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Sample records for generic core scales

  1. The PedsQL™ in Pediatric Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Feasibility, Reliability, and Validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Generic Core Scales and Neuromuscular Module

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Susan T.; Hynan, Linda S.; Morton, Anne; Buchanan, Renee; Limbers, Christine A.; Varni, James W.

    2009-01-01

    For Phase II and III clinical trials in children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), reliable and valid outcome measures are necessary. Since 2000, the American Spinal Muscular Atrophy Randomized Trials (AmSMART) group has established reliability and validity for measures of strength, lung function, and motor function in the population from age 2 years to 18 years. The PedsQL™ (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™) Measurement Model was designed to integrate the relative merits of generic and disease-specific approaches, with disease-specific modules. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Neuromuscular Module was designed to measure HRQOL dimensions specific to children ages 2 to 18 years with neuromuscular disorders, including SMA. One hundred seventy-six children with SMA and their parents completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales and PedsQL™ 3.0 Neuromuscular Module. The PedsQL™ demonstrated feasibility, reliability and validity in the SMA population. Consistent with the conceptualization of disease-specific symptoms as causal indicators of generic HRQOL, the majority of intercorrelations among the Neuromuscular Module Scales and the Generic Core Scales were in the medium to large range, supporting construct validity. For the purposes of a clinical trial, the PedsQL™ Neuromuscular Module and Generic Core Scales provide an integrated measurement model with the advantages of both generic and condition-specific instruments. PMID:19846309

  2. Psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in early adolescents in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept Health related Quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognized as an important health outcome measure in clinical and research fields. The present study attempted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales among adolescents in Sri Lanka. Methods The original US PedsQL™ was translated into Sinhala and conceptually validated according to international guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 142 healthy school going adolescents (12-14 years), their parents (n = 120) and a group of adolescents with asthma who attended asthma clinics (n = 115). Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and validity by examining scale structure, exploring inter-scale correlations and comparing across known groups (healthy vs. chronically ill). Results The PedsQL™ Sinhala version was found to be acceptable with minimal missing responses. All scales demonstrated satisfactory reliability. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale scores was 0.85 for adolescent self-report while for the parent proxy-report for the healthy group it was 0.86. No floor effects were observed. Ceiling effects were noticed in self-report and parent proxy-report for the healthy group. Overall results of the multi trait scaling analysis confirmed the scale structure with 74% item-convergent validity, 88% item-discriminant validity and an overall scaling success of 72%. Moderate to high correlations were shown among the domains of teen self-report (Spearman rho = .37-.54) and between teen self-report and parent proxy-reports (Spearman rho = .41-.57). The PedsQL™ tool was able to discriminate between the quality of life in healthy adolescents and adolescents with asthma. Conclusion The findings support the reliability and validity of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales as a generic instrument to measure HRQOL among early

  3. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version.

    PubMed

    Limperg, Perrine F; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A; van Rossum, Marion A J; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2014-01-18

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18-30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal consistency of the PedsQL_YA scales was determined with Cronbach's alphas. Norm scores were obtained by calculating the mean PedsQL scale scores by gender, age and health status. Differences in scale scores were analyzed for gender, age and health status (construct validity) using two-sample t-tests and effect sizes were calculated. Construct validity was determined by testing differences in PedsQL scores between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions. All scales of the PedsQL_YA showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas between .77 and .94. Men reported higher scores (indicating better HRQOL) than women on all scales (p < .01), except for school/work functioning. No age differences were found. Young adults with chronic health conditions scored lower on all scales (p < .001) than healthy young adults, indicating good construct validity. Effect sizes varied from medium to large. The Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA has adequate psychometric properties. With the availability of reliable norm data, the PedsQL_YA can be used as a tool in the evaluation of health related quality of life in healthy young adults and those with a chronic health condition.

  4. Health-related Quality of Life of Youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparison with Published Data Using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Hommel, Kevin A.; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2010-01-01

    Background This study compared youth and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to published comparison group data and examined concordance between youth and parent-proxy reports of HRQoL. Method One hundred thirty-six youth and parent-proxy reports on the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were compared to published data from chronically ill, acutely ill, and healthy comparison groups using independent samples t-tests. Reporter agreement was examined using paired samples t-tests and intraclass correlations (ICCs). Results Youth with IBD reported lower psychosocial functioning than the healthy comparison group, higher physical and social functioning than the chronically ill group, and lower school functioning than all published comparison groups. Parent-proxy reports of youth HRQoL were higher than the chronically ill group, but lower than the healthy group on all scales except psychosocial functioning. Youth with active IBD reported lower physical health domain scores than youth with inactive disease. Concordance between youth and parent-proxy reports was moderate, with lowest agreement in school and social functioning. Conclusions Youth with IBD and their parents rate HRQoL as lower than healthy youth but do not perceive the impact of IBD to be as limiting as in other chronic conditions. Youth report suggests that IBD may be particularly detrimental to HRQoL in the school functioning domain. Moderate agreement between parent and youth reports substantiates continued use of multiple informants in studies of pediatric HRQoL. PMID:19998462

  5. Generic dynamic scaling in kinetic roughening

    PubMed

    Ramasco; Lopez; Rodriguez

    2000-03-06

    We study the dynamic scaling hypothesis in invariant surface growth. We show that the existence of power-law scaling of the correlation functions (scale invariance) does not determine a unique dynamic scaling form of the correlation functions, which leads to the different anomalous forms of scaling recently observed in growth models. We derive all the existing forms of anomalous dynamic scaling from a new generic scaling ansatz. The different scaling forms are subclasses of this generic scaling ansatz associated with bounds on the roughness exponent values. The existence of a new class of anomalous dynamic scaling is predicted and compared with simulations.

  6. Patient-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders: feasibility, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Heffer, Robert W; Varni, James W

    2011-06-01

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales as a patient self-reported health-related quality of life measurement instrument in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and physician-diagnosed comorbid psychiatric disorders being seen in a pediatric psychiatric clinic. The secondary objective was to evaluate parent proxy-reported PedsQL in this population. One hundred seventy-nine children with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders ages 5 to 18 years and 181 parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and parents also completed the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales. Known-groups discriminant validity comparisons were made between the sample of pediatric patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders and healthy, cancer, and type 1 diabetes samples. The PedsQL evidenced minimal missing responses for patient self-report and parent proxy-report (0.2% and 0.5%, respectively), demonstrated no significant floor or ceiling effects, and achieved excellent reliability for the Total Scale Score (α = 0.85 patient self-report, 0.92 parent proxy-report). Pediatric patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders and their parents reported statistically significantly worse PedsQL scores than healthy children, with large effect sizes across all domains, supporting known-groups discriminant validity. Pediatric patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders and their parents reported worse PedsQL scores compared to pediatric patients with cancer and diabetes with the exception of physical health, in which pediatric cancer patients manifested lower physical health, indicating the relative severe impact of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. More severe ADHD symptoms were generally associated with more impaired PedsQL scores, supporting construct validity. These data demonstrate the

  7. Factorial invariance of child self-report across healthy and chronic health condition groups: a confirmatory factor analysis utilizing the PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Newman, Daniel A; Varni, James W

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the factorial invariance of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for child self-report across 11,433 children ages 5-18 with chronic health conditions and healthy children. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed specifying a five-factor model. Two multigroup structural equation models, one with constrained parameters and the other with unconstrained parameters, were proposed in order to compare the factor loadings across children with chronic health conditions and healthy children. Metric invariance (i.e., equal factor loadings) was demonstrated based on stability of the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) between the two models, and several additional indices of practical fit including the root mean squared error of approximation, the Non-normed Fit Index, and the Parsimony Normed Fit Index. The findings support an equivalent five-factor structure on the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales across healthy and chronic health condition groups. These findings suggest that when differences are found across chronic health condition and healthy groups when utilizing the PedsQL, these differences are more likely real differences in self-perceived health-related quality of life, rather than differences in interpretation of the PedsQL items as a function of health status.

  8. Comparison between Utility of the Thai Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cerebral Palsy Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantilipikorn, Pinailug; Watter, Pauline; Prasertsukdee, Saipin

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly being considered in the management of patients with various conditions. HRQOL instruments can be broadly classified as generic or disease-specific measures. Several generic HRQOL instruments in different languages have been developed for paediatric populations including the Pediatric Quality…

  9. Comparison between Utility of the Thai Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cerebral Palsy Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantilipikorn, Pinailug; Watter, Pauline; Prasertsukdee, Saipin

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly being considered in the management of patients with various conditions. HRQOL instruments can be broadly classified as generic or disease-specific measures. Several generic HRQOL instruments in different languages have been developed for paediatric populations including the Pediatric Quality…

  10. Health-related quality of life in young adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Iran: reliability and validity of the Persian translation of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version.

    PubMed

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Hashemi, Fariba; Saffari, Mohsen; Burri, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Persian translation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) 4.0 Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version in an Iranian sample of young adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred ninety-seven young adult patients with RA completed the 23-item PedsQL™ and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Disease activity based on Disease Activity Score 28 was also measured. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability, as well as construct, discriminant, and convergent validity, were tested. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to verify the original factor structure of the PedsQL™. Also, responsiveness to change in PedsQL™ scores over time was assessed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from α = 0.82 to α = 0.91. Test-retest reproducibility was satisfactory for all scales and the total scale score. The PedsQL proved good convergent validity with the SF-36. The PedsQL distinguished well between young adult patients and healthy young adults and also RA groups with different comorbidities. The CFA did not confirm the original four-factor model, instead, analyses revealed a best-fitting five-factor model for the PedsQL™ Young Adult Version. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that the PedsQL scale scores for young adults increased significantly over time. The Persian translation of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version demonstrated good psychometric properties in young adult patients with RA and can be recommended for the use in RA research in Iran.

  11. Factorial invariance of child self-report across age subgroups: a confirmatory factor analysis of ages 5 to 16 years utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Newman, Daniel A; Varni, James W

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in an effort to improve pediatric health and well-being and determine the value of health care services has grown dramatically over the past decade. The paradigm shift toward patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical trials has provided the opportunity to emphasize the value and essential need for pediatric patient self-report. In order for HRQOL/PRO comparisons to be meaningful for subgroup analyses, it is essential to demonstrate factorial invariance. This study examined age subgroup factorial invariance of child self-report for ages 5 to 16 years on more than 8,500 children utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) was performed specifying a five-factor model. Two multigroup structural equation models, one with constrained parameters and the other with unconstrained parameters, were proposed to compare the factor loadings across the age subgroups. Metric invariance (i.e., equal factor loadings) across the age subgroups was demonstrated based on stability of the Comparative Fit Index between the two models, and several additional indices of practical fit including the Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation, the Non-Normed Fit Index, and the Parsimony Normed Fit Index. The findings support an equivalent five-factor structure across the age subgroups. Based on these data, it can be concluded that children across the age subgroups in this study interpreted items on the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales in a similar manner regardless of their age.

  12. How young can children reliably and validly self-report their health-related quality of life?: An analysis of 8,591 children across age subgroups with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    PubMed Central

    Varni, James W; Limbers, Christine A; Burwinkle, Tasha M

    2007-01-01

    Background The last decade has evidenced a dramatic increase in the development and utilization of pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures in an effort to improve pediatric patient health and well-being and determine the value of healthcare services. The emerging paradigm shift toward patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical trials has provided the opportunity to further emphasize the value and essential need for pediatric patient self-reported outcomes measurement. Data from the PedsQL™ DatabaseSM were utilized to test the hypothesis that children as young as 5 years of age can reliably and validly report their HRQOL. Methods The sample analyzed represented child self-report age data on 8,591 children ages 5 to 16 years from the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales DatabaseSM. Participants were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals in which children were being seen for well-child checks, mild acute illness, or chronic illness care (n = 2,603, 30.3%), and from a State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in California (n = 5,988, 69.7%). Results Items on the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales had minimal missing responses for children as young as 5 years old, supporting feasibility. The majority of the child self-report scales across the age subgroups, including for children as young as 5 years, exceeded the minimum internal consistency reliability standard of 0.70 required for group comparisons, while the Total Scale Scores across the age subgroups approached or exceeded the reliability criterion of 0.90 recommended for analyzing individual patient scale scores. Construct validity was demonstrated utilizing the known groups approach. For each PedsQL™ scale and summary score, across age subgroups, including children as young as 5 years, healthy children demonstrated a statistically significant difference in HRQOL (better HRQOL) than children with a known chronic health condition, with most effect

  13. Parent proxy-report of their children's health-related quality of life: an analysis of 13,878 parents' reliability and validity across age subgroups using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

    PubMed

    Varni, James W; Limbers, Christine A; Burwinkle, Tasha M

    2007-01-03

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement has emerged as an important health outcome in clinical trials, clinical practice improvement strategies, and healthcare services research and evaluation. While pediatric patient self-report should be considered the standard for measuring perceived HRQOL, there are circumstances when children are too young, too cognitively impaired, too ill or fatigued to complete a HRQOL instrument, and reliable and valid parent proxy-report instruments are needed in such cases. Further, it is typically parents' perceptions of their children's HRQOL that influences healthcare utilization. Data from the PedsQL DatabaseSM were utilized to test the reliability and validity of parent proxy-report at the individual age subgroup level for ages 2-16 years as recommended by recent FDA guidelines. The sample analyzed represents parent proxy-report age data on 13,878 children ages 2 to 16 years from the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales DatabaseSM. Parents were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals in which their children were being seen for well-child checks, mild acute illness, or chronic illness care (n = 3,718, 26.8%), and from a State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in California (n = 10,160, 73.2%). The percentage of missing item responses for the parent proxy-report sample as a whole was 2.1%, supporting feasibility. The majority of the parent proxy-report scales across the age subgroups exceeded the minimum internal consistency reliability standard of 0.70 required for group comparisons, while the Total Scale Scores across the age subgroups approached or exceeded the reliability criterion of 0.90 recommended for analyzing individual patient scale scores. Construct validity was demonstrated utilizing the known groups approach. For each PedsQL scale and summary score, across age subgroups, healthy children demonstrated a statistically significant difference in HRQOL (better HRQOL) than

  14. Evaluation of health related quality of life in children with immune thrombocytopenia with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales: a study on behalf of the pays de Loire pediatric hematology network.

    PubMed

    Strullu, Marion; Rakotonjanahary, Josué; Tarral, Eliane; Savagner, Christophe; Thomas, Caroline; Méchinaud, Françoise; Reguerre, Yves; Poignant, Sylvaine; Boutet, Arnaud; Bassil, Joachim; Médinger, Dominique; Quemener, Emmanuel; Young, Nancy L; Rachieru, Petronela; Klaassen, Robert J; Pellier, Isabelle

    2013-11-13

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a childhood disorder that is often life-altering for children and their parents. Health related quality of life (HRQL) has never been chronologically monitored in children with ITP. We initiated a prospective study to assess HRQL from diagnosis to six months and define factors that influence this outcome in children with ITP. 73 children with acute ITP aged from 2 to 18 years were prospectively enrolled in the study. According to the presence of bleeding, they were or were not given a 4-day course of corticosteroid treatment. The PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale was completed by children and parents upon their inclusion in the study and 6 months after diagnosis. Over the six month period, quality of life improved in terms of their global, physical and psychosocial well-being for 54.5%, 35.6% and 36.2% of patients respectively. This improvement is clinically relevant compared to scores at diagnosis, corresponding at least to a minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Factors such as sex, age, platelet count, bleeding scores, bone marrow aspiration and persistence of ITP at 6 months were not significantly associated with HRQL scores. However, preceding viral infection was identified to have an impact on HRQL. This first longitudinal study assessing HRQL in children with ITP reveals a global improvement in PedSQL™ 4.0. However, these results should be considered with caution since our data also confirm that self-report HRQL scores are not influenced by any analyzed biologic or clinical parameters. Others tools, such as Kids' ITP Tools, would probably be required to assess the HRQL of this population. Trial registration clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT00331357.

  15. Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Roizen, Mariana; Rodríguez, Susana; Bauer, Gabriela; Medin, Gabriela; Bevilacqua, Silvina; Varni, James W; Dussel, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Background To validate the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Argentinean children and adolescents with chronic conditions and to assess the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on the instrument's comprehensibility and acceptability. Reliability, and known-groups, and convergent validity were tested. Methods Consecutive sample of 287 children with chronic conditions and 105 healthy children, ages 2–18, and their parents. Chronically ill children were: (1) attending outpatient clinics and (2) had one of the following diagnoses: stem cell transplant, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, end stage renal disease, complex congenital cardiopathy. Patients and adult proxies completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 and an overall health status assessment. Physicians were asked to rate degree of health status impairment. Results The PedsQL™ 4.0 was feasible (only 9 children, all 5 to 7 year-olds, could not complete the instrument), easy to administer, completed without, or with minimal, help by most children and parents, and required a brief administration time (average 5–6 minutes). People living below the poverty line and/or low literacy needed more help to complete the instrument. Cronbach Alpha's internal consistency values for the total and subscale scores exceeded 0.70 for self-reports of children over 8 years-old and parent-reports of children over 5 years of age. Reliability of proxy-reports of 2–4 year-olds was low but improved when school items were excluded. Internal consistency for 5–7 year-olds was low (α range = 0.28–0.76). Construct validity was good. Child self-report and parent proxy-report PedsQL™ 4.0 scores were moderately but significantly correlated (ρ = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and both significantly correlated with physician's assessment of health impairment and with child self-reported overall health status. The PedsQL™ 4.0 discriminated between healthy and chronically ill children (72

  16. Measuring Belief in Conspiracy Theories: The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C.; Pickering, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation – individuals’ general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  17. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: the generic conspiracist beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C; Pickering, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation - individuals' general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world.

  18. A generic architecture for wafer-scale neuromorphic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffel, Jack I.; Mann, James R.; Berger, Robert; Soares, Antonio M.; Gilbert, Sheldon L.

    The massive parallelism and high fan-out characteristics of neural networks impose interconnection requirements that are too extreme for IC-implementation; wafer-scale integration, however, interconnects many circuits on a wafer, thereby eliminating wirebonds, package pins, and external printed-circuit wiring. A generic wafer-scale device for neural networks has been devised which employs multiplying D/A converters for programmable synapses and operational amplifiers for summing nodes. Upon fabrication of each such wafer, laser cuts and links may be used to both define network connectivity and furnish defect-avoidance for the improvement of production yields.

  19. Generic gravitational-wave signals from the collapse of rotating stellar cores.

    PubMed

    Dimmelmeier, H; Ott, C D; Janka, H-T; Marek, A; Müller, E

    2007-06-22

    We perform general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse to a protoneutron star, using a microphysical equation of state (EOS) and an approximation of deleptonization. We show that for a wide range of rotation rates and profiles the gravitational-wave (GW) burst signals from the core bounce are generic, known as type I. In our systematic study, using both GR and Newtonian gravity, we identify and quantify the influence of rotation, the EOS, and deleptonization on this result. Such a generic type of signal templates will facilitate a more efficient search in current and future GW detectors of both interferometric and resonant type.

