  13. Optical harmonic generator

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1982-06-10

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).

  14. Electrochemical power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaromb, S.

    1983-01-18

    Apparatus and methods for generating heat and electricity from the consumption of a variety of aluminum products comprise: (A) a reaction chamber containing an aqueous electrolyte solution and adapted for introduction therein of aluminum pieces of various shapes and sizes up to a certain maximum predetermined size and for effecting a chemical reaction between said aqueous electrolyte and said aluminum pieces yielding aluminum hydroxide and an intermediate reactant; (B) means for feeding said aluminum pieces into said reaction chamber in small quantities upon demand; (C) means for removing the heat generated in said chamber as a result of said reaction; (D) means for removing said aluminum hydroxide reaction product; and (E) means for oxidizing said intermediate reactant in an electrochemical cell, thereby generating electrical energy. The intermediate reactant is preferably hydrogen or zinc. The latter may be used in a slurry type zinc/air battery, whereas hydrogen is preferably reacted in conjunction with a nongaseous cathode reactant, which may be a liquid solution of an oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide, or a solid, such as nickel dioxide. The latter may be regenerated either chemically, by immersion in an oxidizing solution, or electrically, by using the gaseous diffusion type of hydrogen electrode to also reduce oxygen from ambient air.

  15. Electric energy generator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ta; Islam, Rashed Adnan; Priya, Shashank

    2006-03-01

    This study reports an extremely cost-effective mechanism for converting wind energy into electric energy using piezoelectric bimorph actuators at small scale. The total dimensions of the electric energy generator are 5.08 x 11.6 x 7.7 cm3. The rectangular, box-shaped body of the overall structure is made using 3.2-mm thick plastic. Slits are made on two opposite faces of the box so that two columns and six rows of bimorph actuators can be inserted. Each row of bimorph actuators is separated from each other by a gap of 6 mm, and the two columns of bimorphs are separated from each other by a gap of 6.35 mm. In between the two columns, a cylindrical rod is inserted consisting of six rectangular hooks. The hooks are positioned in such a way that each of them just touches the two bimorphs on either side in a particular row. As the wind flows across the generator, it creates a rotary motion on the attached fan that is converted into vertical motion of the cylindrical rod using the cam-shaft mechanism. This vertical motion of the cylindrical rod creates oscillating stress on the bimorphs due to attached hooks. The bimorphs produce output voltage proportional to the applied oscillating stress through piezoelectric effect. The prototype fabricated in this study was found to generate 1.2 mW power at a wind speed of 12 mph across the load of 1.7 komega.

  16. Milliwatt Generator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, T. W.; Rinehart, G. H.

    1992-05-01

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTG's. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTG's). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  17. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  18. Plasma motor generator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

  19. Crossing the Generational Divide: Supporting Generational Differences at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berl, Patricia Scallan

    2006-01-01

    Differences in attitudes and behaviors, regularly exhibited between youth and their elders, are frequently referred to as the "generation gap". On the job, these generational distinctions are becoming increasingly complex as "multi-generation gaps" emerge, with three or more generations defining roles and expectations, each vying for positions in…

  20. Training Generation N: How Educators Should Approach the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiertag, Jeff; Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore generational differences between Generation N (persons born 1980 and after) and previous generations with regard to teaching and learning. Design/methodology/approach: This viewpoint article reviews selected literature, synthesizing those articles with opinions on how to approach Generation N for…

  1. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K.; Singh, Waheguru; Anderson, Kelvin C.

    2010-01-01

    Two-electron reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide is a much researched topic. Most of the work has been done in the production of hydrogen peroxide in basic media, in order to address the needs of the pulp and paper industry. However, peroxides under alkaline conditions show poor stabilities and are not useful in disinfection applications. There is a need to design electrocatalysts that are stable and provide good current and energy efficiencies to produce hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions. The innovation focuses on the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide using an electrochemical cell having a gas diffusion electrode as the cathode (electrode connected to the negative pole of the power supply) and a platinized titanium anode. The cathode and anode compartments are separated by a readily available cation-exchange membrane (Nafion 117). The anode compartment is fed with deionized water. Generation of oxygen is the anode reaction. Protons from the anode compartment are transferred across the cation-exchange membrane to the cathode compartment by electrostatic attraction towards the negatively charged electrode. The cathode compartment is fed with oxygen. Here, hydrogen peroxide is generated by the reduction of oxygen. Water may also be generated in the cathode. A small amount of water is also transported across the membrane along with hydrated protons transported across the membrane. Generally, each proton is hydrated with 3-5 molecules. The process is unique because hydrogen peroxide is formed as a high-purity aqueous solution. Since there are no hazardous chemicals or liquids used in the process, the disinfection product can be applied directly to water, before entering a water filtration unit to disinfect the incoming water and to prevent the build up of heterotrophic bacteria, for example, in carbon based filters. The competitive advantages of this process are: 1. No consumable chemicals are needed in the process. The only raw materials

  2. Fuel cell generator energy dissipator

    DOEpatents

    Veyo, Stephen Emery; Dederer, Jeffrey Todd; Gordon, John Thomas; Shockling, Larry Anthony

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel

  3. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Mijatovic, N.; Seiler, E.; Zirngibl, T.; Træholt, C.; Nørgård, P. B.; Pedersen, N. F.; Andersen, N. H.; Østergård, J.

    2010-03-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  4. High voltage pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  5. Highly stable aerosol generator

    SciTech Connect

    DeFord, Henry S.; Clark, Mark L.

    1981-01-01

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

  6. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  7. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web

  8. Solar thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The methods, the findings and the conclusions of a study for the design of a Solar Thermoelectric Generator (STG) intended for use as a power source for a spacecraft orbiting the planet Mercury are discussed. Several state-of-the-art thermoelectric technologies in the intended application were considered. The design of various STG configurations based on the thermoelectric technology selected from among the various technologies was examined in detail and a recommended STG design was derived. The performance characteristics of the selected STG technology and associated design were studied in detail as a function of the orbital characteristics of the STG in Mercury and throughout the orbit of Mercury around the sun.

  9. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    1998-01-01

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.

  10. Profile Interface Generator

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allowsmore » semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.« less

  11. Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Ashok; Coutts, Timothy J.; Luther, Joachim

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology is a promising new means for the direct conversion of thermal to electric energy. Its potential applications range from military power, to space propulsion, to commercial products for market niches in auxiliary power sources, co-generation of electricity and heat, and high temperature waste heat utilization. The papers in this conference volume are divided into broad sections based on topic as follows: (a) systems and modeling on the performance of the latest TPV systems and current modeling efforts (b) emitter and filter technologies on optical cavity spectral control for energy recuperation, (c) photovoltaic device technologies based on antimony and InGaAs based cell designs.

  12. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  13. Third generation FCCU refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Caprio, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    After four years of research and field installations, it has now been shown that the most reasonable solution to heat, abrasion and cracking problems associated with cat cracker components can best be reached using amorphous silica aggregate castables. Incorporating the traditional cement-based system established in 50% and 90% alumina refractory castables, low K-factor amorphous silica castables provide abrasion-resistant one-component linings while reducing heat loss by 20 to 25%. Above-average shock and crack resistance, which can minimize coke penetration, will also result from linings cast or gunned with this latest generation of amorphous silica castables.

  14. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-03-17

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.

  15. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Meacher, John S.; Ruscitto, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  16. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  17. Second generation registry framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Information management systems are essential to capture data be it for public health and human disease, sustainable agriculture, or plant and animal biosecurity. In public health, the term patient registry is often used to describe information management systems that are used to record and track phenotypic data of patients. Appropriate design, implementation and deployment of patient registries enables rapid decision making and ongoing data mining ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. A major bottleneck encountered is the static nature of these registries. That is, software developers are required to work with stakeholders to determine requirements, design the system, implement the required data fields and functionality for each patient registry. Additionally, software developer time is required for ongoing maintenance and customisation. It is desirable to deploy a sophisticated registry framework that can allow scientists and registry curators possessing standard computing skills to dynamically construct a complete patient registry from scratch and customise it for their specific needs with little or no need to engage a software developer at any stage. Results This paper introduces our second generation open source registry framework which builds on our previous rare disease registry framework (RDRF). This second generation RDRF is a new approach as it empowers registry administrators to construct one or more patient registries without software developer effort. New data elements for a diverse range of phenotypic and genotypic measurements can be defined at any time. Defined data elements can then be utilised in any of the created registries. Fine grained, multi-level user and workgroup access can be applied to each data element to ensure appropriate access and data privacy. We introduce the concept of derived data elements to assist the data element standards communities on how they might be best categorised. Conclusions We introduce the

  18. Surface Mounted Neutron Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2012-10-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) base reaction pulsed neutron generator packaged in a flat computer chip shape of 1.54 cm (0.600 in) wide by 3.175 cm (1.25 in) length and 0.3 cm (0.120 in) thick has been successfully demonstrated to produce 14 MeV neutrons at a rate of 10^9 neutrons per second. The neutron generator is based on a deuterium ion beam accelerated to impact a tritium loaded target. The accelerating voltage is in the 15 to 20 kV in a 3 mm (0.120 in) gap, the ion beam is shaped by using a lens design to produce a flat ion beam that conforms to the flat rectangular target. The ion source is a simple surface mounted deuterium filled titanium film with a fused gap that operates at a current-voltage design to release the deuterium during a pulse length of about 1 μs. We present the general description of the working prototypes, which we have labeled the ``NEUTRISTOR.''[4pt] Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Work funded by the LDRD office.

  19. Thymic generation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jason; Malin, Mark; Sutherland, Jayne; Gray, Daniel; Hollander, George; Boyd, Richard

    2003-10-01

    The thymus is a complex epithelial organ in which thymocyte development is dependent upon the sequential contribution of morphologically and phenotypically distinct stromal cell compartments. It is these microenvironments that provide the unique combination of cellular interactions, cytokines, and chemokines to induce thymocyte precursors to undergo a differentiation program that leads to the generation of functional T cells. Despite the indispensable role of thymic epithelium in the generation of T cells, the mediators of this process and the differentiation pathway undertaken by the primordial thymic epithelial cells are not well defined. There is a lack of lineage-specific cell-surface-associated markers, which are needed to characterize putative thymic epithelial stem cell populations. This review explores the role of thymic stromal cells in T-cell development and thymic organogenesis, as well as the molecular signals that contribute to the growth and expansion of primordial thymic epithelial cells. It highlights recent advances in these areas, which have allowed for a lineage relationship amongst thymic epithelial cell subsets to be proposed. While many fundamental questions remain to be addressed, collectively these works have broadened our understanding of how the thymic epithelium becomes specialized in the ability to support thymocyte differentiation. They should also facilitate the development of novel, rationally based therapeutic strategies for the regeneration and manipulation of thymic function in the treatment of many clinical conditions in which defective T cells have an important etiological role.

  20. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbine and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.

  1. Second Generation Flyback Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is a computer generated image of a Shuttle launch utilizing 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) flyback boosters, a futuristic concept that is currently undergoing study by NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Propulsion Office, managed by the Marshall Space Fight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, working in conjunction with the Agency's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Currently, after providing thrust to the Space Shuttle, the solid rocket boosters are parachuted into the sea and are retrieved for reuse. The SLI is considering vehicle concepts that would fly first-stage boosters back to a designated landing site after separation from the orbital vehicle. These flyback boosters would be powered by several jet engines integrated into the booster capable of providing over 100,000 pounds of thrust. The study will determine the requirements for the engines, identify risk mitigation activities, and identify costs associated with risk mitigation and jet engine development and production, as well as determine candidate jet engine options to pursue for the flyback booster.

  2. Second Generation Flyback Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is a computer generated image of a Shuttle in flight utilizing 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) with flyback boosters, a futuristic concept that is currently undergoing study by NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Propulsion Office, managed by the Marshall Space Fight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, working in conjunction with the Agency's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Currently, after providing thrust to the Space Shuttle, the solid rocket boosters are parachuted into the sea and are retrieved for reuse. The SLI is considering vehicle concepts that would fly first-stage boosters back to a designated landing site after separation from the orbital vehicle. These flyback boosters would be powered by several jet engines integrated into the booster capable of providing over 100,000 pounds of thrust. The study will determine the requirements for the engines, identify risk-mitigation activities, and identify costs associated with risk mitigation and jet engine development and production, as well as determine candidate jet engine options to pursue for the flyback booster.

  3. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-06-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  4. ULSGEN (Uplink Summary Generator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-F.; Schrock, M.; Reeve, T.; Nguyen, K.; Smith, B.

    2014-01-01

    Uplink is an important part of spacecraft operations. Ensuring the accuracy of uplink content is essential to mission success. Before commands are radiated to the spacecraft, the command and sequence must be reviewed and verified by various teams. In most cases, this process requires collecting the command data, reviewing the data during a command conference meeting, and providing physical signatures by designated members of various teams to signify approval of the data. If commands or sequences are disapproved for some reason, the whole process must be restarted. Recording data and decision history is important for traceability reasons. Given that many steps and people are involved in this process, an easily accessible software tool for managing the process is vital to reducing human error which could result in uplinking incorrect data to the spacecraft. An uplink summary generator called ULSGEN was developed to assist this uplink content approval process. ULSGEN generates a web-based summary of uplink file content and provides an online review process. Spacecraft operations personnel view this summary as a final check before actual radiation of the uplink data. .