  20. External validity of a generic safety climate scale for lone workers across different industries and companies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Robertson, Michelle M; Murphy, Lauren A; Garabet, Angela; Chang, Wen-Ruey

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the external validity of a 12-item generic safety climate scale for lone workers in order to evaluate the appropriateness of generalized use of the scale in the measurement of safety climate across various lone work settings. External validity evidence was established by investigating the measurement equivalence (ME) across different industries and companies. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)-based and item response theory (IRT)-based perspectives were adopted to examine the ME of the generic safety climate scale for lone workers across 11 companies from the trucking, electrical utility, and cable television industries. Fairly strong evidence of ME was observed for both organization- and group-level generic safety climate sub-scales. Although significant invariance was observed in the item intercepts across the different lone work settings, absolute model fit indices remained satisfactory in the most robust step of CFA-based ME testing. IRT-based ME testing identified only one differentially functioning item from the organization-level generic safety climate sub-scale, but its impact was minimal and strong ME was supported. The generic safety climate scale for lone workers reported good external validity and supported the presence of a common feature of safety climate among lone workers. The scale can be used as an effective safety evaluation tool in various lone work situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination.

  2. Scaling-up the use of generic antiretrovirals in resource-limited countries: generic drugs for health.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eduard J; Passarelli, Carlos; Lui, Iris; Guichard, Anne-Claire; Simao, Mariangela; De Lay, Paul; Loures, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) continues to increase around the world because of the increasing number on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their associated increase of life expectancy, in addition to the number of people newly infected with HIV each year. Unless a 'cure' can be found for HIV infection, PLHIV can anticipate the need to take antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the rest of their lives. Because ARVs are now being used for HIV prevention, as well as for therapeutic purposes, the need for effective, affordable ARVs with few adverse effects will continue to rise. It is important to note that the dramatic growth in treatment coverage of PLHIV seen during the past decade has been primarily due to the increased use of generic ARVs. Thus, there will be a need to scale-up the research and development, production, distribution and access to generic ARVs and ART regimens. However, these processes must occur within national and international regulated free-market economic systems and must deal with increasingly multifaceted patent issues affecting the price while ensuring the quality of the ARVs. National and international regulatory mechanisms will have to evolve, which will affect broader national and international economic and trade issues. Because of the complexity of these issues, the Editors of this Supplement conceived of asking experts in their fields to describe the various steps from relevant research and development, to production of generic ARVs, their delivery to countries and subsequently to PLHIV in low- and middle-income countries. A main objective was to highlight how these steps are interrelated, how the production and delivery of these drugs to PLHIV in resource-limited countries can be made more effective and efficient, and what the lessons are for the production and delivery of a broader set of drugs to people in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Methionine Oxidation Perturbs the Structural Core of the Prion Protein and Suggests a Generic Misfolding Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Younan, Nadine D.; Nadal, Rebecca C.; Davies, Paul; Brown, David R.; Viles, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and misfolding of the prion protein (PrPC) are fundamental to prion diseases. We have therefore probed the effect of oxidation on the structure and stability of PrPC. Urea unfolding studies indicate that H2O2 oxidation reduces the thermodynamic stability of PrPC by as much as 9 kJ/mol. 1H-15N NMR studies indicate methionine oxidation perturbs key hydrophobic residues on one face of helix-C as follows: Met-205, Val-209, and Met-212 together with residues Val-160 and Tyr-156. These hydrophobic residues pack together and form the structured core of the protein, stabilizing its ternary structure. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of PrPC causes a more significant alteration of the structure, generating a monomeric molten globule species that retains its native helical content. Further copper-catalyzed oxidation promotes extended β-strand structures that lack a cooperative fold. This transition from the helical molten globule to β-conformation has striking similarities to a misfolding intermediate generated at low pH. PrP may therefore share a generic misfolding pathway to amyloid fibers, irrespective of the conditions promoting misfolding. Our observations support the hypothesis that oxidation of PrP destabilizes the native fold of PrPC, facilitating the transition to PrPSc. This study gives a structural and thermodynamic explanation for the high levels of oxidized methionine in scrapie isolates. PMID:22654104

  4. Classification as a generic tool for characterising status and changes of regional scale groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland; Haaf, Ezra

    2016-04-01

    Regional hydrogeology is becoming increasingly important, but at the same time, scientifically sound, universal solutions for typical groundwater problems encountered on the regional scale are hard to find. While managers, decision-makers and state agencies operating on regional and national levels have always shown a strong interest in regional scale hydrogeology, researchers from academia tend to avoid the subject, focusing instead on local scales. Additionally, hydrogeology has always had a tendency to regard every problem as unique to its own site- and problem-specific context. Regional scale hydrogeology is therefore pragmatic rather than aiming at developing generic methodology (Barthel, 2014; Barthel and Banzhaf, 2016). One of the main challenges encountered on the regional scale in hydrogeology is the extreme heterogeneity that generally increases with the size of the studied area - paired with relative data scarcity. Even in well-monitored regions of the world, groundwater observations are usually clustered, leaving large areas without any direct data. However, there are many good reasons for assessing the status and predicting the behavior of groundwater systems under conditions of global change even for those areas and aquifers without observations. This is typically done by using rather coarsely discretized and / or poorly parameterized numerical models, or by using very simplistic conceptual hydrological models that do not take into account the complex three-dimensional geological setup. Numerical models heavily rely on local data and are resource-demanding. Conceptual hydrological models only deliver reliable information on groundwater if the geology is extremely simple. In this contribution, we present an approach to derive statistically relevant information for un-monitored areas, making use of existing information from similar localities that are or have been monitored. The approach combines site-specific knowledge with conceptual assumptions on

  5. Generic, Extensible, Configurable Push-Pull Framework for Large-Scale Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Brian M.; Chang, Albert Y.; Freeborn, Dana J.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Woollard, David M.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    The push-pull framework was developed in hopes that an infrastructure would be created that could literally connect to any given remote site, and (given a set of restrictions) download files from that remote site based on those restrictions. The Cataloging and Archiving Service (CAS) has recently been re-architected and re-factored in its canonical services, including file management, workflow management, and resource management. Additionally, a generic CAS Crawling Framework was built based on motivation from Apache s open-source search engine project called Nutch. Nutch is an Apache effort to provide search engine services (akin to Google), including crawling, parsing, content analysis, and indexing. It has produced several stable software releases, and is currently used in production services at companies such as Yahoo, and at NASA's Planetary Data System. The CAS Crawling Framework supports many of the Nutch Crawler's generic services, including metadata extraction, crawling, and ingestion. However, one service that was not ported over from Nutch is a generic protocol layer service that allows the Nutch crawler to obtain content using protocol plug-ins that download content using implementations of remote protocols, such as HTTP, FTP, WinNT file system, HTTPS, etc. Such a generic protocol layer would greatly aid in the CAS Crawling Framework, as the layer would allow the framework to generically obtain content (i.e., data products) from remote sites using protocols such as FTP and others. Augmented with this capability, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and NPP (NPOESS Preparatory Project) Sounder PEATE (Product Evaluation and Analysis Tools Elements) would be provided with an infrastructure to support generic FTP-based pull access to remote data products, obviating the need for any specialized software outside of the context of their existing process control systems. This extensible configurable framework was created in Java, and allows the use of

  6. The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Further Construct Validation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Donald G.; Pierce, Jon L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance,…

  7. Development of a Dynamically Scaled Generic Transport Model Testbed for Flight Research Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas; Langford, William; Belcastro, Christine; Foster, John; Shah, Gautam; Howland, Gregory; Kidd, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the design and development of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The aircraft is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, remotely piloted, twin-turbine, swept wing, Generic Transport Model (GTM) which will be used to provide an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. The unique design challenges arising from the dimensional, weight, dynamic (inertial), and actuator scaling requirements necessitated by the research community are described along with the specific telemetry and control issues associated with a remotely piloted subscale research aircraft. Development of the necessary operational infrastructure, including operational and safety procedures, test site identification, and research pilots is also discussed. The GTM is a unique vehicle that provides significant research capacity due to its scaling, data gathering, and control characteristics. By combining data from this testbed with full-scale flight and accident data, wind tunnel data, and simulation results, NASA will advance and validate control upset prevention and recovery technologies for transport aircraft, thereby reducing vehicle loss-of-control accidents resulting from adverse and upset conditions.

  8. Measuring Mudstone Permeability at Two Different (Borehole and Core) Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quach, N. Q.; Chang, C.; Jo, Y.; Song, I.

    2016-12-01

    We had an opportunity to measure permeability of the same mudstone at borehole-scale and core-scale. The mudstone tested is located in offshore SE Korea, where a CO2 storage test project is underway. The mudstone is a part of cap rock formation overlying a potential CO2 storage reservoir, and thus its permeability is of great importance for the sealing purpose. We ran a leak-off test (LOT) at a 4 m open-hole interval below casing shoe in a cored borehole. Borehole-scale permeability estimation is based on the LOT, and core-scale estimation is based on laboratory tests in cores recovered from the same depth where the LOT was conducted. Although LOT is a pumping test mainly for checking borehole/casing integrity and assessing frac-gradient for further drilling, the pressure (P) and injected water volume (V) recorded during test enable us to estimate permeability. We derive an analytic equation that relates permeability to P-V curve based on Darcy's law, which suits for the LOT configuration. Based on the equation, the borehole-scale permeability is estimated to be 10-17 m2. For the core-scale estimation, we conduct laboratory tests, in which we inject argon gas to attain a constant pressure at one side of the cores (diameter: 38 mm) subjected to a constant confining pressure similar to the effective stress at the depth of the LOT. The core-scale permeability is estimated to be 10-19 m2, which is two order of magnitude lower than borehole-scale permeability. Although there may be other sources that contribute to the observed difference in permeability, one of the major factors is the scale-difference, more than 800 times larger scale in the borehole-scale than in the core-scale. Another possible sources of the difference are different flow direction (horizontal in LOT and vertical in core) and different fluids used for permeability measurements (water in LOT and gas in core).

  9. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Michelle R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the factor structure, internal consistency reliability and concurrent-related validity of the Core Nurse Resource Scale. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to obtain a sample of 149 nurses and nursing staff [Registered Nurse (RNs), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPNs) and Certified Nursing Assistant (CNAs)] working in long-term care facilities. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and bivariate correlations were used to evaluate validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a scale with 18 items on three factors, accounting for 52% of the variance in scores. Internal consistency reliability for the composite and Core Nurse Resource Scale factors ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The Core Nurse Resource Scale composite scale and subscales correlated positively with a measure of work engagement (r=0.247-0.572). The initial psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale demonstrates it is a sound measure. Further validity and reliability assessment will need to be explored and assessed among nurses and other nursing staff working in other practice settings. The intent of the Core Nurse Resource Scale is to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological and social resources of the nursing work environment, to identify workplaces at risk for disengaged (low work engagement) nursing staff and to provide useful diagnostic information to healthcare administrators interested in interventions to improve the nursing work environment. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Investigation of Aerodynamics Scale Effects for a Generic Fighter Configuration in the National Transonic Facility (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomek, W. G.; Wahls, R. A.; Owens, L. R.; Burner, A. B.; Graves, S. S.; Luckring, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Two wind tunnel tests of a generic fighter configuration have been completed in the National Transonic Facility. The primary purpose of the tests was to assess Reynolds number scale effects on a thin-wing, fighter-type configuration up to full-scale flight conditions (that is, Reynolds numbers of the order of 60 million). The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at subsonic and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to flight conditions. Results are presented for three Mach numbers (0.6, 0.8, and 0.9) and three configurations: 1) Fuselage / Wing, 2) Fuselage / Wing / Centerline Vertical Tail / Horizontal Tail, and 3) Fuselage / Wing / Trailing-Edge Extension / Twin Vertical Tails. Reynolds number effects on the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics are presented herein, along with longitudinal data demonstrating the effects of fixing the boundary layer transition location for low Reynolds number conditions. In addition, an improved model videogrammetry system and results are discussed.

  11. Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: Generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system

    SciTech Connect

    Schrøder, Thomas B. Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2014-11-28

    The isomorph theory is reformulated by defining Roskilde-simple systems by the property that the order of the potential energies of configurations at one density is maintained when these are scaled uniformly to a different density. If the potential energy as a function of all particle coordinates is denoted by U(R), this requirement translates into U(R{sub a}) < U(R{sub b}) ⇒ U(λR{sub a}) < U(λR{sub b}). Isomorphs remain curves in the thermodynamic phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and excess entropy are invariant, implying that the phase diagram is effectively one-dimensional with respect to many reduced-unit properties. In contrast to the original formulation of the isomorph theory, however, the density-scaling exponent is not exclusively a function of density and the isochoric heat capacity is not an exact isomorph invariant. A prediction is given for the latter quantity's variation along the isomorphs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones and Lennard-Jones Gaussian systems validate the new approach.

  12. Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2014-11-28

    The isomorph theory is reformulated by defining Roskilde-simple systems by the property that the order of the potential energies of configurations at one density is maintained when these are scaled uniformly to a different density. If the potential energy as a function of all particle coordinates is denoted by U(R), this requirement translates into U(Ra) < U(Rb) ⇒ U(λRa) < U(λRb). Isomorphs remain curves in the thermodynamic phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and excess entropy are invariant, implying that the phase diagram is effectively one-dimensional with respect to many reduced-unit properties. In contrast to the original formulation of the isomorph theory, however, the density-scaling exponent is not exclusively a function of density and the isochoric heat capacity is not an exact isomorph invariant. A prediction is given for the latter quantity's variation along the isomorphs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones and Lennard-Jones Gaussian systems validate the new approach.

  13. Strong anisotropy in two-dimensional surfaces with generic scale invariance: Gaussian and related models.

    PubMed

    Vivo, Edoardo; Nicoli, Matteo; Cuerno, Rodolfo

    2012-11-01

    Among systems that display generic scale invariance, those whose asymptotic properties are anisotropic in space (strong anisotropy, SA) have received relatively less attention, especially in the context of kinetic roughening for two-dimensional surfaces. This is in contrast with their experimental ubiquity, e.g., in the context of thin-film production by diverse techniques. Based on exact results for integrable (linear) cases, here we formulate a SA ansatz that, albeit equivalent to existing ones borrowed from equilibrium critical phenomena, is more naturally adapted to the type of observables that are measured in experiments on the dynamics of thin films, such as one- and two-dimensional height structure factors. We test our ansatz on a paradigmatic nonlinear stochastic equation displaying strong anisotropy like the Hwa-Kardar equation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1813 (1989)], which was initially proposed to describe the interface dynamics of running sand piles. A very important role to elucidate its SA properties is played by an accurate (Gaussian) approximation through a nonlocal linear equation that shares the same asymptotic properties.

  14. A generic Froude scale model study of massive bedload deposition in a debris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Sediment trapping structures, such as gravel deposition basins, are regularly implemented in mountainous context for flood hazard mitigation. These structures should ultimately trap gravels when their excess may aggravate the downstream flood hazard, while, the remaining time, allowing a suitable background sediment continuity. Such optimized designs require a sufficient knowledge of the flow features and geomorphic processes implied in gravel trapping. A generic Froude scale model of a 10%-steep, bedload deposition basin, with a slit dam and without outlet structure, is presented in this work. Accurate photogrammetry and large scale particle image velocimetry (LS-PIV) were combined to study the geomorphic patterns and to reconstruct the flows. The emergence of self induced cycles of braided and channelized flows, with intense grain size sorting, is described. It sheds light on the similarity of bedload trapping with alluvial fan formation or fluvial delta development. The deposition slope, a key parameter in the structure design, is more precisely studied. The measurements are correctly estimated by a new simple equation, which is developed from prior works dedicated to steep slope stream hydraulics and bedload transport. The analysis demonstrates additionally that, despite the steepness of the studied conditions, most flows are subcritical due to roughness adjustment. We finally highlight that morphologically-active flows, i.e., with dimensionless shear stress higher than the threshold for motion, have Froude number ≈ 1; i.e., that a critical flow hypothesis seems reasonable, as a first approximation, to describe flows over massive bedload depositions. This new dataset, with complete geomorphic and flow measurements, in diverse conditions, may be used as reference to try and test numerical approaches of the phenomena.

  15. Identification of candidate categories of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) for a Generic ICF Core Set based on regression modelling

    PubMed Central

    Cieza, Alarcos; Geyh, Szilvia; Chatterji, Somnath; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Üstün, Bedirhan T; Stucki, Gerold

    2006-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels. While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions. Methods The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a) to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b) to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36. The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire. ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated. Results Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed. Conclusion The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set. PMID:16872536

  16. Identification of candidate categories of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) for a Generic ICF Core Set based on regression modelling.

    PubMed

    Cieza, Alarcos; Geyh, Szilvia; Chatterji, Somnath; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Ustün, Bedirhan T; Stucki, Gerold

    2006-07-27

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels.While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions. The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a) to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b) to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36. The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire.ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated. Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed. The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set.