  5. Wind turbine-generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1981-09-22

    A wind-turbine generator system is described which transforms the rotational energy of a wind driven turbine blade into rotation in opposite directions of a rotor and a stator of a dynamoelectric machine to generate electrical power. A bevel gear rotating with the turbine blade drives two pinion gears and associated concentric shafts in opposite directions. The two shafts combine with a planetary gear set to provide the desired oppositely directed rotation. One of the shafts is associated with a ring carrier and drives a ring gear in one rotational direction. The other shaft drives a planet carrier in the opposite rotational direction. The planetary gear set is arranged such that a sun gear is driven in the direction opposite to that of the ring gear. A rotor is affixed to the sun gear by a spider support structure, and a stator, affixed to rotate with the ring gear, surrounds the rotor. The rotor and stator are thus rotated in opposite, mechanically and electrically additive, directions.

  6. Logan generating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, M.V.

    1995-08-01

    The Logan Generating Plant is a $500 million, 202-megawatt (MW), pulverized-coal cogeneration facility. Its electricity output - enough for 270,000 homes - is sold to Atlantic Electric. It also supplies all of the steam (up to 50,000 pounds per hour) to a nearby Monsanto facility. The plant went into commercial service in September 1994. Currently, the facility employs 62 people. In addition to becoming an active, long-term employer in Logan Township, the plant will help stimulate the local economy for years to come as a consumer of goods and services. In addition, local and state revenues from the Logan plant provide a much needed economic boost. Cogeneration, which is the production of electric power and thermal energy (heat) from a single energy source, provides efficiency benefits in fuel consumption, capital investment and operating costs. Electricity and process steam from the Logan plant helps Monsanto control its energy costs, thus helping it remain competitive. The Logan Generating Plant plays an important role in the economic development of southern New Jersey by providing clean, dependable and competitively priced electricity to Atlantic Electric for resale to its utility customers. The environmental and economic benefits of the facility are discussed.

  7. The Next Generation EMR.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, Karim; Mirza, Kashif; Martin, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical/health record (EMR) usage in North America has increased significantly in the last half decade. But there is widespread dissatisfaction with the technologies that are currently available in the market place. Our hypothesis is that EMR vendors and the market place alone cannot solve the issue of poor technology. We propose an architecture for the next generation of electronic records that solves current concerns of end users and addresses the needs of additional stakeholders, including health system funders, patients, researchers and guideline implementers. By including additional stakeholders, we believe that additional resources, competencies and functionality can be unleashed to solve the larger problems of the current generation of EMRs. The architecture also addresses future requirements that are likely to arise from technological developments such as mobile apps and PHRs and from innovations in medicine, including genomics, artificial intelligence and personalized medicine. The paper makes a call to action for informatics researchers to play a greater role in R&D on EMRs. PMID:25676975

  8. Onboard oxygen generation systems.

    PubMed

    Manatt, S A

    1981-11-01

    During the 1970s, the development of onboard oxygen generation systems (OBOGS) progressed through ground and flight test phases to the point where a second-generation concept is now production qualified and additional alternatives are being evaluated. This paper reviews the development of OBOGS and assesses the current state of the art of these systems. High-purity fluomine systems, developed for flight demonstration and qualified for production application, are discussed. Development of enriched air molecular sieve systems for laboratory and flight applications is described, along with a recent study of a permeable membrane-based aircraft oxygen enrichment concept. Capabilities and characteristics of the various OBOGS concepts are compared, showing the greater compliance of high-purity fluomine systems with the current oxygen military standards while noting the advantages of the reduced interface complexity of enriched air systems. Recommendations for future OBOGS development are presented, emphasizing the need to coordinate the development of specifications and hardware so the optimum compromises between physiological requirements and engineering feasibilities can result in OBOGS that best satisfy the metabolic needs of aircrew members.

  9. Orion Script Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Engineering's Orion Script Generator (OSG) is a program designed to run on Exploration Flight Test One Software. The script generator creates a SuperScript file that, when run, accepts the filename for a listing of Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These CUIs will correspond to different variables on the Orion spacecraft, such as the temperature of a component X, the active or inactive status of another component Y, and so on. OSG will use a linked database to retrieve the value for each CUI, such as "100 05," "True," and so on. Finally, OSG writes SuperScript code to display each of these variables before outputting the ssi file that allows recipients to view a graphical representation of Orion Flight Test One's status through these variables. This project's main challenge was creating flexible software that accepts and transfers many types of data, from Boolean (true or false) values to "Unsigned Long Long'' values (any number from 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615). We also needed to allow bit manipulation for each variable, requiring us to program functions that could convert any of the multiple types of data into binary code. Throughout the project, we explored different methods to optimize the speed of working with the CUI database and long binary numbers. For example, the program handled extended binary numbers much more efficiently when we stored them as collections of Boolean values (true or false representing 1 or 0) instead of as collections of character strings or numbers. We also strove to make OSG as user-friendly and accommodating of different needs as possible its default behavior is to display a current CUI's maximum value and minimum value with three to five intermediate values in between, all in descending order. Fortunately, users can also add other input on the same lines as each CUI name to request different high values, low values, display options (ascending, sine, and so on), and interval sizes for generating intermediate values

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' AND GOVERNOR ASSEMBLY. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. 21. GENERAL VIEW OF MOTOR GENERATOR WITH SMALLER GENERATOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. GENERAL VIEW OF MOTOR GENERATOR WITH SMALLER GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND TO PROVIDE EXCITATION FOR LARGER DC UNIT - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  12. 4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, GOVERNORS AND CONTROL VALVES AT LEFT, AND EXCITERS AT BACK LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  13. Fock State Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premaratne, Shavindra; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    Using a single junction Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting Al cavity (at a temperature 15 mK), we have used a Raman technique to produce a single Fock state in the cavity. The technique requires 3 microwave tones to drive the system from the ground state of the cavity/qubit system. We achieve an experimental fidelity of the final Fock state of around 90%, limited by thermal photons in the cavity and by decay during the operation time. Using this technique, we have also generated an arbitrary superposition of Fock states and a superposition of qubit and cavity states. Results, simulations and applications of this technique will be discussed.

  14. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Metzger, John D.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  15. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  16. Generating random density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Życzkowski, Karol; Penson, Karol A.; Nechita, Ion; Collins, Benoît

    2011-06-01

    We study various methods to generate ensembles of random density matrices of a fixed size N, obtained by partial trace of pure states on composite systems. Structured ensembles of random pure states, invariant with respect to local unitary transformations are introduced. To analyze statistical properties of quantum entanglement in bi-partite systems we analyze the distribution of Schmidt coefficients of random pure states. Such a distribution is derived in the case of a superposition of k random maximally entangled states. For another ensemble, obtained by performing selective measurements in a maximally entangled basis on a multi-partite system, we show that this distribution is given by the Fuss-Catalan law and find the average entanglement entropy. A more general class of structured ensembles proposed, containing also the case of Bures, forms an extension of the standard ensemble of structureless random pure states, described asymptotically, as N → ∞, by the Marchenko-Pastur distribution.

  17. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  18. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  19. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  20. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  1. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  2. SDO Onboard Ephemeris Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin E.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft is a sun-pointing, semi-autonomous satellite that will allow nearly continuous observations of the Sun with a continuous science data downlink. The science requirements for this mission necessitate very strict sun-pointing requirements, as well as continuous ground station connectivity through high gain antennas (HGAs). For SDO s onboard attitude control system to successfully point the satellite at the Sun and the HGAs at the ground stations with the desired accuracy, in addition to the need for accurate sensors it must have good onboard knowledge of the ephemerides of the Sun, the spacecraft, and the ground station. This paper describes the minimum force models necessary for onboard ephemeris generation in support of an attitude control system. The forces that were considered include the Sun s point mass, Moon s point mass, solar radiation pressure (SRP), and the Earth s gravity with varying degree and order of terms of the geopotential.

  3. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  4. Programmed combustion steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.

    1984-08-14

    The present invention provides a steam generator which comprises rocket-type multielement injector head and a small diameter, highly elongated, cylindrical combustion chamber whose walls are formed from a plurality of longitudinally adjoined water tubes. The multielement injector head injects an array of associating streams of fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber under sufficient pressure to maintain a combustion pressure in the range of 25-150 psia whereupon the narrowness of the combustion chamber serves to constrict the resultant combustion gases to thereby promote radiant and convective heat transfer from the flame of combustion through the walls of the combustion chamber into the water passing through the water tubes. By such arrangement the production of nitrogen oxides in the combustion chamber is avoided.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic generator electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.; Herman, Harold; Kuczen, Kenneth D.

    1979-01-01

    An improved electrode for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamid (MHD) generator utilizes an elongated monolithic cap of dense refractory material compliantly mounted to the MHD channel frame for collecting the current. The cap has a central longitudinal channel which contains a first layer of porous refractory ceramic as a high-temperature current leadout from the cap and a second layer of resilient wire mesh in contact with the first layer as a low-temperature current leadout between the first layer and the frame. Also described is a monolithic ceramic insulator compliantly mounted to the frame parallel to the electrode by a plurality of flexible metal strips.

  6. ION PULSE GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    King, R.F.; Moak, C.D.; Parker, V.E.

    1960-10-11

    A device for generating ions in an ion source, forming the ions into a stream, deflecting the stream rapidly away from and back to its normal path along the axis of a cylindrical housing, and continually focusing the stream by suitable means into a sharp, intermittent beam along the axis is described. The beam exists through an axial aperture into a lens which focuses it into an accelerator tube. The ions in each burst are there accelerated to very high energies and are directed against a target placed in the high-energy end of the tube. Radiations from the target can then be analyzed in the interval between incidence of the bursts of ions on the target.

  7. Mars Terrain Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    A suite of programs for the generation of disparity maps from stereo image pairs via correlation, and conversion of those disparity maps to XYZ maps, has been updated. This suite implements an automated method of deriving terrain from stereo images for use in the ground data system for in-situ (lander and rover) cameras. This differs from onboard correlation by concentrating more on accuracy than speed, since near-real-time is not a requirement on the ground. The final result is an XYZ value for every point in the image that passes several quality checks. A priori geometric camera calibration information is required for this suite to operate. The suite is very flexible, enabling its use in many special situations, such as non-linearized images required for applications like the Phoenix arm camera, or long-baseline stereo, where the rover moves between left and right images.

  8. Generating charge from diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kraus, Per

    2006-12-01

    We unravel some subtleties involving the definition of sphere angular momentum charges in AdSq × Sp spacetimes, or equivalently, R-symmetry charges in the dual boundary CFT. In the AdS3 context, it is known that charges can be generated by coordinate transformations, even though the underlying theory is diffeomorphism invariant. This is the bulk version of spectral flow in the boundary CFT. We trace this behavior back to special properties of the p-form field strength supporting the solution, and derive the explicit formulas for angular momentum charges. This analysis also reveals the higher dimensional origin of three dimensional Chern-Simons terms and of chiral anomalies in the boundary theory.

  9. Fourth Generation Parity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Soni, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple 4th-generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z_2 residual discrete symmetry (4G-parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

  10. Tailpulse signal generator

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, John; Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, Stanley John; Decman, Daniel J.; White, Gregory K.

    2009-06-23

    A tailpulse signal generating/simulating apparatus, system, and method designed to produce electronic pulses which simulate tailpulses produced by a gamma radiation detector, including the pileup effect caused by the characteristic exponential decay of the detector pulses, and the random Poisson distribution pulse timing for radioactive materials. A digital signal process (DSP) is programmed and configured to produce digital values corresponding to pseudo-randomly selected pulse amplitudes and pseudo-randomly selected Poisson timing intervals of the tailpulses. Pulse amplitude values are exponentially decayed while outputting the digital value to a digital to analog converter (DAC). And pulse amplitudes of new pulses are added to decaying pulses to simulate the pileup effect for enhanced realism in the simulation.

  11. Turbulence generation by waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S.

    1995-12-31

    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  12. Spherical geodesic mesh generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jimmy; Kenamond, Mark Andrew; Burton, Donald E.; Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich

    2015-02-27

    In ALE simulations with moving meshes, mesh topology has a direct influence on feature representation and code robustness. In three-dimensional simulations, modeling spherical volumes and features is particularly challenging for a hydrodynamics code. Calculations on traditional spherical meshes (such as spin meshes) often lead to errors and symmetry breaking. Although the underlying differencing scheme may be modified to rectify this, the differencing scheme may not be accessible. This work documents the use of spherical geodesic meshes to mitigate solution-mesh coupling. These meshes are generated notionally by connecting geodesic surface meshes to produce triangular-prismatic volume meshes. This mesh topology is fundamentally different from traditional mesh topologies and displays superior qualities such as topological symmetry. This work describes the geodesic mesh topology as well as motivating demonstrations with the FLAG hydrocode.

  13. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  14. A Clustering Graph Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Winlaw, Manda; De Sterck, Hans; Sanders, Geoffrey

    2015-10-26

    In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms.