  17. Performance of four turbulence closure models implemented using a generic length scale method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Arango, H.G.; Signell, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    A two-equation turbulence model (one equation for turbulence kinetic energy and a second for a generic turbulence length-scale quantity) proposed by Umlauf and Burchard [J. Marine Research 61 (2003) 235] is implemented in a three-dimensional oceanographic model (Regional Oceanographic Modeling System; ROMS v2.0). These two equations, along with several stability functions, can represent many popular turbulence closures, including the k-kl (Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5), k-??, and k-?? schemes. The implementation adds flexibility to the model by providing an unprecedented range of turbulence closure selections in a single 3D oceanographic model and allows comparison and evaluation of turbulence models in an otherwise identical numerical environment. This also allows evaluation of the effect of turbulence models on other processes such as suspended-sediment distribution or ecological processes. Performance of the turbulence models and sediment-transport schemes is investigated with three test cases for (1) steady barotropic flow in a rectangular channel, (2) wind-induced surface mixed-layer deepening in a stratified fluid, and (3) oscillatory stratified pressure-gradient driven flow (estuarine circulation) in a rectangular channel. Results from k-??, k-??, and gen (a new closure proposed by Umlauf and Burchard [J. Marine Research 61 (2003) 235]) are very similar for these cases, but the k-kl closure results depend on a wall-proximity function that must be chosen to suit the flow. Greater variations appear in simulations of suspended-sediment concentrations than in salinity simulations because the transport of suspended-sediment amplifies minor variations in the methods. The amplification is caused by the added physics of a vertical settling rate, bottom stress dependent resuspension, and diffusive transport of sediment in regions of well mixed salt and temperature. Despite the amplified sensitivity of sediment to turbulence models in the estuary test case, the four

  18. Validation of the generic medical interview satisfaction scale: the G-MISS questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Maurice-Szamburski, Axel; Michel, Pierre; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal

    2017-02-14

    Patients have about seven medical consultations a year. Despite the importance of medical interviews in the healthcare process, there is no generic instrument to assess patients' experiences in general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. The main objective was to validate a questionnaire assessing patients' experiences with medical consultations in various practices. The G-MISS study was a prospective multi-center trial that enrolled patients from May to July 2016. A total of 2055 patients were included from general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. Patients filled out a questionnaire assessing various aspects of their experience and satisfaction within 1 week after their medical interview. The validation process relied on item response theory. Internal validity was examined using exploratory factorial analysis. The statistical model used the root mean square error of approximation, confirmatory fit index, and standard root mean square residual as fit indices. Scalability and reliability were assessed with the Rasch model and Cronbach's alpha coefficients, respectively. Scale properties across the three subgroups were explored with differential item functioning. The G-MISS final questionnaire contained 16 items, structured in three dimensions of patients' experiences: "Relief", "Communication", and "Compliance". A global index of patients' experiences was computed as the mean of the dimension scores. All fit indices from the statistical model were satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.06). The overall scalability had a good fit to the Rasch model. Each dimension was reliable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.73 to 0.86. Differential item functioning across the three consultation settings was negligible. Patients undergoing medical or surgical specialties reported higher scores in the "Relief" dimension compared with general practice (83.0 ± 11.6 or 82.4 ± 11.6 vs. 73.2 ± 16

  19. Structural coloring in large scale core-shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Khudiyev, Tural; Ozgur, Erol; Yaman, Mecit; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2011-11-09

    We demonstrated two complementary size-dependent structural coloring mechanisms, interference and scattering, in indefinitely long core-shell nanowire arrays. The unusual nanostructures are comprised of an amorphous semiconducting core and a polymer shell layer with disparate refractive indices but with similar thermomechanical properties. Core-shell nanowires are mass produced from a macroscopic semiconductor rod by using a new top-to-bottom fabrication approach based on thermal size reduction. Nanostructures with diameters from 30 to 200 nm result in coloration that spans the whole visible spectrum via resonant Mie scattering. Nanoshell coloration based on thin film interference is proposed as a structural coloration mechanism which becomes dominant for nanowires having 700-1200 nm diameter. Controlled color generation in any part of visible and infrared spectral regions can be achieved by the simple scaling down procedure. Spectral color generation in mass-produced uniform core-shell nanowire arrays paves the way for applications such as spectral authentication at nanoscale, light-scattering ingredients in paints and cosmetics, large-area devices, and infrared shielding.

  20. On the performance of a generic length scale turbulence model within an adaptive finite element ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jon; Piggott, M. D.; Ham, David A.; Popova, E. E.; Srokosz, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Research into the use of unstructured mesh methods for ocean modelling has been growing steadily in the last few years. One advantage of using unstructured meshes is that one can concentrate resolution where it is needed. In addition, dynamic adaptive mesh optimisation (DAMO) strategies allow resolution to be concentrated when this is required. Despite the advantage that DAMO gives in terms of improving the spatial resolution where and when required, small-scale turbulence in the oceans still requires parameterisation. A two-equation, generic length scale (GLS) turbulence model (one equation for turbulent kinetic energy and another for a generic turbulence length-scale quantity) adds this parameterisation and can be used in conjunction with adaptive mesh techniques. In this paper, an implementation of the GLS turbulence parameterisation is detailed in a non-hydrostatic, finite-element, unstructured mesh ocean model, Fluidity-ICOM. The implementation is validated by comparing to both a laboratory-scale experiment and real-world observations, on both fixed and adaptive meshes. The model performs well, matching laboratory and observed data, with resolution being adjusted as necessary by DAMO. Flexibility in the prognostic fields used to construct the error metric used in DAMO is required to ensure best performance. Moreover, the adaptive mesh models perform as well as fixed mesh models in terms of root mean square error to observation or theoretical mixed layer depths, but uses fewer elements and hence has a reduced computational cost.

  1. Implementation of a reference-scaled average bioequivalence approach for highly variable generic drug products by the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Davit, Barbara M; Chen, Mei-Ling; Conner, Dale P; Haidar, Sam H; Kim, Stephanie; Lee, Christina H; Lionberger, Robert A; Makhlouf, Fairouz T; Nwakama, Patrick E; Patel, Devvrat T; Schuirmann, Donald J; Yu, Lawrence X

    2012-12-01

    Highly variable (HV) drugs are defined as those for which within-subject variability (%CV) in bioequivalence (BE) measures is 30% or greater. Because of this high variability, studies designed to show whether generic HV drugs are bioequivalent to their corresponding HV reference drugs may need to enroll large numbers of subjects even when the products have no significant mean differences. To avoid unnecessary human testing, the US Food and Drug Administration's Office of Generic Drugs developed a reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE) approach, whereby the BE acceptance limits are scaled to the variability of the reference product. For an acceptable RSABE study, an HV generic drug product must meet the scaled BE limit and a point estimate constraint. The approach has been implemented successfully. To date, the RSABE approach has supported four full approvals and one tentative approval of HV generic drug products.

  2. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  3. A Bioequivalence Approach for Generic Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs: Evaluation of the Reference-Scaled Approach and Variability Comparison Criterion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenlei; Makhlouf, Fairouz; Schuirmann, Donald J; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zheng, Nan; Conner, Dale; Yu, Lawrence X; Lionberger, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Various health communities have expressed concerns regarding whether average bioequivalence (BE) limits (80.00-125.00%) for the 90% confidence interval of the test-to-reference geometric mean ratio are sufficient to ensure therapeutic equivalence between a generic narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug and its reference listed drug (RLD). Simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of different BE approaches for NTI drugs on study power, including (1) direct tightening of average BE limits and (2) a scaled average BE approach where BE limits are tightened based on the RLD's within-subject variability. Addition of a variability comparison (using a one-tailed F test) increased the difficulty for generic NTIs more variable than their corresponding RLDs to demonstrate bioequivalence. Based on these results, the authors evaluate the fully replicated, 2-sequence, 2-treatment, 4-period crossover study design for NTI drugs where the test product demonstrates BE based on a scaled average bioequivalence criterion and a within-subject variability comparison criterion.

  4. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  5. Can key vegetation parameters be retrieved at the large-scale using LAI satellite products and a generic modelling approach ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, Helene; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Carrer, Dominique; Laanaia, Nabil

    2016-04-01

    In the context of climate change, the need to assess and predict the impact of droughts on vegetation and water resources increases. The generic approaches permitting the modelling of continental surfaces at large-scale has progressed in recent decades towards land surface models able to couple cycles of water, energy and carbon. A major source of uncertainty in these generic models is the maximum available water content of the soil (MaxAWC) usable by plants which is constrained by the rooting depth parameter and unobservable at the large-scale. In this study, vegetation products derived from the SPOT/VEGETATION satellite data available since 1999 are used to optimize the model rooting depth over rainfed croplands and permanent grasslands at 1 km x 1 km resolution. The inter-annual variability of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is simulated over France using the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) generic land surface model and a two-layer force-restore (FR-2L) soil profile scheme. The leaf nitrogen concentration directly impacts the modelled value of the maximum annual LAI. In a first step this parameter is estimated for the last 15 years by using an iterative procedure that matches the maximum values of LAI modelled by ISBA-A-gs to the highest satellite-derived LAI values. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is used as a cost function to be minimized. In a second step, the model rooting depth is optimized in order to reproduce the inter-annual variability resulting from the drought impact on the vegetation. The evaluation of the retrieved soil rooting depth is achieved using the French agricultural statistics of Agreste. Retrieved leaf nitrogen concentrations are compared with values from previous studies. The preliminary results show a good potential of this approach to estimate these two vegetation parameters (leaf nitrogen concentration, MaxAWC) at the large-scale over grassland areas. Besides, a marked impact of the

  6. Development of the Transport Class Model (TCM) Aircraft Simulation From a Sub-Scale Generic Transport Model (GTM) Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom, flat-earth dynamics, non-linear, and non-proprietary aircraft simulation was developed that is representative of a generic mid-sized twin-jet transport aircraft. The simulation was developed from a non-proprietary, publicly available, subscale twin-jet transport aircraft simulation using scaling relationships and a modified aerodynamic database. The simulation has an extended aerodynamics database with aero data outside the normal transport-operating envelope (large angle-of-attack and sideslip values). The simulation has representative transport aircraft surface actuator models with variable rate-limits and generally fixed position limits. The simulation contains a generic 40,000 lb sea level thrust engine model. The engine model is a first order dynamic model with a variable time constant that changes according to simulation conditions. The simulation provides a means for interfacing a flight control system to use the simulation sensor variables and to command the surface actuators and throttle position of the engine model.

  7. The Chado Natural Diversity module: a new generic database schema for large-scale phenotyping and genotyping data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sook; Menda, Naama; Redmond, Seth; Buels, Robert M.; Friesen, Maren; Bendana, Yuri; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Lapp, Hilmar; Lee, Taein; MacCallum, Bob; Bett, Kirstin E.; Cain, Scott; Clements, Dave; Mueller, Lukas A.; Main, Dorrie

    2011-01-01

    Linking phenotypic with genotypic diversity has become a major requirement for basic and applied genome-centric biological research. To meet this need, a comprehensive database backend for efficiently storing, querying and analyzing large experimental data sets is necessary. Chado, a generic, modular, community-based database schema is widely used in the biological community to store information associated with genome sequence data. To meet the need to also accommodate large-scale phenotyping and genotyping projects, a new Chado module called Natural Diversity has been developed. The module strictly adheres to the Chado remit of being generic and ontology driven. The flexibility of the new module is demonstrated in its capacity to store any type of experiment that either uses or generates specimens or stock organisms. Experiments may be grouped or structured hierarchically, whereas any kind of biological entity can be stored as the observed unit, from a specimen to be used in genotyping or phenotyping experiments, to a group of species collected in the field that will undergo further lab analysis. We describe details of the Natural Diversity module, including the design approach, the relational schema and use cases implemented in several databases. PMID:22120662

  8. Generic mechanism of optimal energy transfer efficiency: a scaling theory of the mean first-passage time in exciton systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianlan; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu

    2013-05-17

    An asymptotic scaling theory is presented using the conceptual basis of trapping-free subspace (i.e., orthogonal subspace) to establish the generic mechanism of optimal efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting systems. A quantum state orthogonal to the trap will exhibit noise-assisted transfer, clarifying the significance of initial preparation. For such an initial state, the efficiency is enhanced in the weak damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ 1/Γ), and suppressed in the strong damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ Γ), analogous to Kramers turnover in classical rate theory. An interpolating expression ⟨t⟩ = A/Γ + B + CΓ quantitatively describes the trapping time over the entire range of the dissipation strength, and predicts the optimal efficiency at Γ(opt) ∼ J for homogenous systems. In the presence of static disorder, the scaling law of transfer time with respect to dephasing rate changes from linear to square root, suggesting a weaker dependence on the environment. The prediction of the scaling theory is verified in a symmetric dendrimer system by numerically exact quantum calculations. Though formulated in the context of excitation energy transfer, the analysis and conclusions apply in general to open quantum processes, including electron transfer, fluorescence emission, and heat conduction.

  9. Generic finite size scaling for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, M. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Fiore, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Based on quasistationary distribution ideas, a general finite size scaling theory is proposed for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states. Analogously to the equilibrium case, we show that quantities such as response functions, cumulants, and equal area probability distributions all scale with the volume, thus allowing proper estimates for the thermodynamic limit. To illustrate these results, five very distinct lattice models displaying nonequilibrium transitions—to single and infinitely many absorbing states—are investigated. The innate difficulties in analyzing absorbing phase transitions are circumvented through quasistationary simulation methods. Our findings (allied to numerical studies in the literature) strongly point to a unifying discontinuous phase transition scaling behavior for equilibrium and this important class of nonequilibrium systems.

  10. Generic Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money What is a generic drug? A generic is a copy of a brand-name drug. A brand- name drug has a patent. When ... benefit to your health, and you will save money. 7KH IHGHUDO )RRG DQG 'UXJ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )'$ UHJXODWHV ERWK ...

  11. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  12. How is kinematic structure connected to the core scale from filament scale?; Mopra mapping observations with multi-lines of dense cores in Lupus I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokane, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao; Tachihara, Kengo; Saigo, Kazuya; van Kempen, Tim; Cortes, Paulo; Hill, Tracey; Knee, Lewis; Kurono, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Satoko; Aya, Higuchi; Nyman, Lars-Ake

    2014-06-01

    Recently, high sensitivity mappings of nearby molecular clouds in far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths with Hershel and AzTEC/ASTE show ubiquitous existence of the filamentary structures with 0.1-pc uniform width. It is important to investigate dense core formation from large scale structure via fragmentation. We have conducted MOPRA multi-line mapping observations covered on 0.02 - 0.2 pc scales of 8 dense cores in a filamentary cloud of nearby Lupus I at 140 pc. A class 0/I protostellar core IRAS 15398-3359 is included as a sample, which has an adjacent prestellar core with the separation of 0.13pc in the west. The maps of N2H+, HNC, HC3N show well associated with each core. The velocity field of C18O shows 1.4 km/s/pc from north to south over the region containing two dense cores, which is consistent with past observation of NANTEN. In contrast to C18O results, the velocity field of HC3N shows different structures, which suggest counter rotation of two dense cores; 1.2 km/s/pc from north-west to south-east around a protostellar core and 0.8 km/s/pc from east to west around a presteller core. The filament will be fragmentized and collapsed to dense cores when the line density is over 2Cs/G (where Cs is sound speed and G is gravitational constant). If that velocity gradient was caused by such situation, it should be red-blue-red-blue across two dense cores but the observed kinematics is not consistent with this scenario, which requires that the filament structure would be extremely curved with a skew angle. Although we cannot reject the collapsing interruption, those results suggest the spin-up rotating picture separated from large-scale structure.

  13. What use is generic prescribing?

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Michael

    1985-01-01

    The dispensing of generic preparations at four dispensing chemist shops was investigated by means of a questionnaire. Certain generic prescriptions result in the dispensing of proprietary products despite the existence of generic preparations, and the pharmacist may be reimbursed for the cost of the proprietary drug which has been dispensed. Not all generic prescriptions result in the dispensing of cheaper drugs because of the methods of payment to chemists. If doctors write more generic prescriptions there will ultimately be more dispensing of generic products. Even in the case of drugs still under patent, prescribing by generic name should be encouraged. The savings achieved by generic prescribing are to some extent at the cost of the dispensing chemists. The method and scale of payments for dispensing requires urgent review. PMID:4032358

  14. From the pore scale to the core scale: How to model the spatial interactions in soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Patricia; Pot, Valerie; Monga, Oivier; Chenu, Claire; Vieuble-Gonod, Laurent; Vogel, Laure; Nunan, Naoise; Otten, Wilfried; Baveye, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Recently, innovative modeling tools have been developed to describe the physico-chemical processes occurring in soil pores at scales directly relevant to microorganisms. Modelling efforts have attempted to understand how microbial processes such as decomposition or competition among species are affected by diffusion in 2-D or 3-D environments. Most of these models use a virtual representative pore network that can have the same features as soil pores with regular lattice grid. The most recent and innovative of these models use real images of soil structure from binarized 3D images. These models are able to simulate microbial degradation although microorganisms and organic matter are placed at different locations in the pore space. Then, the encounter of nutrients and microorganisms is achieved through the implementation of the diffusion process of the soluble substrates in the connected water-filled space. The high computational demand of this type of approach restricts its applicability to small-scale systems, typically in the order of micrometers or millimeters. The numerical techniques used to solve the equations include the lattice Boltzmann method, algorithmic methods and finite element methods. Most of these models have not yet been tested with experimental data because of the difficulties of investigating such small scales. On the other hand, many experimental results developed at the core scale have showed the importance of soil microbial habitat and especially how physical characteristics (pore sizes, connectivity) control the decomposition of organic substrates via their accessibility by microorganisms. The general question we have now to answer is whether information on the spatial heterogeneity of soils at the microscale can be used to predict the processes observed at the macroscale in soils

  15. Replication of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents Core Syndrome Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Independent examination and replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) is reported. A sample of 1,020 children were randomly selected from their classroom and rated on the ASCA by their teacher. The six ASCA core syndromes produced a…

  16. Psychometric testing of an instrument measuring core competencies of nursing students: an application of Mokken scaling.

    PubMed

    Perng, Shoa-Jen; Watson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the core competencies of nursing students provides information about students' learning outcomes for educational evaluation and improvement. The aim of this study was to develop the Nursing Students Core Competencies scale to measure 8 core competencies of nursing students in Taiwan. The study employed factor analysis and Mokken scaling analysis for psychometric testing of this instrument between a group of nursing graduates and their evaluators. The results indicated that the Nursing Students Core Competencies scale has demonstrated evidence of internal consistency, structural validity, unidimensionality, and a hierarchy of items for students' self-assessment and instructor's rating. The use of Mokken scaling analysis extends the knowledge of developing competence assessment tools; it can be used to reveal the domains or items of competency nursing students perceive that are easy or difficult, providing information for curricular design.

  17. Learning generics.

    PubMed

    Shulkin, D J

    1992-01-01

    The growing use of generic drug substitution may have important implications on quality of care. This study was conducted to determine resident physicians' knowledge of restrictive prescribing policies at the hospitals where they primarily practice.

  18. A domain-specific validation of the core self-evaluations scale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K; Nicols, Kay M

    2011-10-01

    Core self-evaluations have been recently proposed as indicating positive self-concept and as being predictive of various forms of subjective wellbeing. In an effort to further validate the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES), structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed in three independent samples of university students to examine the extent to which scores on the Core Self-Evaluations Scale predicted two measures of university satisfaction. Good fit was found for models that also controlled for status in college, student major, class satisfaction, life satisfaction, college grade point average, and overall grade fairness. Statistically significant relationships corrected for attenuation by SEM between scores on the Core Self-Evaluations Scale and university satisfaction range from .24 to .37.