  15. Generation of Ganymede's exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plainaki, Christina; Milillo, Anna; Massetti, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro; Jia, Xianzhe; Orsini, Stefano; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Mangano, Valeria; Rispoli, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The interactions between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma and Ganymede's icy surface are responsible for the generation of the moon's neutral environment. Such interactions are strongly constrained by the moon's intrinsic magnetic field determining the pattern of the ion precipitation to the icy surface. In this paper, the water and oxygen exospheres of Jupiter's moon Ganymede are simulated through the application of a 3D Monte Carlo modeling technique that takes into consideration the combined effect on the exosphere generation of the main surface release processes (i.e. sputtering, sublimation and radiolysis) and the precipitation of the magnetospheric ions to the moon's surface. We find that plasma precipitation occurs in a region related to the open-closed magnetic field lines (OCFB) boundary and its extent depends on the assumption used to mimic the plasma mirroring in Jupiter's magnetosphere. In the full mirroring assumption, the primary surface sputtering mechanism at the whole polar cap of Ganymede can alone explain the observed higher albedo of this region; in the non- mirroring assumption the polar cap brightness above the OCFB ring can be explained with the action of secondary sputtering due to ionized exospheric particles re-impacting the surface. At small altitudes above the moon's subsolar point the main contribution to the neutral environment comes from sublimated water; the spatial distribution of the directly sputtered-water molecules exhibits a close correspondence with the plasma precipitation region and extends at high altitudes, being, therefore, well differentiated from the sublimated water. The oxygen exosphere comprises two different populations: a thermal one (extending to some 100s of km above the surface) and a more energetic one consisting of more energetic oxygen molecules sputtered directly from the surface after water-dissociation by ions has taken place.

  16. Dynamical Mass Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Raya, A.

    2006-09-25

    Understanding the origin of mass, in particular that of the fermions, is one of the most uncanny problems which lie at the very frontiers of particle physics. Although the celebrated Standard Model accommodates these masses in a gauge invariant fashion, it fails to predict their values. Moreover, the mass thus generated accounts for only a very small percentage of the mass which permeates the visible universe. Most of the observed mass is accounted for by the strong interactions which bind quarks into protons and neutrons. How does that exactly happen in its quantitative details is still an unsolved mystery. Lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) or continuum studies of its Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) are two of the non-perturbative means to try to unravel how quarks, starting from negligible current masses can acquire enormously large constituent masses to account for the observed proton and neutron masses. Analytical studies of SDEs in this context are extremely hard as one has to resort to truncation schemes whose quantitative reliability can be established only after a very careful analysis. Let alone the far more complicated realm of QCD, arriving at reliable truncation schemes in simpler scenarios such as quantum electrodynamics (QED) has also proved to be a hard nut to crack. In the last years, there has been an increasing group of physicists in Mexico which is taking up the challenge of understanding how the dynamical generation of mass can be understood in a reliable way through SDEs of gauge theories in various contexts such as (i) in arbitrary space-time dimensions d as well as d {<=} 4 (ii) finite temperatures and (ii) in the presence of magnetic fields. In this article, we summarise some of this work.

  17. Educating generation X and generation Y: teaching tips for librarians.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, Daniel G; Childs, Gary M

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a list of helpful teaching tips for instructional librarians who need to meet the changing generational needs of their patrons. Specific generational qualities and attitudes of Generation X and Generation Y are discussed along with educational techniques and software recommendations. These tips are based on the authors' experiences at Drexel University's Hahnemann Library and Thomas Jefferson University's Scott Memorial Library, both of which are academic health sciences libraries. PMID:15778180

  18. Educating generation X and generation Y: teaching tips for librarians.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, Daniel G; Childs, Gary M

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a list of helpful teaching tips for instructional librarians who need to meet the changing generational needs of their patrons. Specific generational qualities and attitudes of Generation X and Generation Y are discussed along with educational techniques and software recommendations. These tips are based on the authors' experiences at Drexel University's Hahnemann Library and Thomas Jefferson University's Scott Memorial Library, both of which are academic health sciences libraries.

  19. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  20. Working with Generation X physicians.

    PubMed

    Shields, Mark C; Shields, Margaux T

    2003-01-01

    Learn ways to integrate Generation X physicians into your hospital or practice. Discover how their career goals differ from the earlier generation's and find out how health care organizations can help meet those goals.

  1. IDG - INTERACTIVE DIF GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) utility is a tool used to generate and manipulate Directory Interchange Format files (DIF). Its purpose as a specialized text editor is to create and update DIF files which can be sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as the International Global Change Directory at Goddard. Many government and university data systems use the Master Directory to advertise the availability of research data. The IDG interface consists of a set of four windows: (1) the IDG main window; (2) a text editing window; (3) a text formatting and validation window; and (4) a file viewing window. The IDG main window starts up the other windows and contains a list of valid keywords. The keywords are loaded from a user-designated file and selected keywords can be copied into any active editing window. Once activated, the editing window designates the file to be edited. Upon switching from the editing window to the formatting and validation window, the user has options for making simple changes to one or more files such as inserting tabs, aligning fields, and indenting groups. The viewing window is a scrollable read-only window that allows fast viewing of any text file. IDG is an interactive tool and requires a mouse or a trackball to operate. IDG uses the X Window System to build and manage its interactive forms, and also uses the Motif widget set and runs under Sun UNIX. IDG is written in C-language for Sun computers running SunOS. This package requires the X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4, with OSF/Motif 1.1. IDG requires 1.8Mb of hard disk space. The standard distribution medium for IDG is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The program was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. SunOS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. X Window System is a trademark of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OSF/Motif is a

  2. Self-assembling software generator

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2011-11-25

    A technique to generate an executable task includes inspecting a task specification data structure to determine what software entities are to be generated to create the executable task, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine how the software entities will be linked after generating the software entities, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine logic to be executed by the software entities, and generating the software entities to create the executable task.

  3. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  4. Get Ready for Generation Next.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellner, Alison

    1999-01-01

    "Generation Next" are the 68 million people born between 1977 and 1994. They are the first generation that has grown up with such technologies as computers, the Internet, compact disks, and microwaves and they have more education than previous generations. They will have an effect on trainers and training methods in the workplace. (JOW)

  5. Structured and unstructured grid generation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J F; Weatherill, N P

    1992-01-01

    Current techniques in composite-block-structured grid generation and unstructured grid generation for general 3D geometries are summarized, including both algebraic and elliptic generation procedures for the former and Delaunay tessellations for the latter. Citations of relevant theory are given. Examples of applications for several geometries are included. PMID:1424687

  6. QPhiX Code Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-16

    A simple code-generator to generate the low level code kernels used by the QPhiX Library for Lattice QCD. Generates Kernels for Wilson-Dslash, and Wilson-Clover kernels. Can be reused to write other optimized kernels for Intel Xeon Phi(tm), Intel Xeon(tm) and potentially other architectures.

  7. Avenue of approach generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Storm, G.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting research on developing a dynamic planning capability within an Army corps level combat simulation. Central to this research is the development of a computer based ability to ''understand'' terrain and how it is used in military planning. Such a capability demands data structures that adequately represent terrain features used in the planning process. These features primarily relate to attributes of mobility and visibility. Mobility concepts are abstracted to networks of mobility corridors. Notions of visibility are, for the purposes of planning, incorporated into the definition of key terrain. Prior work at Los Alamos has produced algorithms to generate mobility corridors from digitized terrain data. Mobility corridors, by definition, are the building blocks for avenues of approach, and the latter are the context in which key terrain is defined. The purpose of this paper is to describe recent work in constructing avenues of approach, characterization of avenues using summary characteristics, and their role in military planning. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Utility Static Generation Reliability

    1993-03-05

    PICES (Probabilistic Investigation of Capacity and Energy Shortages) was developed for estimating an electric utility''s expected frequency and duration of capacity deficiencies on a daily on and off-peak basis. In addition to the system loss-of-load probability (LOLP) and loss-of-load expectation (LOLE) indices, PICES calculates the expected frequency and duration of system capacity deficiencies and the probability, expectation, and expected frequency and duration of a range of system reserve margin states. Results are aggregated and printedmore » on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis. The program employs hourly load data and either the two-state (on/off) or a more sophisticated three-state (on/partially on/fully off) generating unit representation. Unit maintenance schedules are determined on a weekly, levelized reserve margin basis. In addition to the 8760-hour annual load record, the user provides the following information for each unit: plant capacity, annual maintenance requirement, two or three-state unit failure and repair rates, and for three-state models, the partial state capacity deficiency. PICES can also supply default failure and repair rate values, based on the Edison Electric Institute''s 1979 Report on Equipment Availability for the Ten-Year Period 1968 Through 1977, for many common plant types. Multi-year analysis can be performed by specifying as input data the annual peak load growth rates and plant addition and retirement schedules for each year in the study.« less

  9. Windmill generator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.

    1983-04-05

    A duct possessing structure includes an annular first floor and an annular first roof disposed substantially horizontally, vertical stationary guiding partitions provided radially between the first floor and roof, and a centrally located hollow cylindrical space. A revolving body includes a circular second floor and a circular second roof, and a pair of guide pillar members disposed between the second floor and roof. Each guide pillar member comprises a duct-blocking arcuate outer wall along the outer circumference of the second floor and roof, and a ductforming curved inner wall connecting both side edges of the arcuate outer wall. The revolving body is disposed within the hollow cylindrical space of the duct possessing structure and is adapted for rotation about an axis coaxial with that of the center axis of the cylindrical space. A windmill is supported for rotation within a hollow space, defined by the floor, roof and the pair of guide pillar members of the revolving body, and about a vertical axis which is the central axis of the hollow space. A generator is connected for rotation with the horizontal rotary shaft of the windmill, and wind directional means is provided for turning the revolving body to point the windmill in the windward direction.

  10. VSX: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), the most comprehensive and up-to-date assemblage of publicly-maintained variable star data on the planet, will be undergoing a major overhaul in the coming year to greatly improve the database design, as well as the Web-based user interface. Five years after its official launch, VSX has evolved into an essential component of the AAVSO enterprise information architecture, tightly integrated with many of the technical organization’s other mission-critical processes. However, its unique configuration and functionality are largely based on decades-old data formats and outmoded Web methodologies which will generally not scale well under the anticipated deluge of data from large-scale synoptic surveys. Here, we present the justifications and vision for VSX 2.0, the next generation of this indispensable research tool, including overviews of the creation of a brand new, fully-normalized, database schema, and the ground-up redesign of the front-end Web interface.

  11. Next Generation CTAS Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2000-01-01

    The FAA's Free Flight Phase 1 Office is in the process of deploying the current generation of CTAS tools, which are the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), at selected centers and airports. Research at NASA is now focussed on extending the CTAS software and computer human interfaces to provide more advanced capabilities. The Multi-center TMA (McTMA) is designed to operate at airports where arrival flows originate from two or more centers whose boundaries are in close proximity to the TRACON boundary. McTMA will also include techniques for routing arrival flows away from congested airspace and around airspace reserved for arrivals into other hub airports. NASA is working with FAA and MITRE to build a prototype McTMA for the Philadelphia airport. The active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST) provides speed and heading advisories to help controllers achieve accurate spacing between aircraft on final approach. These advisories will be integrated with those in the existing pFAST to provide a set of comprehensive advisories for controlling arrival traffic from the TRACON boundary to touchdown at complex, high-capacity airports. A research prototype of aFAST, designed for the Dallas-Fort Worth is in an advanced stage of development. The Expedite Departure Path (EDP) and Direct-To tools are designed to help controllers guide departing aircraft out of the TRACON airspace and to climb to cruise altitude along the most efficient routes.

  12. Strategic scene generation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckathorn, Harry M.; Anding, David C.

    1992-09-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) must simulate the detection, acquisition, discrimination and tracking of anticipated targets and predict the effect of natural and man-made background phenomena on optical sensor systems designed to perform these tasks. NRL is developing such a capability using a computerized methodology to provide modeled data in the form of digital realizations of complex, dynamic scenes. The Strategic Scene Generation Model (SSGM) is designed to integrate state-of-science knowledge, data bases and computerized phenomenology models to simulate strategic engagement scenarios and to support the design, development and test of advanced surveillance systems. Multi-phenomenology scenes are produced from validated codes--thereby serving as a standard against which different SDI concepts and designs can be tested. This paper describes the SSGM design architecture, the software modules and databases which are used to create scene elements, the synthesis of deterministic and/or stochastic structured scene elements into composite scenes, the software system to manage the various databases and digital image libraries, and verification and validation by comparison with measured data. The focus will be on the functionality and development schedule of the Baseline Model (SSGMB) which is currently being implemented.

  13. Metadata based mediator generation

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T

    1998-03-01

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse, particularly one utilizing partially materialized views; they transform data from its source format to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases, requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. This maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. However, failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the m current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. This paper describes a metadata framework, and associated software designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting the schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  14. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  16. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  17. Managing Generational Differences in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Eastland, Robin; Clark, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Diversity can take many forms. One type of recent focus is generational differences and intergenerational issues. Much research exists regarding generational differences in the workplace and in healthcare as a whole. Very little has been done on generational differences within the field of radiology. An analysis of current research of generational differences within radiology, nursing, and healthcart in general was performed to identify current trends and establish similarities and discordance in available studies. An emphasis was placed on how generational differences influence education, teamwork, and patient care, along with what challenges and opportunities exist for managers, leaders, and organizations.

  18. Managing Generational Differences in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Eastland, Robin; Clark, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Diversity can take many forms. One type of recent focus is generational differences and intergenerational issues. Much research exists regarding generational differences in the workplace and in healthcare as a whole. Very little has been done on generational differences within the field of radiology. An analysis of current research of generational differences within radiology, nursing, and healthcart in general was performed to identify current trends and establish similarities and discordance in available studies. An emphasis was placed on how generational differences influence education, teamwork, and patient care, along with what challenges and opportunities exist for managers, leaders, and organizations. PMID:26314182

  19. Next Generation Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2013-04-01

    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  20. [Generation continuity and integration].

    PubMed

    Zakhvatkin, Iu A

    2008-01-01

    Transformation of the cyclic morphoprocesses in Protista toward the terminal-cyclic morphoprocesses in Metazoa had lead to integration of the fomer's life circles into the latter's ontogenesis and began to supply the newly emerging ecosystems with the regular income of mortomasses. According to the palintomic hypothesis of A.A. Zakhvatkin, it was the egg that became a means of the metazoan generation continuity, and not the half set of organells acquired by descendants of a divided maternal cell in Protozoa. Origin of Metazoa and of their ontogenesis was accomplished by hypetrophic distomy and subsequent palintomic division of the protist parental cell, these processes being comparable to the ovogenesis and ovocyte division in the Metazoa. Division process in the most primitive metazoans, Leptolida and Calcarea, retained certains features of its palintomic nature that are clear in the Ctenophora, the latter though specific being most similar in this respect to the spongs and not to the Coelenterata whith whom they were united in the same phylum formerly. The ovogenesis perfection controlled by the maternal organism and leading to an increment of the nuclear-plasmic tension due to enrichment of egg with the yolk, promoted the embrionization of development and formation of the egg morphogenetic environment providing for the earlier formation processes without participation of the parental recombined genotypes. With all this, far earlier appearence of symmetry elements of definitive forms is embriogenesis along the ascending trend from the lower Metazoa to the most advanced insects. The unordered correspondence of the polarity axis of egg and the oral-aboral axis of blastula-like larva (1) is replaced by protaxony (2) in which these axes coincide, all formation processes reaching their perfection in the homoquadrant spiral division of annelids, which became a means of ovoplasma segregation. Afterward, a herequadrant division and plagioxony are developed in the course

  1. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply

  2. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  3. Next generation PON evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Passive optical network (PON) features a point-to-multi-point (P2MP) architecture to provide broadband access. The P2MP architecture has become the most popular solution for FTTx deployment among operators. PON-based FTTx has been widely deployed ever since 2004 when ITU-T Study Group 15Q2 completed recommendations that defined GPON system [ITU-T seriesG.984]. As full services are provisioned by the massive deployment of PON networks worldwide, operators expect more from PONs. These include improved bandwidths and service support capabilities as well as enhanced performance of access nodes and supportive equipment over their existing PON networks. The direction of PON evolution is a key issue for the telecom industry. Full Service Access Network (FSAN) and ITU-T are the PON interest group and standard organization, respectively. In their view, the next-generation PONs are divided into two phases: NG-PON1 and NG-PON2. Mid-term upgrades in PON networks are defined as NG-PON1, while NG-PON2 is a long-term solution in PON evolution. Major requirements of NG-PON1 are the coexistence with the deployed GPON systems and the reuse of outside plant. Optical Distribution Networks (ODNs) account for 70% of the total investments in deploying PONs. Therefore, it is crucial for the NGPON evolution to be compatible with the deployed networks. With the specification of system coexistence and ODN reuse, the only hold-up of the migration from GPON to NG-PON1 is the maturity of the industry chain. Unlike NG-PON1 that has clear goals and emerging developments, there are many candidate technologies for NG-PON2. The selection of NG-PON2 is under discussion. However, one thing is clear, NG-PON2 technology must outperform NG-PON1 technologies in terms of ODN compatibility, bandwidth, capacity, and cost-efficiency.

  4. Computer-generated speech

    SciTech Connect

    Aimthikul, Y.

    1981-12-01

    This thesis reviews the essential aspects of speech synthesis and distinguishes between the two prevailing techniques: compressed digital speech and phonemic synthesis. It then presents the hardware details of the five speech modules evaluated. FORTRAN programs were written to facilitate message creation and retrieval with four of the modules driven by a PDP-11 minicomputer. The fifth module was driven directly by a computer terminal. The compressed digital speech modules (T.I. 990/306, T.S.I. Series 3D and N.S. Digitalker) each contain a limited vocabulary produced by the manufacturers while both the phonemic synthesizers made by Votrax permit an almost unlimited set of sounds and words. A text-to-phoneme rules program was adapted for the PDP-11 (running under the RSX-11M operating system) to drive the Votrax Speech Pac module. However, the Votrax Type'N Talk unit has its own built-in translator. Comparison of these modules revealed that the compressed digital speech modules were superior in pronouncing words on an individual basis but lacked the inflection capability that permitted the phonemic synthesizers to generate more coherent phrases. These findings were necessarily highly subjective and dependent on the specific words and phrases studied. In addition, the rapid introduction of new modules by manufacturers will necessitate new comparisons. However, the results of this research verified that all of the modules studied do possess reasonable quality of speech that is suitable for man-machine applications. Furthermore, the development tools are now in place to permit the addition of computer speech output in such applications.

  5. Next generation information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Limback, Nathan P; Medina, Melanie A; Silva, Michelle E

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  6. Second Generation RLV Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay

    2001-01-01

    During the time period covered by this report, SAIC: 1) Continued to develop and assess processes and approaches that can be applied to Second Generation Reuseable Launch Vehicles (RLV) technologies prioritization. An approach based on the use of analytic Saaty scale functions has been defined and is being investigated. 2) Planned and facilitated technologies prioritization workshops, supported development of systems program algorithms based on the concept of influence diagramming, and assessment of analogies between aircraft and space systems developments. 3) Video interviews held with X-37 personnel at Dryden. The CD-ROM is being concluded and a near-final review disc is expected soon. 4) CD-ROMS were produced by Engineered Multimedia, Inc. (EMI) under subcontract to SAIC. These two CD-ROM products, "Microgravity" and "New Horizons", were delivered to MSFS technical representatives at a briefing at SAID on January 18, 2001. 5) Presentation brochure, "Aviation/Space Analog Team Interim Report" was provided to Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) members and to NASA personnel. Wrap-up of effort will be a mid-April briefing to both MSFC and the full SPST membership. Support to Phase 2 of CCPD ends 3/31/01. Phase 3 continuation effort planned with emphasis on technical info content. 6) Recommended that eliminating the B-52 flights of the X-37 in favor of alternate approached be evaluated. Discovered that a required change to the thruster valves of the X-37 had not been made. Repair work continues on the lower fuselage section of the X-37, in the areas that experienced core collapse. The currently catalogued potential weight increases and decreases are about equal, but this does not include the impact of the cable weight underestimate reported earlier. The CFD for RCS testing correlates well with the wind tunnel data. 7) The Level IV CCB approved SCN-4 to the MC-1 Engine SPecification. Approved changes have been incorporated into the specification, and Revision D has

  7. Stochastic Generator of Chemical Structure. 3. Reaction Network Generation

    SciTech Connect

    FAULON,JEAN-LOUP; SAULT,ALLEN G.

    2000-07-15

    A new method to generate chemical reaction network is proposed. The particularity of the method is that network generation and mechanism reduction are performed simultaneously using sampling techniques. Our method is tested for hydrocarbon thermal cracking. Results and theoretical arguments demonstrate that our method scales in polynomial time while other deterministic network generator scale in exponential time. This finding offers the possibility to investigate complex reacting systems such as those studied in petroleum refining and combustion.

  8. Hydrogen Generation From Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cohen; Stephen Porter; Oscar Chow; David Henderson

    2009-03-06

    today that perform in a range of efficiencies, >95%, that are suitable for the overall operational goals. The balance of plant scales well both operationally and in terms of cost becoming a smaller portion of the overall cost equation as the systems get larger. Capital cost reduction of the cell stack power supplies is achievable by modifying the system configuration to have the cell stacks in electrical series driving up the DC bus voltage, thereby allowing the use of large-scale DC power supply technologies. The single power supply approach reduces cost. Elements of the cell stack cost reduction and efficiency improvement work performed in the early stage of the program is being continued in subsequent DOE sponsored programs and through internal investment by Proton. The results of the trade study of the 100 kg H2/day system have established a conceptual platform for design and development of a next generation electrolyzer for Proton. The advancements started by this program have the possibility of being realized in systems for the developing fueling markets in 2010 period.

  9. HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

    2005-02-01

    This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the

  10. The Next Generation Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2005-09-12

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 {angstrom} range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 {pi} mm mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 {pi} mm mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5} with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 MV/m. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, {epsilon}{sub n,rms}, produced by the NGP is {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.2 {pi} mm mrad for Q{sub T} = 0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 {pi} mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a

  11. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  12. Unstructured mesh generation and adaptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of current unstructured mesh generation and adaptivity techniques is given. Basic building blocks taken from the field of computational geometry are first described. Various practical mesh generation techniques based on these algorithms are then constructed and illustrated with examples. Issues of adaptive meshing and stretched mesh generation for anisotropic problems are treated in subsequent sections. The presentation is organized in an education manner, for readers familiar with computational fluid dynamics, wishing to learn more about current unstructured mesh techniques.

  13. Feynchois:. a Feynman Diagram Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chul-Woo; Gonsalves, Richard J.

    A Feynman diagram generator, named FeynChois, is described. It provides the user with a full GUI (Graphical User Interface) environment which enables the generation diagrams automatically with several mouse operations. The diagram generator is built on an Application Programming Interface (API) called ViewableBeans which provides a framework for programming graphically representable objects. We also present a means for describing Feynman rules in a computer friendly manner using the XML (Extensible Markup Language) format.

  14. Three-function signal generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    Variable-frequency circuit develops sine square and triangular waveforms. Three-function generator used variable-rate integrator to generate triangular wave and zero-crossing detector to develop square wave. Sine wave generator uses diode matrix to operate on triangular wave, thus with design harmonic distortion in output is less then one percent. By changing values of outboard resistors and capacitors, same design can be used at higher frequencies.

  15. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  16. Third-generation image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roaux, E.; Richard, J. C.; Piaget, C.

    The general design and performance characteristics of third-generation image intensifiers are discussed. The third-generation image intensifier is a double proximity image tube with a GaAs photocathode, this photocathode being the principal difference between second- and third-generation tubes. Depending on weather conditions, night illumination, and target reflectivities, the third-generation image intensifier provides an average improvement in the range of detection of a factor of 1.5-3 (for L equal to or less than 0.001 lux).

  17. Windmill structure and power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, L.A.; Schott, R.A.

    1982-02-23

    A windpower generator includes a cupped blade design to be assembled from flat module sheets together with a resiliently biased mount to provide automatic feathering with a consequent speed control. A generator or alternating generator to feed electric output to an existing power system, as, for example, a residence or small business establishment, is associated with the windmill to serve as a counterbalance in the mounting and to cooperate with the self-governing blade assembly. A switching circuit is connected to feed generator power to the local utility power lines when net power is available at the winddriven alternator and in phase with utility power.

  18. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  19. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup.

  20. Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, J. M.; Taylor, J. R.

    2010-04-01

    1. Introduction and history J. R. Taylor; 2. Supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber - an historical note J. K. Ranka; 3. Nonlinear fiber optics overview J. C. Travers, M. H. Frosz and J. M. Dudley; 4. Fiber supercontinuum generation overview J. M. Dudley; 5. Silica fibers for supercontinuum generation J. C. Knight and W. Wadsworth; 6. Supercontinuum generation and nonlinearity in soft glass fibers J. H. V. Price and D. J. Richardson; 7. Increasing the blue-shift of a picosecond pumped supercontinuum M. H. Frosz, P. M. Moselund, P. D. Rasmussen, C. L. Thomsen and O. Bang; 8. Continuous wave supercontinuum generation J. C. Travers; 9. Theory of supercontinuum and interactions of solitons with dispersive waves D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach; 10. Interaction of four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch and F. Vanholsbeeck; 11. Nonlinear optics in emerging waveguides: revised fundamentals and implications S. V. Afshar, M. Turner and T. M. Monro; 12. Supercontinuum generation in dispersion varying fibers G. Genty; 13. Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide glass waveguides Dong-Il Yeom, M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther Davies and B. J. Eggleton; 14. Supercontinuum generation for carrier-envelope phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers S. T. Cundiff; 15. Biophotonics applications of supercontinuum generation C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French; 16. Fiber sources of tailored supercontinuum in nonlinear microspectroscopy and imaging A. M. Zheltikov; Index.

  1. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup. PMID:26555381

  2. Percy Thomas wind generator designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lines, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibilities of constructing a windpowered generator with a capacity of 2,000 to 4,000 kilowatt are considered. Possible benefits of an integrated wind generating electric energy source in an electric utility network are elaborated. Applications of a windpowered waterpump, including its use as a pumping source for hydroelectric pump storage operations, are also mentioned. It is concluded that the greatest potential of the wind generator is to generate heat directly and not conversion to electricity and then to heat.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; George, Raymond A.; Shockling, Larry A.

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  5. Guiding New Product Idea Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The creation of innovative ideas is the initial step in entrepreneurial practice and venture management. As the management of technology is now on the priority agenda of higher education institutions, there is a need to develop pedagogic schemes for idea generation. Despite its importance, the idea generation process is hard to systematize or to…

  6. Multiple source navigation signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojda, Petr

    2010-09-01

    The paper presents a FPGA based digital VOR/LOC signal generator. It provides the composite signal, which consists of the particular signals of several predefined navigation sources - VOR beacons. Design of the generator is implemented into the two different FPGA DSP platforms.