  19. Mediterranean dryland Mosaic: The effect of scale on core area metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor; Alrababah, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying landscape spatial pattern is essential to understanding the relationship between landscape structure and ecological functions and process. Many landscape metrics have been developed to quantify spatial heterogeneity. Landscape metrics have been employed to measure the impact of humans on landscapes. We examined the response of four core areas metrics to a large range of grain sizes in Mediterranean dryland landscapes. The investigated metrics were (1) mean core area (CORE-MN), (2) area weighted mean core area (CORE-AM) , (3) total core area (TCA) and (4) core area percentage of landscape (CPLAND) within six land use types (urban, agriculture, olive orchids, forestry, shrubland and rangeland). Agriculture areas showed the highest value for minimum TCA (2779.4 ha) within the tested grain sizes, followed by rangeland (1778.3 ha) and Forest (1488.5 ha). On the other hand, shrubland showed the lowest TCA (8.0 ha). The minimum CPLAND values were ranged from 0.002 for shrubland to 0.682 for agriculture land use. The maximum CORE-MN among the tested land use type at all levels of grain sizes was exhibited by agriculture land use type (519.759 ha). The core area metrics showed three types of behavior in response to changing grain size in all landuse types. CORE-MN showed predictable relationship, best explained by non-linear responses to changing grain size (R2=0.99). Both TCA and CPLAND exhibited domain of scale effect in response to changing grain size. The threshold behavior for TCA and CPLAND was at the 4 x 4 grain size (about 1.3 ha). However, CORE-AM exhibited erratic behavior. The unique domain of scale-like behavior may be attributed to the unique characteristics of dryland Mediterranean landscapes; where both natural processes and ancient human activities play a great role in shaping the apparent pattern of the landscape

  20. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  1. Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) to identify core profiles from the WMS-III.

    PubMed

    Frisby, Craig L; Kim, Se-Kang

    2008-03-01

    Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is a procedure for extracting latent core profiles in a multitest data set. The PAMS procedure offers several advantages compared with other profile analysis procedures. Most notably, PAMS estimates individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed profile approximates the shape and scatter of latent core profiles. The PAMS procedure was applied to index scores of nonreplicated participants from the standardization sample (N = 1,033) for the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (D. Tulsky, J. Zhu, & M. F. Ledbetter, 2002). PAMS extracted discrepant visual memory and auditory memory versus working memory core profiles for the complete 16- to 89-year-old sample and discrepant working memory and auditory memory versus working memory core profiles for the 75- to 89-year-old cohort. Implications for use of PAMS in future research are discussed.

  2. Scaling relations of halo cores for self-interacting dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Henry W.; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-03-01

    Using a simple analytic formalism, we demonstrate that significant dark matter self-interactions produce halo cores that obey scaling relations nearly independent of the underlying particle physics parameters such as the annihilation cross section and the mass of the dark matter particle. For dwarf galaxies, we predict that the core density ρ{sub c} and the core radius r{sub c} should obey ρ{sub c} r{sub c} ≈ 41 M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} with a weak mass dependence ∼ M{sup 0.2}. Remarkably, such a scaling relation has recently been empirically inferred. Scaling relations involving core mass, core radius, and core velocity dispersion are predicted and agree well with observational data. By calibrating against numerical simulations, we predict the scatter in these relations and find them to be in excellent agreement with existing data. Future observations can test our predictions for different halo masses and redshifts.

  3. Physician perceptions about generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Liberman, Joshua N; Fischer, Michael A; Girdish, Charmaine; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2011-01-01

    With constrained health-care resources, there is a need to understand barriers to cost-effective medication use. To study physician perceptions about generic medications. Physicians used 5-point Likert scales to report perceptions about cost-related medication nonadherence, the efficacy and quality of generic medications, preferences for generic use, and the implications of dispensing medication samples. Descriptive statistics were used to assess physician perceptions and logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of physician perceptions. Among the invited sample, 839 (30.4%) responded and 506 (18.3%) were eligible and included in the final study population. Over 23% of physicians surveyed expressed negative perceptions about efficacy of generic drugs, almost 50% reported negative perceptions about quality of generic medications, and more than one quarter do not prefer to use generics as first-line medications for themselves or for their family. Physicians over the age of 55 years were 3.3 times more likely to report negative perceptions about generic quality, 5.8 times more likely to report that they would not use generics themselves, and 7.5 times more likely to state that they would not recommend generics for family members (p < 0.05 for all). Physicians reported that pharmaceutical company representatives are the most common (75%) source of information about market entry of a generic medication. Almost half of the respondents expressed concern that free samples may adversely affect subsequent affordability, yet two thirds of respondents provide free samples. A meaningful proportion of physicians expressed negative perceptions about generic medications, representing a potential barrier to generic use. Payors and policymakers trying to encourage generic use may consider educational campaigns targeting older physicians.

  4. A new scale for disaster nursing core competencies: Development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Al Thobaity, Abdulellah; Williams, Brett; Plummer, Virginia

    2016-02-01

    All nurses must have core competencies in preparing for, responding to and recovering from a disaster. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), as in many other countries, disaster nursing core competencies are not fully understood and lack reliable, validated tools. Thus, it is imperative to develop a scale for exploring disaster nursing core competencies, roles and barriers in the KSA. This study's objective is to develop a valid, reliable scale that identifies and explores core competencies of disaster nursing, nurses' roles in disaster management and barriers to developing disaster nursing in the KSA. This study developed a new scale testing its validity and reliability. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to develop and test psychometric properties of the new scale. The PCA used a purposive sample of nurses from emergency departments in two hospitals in the KSA. Participants rated 93 paper-based, self-report questionnaire items from 1 to 10 on a Likert scale. PCA using Varimax rotation was conducted to explore factors emerging from responses. The study's participants were 132 nurses (66% response rate). PCA of the 93 questionnaire items revealed 49 redundant items (which were deleted) and 3 factors with eigenvalues of >1. The remaining 44 items accounted for 77.3% of the total variance. The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.96 for all factors: 0.98 for Factor 1, 0.92 for Factor 2 and 0.86 for Factor 3. This study provided a validated, reliable scale for exploring nurses' core competencies, nurses' roles and barriers to developing disaster nursing in the KSA. The new scale has many implications, such as for improving education, planning and curricula. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Power scaling estimate of crystalline fiber waveguides with rare earth doped YAG cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Hong, Pengda; Meissner, Stephanie K.; Meissner, Helmuth E.

    2016-03-01

    Power scaling analysis based on the model by Dawson et al. [1,2] for circular core fibers has been applied to estimating power scaling of crystalline fiber waveguides (CFWs) with RE3+ doped single crystalline or ceramic YAG (RE=rare earth: Yb, Er, Tm and Ho). Power scaling limits include stimulated Brillouin scattering, thermal lensing effect, and limits to coupling of pump light into CFWs. The CFW designs we have considered consist, in general, of a square doped RE3+:YAG core, an inner cladding of either undoped or laser-inactive-ion-doped YAG and an outer cladding of sapphire. The presented data have been developed for the structures fabricated using the Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB®) technique, but the results should be essentially independent of fabrication technique, assuming perfect core/inner cladding/outer cladding interfaces. Hard power scaling limits exist for a specific CFW design and are strongly based on the physical constants of the material and its spectroscopic specifics. For example, power scaling limit was determined as ~16 kW for 2.5% ceramic Yb:YAG/YAG (core material/inner cladding material) at fiber length of 1.7 m and core diameter of 69 μm. Considering the present manufacturing limit for CFW length to be, e.g., 0.5 m, the actual maximum output power will be limited to ~4.4 kW for a Yb:YAG/YAG CFW. Power limit estimates have also been computed for Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+doped core based CFWs.

  6. Hydromagnetic scaling and core-mantle evolution of the Earth, Mars and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starchenko, Sergey; Pushkarev, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    For fast rotating planet/moon, we derive hydrodynamic and electromagnetic scaling laws in the limit of negligible molecular diffusivity, viscosity and magnetic diffusivity effects. In the Earth, ancient Mars and Moon magnetic energy dominate over kinetic one and typical magnetic field is proportional to the third root of the buoyancy flux power driving the convection as it was obtained recently via numerical simulations. Besides, here we present new scaling laws for estimation of the long-time magnetic consequences due to different evolution scenarios of core-mantle system. The currently accepted scenario with the inner solid core of the Earth crystallizing from the liquid core provides us with too small value of geomagnetic field during more than 3 billions years after formation of the liquid core. Since this is inconsistent with the available paleomagnetic records we are suggesting another scenario with a solid protocore which occupied almost all the core of just formatted Earth. This protocore is slowly melted under the surface influence of the overheated liquid core. It grows up to its modern size when the solid core is small relic of the protocore. Such protocore concept resolves the problem of the energy source for geodynamo and for plume activity in the mantle. In case of validity of this concept the mantle should be supplemented by silicate material from the protocore with primitive isotope composition of the lead but which can't be the result of the liquid core crystallization. Additional argument to the validity of this concept could be the primitive isotope composition of lead in combination with the primary helium enriched by isotope He-3. Following the currently accepted crystallization concept Martian dynamo should be stopped only when the central solid core occupies almost all the volume of Martian core. So, nowadays the liquid core should be sufficiently smaller than the solid one. That contradicts to all the available models of the Martian interior

  7. Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) to Identify Core Profiles from the WMS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Kim, Se-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is a procedure for extracting latent core profiles in a multitest data set. The PAMS procedure offers several advantages compared with other profile analysis procedures. Most notably, PAMS estimates individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed profile…

  8. Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) to Identify Core Profiles from the WMS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Kim, Se-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is a procedure for extracting latent core profiles in a multitest data set. The PAMS procedure offers several advantages compared with other profile analysis procedures. Most notably, PAMS estimates individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed profile…

  9. PWR core and spent fuel pool analysis using scale and nestle

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. E.; Maldonado, G. I.; St Clair, R.; Orr, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SCALE nuclear analysis code system [SCALE, 2011], developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely recognized as high quality software for analyzing nuclear systems. The SCALE code system is composed of several validated computer codes and methods with standard control sequences, such as the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics sequence, which supplies dependable and accurate analyses for industry, regulators, and academia. Although TRITON generates energy-collapsed and space-homogenized few group cross sections, SCALE does not include a full-core nodal neutron diffusion simulation module within. However, in the past few years, the open-source NESTLE core simulator [NESTLE, 2003], originally developed at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU), has been updated and upgraded via collaboration between ORNL and the Univ. of Tennessee (UT), so it now has a growingly seamless coupling to the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics [Galloway, 2010]. This study presents the methodology used to couple lattice physics data between TRITON and NESTLE in order to perform a three-dimensional full-core analysis employing a 'real-life' Duke Energy PWR as the test bed. The focus for this step was to compare the key parameters of core reactivity and radial power distribution versus plant data. Following the core analysis, following a three cycle burn, a spent fuel pool analysis was done using information generated from NESTLE for the discharged bundles and was compared to Duke Energy spent fuel pool models. The KENO control module from SCALE was employed for this latter stage of the project. (authors)

  10. Core polarization, Brown-Rho scaling and a memory of Gerry's Princeton Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, T. T. S.; Holt, J. W.

    2014-08-01

    Core-polarization (CP) and Brown-Rho (BR) scaling were among Gerry's most favorite topics. In this contribution, we will discuss some of the early history as well as more recent work associated with these two fascinating phenomena. I (TTSK) will begin with some recollections of Princeton, where I met Gerry for the first time in 1964 and worked as his postdoc. Core polarization was in fact the first topic he assigned to me. JWH started working with Gerry at Stony Brook from 2003 and was Gerry's last student in nuclear physics. We three had teamed up well, working closely and pleasantly on both CP and BR scaling, particularly on the latter's connection to the anomalously-long beta-decay lifetime of carbon-14. We shall here briefly review these topics, including a recently developed new Brown-Rho scaling based on a Skyrmion half-Skyrmion two-phase model.

  11. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C. L.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hill, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2” diameter x 11” long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315, which is designed to provide mass transfer rates

  12. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  13. Radial And Lateral Topographic Scales of the Inner-Core Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Cormier, V. F.; Fehler, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Strong seismic evidence suggests that the inner core boundary region is dynamic. First, the strong PKP-df coda wave train in the previous time-lapse studies using earthquake doublets cannot be explained by simple rotation of the anisotropic inner core. Second, the observed PKiKP reflection amplitude from nuclear tests does not follow the prediction of a simple spherical model such as the PREM or IASP91. Third, observed amplitude and the traveltime of the PKP C-diff arrival favor different but inconsistent models (PREM-like linear gradient and IASP91-like no gradient, respectively) for the lowermost outer core. Fourth, we observed a seismic phase that had not been reported in the literature in the range of 150-153 degrees, which is about 2.0 seconds after the PKP-df and it has slightly positive slowness deviation compared to the PKIKP-df. Seismic migration showed that this arrival is associated with scattering objects above the turning depth of the PKIKP-df, close to the inner-core boundary. Using an elastic boundary element method, which takes into account of the fluid-solid boundary condition, we simulated high frequency (> 1 Hz) wave propagation and scattering in the inner core boundary region. We propose the presence of inner core topography as a plausible mechanism to explain all these observations. Our preliminary results by modeling the PKiKP amplitude showed that the previously proposed "mosaic structure" of the inner core could be well explained by inner core topography, with horizontal scale ~ 10km and vertical scale ~2km. In addition, for a fluid-solid boundary, topography can generate a strong Scholte wave, which is an interface wave (like the Rayleigh wave) whose amplitude decays exponentially away from the boundary. The Scholte wave can leak energy out of the C-diff wave therefore reducing the C-diff amplitude. Modeling the PKiKP, PKP-df coda and PKP C-diff allows us to place vertical and horizontal topographic bounds for the inner-core boundary.

  14. cm-scale variations of crystal orientation fabric in cold Alpine ice core from Colle Gnifetti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerch, Johanna; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of the microstructural parameters of ice has been an important part of ice core analyses so far mainly in polar cores in order to obtain information about physical processes (e.g. deformation, recrystallisation) on the micro- and macro-scale within an ice body. More recently the influence of impurities and climatic conditions during snow accumulation on these processes has come into focus. A deeper understanding of how palaeoclimate proxies interact with physical properties of the ice matrix bears relevance for palaeoclimatic interpretations, improved geophysical measurement techniques and the furthering of ice dynamical modeling. Variations in microstructural parameters e.g. crystal orientation fabric or grain size can be observed on a scale of hundreds and tens of metres but also on a centimetre scale. The underlying processes are not necessarily the same on all scales. Especially for the short-scale variations many questions remain unanswered. We present results from a study that aims to investigate following hypotheses: 1. Variations in grain size and fabric, i.e. strong changes of the orientation of ice crystals with respect to the vertical, occur on a centimetre scale and can be observed in all depths of an ice core. 2. Palaeoclimate proxies like dust and impurities have an impact on the microstructural processes and thus are inducing the observed short-scale variations in grain size and fabric. 3. The interaction of proxies with the ice matrix leads to depth intervals that show correlating behaviour as well as ranges with anticorrelation between microstructural parameters and palaeoclimatic proxies. The respective processes need to be identified. Fabric Analyser measurements were conducted on more than 80 samples (total of 8 m) from different depth ranges of a cold Alpine ice core (72 m length) drilled in 2013 at Colle Gnifetti, Switzerland/Italy. Results were obtained by automatic image processing, providing estimates for grain size distributions

  15. Accelerated gravity testing of aquitard core permeability and implications at formation and regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Guinea, A.; Acworth, R. I.

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, the extraction of fuels from strata such as coal beds, and the confinement of waste within the earth. The current work demonstrates that relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement of aquitard cores using accelerated gravity can inform and constrain larger scale assessments of hydraulic connectivity. Steady state fluid velocity through a low K porous sample is linearly related to accelerated gravity (g-level) in a centrifuge permeameter (CP) unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. The CP module was custom designed to fit a standard 2 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge (550 g maximum) with a capacity for sample dimensions of 30 to 100 mm diameter and 30 to 200 mm in length, and a maximum total stress of ~2 MPa at the base of the core. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena which may alter the permeability. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) results from CP testing of cores from three sites within the same regional clayey silt formation varied (10-7 to 10-9 m s-1, n = 14). Results at one of these sites (1.1 × 10-10 to 3.5 × 10-9 m s-1, n = 5) that were obtained in < 24 h were similar to in situ Kv values (3 × 10-9 m s-1) from pore pressure responses over several weeks within a 30 m clayey sequence. Core scale and in situ Kv results were compared with vertical connectivity within a regional flow model, and considered in the context of heterogeneity and preferential flow paths at site and formation scale. More reliable assessments of leakage and solute transport though aquitards over multi-decadal timescales can be achieved by accelerated core testing together with advanced geostatistical and numerical methods.

  16. Harnessing Petaflop-Scale Multi-Core Supercomputing for Problems in Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K. J.; Daughton, W.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The particle-in-cell kinetic plasma code VPIC has been migrated successfully to the world's fastest supercomputer, Roadrunner, a hybrid multi-core platform built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. How this was achieved will be described and examples of state-of-the-art calculations in space science, in particular, the study of magnetic reconnection, will be presented. With VPIC on Roadrunner, we have performed, for the first time, plasma PIC calculations with over one trillion particles, >100× larger than calculations considered "heroic" by community standards. This allows examination of physics at unprecedented scale and fidelity. Roadrunner is an example of an emerging paradigm in supercomputing: the trend toward multi-core systems with deep hierarchies and where memory bandwidth optimization is vital to achieving high performance. Getting VPIC to perform well on such systems is a formidable challenge: the core algorithm is memory bandwidth limited with low compute-to-data ratio and requires random access to memory in its inner loop. That we were able to get VPIC to perform and scale well, achieving >0.374 Pflop/s and linear weak scaling on real physics problems on up to the full 12240-core Roadrunner machine, bodes well for harnessing these machines for our community's needs in the future. Many of the design considerations encountered commute to other multi-core and accelerated (e.g., via GPU) platforms and we modified VPIC with flexibility in mind. These will be summarized and strategies for how one might adapt a code for such platforms will be shared. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Bowers is a LANL Guest Scientist; he is presently at D. E. Shaw Research LLC, 120 W 45th Street, 39th Floor, New York, NY 10036.

  17. The Destabilization of Protected Soil Organic Carbon Following Experimental Drought at the Pore and Core scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Tfaily, M. M.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bailey, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    The movement of water and solutes through the pore matrix controls the distribution and transformation of carbon (C) in soils. Thus, a change in the hydrologic connectivity, such as increased saturation, disturbance or drought, may alter C mineralization and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes to the atmosphere. While these processes occur at the pore scale, they are often investigated at coarser scale. This project investigates pore- and core-scale soil C dynamics with varying hydrologic factors (simulated precipitation, groundwater-led saturation, and drought) to assess how climate-change induced shifts in hydrologic connectivity influences the destabilization of protected C in soils. Surface soil cores (0-15 cm depth) were collected from the Disney Wilderness Preserve, Florida, USA where water dynamics, particularly water table rise and fall, appear to exert a strong control on the emissions of GHGs and the persistence of soil organic matter in these soils. We measured CO2 and CH4 from soils allowed to freely imbibe water from below to a steady state starting from either field moist conditions or following experimental drought. Parallel treatments included the addition of similar quantities of water from above to simulate precipitation. Overall respiration increased in soil cores subjected to drought compared to field moist cores independent of wetting type. Cumulative CH4 production was higher in drought-induced soils, especially in the soils subjected to experimental groundwater-led saturation. Overall, the more C (from CO2 and CH4) was lost in drought-induced soils compared to field moist cores. Our results indicate that future drought events could have profound effects on the destabilization of protected C, especially in groundwater-fed soils. Our next steps focus on how to accurately capture drought-induced C destabilization mechanisms in earth system models.