  7. Generation X Goes to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa T.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the developmental, learning, and career needs of college and university students from Generation X, or those between 18 and 29 years of age. Discusses general characteristics of Generation X students and highlights specific strategies for instructional and student services staff to effectively educate and retain them. (11 citations) (BCY)

  8. Web Tools: The Second Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and technologies, or second generation tools, help districts to save time and money, and eliminate the need to transfer or move files back and forth across computers. Many Web 2.0 tools help students think critically and solve problems, which falls under the 21st-century skills. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…

  9. Rationale for Linking the Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally

    This paper provides an overview of the negative aspects of generational isolation and outlines the developmental needs shared by younger and older people. The paper cites intergenerational models, such as community centers, places of worship, colleges and universities, and nursing homes, in which generations interact in a substantive way. It…

  10. The Always-Connected Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The Pew Internet and American Life project characterizes the millennials--the first generation to come of age in the new millennium--as the first "always-connected" generation. Significant aspects of culture are changing as a result. A changing world where all students are connected all the time has substantial educational implications. Despite…

  11. The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…

  12. Steam generator waste disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1994-12-31

    The steam generator waste stream has been examined, and disposal options associated with the decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station have been investigated as described in NUREG/CR-0130. Specifically, the removal and disposal of the steam generators and those activities and associated occupational doses inherent in the activities have been examined. The results of this effort are compared in this paper to more recent data for the reference PWR contained in NUREG/CR-5884, and a determination of the appropriate volumes and activities is made. These data are used to complete projections of steam generator waste volumes and activities generated from light water reactor decommissioning using the DECON decommissioning alternative. Several disposal options for the steam generators are considered and the segmentation, one-piece waste package, and smelting options are detailed.

  13. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    1998-01-01

    A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

  14. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  15. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-05-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  16. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  17. Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

    2008-01-01

    Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

  18. Heat generated by knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, James W

    2006-01-01

    Temperature sensors were placed in 50 knees in 25 patients who had one or both joints replaced. Temperature recordings were made before walking, after walking, and after cycling. The heat generated in healthy, arthritic, and replaced knees was measured. The knee replacements were done using eight different prostheses. A rotating hinge knee prosthesis generated a temperature increase of 7 degrees C in 20 minutes and 9 degrees C in 40 minutes. An unconstrained ceramic femoral prosthesis articulating with a polyethylene tibial prosthesis generated a temperature increase of 4 degrees C compared with a healthy resting knee. The other designs using a cobalt-chrome alloy and high-density polyethylene had temperature increases of 5 degrees-7 degrees C with exercise. Frictional heat generated in a prosthetic knee is not immediately dissipated and may result in wear, creep, and other degenerative processes in the high-density polyethylene. Extended periods of elevated temperature in joints may inhibit cell growth and perhaps contribute to adverse performance via bone resorption or component loosening. Prosthetic knees generate more heat with activity than healthy or arthritic knees. More-constrained knee prostheses generate more heat than less-constrained prostheses. A knee with a ceramic femoral component generates less heat than a knee with the same design using a cobalt-chromium alloy. PMID:16394760

  19. Entropy Generation in Regenerative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Heat exchange to the oscillating flows in regenerative coolers generates entropy. These flows are characterized by oscillating mass flows and oscillating temperatures. Heat is transferred between the flow and heat exchangers and regenerators. In the former case, there is a steady temperature difference between the flow and the heat exchangers. In the latter case, there is no mean temperature difference. In this paper a mathematical model of the entropy generated is developed for both cases. Estimates of the entropy generated by this process are given for oscillating flows in heat exchangers and in regenerators. The practical significance of this entropy is also discussed.

  20. Grants Document-Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairell, Terri; Kreymer, Lev; Martin, Greg; Sheridan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Grants Document-Generation System (GDGS) software allows the generation of official grants documents for distribution to the appropriate parties. The documents are created after the selection and entry of specific data elements and clauses. GDGS is written in Cold Fusion that resides on an SQL2000 database and is housed on-site at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes access security written around GSFC's (Goddard Space Flight Center's) LIST system, and allows for the entry of Procurement Request information necessary for the generation of the resulting Grant Award.

  1. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  2. Recent multiwave Cherenkov generator experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.; Richter-Sand, R.; Hacker, F.; Walsh, J.; Arman, M.

    1994-12-31

    The initial operating characteristics of the North Star Research Corporation (NSRC) multiwave generator experiment are discussed. The first radiation from the NSRC apparatus has now been observed and the immediate goal is to optimize the power output by providing a beam which is better matched to the field profile (a thinner beam propagating closer to the vanes). When this has been accomplished a detailed comparison of the performance of MWCG/MWDG (multiwave diffraction generator/multiwave Cherenkov generator) structures with BWO structures of the same interaction length will be undertaken.

  3. Nanowire mesh solar fuels generator

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Chan, Candace; Sun, Jianwei; Liu, Bin

    2016-05-24

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator. In one aspect, a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator includes (1) a photoanode configured to perform water oxidation and (2) a photocathode configured to perform water reduction. The photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode. The photoanode may include a high surface area network of photoanode nanowires. The photocathode may include a high surface area network of photocathode nanowires. In some embodiments, the nanowire mesh solar fuels generator may include an ion conductive polymer infiltrating the photoanode and the photocathode in the region where the photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode.

  4. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  5. Fluorine separation and generation device

    DOEpatents

    The Regents of the University of California

    2008-12-23

    A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

  6. Modeling and generating input processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  7. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  8. Variable frequency microprocessor clock generator

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, C.N.

    1989-04-04

    A microprocessor-based system is described comprising: a digital central microprocessor provided with a clock input and having a rate of operation determined by the frequency of a clock signal input thereto; memory means operably coupled to the central microprocessor for storing programs respectively including a plurality of instructions and addressable by the central microprocessor; peripheral device operably connected to the central microprocessor, the first peripheral device being addressable by the central microprocessor for control thereby; a system clock generator for generating a digital reference clock signal having a reference frequency rate; and frequency rate reduction circuit means connected between the clock generator and the clock input of the central microprocessor for selectively dividing the reference clock signal to generate a microprocessor clock signal as an input to the central microprocessor for clocking the central microprocessor.

  9. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  10. Cesium vapor thermionic current generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.H.; Israel, A.D.

    1981-11-03

    An electron current generator is disclosed which includes a nonelectrical heat source, a heat pipe having its first end in thermal relationship with the heat source, and a second end projecting upwardly therefrom and constituting a thermionic emitter enclosed within a chamber containing an alkali metal vapor at a substantially reduced atmospheric pressure. A substantial portion of the chamber wall constitutes a thermionic collector which is cooled by an appropriate cooling means to enhance current generation. A body of liquid metal is disposed between the heat source and heat pipe as a thermal stabilizing agent while a solid state diode is arranged in a forward bias situation in the electrical output of the generator to stabilize the voltage thereby forming a constant voltage current generator.

  11. Fluorine separation and generation device

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.; Stefan, Constantin I.

    2010-03-02

    A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

  12. Fluorine separation and generation device

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Stefan, Constantin I.

    2006-08-15

    A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

  13. Uncountably Generated Ideals of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sury, B.

    2011-01-01

    Maximal ideals in the ring of continuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1] are not finitely generated. This is well-known. What is not as well-known, but perhaps should be, is the fact that these ideals are not countably generated although the proof is not harder! We prove this here and use the result to produce some non-prime ideals in the…

  14. Power generation systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  15. Tide operated power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzman, H. Z.

    1981-02-03

    An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

  16. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  17. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  18. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  19. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2010-08-25

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  20. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices.

  1. [Proton generator of superhigh frequency].

    PubMed

    Liberman, E A; Eĭdus, V L

    1981-01-01

    Possible mechanism of superhigh frequency (10(10)-10(12) Hz) electromagnetic oscillation generation by an external proton in a system of hydrogen bonds of biomacromolecules is briefly discussed. The external proton in a proton channel deforms the potential profile of the proton of hydrogen bond in such a way, that there appears a possibility of the low frequency proton tunneling along the hydrogen bond. The interaction with the neighbouring bonds leads to further lowering of the generated frequency.

  2. High precision triangular waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1983-01-01

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  3. Solid state pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas

    2014-02-11

    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  4. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  5. Micro thrust and heat generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to micromachines such as microengines or micromotors. More specifically, the invention is directed to a micro rocket which functions as a source of heat and thrust, and utilizes chemical energy to drive or power micromechanical apparatuses. The invention is adaptable to applications involving defense, bio-medical, manufacturing, consumer product, aviation, automotive, computer, inspection, and safety systems. A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachine techniques (LIGA).

  6. Oil generation in overthrust belts

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, C.L.; Turcotte, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    The burial of immature sediments beneath a thrust sheet may result in sufficient heating to generate hydrocarbons. The authors present a model for the thermally activated generation of oil from kerogen and the subsequent destruction of the oil through cracking. Using this oil generation model in conjunction with a model applicable to the thermal evolution of overthrust belts, the evolution is studied of oil in sediments beneath a thrust sheet composed of sedimentary rocks. Oil generation may begin soon after emplacement of the thrust sheet. Beneath thick thrust sheets (>8 km), all oil in the sedimentary section may be destroyed less than 5 m.y. after thrusting. The authors results to the timing of oil generation in the sedimentary section beneath the Absaroka thrust plate in the Fossil syncline of western Wyoming. Calculations indicate that the Paleozoic and a part of the Mesozoic section were thermally mature prior to emplacement of the Absaroka plate. The remaining part of Mesozoic sediments matured only after thrusting. The results are in agreement with Warner's 1980 observations that oil being produced from reservoirs in the Absaroka plate was generated in the underthrust Mesozoic section.

  7. A Josephson radiation comb generator.

    PubMed

    Solinas, P; Gasparinetti, S; Golubev, D; Giazotto, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson Radiation Comb Generator (JRCG) based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. When the magnetic flux crosses a diffraction node of the critical current interference pattern, the superconducting phase undergoes a jump of π and a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the SQUID. Under periodic drive this allows one to generate a sequence of sharp, evenly spaced voltage pulses. In the frequency domain, this corresponds to a comb-like structure similar to the one exploited in optics and metrology. With this device it is possible to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. For example, a chain of 50 identical high-critical-temperature SQUIDs driven at 1 GHz can deliver up to a 0.5 nW at 200 GHz. The availability of a fully solid-state radiation comb generator such as the JRCG, easily integrable on chip, may pave the way to a number of technological applications, from metrology to sub-millimeter wave generation. PMID:26193628

  8. Photography-based image generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  9. A Josephson radiation comb generator

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, P.; Gasparinetti, S.; Golubev, D.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson Radiation Comb Generator (JRCG) based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. When the magnetic flux crosses a diffraction node of the critical current interference pattern, the superconducting phase undergoes a jump of π and a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the SQUID. Under periodic drive this allows one to generate a sequence of sharp, evenly spaced voltage pulses. In the frequency domain, this corresponds to a comb-like structure similar to the one exploited in optics and metrology. With this device it is possible to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. For example, a chain of 50 identical high-critical-temperature SQUIDs driven at 1 GHz can deliver up to a 0.5 nW at 200 GHz. The availability of a fully solid-state radiation comb generator such as the JRCG, easily integrable on chip, may pave the way to a number of technological applications, from metrology to sub-millimeter wave generation. PMID:26193628

  10. Generational diversity: teaching and learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan A; Romanello, Mary L

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students represent multiple generations--Baby Boomers, Generation X, and now the Millennials. Each generation has its own set of values, ideas, ethics, beliefs, and learning styles. The authors describe the context, characteristics, and learning styles of each generation and provide suggestions for enhanced teaching and learning across multiple generations. Using generational diversity as a teaching tool in the classroom is also discussed.

  11. Lexicon generation methods, lexicon generation devices, and lexicon generation articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Carter, Richard J [Richland, WA; McCall, Jonathon D [West Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; White, Amanda M [Kennewick, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Nakamura, Grant C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-10-26

    Lexicon generation methods, computer implemented lexicon editing methods, lexicon generation devices, lexicon editors, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a lexicon generation method includes providing a seed vector indicative of occurrences of a plurality of seed terms within a plurality of text items, providing a plurality of content vectors indicative of occurrences of respective ones of a plurality of content terms within the text items, comparing individual ones of the content vectors with respect to the seed vector, and responsive to the comparing, selecting at least one of the content terms as a term of a lexicon usable in sentiment analysis of text.

  12. Searches for Fourth Generation Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from searches for fourth generation fermions performed using data samples collected by the CDF II and D0 Detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. Many of these results represent the most stringent 95% C. L. limits on masses of new fermions to-date. A fourth chiral generation of massive fermions with the same quantum numbers as the known fermions is one of the simplest extensions of the SM with three generations. The fourth generation is predicted in a number of theories, and although historically have been considered disfavored, stands in agreement with electroweak precision data. To avoid Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} constraint from LEP I a fourth generation neutrino {nu}{sub 4} must be heavy: m({nu}{sub 4}) > m{sub Z}/2, where m{sub Z} is the mass of Z boson, and to avoid LEP II bounds a fourth generation charged lepton {ell}{sub 4} must have m({ell}{sub 4}) > 101 GeV/c{sup 2}. At the same time due to sizeable radiative corrections masses of fourth generation fermions cannot be much higher the current lower bounds and masses of new heavy quarks t' and b' should be in the range of a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2}. In the four-generation model the present bounds on the Higgs are relaxed: the Higgs mass could be as large as 1 TeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, the CP violation is significantly enhanced to the magnitude that might account for the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Additional chiral fermion families can also be accommodated in supersymmetric two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the SM with equivalent effect on the precision fit to the Higgs mass. Another possibility is heavy exotic quarks with vector couplings to the W boson Contributions to radiative corrections from such quarks with mass M decouple as 1/M{sup 2} and easily evade all experimental constraints. At the Tevatron p{bar p} collider 4-th generation chiral or vector-like quarks can be either produced strongly in pairs or singly via electroweak production, where the latter can be

  13. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  14. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood.

    PubMed

    Schurgers, Evelien; Moorlag, Martijn; Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  15. Waste generator services implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  16. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid.

  17. Downhole steam generation: material studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.

  18. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    PubMed

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  19. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  20. Wind driven power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Andruszkiw, W.; Andrushkiw, R.

    1986-10-14

    A vertically adjustable wind driven power generating apparatus comprised of, in combination, a well in which is vertically movably mounted a wind driven power generating apparatus comprised of: (i) a wind driven power generating means comprised of a tubular housing having rotatably mounted therein a horizontally extending shaft. The shaft has a centrally disposed bevel gear fixedly attached thereto and helical vanes disposed longitudinally on both sides of the bevel gear; (ii) means for vertical movement of the tubular housing within the well comprised of (a) a hollow vertical support column having a circular cross section and having one end thereof attached to the bottom of the tubular housing and (b) a vertically extending hollow tubular member having a hollow interior fixedly mounted at its bottom end in the floor of the well and being open at its other end, the tubular member adapted to telescopically receive the vertical support column in its open end; (iii) vertical movement control means comprised of (a) downward movement control means comprising an inverted wing system generating inverse-lift mounted on the tubular housing, and (b) upward movement control means comprising a cylinder having an axially movable piston therein; (iv) power transmission means comprising a vertically extending power transmitting shaft that drives a power generator.

  1. The fourth generation in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.

    1985-12-01

    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 <~ ν2/ν 1 <~ 4.5. We compute the mass spectrum in the class of models where the only source of soft supersymmetry breaking is the gaugino mass m1/2. The lightest charged scalar turns out to be the fourth-generation slepton, which may be ligth enough to be pair-produced at LEP. The present PETRA bound on new charged particles implies that m1/2 >~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  2. Wavelet-Based Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

  3. Test Generator for MATLAB Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joel

    2011-01-01

    MATLAB Automated Test Tool, version 3.0 (MATT 3.0) is a software package that provides automated tools that reduce the time needed for extensive testing of simulation models that have been constructed in the MATLAB programming language by use of the Simulink and Real-Time Workshop programs. MATT 3.0 runs on top of the MATLAB engine application-program interface to communicate with the Simulink engine. MATT 3.0 automatically generates source code from the models, generates custom input data for testing both the models and the source code, and generates graphs and other presentations that facilitate comparison of the outputs of the models and the source code for the same input data. Context-sensitive and fully searchable help is provided in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format.

  4. Microsaccades generated during car driving.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shuntaro; Hirata, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Microsaccades together with drift and tremor are fixational eye movements that are generated when we try to fixate our gaze on a visual target. Besides their function in vision to prevent neural adaptation to unchanging retinal image, microsaccades have been studied in neuroscience as an indicator of attentional states for the last decade. Most of microsaccade researches have been conducted in unnatural laboratory environments, using controlled artificial visual stimuli. Thus, little is known about the characteristics of microsaccades in natural viewing conditions. Here we attempted to evaluate microsaccades during car driving condition in the aim of estimating driver's spatial attention. We demonstrate that microsaccades are generated during car driving, and the rate of microsaccade generation is modulated by road conditions such as appearance of pedestrians or/and other cars.

  5. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Patrick I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  6. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of the rotor cell was employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of the cell. An electrical conductor was placed in surrounding proximity to the cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement was provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively.

  7. Generation and culture of osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G; Mellis, David; Capulli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells of haematopoietic lineage that are uniquely responsible for bone resorption. In the past, osteoclasts were isolated as mature cells from chicken long bones, or were generated using osteoblasts or stromal cells to induce osteoclast formation in total bone marrow from mice or rabbits. The Copernican revolution in osteoclast biology began with the identification of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator NFκB-ligand (RANKL ) as the key regulators of osteoclast formation, fusion and function. The availability of recombinant human and mouse M-CSF and RANKL has enabled researchers to reliably generate osteoclasts from primary monocyte/macrophage cells as well as from cell lines such as RAW 264.7. This article summarizes the most commonly used procedures for the isolation, generation and characterization of human, rodent and chicken osteoclasts in vitro. Lists of further reading and recommendations are included to facilitate a successful application by the reader. PMID:25228983

  8. Generation and culture of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G; Mellis, David; Capulli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells of haematopoietic lineage that are uniquely responsible for bone resorption. In the past, osteoclasts were isolated as mature cells from chicken long bones, or were generated using osteoblasts or stromal cells to induce osteoclast formation in total bone marrow from mice or rabbits. The Copernican revolution in osteoclast biology began with the identification of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator NFκB-ligand (RANKL ) as the key regulators of osteoclast formation, fusion and function. The availability of recombinant human and mouse M-CSF and RANKL has enabled researchers to reliably generate osteoclasts from primary monocyte/macrophage cells as well as from cell lines such as RAW 264.7. This article summarizes the most commonly used procedures for the isolation, generation and characterization of human, rodent and chicken osteoclasts in vitro. Lists of further reading and recommendations are included to facilitate a successful application by the reader. PMID:25228983

  9. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  10. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  11. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  12. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  13. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  14. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  15. Controllable laser ion beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyama, D.; Takano, M.; Nagashima, T.; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.

    2016-05-01

    In intense-laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for a future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a bunching of ion beam, which is preaccelerated by a strong electric field generated in a laser plasma interaction. In this study, a nearcritical-density plasma target is illuminated by an intense short laser pulse. A moving strong inductive electric field is generated inside of the target. We have successfully obtained a bunched ion beam in our particle-in-cell simulations in this paper.

  16. Generation of a monodispersed aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenck, H.; Mikasa, M.; Devicariis, R.

    1974-01-01

    The identity and laboratory test methods for the generation of a monodispersed aerosol are reported on, and are subjected to the following constraints and parameters; (1) size distribution; (2) specific gravity; (3) scattering properties; (4) costs; (5) production. The procedure called for the collection of information from the literature, commercial available products, and experts working in the field. The following topics were investigated: (1) aerosols; (2) air pollution -- analysis; (3) atomizers; (4) dispersion; (5) particles -- optics, size analysis; (6) smoke -- generators, density measurements; (7) sprays; (8) wind tunnels -- visualization.

  17. Method for generating surface plasma

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul A.; Aragon, Ben P.

    2003-05-27

    A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.

  18. Fast generation of stereolithographic models.

    PubMed

    Raic, K; Jansen, T; von Rymon-Lipinski, B; Tille, C; Seitz, H; Keeve, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a work-in-progress method for fast and efficient generation of stereolithographic models. The overall approach is embedded in our general software framework Julius, which runs on high-end-graphic systems as well as on low-level PCs. The design of the support structures needed for the stereolithographic process will allow semiautomatic generation of the model. We did produce support structures for stereolithographic models with this fast data processing pipeline and will show future perspectives in this paper. PMID:12451779

  19. Generations: Celebrating a Cultural Mosaic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Smithsonian Institute's publication, "Generations--A Universal Family Album," which was developed to accompany the exhibition inaugurating the museum's new International Gallery. The book explores ways in which families around the world and throughout the centuries have welcomed and nurtured infants and children. (BB)

  20. Workplace Learning and Generation X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bova, Breda; Kroth, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the learning preferences of 197 Generation X workers found that they value incidental and action learning. They recognized the need for formal training, but suggested improvements. They preferred learning by doing, visual stimuli, and self-directed learning. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  1. The Shift in Generational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Amy Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Amy Morrison Goings was 40 years old in 2013 when she began her presidency at Lake Washington Institute of Technology. She didn't consider herself a representative of all Generation X community college presidents, but as a member of this tight-knit group, she does feel a need to share her insight into what's on the minds of that community.…

  2. Generation of electron Airy beams.

    PubMed

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-02-21

    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, a unique particle wave packet exists in the form of the Airy function. Its counterintuitive properties are revealed as it propagates in time or space: the quantum probability wave packet preserves its shape despite dispersion or diffraction and propagates along a parabolic caustic trajectory, even though no force is applied. This does not contradict Newton's laws of motion, because the wave packet centroid propagates along a straight line. Nearly 30 years later, this wave packet, known as an accelerating Airy beam, was realized in the optical domain; later it was generalized to an orthogonal and complete family of beams that propagate along parabolic trajectories, as well as to beams that propagate along arbitrary convex trajectories. Here we report the experimental generation and observation of the Airy beams of free electrons. These electron Airy beams were generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, which imprinted on the electrons' wavefunction a cubic phase modulation in the transverse plane. The highest-intensity lobes of the generated beams indeed followed parabolic trajectories. We directly observed a non-spreading electron wavefunction that self-heals, restoring its original shape after passing an obstacle. This holographic generation of electron Airy beams opens up new avenues for steering electronic wave packets like their photonic counterparts, because the wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories.

  3. Two-generation saccharin bioassays.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D L

    1983-01-01

    The controversy regarding the safety of saccharin for human consumption started shortly after its discovery over 100 years ago and has yet to subside appreciably. The consumption of saccharin, particularly in North America, began to escalate when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set new standards of identity which allowed foods containing artificial sweeteners to be promoted as "nonnutritive" or "noncaloric" sweeteners for use by the general public. In 1969, when cyclamates were banned, at least 10 single-generation feeding studies were undertaken with saccharin to more accurately assess the potential toxicological consequences resulting from the anticipated increase in its consumption. None of these studies resulted in any overt regulatory action. Subsequently, the introduction of the two-generation chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity bioassay added a new tool to the toxicologist's arsenal. Three two-generation studies using saccharin have since been conducted. The results from these studies clearly show that when rats were exposed to diets containing 5 or 7.5% sodium saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found, predominantly in the males. While some study results suggested that impurities in commercial saccharin or the presence of urinary tract calculi may have been responsible for the observed bladder tumors, it now appears that these possibilities are highly unlikely. The mechanism by which saccharin elicited the bladder tumors using the two-generation experiment has not been ascertained. PMID:6347682

  4. An Adaptive Course Generation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Frederick W. B.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Dharmendran, Parthiban

    2010-01-01

    Existing adaptive e-learning methods are supported by student (user) profiling for capturing student characteristics, and course structuring for organizing learning materials according to topics and levels of difficulties. Adaptive courses are then generated by extracting materials from the course structure to match the criteria specified in the…

  5. Understanding and Teaching Generation Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Peter

    2012-01-01

    English teaching professionals working with children in primary school, adolescents in secondary school, or adults at university know that learners nowadays think and behave differently than those from previous generations. These students were born into a world of information technology; they prefer to multitask rather than focus on one thing at a…

  6. Department-Generated Microcomputer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantei, Erwin J.

    1986-01-01

    Explains how self-produced software can be used to perform rapid number analysis or number-crunching duties in geology classes. Reviews programs in mineralogy and petrology and identifies areas in geology where computers can be used effectively. Discusses the advantages and benefits of integrating department-generated software into a geology…

  7. Wave generation by turbulent convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, Peter; Kumar, Pawan

    1990-01-01

    Wave generation by turbulent convection in a plane parallel, stratified atmosphere lying in a gravitational field is studied. The turbulent spectrum is related to the convective energy flux via the Kolmogorov scaling and the mixing length hypothesis. Efficiencies for the conversion of the convective energy flux into both trapped and propagating waves are estimated.

  8. Creating a Generation of Solutionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    For those who want to change the world, the author suggests they take the first step by learning about humane education. The goal of humane education is to graduate a generation of solutionaries. Humane education is founded upon the belief that human rights, environmental preservation, and animal protection are integral aspects of a just,…

  9. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  10. Emergency generators' critical role examined.

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2015-06-01

    The research evidence cited within this article relates to the reliability of emergency diesel generators, and concludes by recommending that NHS organisations urgently review their corporate strategy, business continuity plans, backlog maintenance schedules, etc., as it appears that these units are not operating to the 99.95% reliability figure suggested by the National Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP), but instead at reliabilities of around 98.5%. The practical interpretation of this lower reliability figure is that for a typical NHS Trust operating 10 emergency diesel generators, it can be surmised that they can expect to experience 1.81 failures/year, while under test conditions When combining the requirements for the generators to operate under test plus actual power outage conditions, with the 'fragility' of the power supply from the main electrical undertaker, then the Trust can expect to experience >1.81 failures/year, some of which could occur during a power outage. In putting together this article I conducted a small 'straw poll' of NHS acute hospital sites, which confirmed that the failure of emergency diesel generators was far from being a rare event, and indeed when the historical records were compared with the research papers cited, they showed that such failures were predictable, and in most cases preventable, i.e. certain.

  11. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Learning as a Generative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrock, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive model of human learning with understanding is introduced. Empirical research supporting the model, which is called the generative model, is summarized. The model is used to suggest a way to integrate some of the research in cognitive development, human learning, human abilities, information processing, and aptitude-treatment…

  13. A Computer Generated Audiovisuals Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Betty

    Eccles Medical Sciences Library at the University of Utah has developed a computer-generated catalog for its audiovisual health and medical materials. The catalog contains four sections: (1) the main listing of type of media, with descriptions, call numbers, and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used for each item; (2) a listing by title, with call…

  14. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  15. Generative Learning in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; And Others

    This research attempted to replicate and extend results from a previous study examining the effects on achievement of generating summaries or analogies while reading a lengthy text. Before the study, 111 undergraduate students from a large midwestern university were classified as high or low ability and randomly assigned to paired or individual…

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  17. The Making of a Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Group interviews with college undergraduates revealed five social and political events that they felt had most influenced their generation: the "Challenger" shuttle explosion; the end of the Cold War; the Persian Gulf War; the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic; and the Rodney King beating and subsequent trials. (MSE)

  18. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  19. Grid generation using classical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical review of conformal mapping and its applications to problems in fluid mechanics and electromagnetism is presented. The use of conformal mapping as a grid generator is described. The philosophy of the 'closed form' approach and its application to a Neumann problem is discussed. Karman-Trefftz mappings and grids for ablated, three dimensional bodies are also discussed.