  18. Pre-Stressing Micron-Scale Aluminum Core-Shell Particles to Improve Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The main direction in increasing reactivity of aluminum (Al) particles for energetic applications is reduction in their size down to nanoscale. However, Al nanoparticles are 30-50 times more expensive than micron scale particles and possess safety and environmental issues. Here, we improved reactivity of Al micron scale particles by synthesizing pre-stressed core-shell structures. Al particles were annealed and quenched to induce compressive stresses in the alumina passivation shell surrounding Al core. This thermal treatment was designed based on predictions of the melt-dispersion mechanism (MDM); a theory describing Al particle reaction under high heating rate. For all anneal treatment temperatures, experimental flame propagation rates for Al combined with nanoscale copper oxide (CuO) are in quantitative agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the MDM. The best treatment increases flame rate by 36% and achieves 68% of that for the best Al nanoparticles.

  19. Pre-Stressing Micron-Scale Aluminum Core-Shell Particles to Improve Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Levitas, Valery I.; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The main direction in increasing reactivity of aluminum (Al) particles for energetic applications is reduction in their size down to nanoscale. However, Al nanoparticles are 30–50 times more expensive than micron scale particles and possess safety and environmental issues. Here, we improved reactivity of Al micron scale particles by synthesizing pre-stressed core-shell structures. Al particles were annealed and quenched to induce compressive stresses in the alumina passivation shell surrounding Al core. This thermal treatment was designed based on predictions of the melt-dispersion mechanism (MDM); a theory describing Al particle reaction under high heating rate. For all anneal treatment temperatures, experimental flame propagation rates for Al combined with nanoscale copper oxide (CuO) are in quantitative agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the MDM. The best treatment increases flame rate by 36% and achieves 68% of that for the best Al nanoparticles. PMID:25597747

  20. On the magnetic field evolution time-scale in superconducting neutron star cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Akgün, Taner; Pons, José A.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2017-08-01

    We revisit the various approximations employed to study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in neutron star cores and discuss their limitations and possible improvements. A recent controversy on the correct form of the induction equation and the relevant evolution time-scale in superconducting neutron star cores is addressed and clarified. We show that this ambiguity in the estimation of time-scales arises as a consequence of nominally large terms that appear in the induction equation, but which are, in fact, mostly irrotational. This subtlety leads to a discrepancy by many orders of magnitude when velocity fields are absent or ignored. Even when internal velocity fields are accounted for, only the solenoidal part of the electric field contributes to the induction equation, which can be substantially smaller than the irrotational part. We also argue that stationary velocity fields must be incorporated in the slow evolution of the magnetic field as the next level of approximation.

  1. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach.

  2. A Statistical Analysis of the Scaling Laws for the Confinement Time Distinguishing between Core and Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.

    The H mode of confinement in Tokamaks is characterized by a thin region of high gradients, located at the edge of the plasma and called the Edge Transport Barrier. Even if various theoretical models have been proposed for the interpretation of the edge physics, the main empirical scaling laws of the plasma confinement time are expressed in terms of global plasma parameters and they do not discriminate between the edge and core regions. Moreover all the scaling laws are assumed to be power law monomials. In the present paper, a new methodology is proposed to investigate the validity of both assumptions. The approach is based on Symbolic Regression via Genetic Programming and allows first the extraction of the most statistically reliable models from the available experimental data in the ITPA database. Non linear fitting is then applied to the mathematical expressions found by Symbolic regression. The obtained scaling laws are compared with the traditional scalings in power law form.

  3. Use of geology in the interpretation of core-scale relative permeability data

    SciTech Connect

    Ringrose, P.S.; Jensen, J.L.; Sorbie, K.S.

    1996-09-01

    A number of factors, such as wettability, pore-size distribution, and core-scale heterogeneity, are known to affect the measured relative permeability in core plug samples. This paper focuses on the influence of geological structure at the laminaset scale on water-oil imbibition relative permeability curves. The endpoint positions and curve shapes vary as a function of the type of internal heterogeneity, the flow rate, and the assumptions on the pore-scale petrophysics (e.g. wettability). Interaction between the capillary forces and heterogeneity can occur at the cm-dm scale, which results in widely varying two-phase flow behavior for rocks with the same single-phase permeability. The geometry of heterogeneity as expressed in standard geological descriptions (e.g., cross-laminated, ripple-laminated, plane-laminated) can be translated into features of the expected relative permeability behavior for each rock type, thus aiding the interpretation of relative permeability data. The authors illustrate how their findings can help to interpret sets of relative permeability data from the field, using some examples from the Admire sand, El Dorado Field, Kansas.

  4. The development and validation of the core competencies scale (CCS) for the college and university students.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Bin; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Edginton, Christopher R; Chin, Ming Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Core Competencies Scale (CCS) using Bok's (2006) competency framework for undergraduate education. The framework included: communication, critical thinking, character development, citizenship, diversity, global understanding, widening of interest, and career and vocational development. The sample comprised 70 college and university students. Results of analysis using Rasch rating scale modelling showed that there was strong empirical evidence on the validity of the measures in contents, structure, interpretation, generalizability, and response options of the CCS scale. The implication of having developed Rasch-based valid and dependable measures in this study for gauging the value added of college and university education to their students is that the feedback generated from CCS will enable evidence-based decision and policy making to be implemented and strategized. Further, program effectiveness can be measured and thus accountability on the achievement of the program objectives.

  5. Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Notenbaert, An; Pfeifer, Catherine; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2017-02-01

    As a result of population growth, urbanization and climate change, agricultural systems around the world face enormous pressure on the use of resources. There is a pressing need for wide-scale innovation leading to development that improves the livelihoods and food security of the world's population while at the same time addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. A variety of promising climate-smart interventions have been identified. However, what remains is the prioritization of interventions for investment and broad dissemination. The suitability and adoption of interventions depends on a variety of bio-physical and socio-economic factors. Also their impacts, when adopted and out-scaled, are likely to be highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity expresses itself not only spatially and temporally but also in terms of the stakeholders affected, some might win and some might lose. A mechanism that can facilitate a systematic, holistic assessment of the likely spread and consequential impact of potential interventions is one way of improving the selection and targeting of such options. In this paper we provide climate smart agriculture (CSA) planners and implementers at all levels with a generic framework for evaluating and prioritising potential interventions. This entails an iterative process of mapping out recommendation domains, assessing adoption potential and estimating impacts. Through examples, related to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, we demonstrate each of the steps and how they are interlinked. The framework is applicable in many different forms, scales and settings. It has a wide applicability beyond the examples presented and we hope to stimulate readers to integrate the concepts in the planning process for climate-smart agriculture, which invariably involves multi-stakeholder, multi-scale and multi-objective decision-making.

  6. Mode-converters for rectangular-core fiber amplifiers to achieve diffraction-limited power scaling.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Arun Kumar; Pax, Paul H; Heebner, John E; Drachenberg, Derrek R; Armstrong, J Paul; Dawson, Jay W

    2012-12-17

    A rectangular-core (ribbon) fiber that guides and amplifies a single higher-order-mode (HOM) can potentially scale to much higher average powers than what is possible in traditional circular-core large-mode-area fibers. Such an amplifier would require mode-conversion at the input to enable interfacing with seed sources that typically output TEM(00) mode radiation and at the output to generate diffraction-limited radiation for end-user applications. We present the first simulation and experimental results of a mode conversion technique that uses two diffractive-optic-elements in conjugate Fourier planes to convert a diffraction limited TEM(00) mode to the HOM of a ribbon fiber. Mode-conversion-efficiency is approximately 84% and can theoretically approach 100%. We also demonstrate a mode-converter system that converts a single HOM of a ribbon fiber back to a diffraction-limited TEM(00) mode. Conversion efficiency is a record 80.5%.

  7. Comparative genome-scale metabolic modeling of actinomycetes: the topology of essential core metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Medema, Marnix H; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2011-07-21

    Actinomycetes are highly important bacteria. On one hand, some of them cause severe human and plant diseases, on the other hand, many species are known for their ability to produce antibiotics. Here we report the results of a comparative analysis of genome-scale metabolic models of 37 species of actinomycetes. Based on in silico knockouts we generated topological and genomic maps for each organism. Combining the collection of genome-wide models, we constructed a global enzyme association network to identify both a conserved "core network" and an "essential core network" of the entire group. As has been reported for low-degree metabolites in several organisms, low-degree enzymes (in linear pathways) turn out to be generally more essential than high-degree enzymes (in metabolic hubs).

  8. Small-scale zooplankton aggregations at the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishizawa, Satoshi

    1986-11-01

    A Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder was used to study the small-scale zooplankton distribution across the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring in June 1979. Zooplankton were strongly aggregated in the frontal region; patches of zooplankton and phytoplankton were spatially separated. A major part of the zooplankton assemblage consisted of neritic forms such as cladocerans and indicator species of the cold Oyashio water. This implies that lateral entrainment of coastal waters, which is directly influenced by the Oyashio, was an important factor in the formation of the aggregations at the Kuroshio warm-core ring front. Variation in the distribution of abundance peaks of individual zooplankton species was also observed. Futhermore, zooplankton showed more intensive non-randomness (aggregation) than phytoplankton and non-motile euphausiid's eggs. Thus, biological processes, such as motility and prey-predator interaction, also appeared to be regulating the patchiness.

  9. An integrated, cross-disciplinary study of soil hydrophobicity at atomic, molecular, core and landscape scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, G. Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Van Keulen, Geertje; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Whalley, Richard; Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kat; Ashton, Rhys

    2017-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity can lead to reduced soil fertility and heightened flood risk caused by increased run-off. Soil hydrophobicity is a well-known phenomenon when induced by natural events such as wildfires and anthropogenic causes including adding organic wastes or hydrocarbon contaminants. This presentation concerns a much more subtle effect - the naturally occurring changes between hydrophilic and hydrophobic states caused by periods of wetness and drought. Although subtle, they nevertheless affect vast areas of soil, and so their effects can be very significant, and are predicted to increase under climate change conditions. To understand the effect, a major interdisciplinary study has been commissioned by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to investigate soil hydrophobicity over length scales ranging from atomic through molecular, core and landscape scale. We present the key findings from the many publications currently in preparation. The programme is predicated on the hypothesis that changes in soil protein abundance and localization, induced by variations in soil moisture and temperature, are crucial driving forces for transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic conditions at soil particle surfaces, and that these effects can be meaningfully upscaled from molecular to landscape scale. Three soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (natural rough pasture, Wales), intermediate to severe (pasture, Wales), and subcritical (managed research grassland, Rothamsted Research, England). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Hydrophobic/ hydrophilic transitions were determined from water droplet penetration times. Scientific advances in the following five areas will be described: (i) the identification of these soil proteins by proteomic methods, using novel separation methods which reduces interference by humic acids, and allows identification

  10. Transport coefficients and entropy-scaling law in liquid iron up to Earth-core pressures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Long; Wang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Duo-Hui; Yang, Jun-Sheng; Wan, Ming-Jie; Wang, Fan-Hou

    2014-03-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to study the structural and transport properties, including the pair distribution function, the structure factor, the pair correlation entropy, self-diffusion coefficient, and viscosity, of liquid iron under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Our calculated results reproduced experimentally determined structure factors of liquid iron, and the calculated self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity agree well with previous simulation results. We show that there is a moderate increase of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity along the melting curve up to the Earth-core pressure. Furthermore, the temperature dependencies of the pair correlation entropy, self-diffusion, and viscosity under high pressure condition have been investigated. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy is well described by T(-1) scaling, while the Arrhenius law well describes the temperature dependencies of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity under high pressure. In particular, we find that the entropy-scaling laws, proposed by Rosenfeld [Phys. Rev. A 15, 2545 (1977)] and Dzugutov [Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996)] for self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity in liquid metals under ambient pressure, still hold well for liquid iron under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Using the entropy-scaling laws, we can obtain transport properties from structural properties under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The results provide a useful ingredient in understanding transport properties of planet's cores.

  11. Comparison of prestellar core elongations and large-scale molecular cloud structures in the Lupus I region

    SciTech Connect

    Poidevin, Frédérick; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angile, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-08-10

    Turbulence and magnetic fields are expected to be important for regulating molecular cloud formation and evolution. However, their effects on sub-parsec to 100 parsec scales, leading to the formation of starless cores, are not well understood. We investigate the prestellar core structure morphologies obtained from analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE 350 μm maps of the Lupus I cloud. This distribution is first compared on a statistical basis to the large-scale shape of the main filament. We find the distribution of the elongation position angle of the cores to be consistent with a random distribution, which means no specific orientation of the morphology of the cores is observed with respect to the mean orientation of the large-scale filament in Lupus I, nor relative to a large-scale bent filament model. This distribution is also compared to the mean orientation of the large-scale magnetic fields probed at 350 μm with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telescope for Polarimetry during its 2010 campaign. Here again we do not find any correlation between the core morphology distribution and the average orientation of the magnetic fields on parsec scales. Our main conclusion is that the local filament dynamics—including secondary filaments that often run orthogonally to the primary filament—and possibly small-scale variations in the local magnetic field direction, could be the dominant factors for explaining the final orientation of each core.

  12. Small-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of ice cores: observations and numerical model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; LLorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Eichler, Jan; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    Visual stratigraphy of ice cores from Greenland as well as Antarctica revealed folding on a cm scale, with fold amplitudes varying from less than 1 cm to a few decimetres. Stratigraphy bands are visualized by an indirect light source scattering on surfaces inside the ice, mainly particles and air bubbles / hydrates. Due to their potential influence on the integrity of the climatic record, folds have been subject to modelling studies, however, the initial formation of the disturbances is not fully understood. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the visible folds from the NEEM ice core from Greenland and the EDML ice core from Antarctica, discuss their characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. We also analyse the structures with regard to the deformation boundary conditions under which they formed. In case of the NEEM core the structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1500 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their similar-fold shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between alternating layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. C-axes orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analysed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c-axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which shows a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. In case of the EDML ice cores the folding starts at a depth of about 1700 m and show very similar characteristics as found in the NEEM core. Numerical modelling of crystal viscoplasticity deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures during deformation. The modelling reproduces the

  13. Development of a Generic Anti-PEG Antibody Assay Using BioScale's Acoustic Membrane MicroParticle Technology.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huijin; Mora, Johanna R; Brockus, Catherine; Chilewski, Shannon D; Dodge, Robert; Merrifield, Colin; Dickerson, W Matthew; DeSilva, Binodh

    2015-11-01

    Immunogenicity testing for PEGylated biotherapeutics should include methods to detect both anti-protein and anti-PEG antibodies (anti-PEG). Although some methods have been published for the detection of anti-PEG antibodies, the information is incomplete and, in some cases, reagents used (such as Tween-20) are known to interfere with detection. This rapid communication describes the use of BioScale's Acoustic Membrane MicroParticle (AMMP®) technology using the ViBE® Workstation to measure anti-PEG antibodies in human serum samples. Briefly, a sample spiked with monoclonal human IgG anti-PEG antibody is diluted in buffer and incubated with paramagnetic beads coated with linear chain mPEG to capture anti-PEG antibodies. The complex is then captured on an acoustic membrane coated with Protein A. The change in mass on the membrane caused by the binding of the complex to the membrane results in a signal proportional to the mass of anti-PEG antibodies. The data indicate that an assay with a sensitivity of less than 1000 ng/mL for IgG is achievable. This level of sensitivity is better than current published reports on IgG anti-PEG antibody detection.

  14. Implementation of a reference-scaled average bioequivalence approach for highly variable generic drug products of agomelatine in Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fang; Zhou, Rui; Cheng, Zeneng; Yang, Guoping; Chen, Aiqiao; Liu, Zhi; Tan, Hongyi; Yang, Shuang; Li, Sanwang; Mu, Lingli; Yu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE) approach to evaluate the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of agomelatine, and to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects. This was performed in a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, four-way crossover study with a one-day washout period between doses. Healthy Chinese males were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of either the test or reference formulation. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the log-transformed ratios and ratio of geometric means (GMR) of AUC and Cmax of agomelatine were within the predetermined bioequivalence range based on RSABE method. Results showed that both of the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of AUC and Cmax of 7-desmethyl-agomelatine and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine were within the predetermined bioequivalence range. The 90% CIs for natural log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ of agomelatine (104.42–139.86, 101.33–123.83 and 97.90–117.94) were within the RSABE acceptance limits, and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine (105.55–123.03, 101.95–109.10 and 101.72–108.70) and 7-desmethyl-agomelatine (104.50–125.23, 102.36–111.50 and 101.62–110.64) were within the FDA bioequivalence definition intervals (0.80–1.25 for AUC and 0.75–1.33 for Cmax). The RSABE approach was successful in evaluating the bioequivalence of these two formulations. PMID:26904401

  15. Mesopore-free silica shell with nanometer-scale thickness-controllable on cationic polystyrene core.

    PubMed

    Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Iwaki, Toru; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2013-01-01

    The formation of mesopore-free silica shell with homogenous shell thickness, smooth surface, and controllable thickness in the nanometer range (from 4 to 12 nm) on core material was studied. Cationic polystyrene particles with various sizes (ranged from 80 to 300 nm) were used as a model of core material, which could be effective to support the electrostatic attraction between the core material and the negatively charged silica without any additives. Different from other reports, mesopore-free shell was produced due to the absence of additive. Basic amino acid (i.e., lysine) was used as a catalyst for forming the silica, which is harmless and able to control the silica growth and produce shell with smooth surface. Homogenous thin shell (thickness <13 nm) with nanometer-scale-controllable was reported, while in the current reports, the modification of the shell in this thickness range was typically difficult and relating to the formation of incomplete/inhomogeneous silica coating and rough surface. The relationships among the reaction parameters were also investigated in detail along with the theoretical consideration and the proposal of the silica coating formation mechanism. The present mesopore-free silica shell was efficiently used for various applications because of their tendency not to adsorb large molecules, as confirmed by the nitrogen sorption and large molecule adsorption analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infrared length scale and extrapolations for the no-core shell model

    DOE PAGES

    Wendt, K. A.; Forssén, C.; Papenbrock, T.; ...