  20. Shared Governance: The Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovas, John C.; And Others

    This document contains three papers which present information from various perspectives on aspects of shared governance at De Anza College, in Cupertino, California. First, "Shared Governance: The Next Generation," by John C. Lovas, provides a brief history of governance in the Foothill-De Anza Community College District, and suggests some of the…

  1. Design Calculations for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeldin, B.

    1983-01-01

    Nine simplified analytic models based on average properties accurately predict heat rates for silicon/germanium thermoelectric generators. Solutions from simplified models were compared with those obtained using sophisticated numerical analysis. Maximum errors in calculated heat rate range from about 4 percent to about 0.2 percent. Models also used to calculate power delivered to load and thermodynamic efficiency.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Di Croce, A. Michael; Draper, Robert

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  3. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Time-Tag Generation Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan E.

    2010-01-01

    Time-Tag Generation Script (TTaGS) is an application program, written in the AWK scripting language, for generating commands for aiming one Ku-band antenna and two S-band antennas for communicating with spacecraft. TTaGS saves between 2 and 4 person-hours per every 24 hours by automating the repetitious process of building between 150 and 180 antenna-control commands. TTaGS reads a text database of communication satellite schedules and a text database of satellite rise and set times and cross-references items in the two databases. It then compares the scheduled start and stop with the geometric rise and set to compute the times to execute antenna control commands. While so doing, TTaGS determines whether to generate commands for guidance, navigation, and control computers to tell them which satellites to track. To help prevent Ku-band irradiation of the Earth, TTaGS accepts input from the user about horizon tolerance and accordingly restricts activation and effects deactivation of the transmitter. TTaGS can be modified easily to enable tracking of additional satellites and for such other tasks as reading Sun-rise/set tables to generate commands to point the solar photovoltaic arrays of the International Space Station at the Sun.

  5. Teaching the iGeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    Children and teens today are immersed in technology. Just as we don't think about the existence of air, they don't think about technology and media. Individualized mobile devices have given them the expectation that if they conceive of something, they will be able to make it happen. Yet schools still expect these members of the iGeneration to…

  6. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  7. Resists for next generation lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, Robert L.; Barclay, George G.; Anderson, Erik H.; Ocola, Leonidas E.

    2001-10-03

    Four Next Generation Lithographic options (EUV, x-ray, EPL, IPL) are compared against four current optical technologies (i-line, DUV, 193 nm, 157 nm) for resolution capabilities based on wavelength. As the wavelength of the incident radiation decreases, the nature of the interaction with the resist changes. At high energies, optical density is less sensitive to molecular structure then at 157 nm.

  8. A Generation Immersed in Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly reports the findings of "Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-Olds," a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Stanford University researchers. The report studied media use a nationally representative sample of more than 2,000 3rd through 12th graders in the United States. The study found that although the…

  9. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  10. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  11. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  12. WIPP Gas-Generation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frank S. Felicione; Steven M. Frank; Dennis D. Keiser

    2007-05-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750 ml headspace in each vessel was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure estimated in the repository were it to be inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30°C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generated by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6 1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. Up to 4.2% hydrogen, by volume, was measured. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in vessels containing carbon steel. Visual examination of carbon-steel coupons confirmed the correspondence between the extent of observable corrosion and hydrogen generation. Average corrosion penetration rates

  13. Survey of Volumetric Grid Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Alex; Volakis, John; Hulbert, Greg; Case, Jeff; Presley, Leroy L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the result of an Internet Survey of Volumetric grid generators. As such we have included information from only the responses which were sent to us. After the initial publication and posting of this survey, we would encourage authors and users of grid generators to send further information. Here is the initial query posted to SIGGRID@nas and the USENET group sci.physics.computational.fluid-dynamics. Date: Sun, 30 Jan 94 11:37:52 -0800 From: woo (Alex Woo x6010 227-6 rm 315) Subject: Info Sought for Survey of Grid Generators I am collecting information and reviews of both government sponsored and commercial mesh generators for large scientific calculations, both block structured and unstructured. If you send me a review of a mesh generator, please indicate its availability and cost. If you are a commercial concern with information on a product, please also include references for possible reviewers. Please email to woo@ra-next.arc.nasa.gov. I will post a summary and probably write a short note for the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. Alex Woo, MS 227-6 woo@ames.arc.nasa.gov NASA Ames Research Center NASAMAIL ACWOO Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 SPANET 24582::W00 (415) 604-6010 (FAX) 604-4357 fhplabs,decwrl,uunet)!ames!woo Disclaimer: These are not official statements of NASA or EMCC. We did not include all the submitted text here. Instead we have created a database entry in the freely available and widely used BIBTeX format which has an Uniform Resource Locator (URL) field pointing to more details. The BIBTeX database is modeled after those available from the BIBNET project at University of Utah.

  14. Electromechanically generating electricity with a gapped-graphene electric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressen, Donald; Golovchenko, Jene

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and operation of a gapped-graphene electric generator (G-GEG) device. The G-GEG generates electricity from the mechanical oscillation of droplets of electrolytes and ionic liquids. The spontaneous adsorption of ionic species on graphene charges opposing electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) on each half of the device. Modulating the area of contact between the droplet and graphene leads to adsorption/desorption of ions, effectively charging/discharging each EDLC and generating a current. The flow of current supports a potential difference across the G-GEG due to the device's internal impedance. Both the magnitude and polarity of the induced current and voltage show a strong dependence on the type of ionic species used, suggesting that certain ions interact more strongly with graphene than others. We find that a simple model circuit consisting of an AC current source in series with a resistor and a time-varying capacitor accurately predicts the device's dynamic behavior. Additionally, we discuss the effect of graphene's intrinsic quantum capacitance on the G-GEG's performance and speculate on the utility of the device in the context of energy harvesting.

  15. Generational diversity: teaching and learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan A; Romanello, Mary L

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students represent multiple generations--Baby Boomers, Generation X, and now the Millennials. Each generation has its own set of values, ideas, ethics, beliefs, and learning styles. The authors describe the context, characteristics, and learning styles of each generation and provide suggestions for enhanced teaching and learning across multiple generations. Using generational diversity as a teaching tool in the classroom is also discussed. PMID:16170263

  16. Power generation controls emerging trends

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, B.J.; Moskal, J.J.; Schuss, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Advances in microtechnology and intelligent control systems will continue to impact all phases of power generation controls and provide new options. This paper discusses an automatic sequential control system for automatic start-up and shutdown of the entire power plant. The system accesses the individual steam generator, turbine and BOP systems to enable a little manual intervention. Also covered are diagnostic on-line performance systems and the projected work on expert technology t integrate diagnostics with controls for optimum economics and plant availability. Control features such as increased microprocessor scan rate, storage capability, high data transmission throughput rates, etc. will play a significant role in achieving these objectives. Discussion also covers control integration requirements in the background of the expected impact of emerging data communication standards.

  17. Generations of interdisciplinarity in bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Andrew; Lewis, Jamie; Williams, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics, a specialism propelled into relevance by the Human Genome Project and the subsequent -omic turn in the life science, is an interdisciplinary field of research. Qualitative work on the disciplinary identities of bioinformaticians has revealed the tensions involved in work in this “borderland.” As part of our ongoing work on the emergence of bioinformatics, between 2010 and 2011, we conducted a survey of United Kingdom-based academic bioinformaticians. Building on insights drawn from our fieldwork over the past decade, we present results from this survey relevant to a discussion of disciplinary generation and stabilization. Not only is there evidence of an attitudinal divide between the different disciplinary cultures that make up bioinformatics, but there are distinctions between the forerunners, founders and the followers; as inter/disciplines mature, they face challenges that are both inter-disciplinary and inter-generational in nature. PMID:27453689

  18. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  19. Ocean foam generation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the physical and microwave properties of ocean foam. Special foam generators were designed and fabricated, using porous glass sheets, known as glass frits, as the principal element. The glass frit was sealed into a water-tight vertical box, a few centimeters from the bottom. Compressed air, applied to the lower chamber, created ocean foam from sea water lying on the frit. Foam heights of 30 cm were readily achieved, with relatively low air pressures. Special photographic techniques and analytical procedures were employed to determine foam bubble size distributions. In addition, the percentage water content of ocean foam was determined with the aid of a particulate sampling procedure. A glass frit foam generator, with pore diameters in the range 70 - 100 micrometers, produced foam with bubble distributions very similar to those found on the surface of natural ocean foam patches.

  20. Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-06-01

    Automated DNA sequencing instruments embody an elegant interplay among chemistry, engineering, software, and molecular biology and have built upon Sanger's founding discovery of dideoxynucleotide sequencing to perform once-unfathomable tasks. Combined with innovative physical mapping approaches that helped to establish long-range relationships between cloned stretches of genomic DNA, fluorescent DNA sequencers produced reference genome sequences for model organisms and for the reference human genome. New types of sequencing instruments that permit amazing acceleration of data-collection rates for DNA sequencing have been developed. The ability to generate genome-scale data sets is now transforming the nature of biological inquiry. Here, I provide an historical perspective of the field, focusing on the fundamental developments that predated the advent of next-generation sequencing instruments and providing information about how these instruments work, their application to biological research, and the newest types of sequencers that can extract data from single DNA molecules.

  1. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  2. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  3. Second-Generation Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Zhou, Hanying; Kisor, Adam; Jan, Darrell; Jewell, April; Taylor, Charles; Manfreda, Allison; Manatt, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses the second generation of the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose), an array of 32 semi-specific chemical sensors used as an event monitor to identify and quantify contaminants released into breathing air by leaks or spills. It is designed to monitor the environment for changes in air quality, and is trained to identify and quantify selected chemical species at predetermined concentrations, ranging from sub-ppm to ppth. This system has improved reproducibility for making matched arrays, allowing use of data analysis software with minimal recalibration on sensor set replacement. The Second Generation (SG) ENose is a follow-up to the first JPL Electronic Nose that was tested on an earlier space shuttle mission (STS-95). Improvements have been made to the hardware, sensor materials, and data analysis software.

  4. Direct generation of Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Muys, Peter; Vandamme, Eefje

    2002-10-20

    Two implementations are identified to create a Bessel beam directly, i.e. without the spatial filtering of an initially Gaussian beam. The first implementation is based on a resonator configuration whose lowest-loss transverse mode is a Bessel beam. Numerical simulation to corroborate the geometrical optical arguments is presented. The second implementation is based on the theorem that the angular-plane wave spectrum of a Bessel beam is composed of a cone of wave vectors. This cone is also generated through a phase-matching condition in a four-wave mixing process. This leads to the conclusion that anti-Stokes radiation generated in a nonlinear material will leave the substrate under the form of a Bessel beam.

  5. Direct generation of Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muys, Peter; Vandamme, Eefje

    2002-10-01

    Two implementations are identified to create a Bessel beam directly, i.e. without the spatial filtering of an initially Gaussian beam. The first implementation is based on a resonator configuration whose lowest-loss transverse mode is a Bessel beam. Numerical simulation to corroborate the geometrical optical arguments is presented. The second implementation is based on the theorem that the angular-plane wave spectrum of a Bessel beam is composed of a cone of wave vectors. This cone is also generated through a phase-matching condition in a four-wave mixing process. This leads to the conclusion that anti-Stokes radiation generated in a nonlinear material will leave the substrate under the form of a Bessel beam.

  6. Onboard hydrogen generation for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Problems concerning the use of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are related to the storage of the hydrogen onboard a vehicle. The feasibility is investigated to use an approach based on onboard hydrogen generation as a means to avoid these storage difficulties. Two major chemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbons and methanol. In steam reforming, the fuel reacts with water on a catalytic surface to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In partial oxidation, the fuel reacts with air, either on a catalytic surface or in a flame front, to yield a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are many trade-offs in onboard hydrogen generation, both in the choice of fuels as well as in the choice of a chemical process. Attention is given to these alternatives, the results of some experimental work in this area, and the combustion of various hydrogen-rich gases in an internal combustion engine.

  7. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  8. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  9. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  10. Dislocation Detection Through Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, B. T.; Kropf, M.; Boudraeu, K.; Guers, M. J.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2010-02-01

    A fundamental goal of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is to characterize material defects before failure. During material fatigue, dislocations tend to nucleate, becoming sources of stress concentration. Eventually, cracks start to form and lead to material failure. Recent research has indicated that nonlinear harmonic generation can be used to distinguish between materials of high and low dislocation densities. This research reports nonlinear harmonic generation measurements to distinguish between those areas of high and low dislocation densities in copper bars. The copper bars were subjected to flexural fatigue. Periodic scans were taken in order to track dislocation development during the fatigue life of the material. We show that this technique provides improved early detection for critical components of failure.