    2015-06-03

    In this paper, we precisely determine the infrared (IR) length scale of the no-core shell model (NCSM). In the NCSM, the A-body Hilbert space is truncated by the total energy, and the IR length can be determined by equating the intrinsic kinetic energy of A nucleons in the NCSM space to that of A nucleons in a 3(A-1)-dimensional hyper-radial well with a Dirichlet boundary condition for the hyper radius. We demonstrate that this procedure indeed yields a very precise IR length by performing large-scale NCSM calculations for 6Li. We apply our result and perform accurate IR extrapolations for bound statesmore » of 4He, 6He, 6Li, and 7Li. Finally, we also attempt to extrapolate NCSM results for 10B and 16O with bare interactions from chiral effective field theory over tens of MeV.« less

  17. Development of an integrated generic model for multi-scale assessment of the impacts of agro-ecosystems on major ecosystem services in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Belem, Mahamadou; Saqalli, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions. A case study in Burkina Faso is examined to assess the environmental and economic performances of semi-continuous and continuous farming systems. Results show that the semi-continuous system using organic fertilizer and fallowing practices contribute better to environment preservation and food security than the more economically performant continuous system. In addition, this study showed that farmers heterogeneity could play an important role in agricultural policies planning and assessment. In addition, the results showed that MOWASIA is an effective tool for designing, analysing the impacts of agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Accelerated gravity testing of aquitard core permeability and implications at formation and regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Acworth, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low-permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, the extraction of fuels from coal and other strata, and the confinement of waste within the earth. The current work demonstrates that relatively rapid and realistic vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) measurements of aquitard cores using accelerated gravity can constrain and compliment larger-scale assessments of hydraulic connectivity. Steady-state fluid velocity through a low-K porous sample is linearly related to accelerated gravity (g level) in a centrifuge permeameter (CP) unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. A CP module was custom designed to fit a standard 2 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge (550 g maximum) with a capacity for sample dimensions up to 100 mm diameter and 200 mm length, and a total stress of ˜ 2 MPa at the base of the core. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena, which may alter the permeability. Kv results from CP testing of minimally disturbed cores from three sites within a clayey-silt formation varied from 10-10 to 10-7 m s-1 (number of samples, n = 18). Additional tests were focussed on the Cattle Lane (CL) site, where Kv within the 99 % confidence interval (n = 9) was 1.1 × 10-9 to 2.0 × 10-9 m s-1. These Kv results were very similar to an independent in situ Kv method based on pore pressure propagation though the sequence. However, there was less certainty at two other core sites due to limited and variable Kv data. Blind standard 1 g column tests underestimated Kv compared to CP and in situ Kv data, possibly due to deionised water interactions with clay, and were more time-consuming than CP tests. Our Kv results were compared with the set-up of a flow model for the region, and considered in the context of heterogeneity and preferential flow paths at site and

  19. Scaling Denitrification Fluxes from Cores to Catchments: Spatial and Temporal Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, J. M.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on nitrogen cycling can be profound but catchment scale understanding remains elusive. One of the largest sources of uncertainty is the importance of denitrification. Determining in situ rates of denitrification in elements of landscape that remove a disproportionately high amount of N from certain areas of catchment (hot spots) in response to seasonal and event driven conditions (hot moments) is critical to closing watershed nitrogen budgets. We develop an approach to scale denitrification flux from seasonal soil cores collected in different landscape positions to the entire watershed using a combination of laboratory core experiments, terrain analysis and in situ soil oxygen and soil moisture content sensors. In the Pond Branch watershed in the Piedmont region of Maryland, nitrogen deposition values are relatively high (9kg/ha/yr) with low stream export (0.5 kg/ha/yr). Our data suggest that at least 16-27% of this retention can be accounted for by denitrification in certain areas of the riparian zone. We highlight the importance of riparian microtopography and the need to better link observations and models.

  20. Diverted Tokamak Carbon Screening: Scaling with Machine Size and Consequences to Core Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan; G. Corrigan; A. Kallenbach; G.F. Matthews; H. Meister; R. Neu; V. Rohde; J. Spence

    2004-01-23

    Plasma impurity content depends upon the impurity sources, fueling efficiency, and confinement. In JET [Joint European Torus], carbon is the primary impurity, and its fueling efficiency has been studied using methane gas injection and modeled with the SOL [scrape-off layer] codes: DIVIMP and EDGE2D. In this paper, EDGE2D modeling of similar AUG [ASDEX-Upgrade] experiments and projections to ITER are described. The parameters have been identified which govern the size scaling of carbon screening. Size scaling is complex. For carbon injected from the main chamber, the important factors include: the SOL temperature, the magnitude of the thermal force at the divertor entrance, and the parallel distance to the divertor. For carbon injected at the strike points, the intersection of the carbon ionization region with the region of strong thermal force determines the carbon fueling efficiency ITER projects to have much better carbon screening than JET. The ITER SOL is hotter so that main chamber carbon is ionized further from the separatrix making the calculated carbon fueling efficiency lower. Also, the carbon originating near the strike point has less chance of escaping the divertor by factors of about 100. The carbon sputtering is projected to be larger by similar factors, making the projected ITER core contamination similar to JET. However, that result is based upon the assumption that the wall materials have similar composition and behavior as observed on JET. A general result is that the core contamination at fixed total sputtering rate and core impurity confinement increases when the fraction of carbon ionized in the main chamber SOL increases, and decreases for larger machine size and higher density operation.

  1. Disentangling the dynamic core: a research program for a neurodynamics at the large-scale.

    PubMed

    Le Van Quyen, Michel

    2003-01-01

    My purpose in this paper is to sketch a research direction based on Francisco Varela's pioneering work in neurodynamics (see also Rudrauf et al. 2003, in this issue). Very early on he argued that the internal coherence of every mental-cognitive state lies in the global self-organization of the brain activities at the large-scale, constituting a fundamental pole of integration called here a "dynamic core". Recent neuroimaging evidence appears to broadly support this hypothesis and suggests that a global brain dynamics emerges at the large scale level from the cooperative interactions among widely distributed neuronal populations. Despite a growing body of evidence supporting this view, our understanding of these large-scale brain processes remains hampered by the lack of a theoretical language for expressing these complex behaviors in dynamical terms. In this paper, I propose a rough cartography of a comprehensive approach that offers a conceptual and mathematical framework to analyze spatio-temporal large-scale brain phenomena. I emphasize how these nonlinear methods can be applied, what property might be inferred from neuronal signals, and where one might productively proceed for the future. This paper is dedicated, with respect and affection, to the memory of Francisco Varela.

  2. Patients’ beliefs about generic medicines in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Zhi Y.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Yahaya, Abdul H.; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acceptance of generic medicines by patients is an essential factor given that they are the end users of these medicines. In fact, adequate knowledge and positive perceptions are prerequisite to patients’ acceptance and use of generic medicines. Objective: To assess the current belief and views of patients about generic medicines in Malaysia. Method: This was a self-administered questionnaire-based study. The study was conducted with patients visiting outpatient pharmacy department at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. The Malaysian version of Generic Medicines Scale (GMS) was used. The GMS consists of two subscales: efficacy and similarity of generic medicines to original brand medicines. The efficacy subscale consists of 10 items while the similarity subscale consists of 6 items. The responses to the items were framed as a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Results: A total of 202 out of 300 patients participated in the study, giving a response rate of 67.3%. In this study, only 49% of them (n=99) knew the term ‘generic medicine’. Moreover, only 53.5% of the respondents (n=108) believed that the efficacy of generic medicines was the same as original brand medicines. In terms of quality, only 44% of the respondents (n=89) disagreed that generic medicines were of a lower quality. About one third (n=65, 32.2%) believed that generic medicines were cheaper because they were less efficacious. In terms of side effects, 44.5% of the respondents (n=90) believed that generic medicines had the same side effect profile as original brand medicines. Conclusions: The study finding showed that almost half of the respondents had negative belief in generic medicines. Similarly, many patients were not aware of the similarities and differences between generic and original brand medicines. Therefore, there is a need to provide patients with adequate information about generic medicines. PMID:25580171

  3. Exploring Hardware Support For Scaling Irregular Applications on Multi-node Multi-core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Secchi, Simone; Ceriani, Marco; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Palermo, Gianluca; Raffo, Luigi

    2013-06-05

    With the recent emergence of large-scale knowledge dis- covery, data mining and social network analysis, irregular applications have gained renewed interest. Classic cache-based high-performance architectures do not provide optimal performances with such kind of workloads, mainly due to the very low spatial and temporal locality of the irregular control and memory access patterns. In this paper, we present a multi-node, multi-core, fine-grained multi-threaded shared-memory system architecture specifically designed for the execution of large-scale irregular applications, and built on top of three pillars, that we believe are fundamental to support these workloads. First, we offer transparent hardware support for Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) to provide a large globally-shared address space with no software library overhead. Second, we employ multi-threaded multi-core processing nodes to achieve the necessary latency tolerance required by accessing global memory, which potentially resides in a remote node. Finally, we devise hardware support for inter-thread synchronization on the whole global address space. We first model the performances by using an analytical model that takes into account the main architecture and application characteristics. We describe the hardware design of the proposed cus- tom architectural building blocks that provide support for the above- mentioned three pillars. Finally, we present a limited-scale evaluation of the system on a multi-board FPGA prototype with typical irregular kernels and benchmarks. The experimental evaluation demonstrates the architecture performance scalability for different configurations of the whole system.

  4. A Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Controller for a Generic Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Presented here is a Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) architecture for a generic transport aircraft. At its core, this architecture features a three-axis, non-linear, dynamic-inversion controller. Command inputs for this baseline controller are provided by pilot roll-rate, pitch-rate, and sideslip commands. This paper will first thoroughly present the baseline controller followed by a description of the PMRAC adaptive augmentation to this control system. Results are presented via a full-scale, nonlinear simulation of NASA s Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  5. From Cores to Envelopes to Disks: A Multi-scale View of Magnetized Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of polarization in star forming regions have been made across many wavelengths, many size scales, and many stages of stellar evolution. One of the overarching goals of these observations has been to determine the importance of magnetic fields -- which are the cause of the polarization -- in the star formation process. We begin by describing the commissioning and the calibration of the 1.3 mm dual-polarization receiver system we built for CARMA (the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy), a radio telescope in the eastern Sierra region of California. One of the primary science drivers behind the polarization system is to observe polarized thermal emission from dust grains in the dense clumps of dust and gas where the youngest, Class 0 protostars are forming. We go on to describe the CARMA TADPOL survey -- the largest high-resolution (~1000 AU scale) survey to date of dust polarization in low-mass protostellar cores -- and discuss our main findings: (1) Magnetic fields (B-fields) on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with protostellar outflows. Rather, the data are consistent both with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular) and where they are randomly aligned. (2) Sources with high CARMA polarization fractions have consistent B-field orientations on large scales (~20'', measured using single-dish submillimeter telescopes) and small scales (~2.5'', measured by CARMA). We interpret this to mean that in at least some cases B-fields play a role in regulating the infall of material all the way down to the ~1000 AU scales of protostellar envelopes. Finally, (3) While on the whole outflows appear to be randomly aligned with B-fields, in sources with low polarization fractions there is a hint that outflows are preferentially perpendicular to small-scale B-fields, which suggests that in these sources the fields have been wrapped up by envelope rotation. This work shows that the ~1000 AU

  6. Soil hydrophobicity - relating effects at atomic, molecular, core and national scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Van Keulen, Geertje; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Whalley, Richard; Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kat; Ashton, Rhys

    2016-04-01

    The detrimental impacts of soil hydrophobicity include increased runoff, erosion and flooding, reduced biomass production, inefficient use of irrigation water and preferential leaching of pollutants. Its impacts may exacerbate flood risk associated with more extreme drought and precipitation events predicted with UK climate change scenarios. The UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) has therefore funded a major research programme to investigate soil hydrophobicity over length scales ranging from atomic through molecular, core and landscape scale. This presentation gives an overview of the findings to date. The programme is predicated on the hypothesis that changes in soil protein abundance and localization, induced by variations in soil moisture and temperature, are crucial driving forces for transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic conditions at soil particle surfaces. Three soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (Cefn Bryn, Gower, Wales), intermediate to severe (National Botanical Garden, Wales), and subcritical (Park Grass, Rothamsted Research near London). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Hydrophobic/ hydrophilic transitions were measured from water droplet penetration times. Scientific advances in the following five areas will be described: (i) the identification of these soil proteins by proteomic methods, using a novel separation method which reduces interference by humic acids, and allows identification by ESI and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry and database searches, (ii) the examination of such proteins, which form ordered hydrophobic ridges, and measurement of their elasticity, stickiness and hydrophobicity at nano- to microscale using atomic force microscopy adapted for the rough surfaces of soil particles, (iii) the novel use of a picoliter goniometer to show hydrophobic effects at a 1 micron diameter droplet level, which

  7. Meso-scale Slow Velocity Features on the Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.

    2016-12-01

    LLSVPs (Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces) are approximately antipodal regions, 1000s of kilometers across on the core-mantle boundary, that are characterized by low rigidity, Vs reductions of 5%, and bounded by strong lateral velocity gradients. Only two LLSVPs exist: one situated beneath the Pacific and the other beneath Africa and the Atlantic. The exact morphology, composition, and origin of LLSVPs remains mysterious. We have applied 3D clustering analysis across the lower mantle and across eight different recent tomographic models, assuming the lower mantle is dominated by three different types of material: 1. LLSVPs 2. Subducted slabs 3. Ambient mantle. The suggested boundaries of the LLSVPs traced out by cluster analysis agree well with local waveform studies. Their boundary morphology shows the two provinces consist of different cone-shaped sub-piles whose topographic slopes range from shallow-dipping, to steep, to overhanging. This suggests that either the provinces have internal compositional variations or that interaction with surrounding convection controls the boundary shape. Outside the two LLSVPs, clustering analysis suggests the existence of multiple slow velocity meso-scale features approximately 1000 km across, beneath Perm (Russia), South Pacific, Kamchatka, and Iceland. Lekic et al. (2012) modeled seismic waveforms to confirm the existence of the Perm anomaly, and show that it has sharp boundaries and a velocity reduction similar to LLSVPs. Here we present evidence of new meso-scale features (e.g. South Pacific anomaly), documenting that they represent a third type of lowermost mantle structure, intermediate in scale between the LLSVPs and ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs). The existence and aspect ratio of such meso-scale regions further constrains the nature of these anomalies. Additionally, the clustering analysis suggests a fourth class: these are slow meso-scale features which appear several hundreds of kilometers above the core

  8. Emerging Methods in Sub Core-Scale Imaging and Characterization of the Influence of Heterogeneity on Flow in Rocks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.; Hingerl, F.; Pini, R.

    2013-12-01

    New imaging techniques and approaches are providing unparalleled insight into the influence of sub-core scale heterogeneities on single and multiphase flows. Quantification of sub core-scale porosity, permeability, and even capillary pressure curves at a spatial scale of about 1-10 cubic millimeters is now possible. This scale provides a critical link in the continuum of spatial scales needed to link pore-scale processes to core-scale and field scale flow and transport. Data from such studies can be used to directly test the veracity of models for flow and transport in heterogeneous rocks, provide data for multi-stage upscaling, and reveal insights about physical/chemical processes heretofore neglected. Here we present data from three emerging techniques capable of imaging and quantifying transport properties and phenomena at the sub-core scale: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); positron emission tomography (PET); and X-Ray CT scanning. Direct imaging of spatially resolved fluid velocities and porosity is possible with MRI (Romanenko et al., 2012). These data can be inverted to provide permeability and porosity maps at a spatial scale of ~10 cubic millimeter. PET imaging can be used to track movement of a radioactive tracer through a rock and simultaneously measure effluent tracer concentrations at a similar resolution (Boutchko et al., 2012). X-ray CT scanning of multiphase flow experiments can be used to measure capillary pressure curves and through scaling relationships, to calculate permeability at a scale of about 1 cubic millimeters(Krause et al., 2011; Pini et al., 2013). Strengths and shortcomings of these techniques are discussed--along with the benefits of combining them. Together these techniques provide a new platform from which to probe more deeply the ubiquitous influence of heterogeneity on subsurface flow and transport processes, and ultimately improve predictions of subsurface transport. Boutchk et al., 2012. Imaging and modeling of flow in porous

  9. Mpc-scale diffuse radio emission in two massive cool-core clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Martin W.; Basu, Kaustuv; Intema, Huib; Pacaud, Florian; Bonafede, Annalisa; Babul, Arif; Bertoldi, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Radio haloes are diffuse synchrotron sources on scales of ∼1 Mpc that are found in merging clusters of galaxies, and are believed to be powered by electrons re-accelerated by merger-driven turbulence. We present measurements of extended radio emission on similarly large scales in two clusters of galaxies hosting cool cores: Abell 2390 and Abell 2261. The analysis is based on interferometric imaging with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, Very Large Array and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We present detailed radio images of the targets, subtract the compact emission components and measure the spectral indices for the diffuse components. The radio emission in A2390 extends beyond a known sloshing-like brightness discontinuity, and has a very steep in-band spectral slope at 1.5 GHz that is similar to some known ultrasteep spectrum radio haloes. The diffuse signal in A2261 is more extended than in A2390 but has lower luminosity. X-ray morphological indicators, derived from XMM-Newton X-ray data, place these clusters in the category of relaxed or regular systems, although some asymmetric features that can indicate past minor mergers are seen in the X-ray brightness images. If these two Mpc-scale radio sources are categorized as giant radio haloes, they question the common assumption of radio haloes occurring exclusively in clusters undergoing violent merging activity, in addition to commonly used criteria for distinguishing between radio haloes and minihaloes.

  10. A High-Resolution, Reproducible Technique for Measuring Fracture Aperture in Centimeter-Scale Rock Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, P.; Detwiler, R. L.; Elkhoury, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical and chemical processes can alter fracture surfaces and their corresponding aperture. Understanding the relationship between physicochemical processes and the alteration of fracture apertures is fundamental to quantifying the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. Therefore, relevant experiments that quantify these processes require the ability to measure fracture surfaces and reconstruct fracture aperture fields at high resolutions before and after experiments. Furthermore, to meaningfully compare measured aperture fields before and after experiments, it is critical that the measurements are reproducible to ensure that differences in fracture apertures are due to physical changes and not data acquisition or reconstruction errors. Energy transmission techniques can provide direct, non-destructive measurement of fracture apertures. However, while X-ray CT is capable of μm-scale resolution, at those resolutions, it is limited to millimeter-scale cores. Alternatively, light absorbance techniques are limited to transparent analogs or casts of real rocks. Modern surface-profilometry instruments provide the ability to measure surface topography at high resolution, but it is difficult to reconstruct fracture apertures from the measured surfaces. We present a rigorous approach for using high-resolution measurements of surface topography to reproducibly reconstruct fracture aperture fields. An optical profilometer (NANOVEA ST400) provides surface topography measurements averaged over a spot size of 8 μm with spatial accuracy of ±0.1 μm and elevation accuracy of ±0.9 μm. Numerically mating the measured surfaces requires accurate, reproducible alignment of the two fracture halves in three-dimensional space. To facilitate alignment and provide a means for checking the alignment of scanned surfaces, we fabricated a jig for securing the halves of the core to the profilometer stage. The jig consists of two mated blocks of precision-milled steel that

  11. Transient magnetic effects in a scale model of the earth's core

    PubMed Central

    Crane, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Scale model experiments are described in which the contribution to the dipole magnetic field of a conducting sphere (simulating the earth's core) by initially closed, internal flux loops is measured. A magnetic loop is maintained by constant current in a toroidal coil, in a mercury sphere. The circuit is then opened, which allows the magnetic loop to diffuse and dissipate. The time development of the magnetic effects outside the sphere is recorded, especially the contribution in the dipole mode of the sphere. In a sample application of the result, a doughnut-shaped flux loop, of major and minor radii 0.17 and 0.053 Rc (Rc = earth's core radius) and centered at 0.68 Rc, of field strength 100 gauss, in optimal orientation and in a core of conductivity 3 × 10-6 emu is assumed. If one such flux loop is set free on the average of every 40 years, the earth's dipole field is maintained. The relative intensity of the short-lived nondipole component that would accompany the process in the simplified example is estimated from the data and found not to be inconsistent with that observed in the real earth. Only the basic process of the feeding of a poloidal field by initially closed free flux loops in a static conducting sphere is investigated. The requirement that, in a real situation, the loops would have to be set free in a preferred orientation is discussed, and an existing model of a system that in some degree answers the requirement is cited. Images PMID:16592464

  12. The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005, 15 42 ka. Part 1: constructing the time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Katrine K.; Svensson, Anders; Johnsen, Sigfus J.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Bigler, Matthias; Röthlisberger, Regine; Ruth, Urs; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Peder Steffensen, Jørgen; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Vinther, Bo M.; Clausen, Henrik B.

    2006-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005, GICC05, is extended back to 42 ka b2k (before 2000 AD), i.e. to the end of Greenland Stadial 11. The chronology is based on independent multi-parameter counting of annual layers using comprehensive high-resolution measurements available from the North Greenland Ice Core Project, NGRIP. These are measurements of visual stratigraphy, conductivity of the solid ice, electrolytical melt water conductivity and the concentration of Na +, Ca 2+, SO 42-, NO 3-, NH 4+. An uncertainty estimate of the time scale is obtained from identification of 'uncertain' annual layers, which are counted as 0.5±0.5 years. The sum of the uncertain annual layers, the so-called maximum counting error of the presented chronology ranges from 4% in the warm interstadial periods to 7% in the cold stadials. The annual accumulation rates of the stadials and interstadials are on average one-third and half of the present day values, respectively, and the onset of the Greenland Interstadials 2, 3, and 8, based on 20 year averaged δ 18O values, are determined as 23,340, 27,780, and 38,220 yr b2k in GICC05.

  13. Large-scale Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations of core-level x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Vinson, J.; Gilmore, K.

    2013-03-01

    Recently an approach has been developed for Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) calculations of core-level x-ray spectra, which is implemented in the OCEAN package [3] which combines plane-wave, pseudopotential DFT electronic structure, PAW transition elements, GW self-energy corrections, and the NIST BSE solver. The method yields both dipole limited and finite momentum transfer spectra. Here we discuss several recent advances which yield a unified treatment of both extended states and atomic multiplet effects. In particular our approach now includes spin-dependent potentials and hole-dependent lifetimes, and gives an improved treatment of L2,3 edges, where contributions to spectral weight come from a mix of two distinct core holes. We have also extended the code interface to include pseudopotential wave functions from ABINIT, QUANTUMESPRESSO, or an interpolation based scheme, thus enabling large-scale calculations with unit cells in excess of 2000 Å3. Applications to water and ice structures are briefly discussed. Supported by DOE BES Grant DE-FG03-97ER45623 and facilitated by the DOE CMCSN

  14. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Coupon, Jean; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.

    2017-02-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  15. Development and validation of a generic high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous separation and determination of six cough ingredients: Robustness study on core-shell particles.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Ali Mohamed; Essam, Hebatallah Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    A generally applicable high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of pharmaceutical preparations containing phenylephrine hydrochloride, paracetamol, ephedrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, doxylamine succinate, and dextromethorphan hydrobromide is developed. Optimization of chromatographic conditions was performed for the gradient elution using different buffer pH values, flow rates and two C18 stationary phases. The method was developed using a Kinetex® C18 column as a core-shell stationary phase with a gradient profile using buffer pH 5.0 and acetonitrile at 2.0 mL/min flow rate. Detection was carried out at 220 nm and linear calibrations were obtained for all components within the studied ranges. The method was fully validated in agreement with ICH guidelines. The proposed method is specific, accurate and precise (RSD% < 3%). Limits of detection are lower than 2.0 μg/mL. Qualitative and quantitative responses were evaluated using experimental design to assist the method robustness. The method was proved to be highly robust against 10% change in buffer pH and flow rate (RSD% < 10%), however, the flow rate may significantly influence the quantitative responses of phenylephrine, paracetamol, and doxylamine (RSD% > 10%). Satisfactory results were obtained for commercial combinations analyses. Statistical comparison between the proposed chromatographic and official methods revealed no significant difference.

  16. In situ atomic-scale observation of oxygen-driven core-shell formation in Pt3Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng; You, Yuan; Zhang, Shuyi; Cai, Wei; Xu, Mingjie; Xie, Lin; Wu, Ruqian; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2017-08-07

    The catalytic performance of core-shell platinum alloy nanoparticles is typically superior to that of pure platinum nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cell cathodes. Thorough understanding of core-shell formation is critical for atomic-scale design and control of the platinum shell, which is known to be the structural feature responsible for the enhancement. Here we reveal details of a counter-intuitive core-shell formation process in platinum-cobalt nanoparticles at elevated temperature under oxygen at atmospheric pressure, by using advanced in situ electron microscopy. Initial segregation of a thin platinum, rather than cobalt oxide, surface layer occurs concurrently with ordering of the intermetallic core, followed by the layer-by-layer growth of a platinum shell via Ostwald ripening during the oxygen annealing treatment. Calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that this process follows an energetically favourable path. These findings are expected to be useful for the future design of structured platinum alloy nanocatalysts.Core-shell platinum alloy nanoparticles are promising catalysts for oxygen reduction, however a deeper understanding of core-shell formation is still required. Here the authors report oxygen-driven formation of core-shell Pt3Co nanoparticles, seen at the atomic scale with in situ electron microscopy at ambient pressure.

  17. Infrared length scale and extrapolations for the no-core shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, K. A.; Forssén, C.; Papenbrock, T.; Sääf, D.

    2015-06-03

    In this paper, we precisely determine the infrared (IR) length scale of the no-core shell model (NCSM). In the NCSM, the A-body Hilbert space is truncated by the total energy, and the IR length can be determined by equating the intrinsic kinetic energy of A nucleons in the NCSM space to that of A nucleons in a 3(A-1)-dimensional hyper-radial well with a Dirichlet boundary condition for the hyper radius. We demonstrate that this procedure indeed yields a very precise IR length by performing large-scale NCSM calculations for 6Li. We apply our result and perform accurate IR extrapolations for bound states of 4He, 6He, 6Li, and 7Li. Finally, we also attempt to extrapolate NCSM results for 10B and 16O with bare interactions from chiral effective field theory over tens of MeV.

  18. Electrical stratigraphy of the WAIS Divide ice core: Identification of centimeter-scale irregular layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudge, T. J.; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Waddington, Edwin D.; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Conway, Howard

    2016-07-01

    Multitrack electrical conductivity measurements imaged a continuous record of the two-dimensional electrical stratigraphy for the deepest 40% of the WAIS Divide ice core (1956 m to 3405 m, 11.5 to 68 ka). The electrical stratigraphy showed clear banding driven primarily by annual variations. Centimeter-scale pinched layers and other irregularities were concentrated between 2700 m and 2900 m (27 ka to 33 ka); below 2900 m, decreasing amplitude of conductance variations likely due to diffusion prevented confident interpretation of both annual and irregular layering. The effective diffusivity at -30°C is 2.2 × 10-8 m2 yr-1, approximately 5 times greater than for self-diffusion of water molecules, implying diffusion at grain boundaries. The irregular layering indicates that the centimeter-scale layering was disturbed in sections even though other records, such as atmospheric methane, indicate meter and larger layering is not compromised. Preservation of irregular layering at deposition is unlikely to be the cause of the identified irregular layering; instead, the irregular layering likely arises from variations in the deformation of ice.

  19. An ice core derived 1013-year catchment-scale annual rainfall reconstruction in subtropical eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, Carly R.; Vance, Tessa R.; Roberts, Jason L.; Kiem, Anthony S.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Moy, Andrew D.

    2016-05-01

    Paleoclimate research indicates that the Australian instrumental climate record (˜ 100 years) does not cover the full range of hydroclimatic variability that is possible. To better understand the implications of this on catchment-scale water resources management, a 1013-year (1000-2012 common era (CE)) annual rainfall reconstruction was produced for the Williams River catchment in coastal eastern Australia. No high-resolution paleoclimate proxies are located in the region and so a teleconnection between summer sea salt deposition recorded in ice cores from East Antarctica and rainfall variability in eastern Australia was exploited to reconstruct the catchment-scale rainfall record. The reconstruction shows that significantly longer and more frequent wet and dry periods were experienced in the preinstrumental compared to the instrumental period. This suggests that existing drought and flood risk assessments underestimate the true risks due to the reliance on data and statistics obtained from only the instrumental record. This raises questions about the robustness of existing water security and flood protection measures and has serious implications for water resources management, infrastructure design and catchment planning. The method used in this proof of concept study is transferable and enables similar insights into the true risk of flood/drought to be gained for other paleoclimate proxy poor regions for which suitable remote teleconnected proxies exist. This will lead to improved understanding and ability to deal with the impacts of multi-decadal to centennial hydroclimatic variability.

  20. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying

  1. Novel laboratory methods for determining the fine scale electrical resistivity structure of core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, E. P.; Gunn, D. A.; Jackson, P. D.; Lovell, M. A.; Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Watson, P.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution electrical resistivity measurements are made on saturated rocks using novel laboratory instrumentation and multiple electrical voltage measurements involving in principle a four-point electrode measurement but with a single, moving electrode. Flat, rectangular core samples are scanned by varying the electrode position over a range of hundreds of millimetres with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. Two approaches are tested involving a contact electrode and a non-contact electrode arrangement. The first galvanic method uses balanced cycle switching of a floating direct current (DC) source to minimise charge polarisation effects masking the resistivity distribution related to fine scale structure. These contacting electrode measurements are made with high common mode noise rejection via differential amplification with respect to a reference point within the current flow path. A computer based multifunction data acquisition system logs the current through the sample and voltages along equipotentials from which the resistivity measurements are derived. Multiple measurements are combined to create images of the surface resistivity structure, with variable spatial resolution controlled by the electrode spacing. Fine scale sedimentary features and open fractures in saturated rocks are interpreted from the measurements with reference to established relationships between electrical resistivity and porosity. Our results successfully characterise grainfall lamination and sandflow cross-stratification in a brine saturated, dune bedded core sample representative of a southern North Sea reservoir sandstone, studied using the system in constant current, variable voltage mode. In contrast, in a low porosity marble, identification of open fracture porosity against a background very low matrix porosity is achieved using the constant voltage, variable current mode. This new system is limited by the diameter of the electrode that for practical reasons can only be

  2. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  3. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  4. Substituing supplementary subtests for core subtests on reliability of WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A

    2006-02-01

    The effects of replacing core subtests with supplementary subtests on composite score reliabilities were evaluated for the WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ. When Wechsler's guidelines are followed, i.e., only one substitution for each Index; no more than two substitutions from different Indexes when assessing the Full Scale IQ, summary score reliabilities remain high, and measurement error, as defined by confidence intervals around obtained scores, never increases by more than 1 index score point. In three instances, substitution of a supplementary subtest for a core subtest actually increased the reliabilities and decreased the amount of associated measurement error.

  5. Is there a connection between Earth's core and climate at multidecadal time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Sébastien; Marcus, Steven; de Viron, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The length-of-day (LOD) undergoes multidecadal variations of several milliseconds (ms) attributed to changes in the fluid outer core angular momentum. These variations resemble a quasi-periodic oscillation of duration 60 to 70 years, although the periodicity (and its accurate length) are disputable because of the relatively short observational time span and the lower quality of the observations before the 20th century. Interestingly, similar variations show up in various measured or reconstructed climate indices including the sea surface (SST) and surface air (SAT) temperatures. It has been shown in several studies that LOD variations lead SST and SAT variations by a few years. No clear scenarios have been raised so far to explain the link between external, astronomical forcing (e.g., Solar wind), Earth's rotation (core-driven torsional) oscillations, and Earth's surface processes (climate variations) at these time scales. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests the centrifugal tides generated by multidecadal LOD variations as a 'valve' to control the transfer of thermal energy from the lithosphere to the surface via geothermal fluxes. This hypothesis is supported by recent studies reporting significant correlations between tidal and rotational excitation and seafloor and surface volcanism. In this study, we extend recent works from us and other independent authors by re-assessing the correlations between multidecadal LOD, climate indices, Solar and magnetic activities, as well as gridded data including SST, SAT, and cloud cover. We pay a special attention to the time lags: when a significant correlation is found, the value of the lag may help to discriminate between various possible scenarios. We locate some `hot spots', particularly in the Atlantic ocean and along the trajectory of the upper branch of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), where the 70-yr oscillation is strongly marked. In addition, we discuss the possibility for centrifugal

  6. Linking high resolution 14C records to ice core time scales by means of Bayesian wiggle-matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolphi, F.; Muscheler, R.; Friedrich, M.; Güttler, D.; Wacker, L.; Kromer, B.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon dating is the key method for obtaining chronological information of paleoclimate records covering the last ~45,000 years. The wealth of paleoclimatic information reconstructed from Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are often used as blue-prints to place these radiocarbon dated records into a wider context. However, while layer counted ice core time scales from Greenland provide high precision on the duration of events, the absolute age uncertainty increases back in time. This poses limitations on the possible detail and robustness of comparisons between radiocarbon dated, and ice core records. Cosmogenic radionuclide records, i.e. based on 14C and 10Be, provide a unique tool for synchronizing different time scales from various archives. They carry the common production rate signal which is modulated by variations in the strength of the helio- and geo- magnetic fields, which are climate-independent processes and global. We will present a method for synchronizing radiocarbon and Greenland ice core time scales back to 16,000 years ago based on Bayesian wiggle matching of cosmogenic radionuclide records. The method utilizes the strength of the high relative precision of ice core time scales as well as the small absolute age uncertainty from tree-ring chronologies and U/Th dated speleothems. The method provides combined error estimates and allows testing i) the accuracy of ice core time scales, ii) the quality of 14C records underlying the radiocarbon calibration curve as well as iii) assumptions of synchronicity of rapid climate changes. Furthermore, we will illustrate how this method can be used for high-precision radiocarbon wiggle-match dating of floating tree ring chronologies beyond 14,000 years ago, and potentially improve the radiocarbon calibration curve.

  7. Generic antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan J; Krauss, Gregory L

    2008-07-01

    Generic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) generally provide safe, effective, lower-cost alternatives to brand-name drugs. To be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), manufacturers must show that generic drugs are comparable to brand-name formulations, meeting bioequivalence, dissolution, and manufacturing quality standards. Bioequivalence for most generic formulations is evaluated by measuring blood pharmacokinetic values in a small, crossover study of adult volunteers taking single doses of brand-name and generic AEDs. Bioequivalence standards require that ratios of average peak drug concentrations (C(max)) and total extent of absorption (area under the curve, AUC) for a test drug be within 80% to 125% of the reference brand-name drug, with a confidence interval of 90%. Bioequivalence of most generic AEDs, however, has not been evaluated in patients with epilepsy or in other special populations such as elderly patients or patients taking multiple AEDs and prodrugs. Moreover, evidence is limited regarding the adequacy of FDA generic standards for AEDs, particularly for "narrow therapeutic ratio" medications such as oxcarbazepine, although two carbamazepine studies are supportive. Most patients can successfully initiate therapy with generic AEDs and can safely switch from brand-name to generic AEDs (and sometimes back again). The FDA, however, has not shown safety in generic-to-generic switches, which could potentially cause drug concentration changes of up to 40%. Less expensive generic formulations will soon be available for most of the "second generation" AEDs--onisamide, for example, recently had 17 generic formulations approved in the United States--providing substantial savings in health care costs. In summary, although generic AEDs are generally safe and effective for most patients, the current bioequivalence standards may not be sufficient for certain patient populations and for certain drugs, requiring vulnerable patients to be monitored very

  8. Spatial scaling of core and dominant forest cover in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Different organisms respond to spatial structure in different terms and across different spatial scales. As a consequence, efforts to reverse habitat loss and fragmentation through strategic habitat restoration ought to account for the different habitat density and scale requirements of various taxonomic groups. Here, we estimated the local density of floodplain forest surrounding each of ~20 million 10-m forested pixels of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains by using moving windows of multiple sizes (1–100 ha). We further identified forest pixels that met two local density thresholds: 'core' forest pixels were nested in a 100% (unfragmented) forested window and 'dominant' forest pixels were those nested in a >60% forested window. Finally, we fit two scaling functions to declines in the proportion of forest cover meeting these criteria with increasing window length for 107 management-relevant focal areas: a power function (i.e. self-similar, fractal-like scaling) and an exponential decay function (fractal dimension depends on scale). The exponential decay function consistently explained more variation in changes to the proportion of forest meeting both the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria with increasing window length than did the power function, suggesting that elevation, soil type, hydrology, and human land use constrain these forest types to a limited range of scales. To examine these scales, we transformed the decay constants to measures of the distance at which the probability of forest meeting the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria was cut in half (S 1/2, m). S 1/2 for core forest was typically between ~55 and ~95 m depending on location along the river, indicating that core forest cover is restricted to extremely fine scales. In contrast, half of all dominant forest cover was lost at scales that were typically between ~525 and 750 m, but S 1/2 was as long as 1,800 m. S 1/2 is a simple measure that (1) condenses information derived from multi-scale

  9. Experimental and Numerical Observations of Hydrate Reformation during Depressurization in a Core-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Yongkoo; Myshakin, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate has been predicted to reform around a wellbore during depressurization-based gas production from gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. This process has an adverse effect on gas production rates and it requires time and sometimes special measures to resume gas flow to producing wells. Due to lack of applicable field data, laboratory scale experiments remain a valuable source of information to study hydrate reformation. In this work, we report laboratory experiments and complementary numerical simulations executed to investigate the hydrate reformation phenomenon. Gas production from a pressure vessel filled with hydrate-bearing sand was induced by depressurization with and without heat flux through the boundaries. Hydrate decomposition was monitored with a medical X-ray CT scanner and pressure and temperature measurements. CT images of the hydrate-bearing sample were processed to provide 3-dimensional data of heterogeneous porosity and phase saturations suitable for numerical simulations. In the experiments, gas hydrate reformation was observed only in the case of no-heat supply from surroundings, a finding consistent with numerical simulation. By allowing gas production on either side of the core, numerical simulations showed that initial hydrate distribution patterns affect gas distribution and flow inside the sample. This is a direct consequence of the heterogeneous pore network resulting in varying hydraulic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediment.