  11. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  12. Highly constrained entry trajectory generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Luhua; Tang, Guojian; Zheng, Wei

    2013-07-01

    An entry trajectory planning algorithm that generates flyable trajectories satisfying waypoints, no-fly zones, and other path and terminal constraints is presented. The algorithm tactically divides the entry trajectory into the initial and glide phases. In the initial phase, a nominal angle of attack and a constant bank angle are used to generate the 3-D trajectory. In the glide phase, a planner is developed based on the evolved acceleration guidance logic for entry (EAGLE). The planner is divided into a longitudinal sub-planner and a lateral sub-planner. For longitudinal planning, the drag-energy profile is represented as five piecewise linear functions of the normalized non-conventional energy to make it consistent with both the desired trajectory length and the lateral maneuverability required to meet waypoint and no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal sub-planner determines the magnitude of the bank angle, whereas the lateral sub-planner determines the appropriate sign of the bank angle for passing waypoints, avoiding no-fly zones, and minimizing the final heading error. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all path and terminal constraints are satisfied. Then, a tracker is employed to follow both the reference drag acceleration and the heading angle profiles to generate a feasible closed-loop entry trajectory. The approach is tested using the Common Aero Vehicle model. Simulations demonstrate that the generated trajectories can pass the predetermined waypoints, avoid no-fly zones, and achieve the desired target conditions within allowable tolerances.

  13. Magma energy for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy contained in crustal magma bodies represents a large potential resource for the US and magma generated power could become a viable alternative in the future. Engineering feasibility of the magma energy concept is being investigated as part of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Program. This current project follows a seven-year Magma Energy Research Project where scientific feasibility of the concept was concluded.

  14. Quasi-Random Sequence Generators.

    1994-03-01

    Version 00 LPTAU generates quasi-random sequences. The sequences are uniformly distributed sets of L=2**30 points in the N-dimensional unit cube: I**N=[0,1]. The sequences are used as nodes for multidimensional integration, as searching points in global optimization, as trial points in multicriteria decision making, as quasi-random points for quasi Monte Carlo algorithms.

  15. Sandia Unstructured Triangle Table Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-16

    The software generates data tables for thermodynamic and transport properties of materials as described by a set of input models. For each input model parameterization, an associated table is created on an unstructured triangular grid. These grids all conform to the same topology. A statistical accuracy guarantee is provided for the tabular representation of the model. Details of the model and table specification are given in a XML input deck.

  16. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  17. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  18. Mini-biomass electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, G.

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  19. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  20. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  1. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  2. Electrostatic generator/motor configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    2014-02-04

    Electrostatic generators/motors designs are provided that generally may include a first cylindrical stator centered about a longitudinal axis; a second cylindrical stator centered about the axis, a first cylindrical rotor centered about the axis and located between the first cylindrical stator and the second cylindrical stator. The first cylindrical stator, the second cylindrical stator and the first cylindrical rotor may be concentrically aligned. A magnetic field having field lines about parallel with the longitudinal axis is provided.

  3. Glycolysis for the Microbiome Generation

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For a generation of microbiologists who study pathogenesis in the context of the human microbiome, understanding the diversity of bacterial metabolism will be essential. In this opening chapter, I will briefly describe how and why I became, and remain, interested in metabolism. As one example of metabolic diversity, I then will describe and compare some of the strategies used by bacteria to consume sugars. I will end with a plea to embrace metabolism in the endeavor to understand pathogenesis. PMID:26185089

  4. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  5. High flux compact neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.; Lou, T.-P.; Tolmachoff, B.; Leung, K.-N.; Verbeke, J.; Vujic, J.

    2001-06-15

    Compact high flux neutron generators are developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutron production is based on D-D or D-T reaction. The deuterium or tritium ions are produced from plasma using either a 2 MHz or 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) discharge. RF-discharge yields high fraction of atomic species in the beam which enables higher neutron output. In the first tube design, the ion beam is formed using a multiple hole accelerator column. The beam is accelerated to energy of 80 keV by means of a three-electrode extraction system. The ion beam then impinges on a titanium target where either the 2.4 MeV D-D or 14 MeV D-T neutrons are generated. The MCNP computation code has predicted a neutron flux of {approximately}10{sup 11} n/s for the D-D reaction at beam intensity of 1.5 A at 150 kV. The neutron flux measurements of this tube design will be presented. Recently new compact high flux tubes are being developed which can be used for various applications. These tubes also utilize RF-discharge for plasma generation. The design of these tubes and the first measurements will be discussed in this presentation.

  6. Self-Organizing Mesh Generation

    1991-11-01

    A set of five programs which make up a self organizing mesh generation package. QMESH generates meshes having quadrilateral elements on arbitrarily shaped two-dimensional (planar or axisymmetric) bodies. It is designed for use with two-dimensional finite element analysis applications. A flexible hierarchal input scheme is used to describe bodies to QMESH as collections of regions. A mesh for each region is developed independently, with the final assembly and bandwidth minimization performed by the independent program,more » RENUM or RENUM8. RENUM is applied when four-node elements are desired. Eight node elements (with mid side nodes) may be obtained with RENUM8. QPLOT and QPLOT8 are plot programs for meshes generated by the QMESH/RENUM and QMESH/RENUM8 program pairs respectively. QPLOT and QPLOT8 automatically section the mesh into appropriately-sized sections for legible display of node and element numbers, An overall plot showing the position of the selected plot areas is produced.« less

  7. Next-generation Digital Earth

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, Michael F.; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J.; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of “big data” has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public’s access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation. PMID:22723346

  8. Intelligent automated surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Ke-Thia; Gelsey, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The goal of our research is to produce a flexible, general grid generator for automated use by other programs, such as numerical optimizers. The current trend in the gridding field is toward interactive gridding. Interactive gridding more readily taps into the spatial reasoning abilities of the human user through the use of a graphical interface with a mouse. However, a sometimes fruitful approach to generating new designs is to apply an optimizer with shape modification operators to improve an initial design. In order for this approach to be useful, the optimizer must be able to automatically grid and evaluate the candidate designs. This paper describes and intelligent gridder that is capable of analyzing the topology of the spatial domain and predicting approximate physical behaviors based on the geometry of the spatial domain to automatically generate grids for computational fluid dynamics simulators. Typically gridding programs are given a partitioning of the spatial domain to assist the gridder. Our gridder is capable of performing this partitioning. This enables the gridder to automatically grid spatial domains of wide range of configurations.

  9. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  10. Next-generation Digital Earth.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-07-10

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  11. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  12. Microplasma generator and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hopwood, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-14

    A low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure microplasma generator comprises at least one strip of metal on a dielectric substrate. A first end of the strip is connected to a ground plane and the second end of the strip is adjacent to a grounded electrode, with a gap being defined between the second end of the strip and the grounded electrode. High frequency power is supplied to the strip. The frequency is selected so that the length of the strip is an odd integer multiple of 1/4 of the wavelength traveling on the strip. A microplasma forms in the gap between the second end of the strip and the grounded electrode due to electric fields in that region. A microplasma generator array comprises a plurality of strongly-coupled resonant strips in close proximity to one another. At least one of the strips has an input for high-frequency electrical power. The remaining strips resonate due to coupling from the at least one powered strip. The array can provide a continuous line or ring of plasma. The microplasma generator can be used to alter the surface of a substrate, such as by adding material (deposition), removal of material (etching), or modifying surface chemistry.

  13. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power..., CER Generation II, LLC, Constellation Mystic Power, LLC, Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.,...

  14. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ˜3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  15. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  16. Item Generation for Test Development [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2003-01-01

    This volume, based on papers presented at a 1998 conference, collects thinking and research on item generation for test development. It includes materials on psychometric and cognitive theory, construct-oriented approaches to item generation, the item generation process, and some applications of item generative principles. (SLD)

  17. Welcome to the iGeneration!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Defining and understanding a generation of Americans has always been difficult until years after the generation ends. Although there is universal agreement on the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964) and most people agree that Generation X started in 1965 and ended around 1979, after that it gets murky. In his research, the author believes that the…

  18. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  19. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current.

  20. Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation and Human Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick P.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Sprenger, Amber M.; Harbison, J. Isaiah

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic hypothesis-generation processes are ubiquitous in human reasoning. For example, clinicians generate disease hypotheses to explain symptoms and help guide treatment, auditors generate hypotheses for identifying sources of accounting errors, and laypeople generate hypotheses to explain patterns of information (i.e., data) in the…

  1. Performance testing of thermoelectric generators at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouklove, P.; Truscello, V.

    1974-01-01

    Results of life tests of thermoelectric generators ranging in output power from 800 microwatts to 170 watts. Emphasis is placed on the results obtained from tests of three advanced prototypes - a high-performance generator, a transit-type generator, and a ring converter. In addition, the results of life tests of a number of generators representing Nimbus, Pioneer, and Viking technology are presented.

  2. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1983-09-27

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current. 11 figs.

  3. 48 CFR 53.105 - Computer generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computer generation. 53...) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 53.105 Computer generation. (a) Agencies may computer-generate the... be computer generated by the public. Unless prohibited by agency regulations, forms prescribed...

  4. Computer-Generated Feedback on Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Paige

    2011-01-01

    A distinction must be made between "computer-generated scoring" and "computer-generated feedback". Computer-generated scoring refers to the provision of automated scores derived from mathematical models built on organizational, syntactic, and mechanical aspects of writing. In contrast, computer-generated feedback, the focus of this article, refers…

  5. 48 CFR 53.105 - Computer generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computer generation. 53...) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 53.105 Computer generation. (a) Agencies may computer-generate the... be computer generated by the public. Unless prohibited by agency regulations, forms prescribed...

  6. Generativity Does Not Necessarily Satisfy All Your Needs: Associations among Cultural Demand for Generativity, Generative Concern, Generative Action, and Need Satisfaction in the Elderly in Four Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger; Au, Alma; Polácková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, Peter; Tsien Wong, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the association between various facets of generativity, that is, cultural demand for generativity, generative concern, and generative action, with the satisfaction of the needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy in samples of elderly from Cameroon, China (Hong Kong), the Czech Republic, and Germany. Participants…

  7. Generation and Memory for Contextual Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.

    2004-01-01

    Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-___) and read…

  8. Method for protecting an electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  9. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  10. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  11. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  12. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  13. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  14. TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.

  15. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  16. Small radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10- to 30-watt), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study by OSC (formerly Fairchild) personnel, who had previously conducted very encouraging studies of 75-watt RTPV systems based on two 250-watt General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Since these modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper, OSC generated derivative designs for 125-watt and 62.5-watt heat source modules. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, these contained identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell, and thermal insulation as the previously developed and safety-qualified 250-watt units. OSC also generated a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, employing no honeycombs or heat pipes. OSC's previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective Infra-Red (IR) filters that had been partially developed and characterized by Boeing (now EDTEK) personnel. The present study was based on greatly improved selective filters developed and performance-mapped by EDTEK under an OSC-initiated subcontract. The paper describes illustrative small-RTPV designs and analyzes their mass, size, power output, system efficiency, and specific power, and illustrates their integration with a miniaturized New Millennium spacecraft.

  17. Catalytic converter with thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    The unique design of an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and the inclusion of an ECO valve in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine will meet the strict new emission requirements, especially at vehicle cold start, adopted by several states in this country as well as in Europe and Japan. The catalytic converter (CC) has been a most useful tool in pollution abatement for the automobile. But the emission requirements are becoming more stringent and, along with other improvements, the CC must be improved to meet these new standards. Coupled with the ECO valve, the EHC can meet these new emission limits. In an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), approximately 80% of the energy consumed leaves the vehicle as waste heat: out the tail pipe, through the radiator, or convected/radiated off the engine. Included with the waste heat out the tail pipe are the products of combustion which must meet strict emission requirements. The design of a new CC is presented here. This is an automobile CC that has the capability of producing electrical power and reducing the quantity of emissions at vehicle cold start, the Thermoelectric Catalytic Power Generator. The CC utilizes the energy of the exothermic reactions that take place in the catalysis substrate to produce electrical energy with a thermoelectric generator. On vehicle cold start, the thermoelectric generator is used as a heat pump to heat the catalyst substrate to reduce the time to catalyst light-off. Thus an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) will be used to augment the abatement of tail pipe emissions. Included with the EHC in the exhaust stream of the automobile is the ECO valve. This valve restricts the flow of pollutants out the tail pipe of the vehicle for a specified amount of time until the EHC comes up to operating temperature. Then the ECO valve opens and allows the full exhaust, now treated by the EHC, to leave the vehicle.

  18. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  19. RPV steam generator pressure boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.

    1996-03-01

    As the types of SG tube degradation affecting PWR SGs has changed, and improvements in tube inspection and repair technology have occurred, current SG regulatory requirements and guidance have become increasingly out of date. This regulatory situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis, however to resolve this problem in the long term, the NRC has begun development of a performance-based rule. As currently structured, the proposed steam generator rule would require licensees to implement SG programs that monitor the condition of the steam generator tubes against accepted performance criteria to provide reasonable assurance that the steam generator tubes remain capable of performing their intended safety functions. Currently the staff is developing three performance criteria that will ensure the tubes can continue to perform their safety function and therefore satisfy the SG rule requirements. The staff, in developing the criteria, is striving to ensure that the performance criteria have the two key attributes of being (1) measurable (enabling the tube condition to be {open_quotes}measured{close_quotes} against the criteria) and (2) tolerable (ensuring that failures to meet the criteria do not result in unacceptable consequences). A general description of the criteria are: (1) Structural integrity criteria: Ensures that the structural integrity of the SG tubes is maintained for the operating cycle consistent with the margins intended by the ASME Code. (2) Leakage integrity criteria: Ensures that postulated accident leakages and the associated dose releases are limited relative to 10 CFR Part 50 guidelines and 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix A GDC 19. (3) Operational leakage criteria: Ensures that the operating unit will be shut down as a defense-in depth measure when operational SG tube leakage exceeds established leakage limits.

  20. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).