  10. Integrating multi-scale geophysical and drill-core data to improve hydraulic characterization of continental sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Physical properties of rocks in the uppermost continental crust e.g. sedimentary basins are very heterogeneously distributed and anisotropic making it necessary to perform advanced post processing techniques on geophysical data. Whereas e.g. electrical resistivity or seismic tomography allow only for identifying physical properties' variability on a scale from roughly several tens of metres to several hundred metres, drill cores reveal physical heterogeneity on the cm-scale. To study the impact of small scale acoustic and hydraulic heterogeneity on fluid flow in a sedimentary basin we use combined data sets from the Thuringian Basin in Germany, a small southern extension of the North German Basin characterised by Permian to Triassic sediments. Our data sets consist of three reflection seismic lines acquired within the framework of the multidisciplinary project INFLUINS (INtegrated FLUid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins) and as site survey for deep drilling, geophysical logging data from a 1,179 m deep drill hole in the centre of the Thuringian Basin, and Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data of the cores recovered from this drill hole. Geophysical borehole logging was performed immediate after drilling on the highest vertical resolution (about 10 cm) possible using state of the art commercial logging tools. MSCL-data were acquired at an even higher resolution of about 1 to 2 cm , which enables both, calibrating logging data and zooming in the spatial heterogeneity of physical properties. These measurements are complemented with laboratory measurements of rock physical properties (e.g. thermal conductivity, permeability) using selected core samples. Here, we mainly focus on seismic (sonic velocity, density) and hydraulic (porosity, permeability) parameters. This multi-methodological approach allows us on the one hand to estimate improved local to regional average values for physical parameters but most importantly also to highlight the role of thin layers, the physical

  11. Three-dimensional imaging of sediment cores: a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, Maxim; Van Daele, Maarten; Boone, Marijn; Anselmetti, Flavio; Cnudde, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    Downscaling is a method used in building-material research, where several imaging methods are applied to obtain information on the petrological and petrophysical properties of materials from a centimetre to a sub-micrometre scale (De Boever et al., 2015). However, to reach better resolutions, the sample size is necessarily adjusted as well. If, for instance, X-ray micro computed tomography (µCT) is applied on the material, the resolution can increase as the sample size decreases. In sedimentological research, X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a commonly used technique (Cnudde & Boone, 2013). The ability to visualise materials with different X-ray attenuations reveals structures in sediment cores that cannot be seen with the bare eye. This results in discoveries of sedimentary structures that can lead to a reconstruction of parts of the depositional history in a sedimentary basin (Van Daele et al., 2014). Up to now, most of the CT data used for this kind of research are acquired with a medical CT scanner, of which the highest obtainable resolution is about 250 µm (Cnudde et al., 2006). As the size of most sediment grains is smaller than 250 µm, a lot of information, concerning sediment fabric, grain-size and shape, is not obtained when using medical CT. Therefore, downscaling could be a useful method in sedimentological research. After identifying a region of interest within the sediment core with medical CT, a subsample of several millimetres diameter can be taken and imaged with µCT, allowing images with a resolution of a few micrometres. The subsampling process, however, needs to be considered thoroughly. As the goal is to image the structure and fabric of the sediments, deformation of the sediments during subsampling should be avoided as much as possible. After acquiring the CT data, image processing and analysis are performed in order to retrieve shape and orientation parameters of single grains, mud clasts and organic material. This single-grain data can

  12. Fluid Dynamic Eqs. For Adiabatic Convection In Earth's Ultracompressed Core; Turbulence Engendered Large-Scale Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. L.

    2002-10-01

    Our analysis is divided into 2 parts, i.e., establishing formalism that predicts (a), convective flows in earth's molten, precessing, core, that arise from 15-20 heat sources distributed over solid inner core boundary, mathord r = R_ic = 1240 km how they induce B - field reversals and transport heat of 4 radioactive disintegration chains (some now inactive) contained within mathord r <= R_ic,and (b), turbulence engendered large-scale mer. motion and turbulent differential rot., which are coupled by Coriolis forces. We employ the vorticity transport equation, obtained by forming curl of Navier-Stokes eq. (thereby eliminating pressure mathord p(x_i,t) as a dependent variable) together with the amplification eq., both to be solved simultaneously with other necessary fluid dynamic eqs., to effect a general solution for molten iron core. We employ Navier-Stokes eq. and write ρ d v /dt=ρ g a + 2 ρ v x Υ -nabla p + (4πμ)-1 (nabla x B ) x B +ηnabla ^2 v + fracη3 nabla (nabla ot v ) - 2/3 (nabla ot v ) nabla η + nabla η ot nabla v + nabla v ot nabla η, where g a doteq - nabla Ω + nabla 1/2 (Υ x r ) ^2 + r x d Υ /dt + (g _s+p - ) is appar. acceleration of gravity. Since coeff. Of viscosity η depends only on p,T it is closely only a function of r; mathord η = η(r), altho η = const. will suffice for convection calculations. In eq. of secular fluid motion, obtained by forming ensemble mean of vector curl of N-S eq., viscous forces are driving forces and last 3 terms should be retained. Eq. of continuity remains as before but state eq. mathord p = ρ k^*T and adiabaticity eq. for perfect gas fail to apply to liquids and we must adopt eqs. for ultracompressed fluids (K L McDonald, Computations In Theoretical Physics..., Univ. Ut., Expt. Sta. Bul. 138, Vol. 56, No. 27(1966)), namely, state eq., κ (p-p_o) = loge ρ/ρo + ɛ(T-T_o) and adiabatic eq., Te ^α/ρ= const., α = M_Wɛ/κ c_V; cV is molar thermal capacity, etc. We subst. this into state equation to

  13. Generic drugs in dermatology: part I.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    The cost of health care in the United States is increasing. In order to help control these rising costs, all parties involved in the delivery of health care, including dermatologists, need to be part of the solution of ethically reducing the cost of delivery of care. One potential means of meeting this goal is to increase the use of generic medications in daily practice. Generic medications can offer equally efficacious therapy at significantly lower prices, which can translate into large scale savings for the individual patient, the payer, and the overall health care system. Herein we provide an overview of new drug development, review the history of the generic drug industry, describe how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and define the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. In part II, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use, provide cost analyses of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs, and review data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of core stability strength exercise on muscle activity and trunk impairment scale in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Hun; Park, Seong-Doo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of core stability-enhancing exercises on the lower trunk and muscle activity of stroke patients. The control group (n = 10) underwent standard exercise therapy, while the experiment group (n =10) underwent both the core stability-enhancing exercise and standard exercise therapy simultaneously. The standard exercise therapy applied to the two groups included weight bearing and weight shifts and joint movements to improve flexibility and the range of motion. The core stability-enhancing exercise was performed 5 times a week for 30 min over a period of 4 weeks in the room where the patients were treated. For all 20 subject, the items measured before the exercise were measured after the therapeutic intervention, and changes in muscle activity of the lower trunk were evaluated. The activity and stability of the core muscles were measured using surface electromyography and the trunk impairment scale (TIS). The mean TIS score and muscle activity of the lower trunk increased in the experiment group significantly after performing the core stability-enhancing exercise (P<0.05). The results of this study show that the core stability-enhancing exercise is effective in improving muscle activity of the lower trunk, which is affected by hemiplegia. PMID:24278885

  15. The effects of core stability strength exercise on muscle activity and trunk impairment scale in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong-Hun; Park, Seong-Doo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of core stability-enhancing exercises on the lower trunk and muscle activity of stroke patients. The control group (n = 10) underwent standard exercise therapy, while the experiment group (n =10) underwent both the core stability-enhancing exercise and standard exercise therapy simultaneously. The standard exercise therapy applied to the two groups included weight bearing and weight shifts and joint movements to improve flexibility and the range of motion. The core stability-enhancing exercise was performed 5 times a week for 30 min over a period of 4 weeks in the room where the patients were treated. For all 20 subject, the items measured before the exercise were measured after the therapeutic intervention, and changes in muscle activity of the lower trunk were evaluated. The activity and stability of the core muscles were measured using surface electromyography and the trunk impairment scale (TIS). The mean TIS score and muscle activity of the lower trunk increased in the experiment group significantly after performing the core stability-enhancing exercise (P<0.05). The results of this study show that the core stability-enhancing exercise is effective in improving muscle activity of the lower trunk, which is affected by hemiplegia.

  16. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product.

  17. Children Expect Generic Knowledge to Be Widely Shared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Scott, Rose M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to acquire and store generic information (that is, information about entire categories) is at the core of human cognition. Remarkably, even young children place special value on generic information, often inferring that it holds important insights about the world. Here, we tested whether children's assumptions about the nature of…

  18. Children Expect Generic Knowledge to Be Widely Shared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Scott, Rose M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to acquire and store generic information (that is, information about entire categories) is at the core of human cognition. Remarkably, even young children place special value on generic information, often inferring that it holds important insights about the world. Here, we tested whether children's assumptions about the nature of…

  19. Large-Scale Water-Vapor Two-Phase Flow Simulations in Advanced Light Water Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Kazuyuki, Takase; Hidesada, Tamai; Hajime, Akimoto; Yasuo, Ose

    2004-07-01

    Fluid flow characteristics in a fuel bundle of a reduced-moderation light water reactor (RMWR) with a tight-lattice core were analyzed numerically using a newly developed two-phase flow analysis code under the full bundle size condition. Conventional analysis methods such as subchannel codes need composition equations based on the experimental data. In case that there are no experimental data regarding to the thermal-hydraulics in the tight-lattice core, therefore, it is difficult to obtain high prediction accuracy on the thermal design of the RMWR. Then the large-scale direct numerical simulations with a super computer were chosen. The axial velocity distribution in a fuel bundle changed sharply around a spacer. Momentum transfer of vapor in a tight-lattice core is linear along the flow direction. The interface characteristics between water and vapor were clarified quantitatively. (authors)

  20. Patients’ Perceptions Of Generic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Shrank, William H.; Cox, Emily R.; Fischer, Michael A.; Mehta, Jyotsna; Choudhry, Niteesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Insurers and policymakers encourage the use of generic drugs to reduce costs, but generics remain underused. We conducted a national survey of commercially insured adults to evaluate their perceptions about generic drugs. Patients agreed that generics are less expensive and a better value than brand-name drugs, and are just as safe. However, although 56 percent reported that Americans should use more generics, only 37.6 percent prefer to take generics. We discuss perceptions about communicating with practitioners about generics, generic substitution, and policymakers’ role in influencing generic use. These findings underscore the challenge that providers, insurers, and policymakers face in stimulating the cost-effective use of medications. PMID:19276015

  1. Utilisation of real-scale renewable energy test facility for validation of generic wind turbine and wind power plant controller models

    SciTech Connect

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Hesselbæk, Bo; Bech, John; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb

    2016-09-01

    This article presents an example of application of a modern test facility conceived for experiments regarding the integration of renewable energy in the power system. The capabilities of the test facility are used to validate dynamic simulation models of wind power plants and their controllers. The models are based on standard and generic blocks. The successful validation of events related to the control of active power (control phenomena in <10 Hz range, including frequency control and power oscillation damping) is described, demonstrating the capabilities of the test facility and drawing the track for future work and improvements.

  2. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  3. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  4. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  5. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Test plan: Laboratory-scale testing of the first core sample from Tank 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.

    1996-03-01

    The overall objectives of the Radioactive Process/Product Laboratory Testing (RPPLT), WBS 1.2.2.05.05, are to confirm that simulated HWVP feed and glass are representative of actual radioactive HWVP feed and glass and to provide radioactive leaching and glass composition data to WFQ. This study will provide data from one additional NCAW core sample (102-AZ Core 1) for these purposes.

  7. Centennial-scale records of total organic carbon in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Lin, Jia; Hong, Yuehui; Yuan, Lirong; Liu, Jinzhong; Xu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianghai

    2017-05-01

    Global carbon cycling is a significant factor that controls climate change. The centennial-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) contents and its sources in marginal sea sediments may reflect the influence of human activities on global climate change. In this study, two fine-grained sediment cores from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass of the South Yellow Sea were used to systematically determine TOC contents and stable carbon isotope ratios. These results were combined with previous data of black carbon and 210Pb dating from which we reconstructed the centennial-scale initial sequences of TOC, terrigenous TOC (TOCter) and marine autogenous TOC (TOCmar) after selecting suitable models to correct the measured TOC (TOCcor). These sequences showed that the TOCter decreased with time in the both cores while the TOCmar increased, particularly the rapid growth in core H43 since the late 1960s. According to the correlation between the Huanghe (Yellow) River discharge and the TOCcor, TOCter, or TOCmar, we found that the TOCter in the two cores mainly derived from the Huanghe River and was transported by it, and that higher Huanghe River discharge could strengthen the decomposition of TOCmar. The newly obtained initial TOC sequences provide important insights into the interaction between human activities and natural processes.

  8. Bosonics: Phononics, Magnonics, Plasmonics in Nano-Scale Disorder(Nanonics), Metamaterials, Astro-Seismology (Meganonics): Brillouin-Siegel GENERIC: Generalized-Disorder Collective-Boson Mode-Softening Universality-Principle (G...P) With PIPUB Many-Body Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    Siegel and Matsubara[Statphys-13(`77) Intl.Conf.Lattice-Dyn.(`77)Scripta Met.13,913(`80)]JMMM:5, 1, 84 (`77)22,1:41,58(`80)Mag.Lett.(`80)Phys./Chem.Liquids:4,(4) (`75)5,(1)(76)] generalization to GENERIC Siegel[J.Non-Xline-Sol.40,453(`80)] G...P GENERIC Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(`22)]-Landau[`41]-Feynman[`51]-de Boer[in Phonons/Phonon-Interactions(`64)]-Egelstaff[Intro.Liquid-State(`65)]-Hubbard-Beebe[J.Phys.C(`67)]-``Anderson''[1958]- Siegel [J.Non-Xl.-Sol. 40, 453(`80)] GENERIC many-body localization. GENERIC Hubbard-Beebe[J.Phys.C(`67)] static structure-factor S(k) modulated kinetic-energy ω(k) = ℏ ⌃(2)k⌃(2)/2mS(k) expressing G....P(``bass-ackwardly'') aka homogeneity and isotropy creates GENERIC G...P with GENERIC pseudo-isotropic pseudo-Umklapp backscattering (PIPUB) for GENERIC many-body localization of and/or by mutually interacting collective-bosons: phonons(phononics) with magnons(magnonics) with plasmons(plasmonics) with fermions (electros, holes)...etc. in nano-scale ``disorder'', metamaterials and on very-macro-scales (surprisingly) Bildsten et.al. astro-seismology(meganonics) of red-giant main-sequence stars(Mira, Betelguese)!

  9. Fuel cell performance of palladium-platinum core-shell electrocatalysts synthesized in gram-scale batches

    SciTech Connect

    Khateeb, Siddique; Su, Dong; Guerreo, Sandra; Darling, Robert M.; Protsailo, Lesia V.; Shao, Minhua

    2016-05-03

    This article presents the performance of palladium-platinum core-shell catalysts (Pt/Pd/C) for oxygen reduction synthesized in gram-scale batches in both liquid cells and polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Core-shell catalyst synthesis and characterization, ink fabrication, and cell assembly details are discussed. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd core-shell catalyst was 0.95 A mg–1 at 0.9 V measured in liquid cells (0.1 M HClO4), which was 4.8 times higher than a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The performances of Pt/Pd/C and Pt/C in large single cells (315 cm2) were assessed under various operating conditions. The core-shell catalyst showed consistently higher performance than commercial Pt/C in fuel cell testing. A 20–60 mV improvement across the whole current density range was observed on air. Sensitivities to temperature, humidity, and gas composition were also investigated and the core-shell catalyst showed a consistent benefit over Pt under all conditions. However, the 4.8 times activity enhancement predicated by liquid cell measurements was not fully realized in fuel cells.

  10. Fuel cell performance of palladium-platinum core-shell electrocatalysts synthesized in gram-scale batches

    DOE PAGES

    Khateeb, Siddique; Su, Dong; Guerreo, Sandra; ...

    2016-05-03

    This article presents the performance of palladium-platinum core-shell catalysts (Pt/Pd/C) for oxygen reduction synthesized in gram-scale batches in both liquid cells and polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Core-shell catalyst synthesis and characterization, ink fabrication, and cell assembly details are discussed. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd core-shell catalyst was 0.95 A mg–1 at 0.9 V measured in liquid cells (0.1 M HClO4), which was 4.8 times higher than a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The performances of Pt/Pd/C and Pt/C in large single cells (315 cm2) were assessed under various operating conditions. The core-shell catalyst showed consistently higher performance than commercial Pt/Cmore » in fuel cell testing. A 20–60 mV improvement across the whole current density range was observed on air. Sensitivities to temperature, humidity, and gas composition were also investigated and the core-shell catalyst showed a consistent benefit over Pt under all conditions. However, the 4.8 times activity enhancement predicated by liquid cell measurements was not fully realized in fuel cells.« less

  11. Core-Shell Collagen Peptide Chelated Calcium/Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles from Fish Scales for Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao

    2015-07-01

    We report simple methods for preparing collagen peptide chelated calcium (cpcc) and a novel cpcc-loaded nanoparticle from marine fish scales for calcium supplementation. Cpcc nanoparticles have an average diameter of approximately 150 nm and a calcium content of up to 130.4 g/kg. Calcium alginate was selected to encapsulate cpcc for the preparation of core-shell cpcc/calcium alginate nanoparticles. The core-shell nanoparticles were mainly 200 to 500 nm in diameter. The ratio of calcium to sulfur was approximately 1.6:1. In vivo experiments indicated both cpcc and core-shell cpcc were able to improve calcium absorption and prevent calcium deficiency. Especially core-shell cpcc worked well to increase femur bone mineral density and femur calcium content in rats significantly. The study demonstrated that cpcc and core-shell cpcc nanoparticles were ideal for calcium supplementation. Calcium deficiency has become an increasingly relevant health concern in the food industry. There is an urgent need for new effective calcium supplements. This study consisted of preparing and characterizing alginate nanoparticles loaded with collagen peptide chelated calcium. These nanoparticles can enhance calcium absorption significantly and prevent calcium deficiency. The data presented in this study can aid the food industry in developing a new ideal calcium supplement. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Induced core formation time in subcritical magnetic clouds by large-scale trans-Alfvénic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Kudoh, Takahiro; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2014-10-20

    We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfvén speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation time is about three times shorter than that with no turbulence, when the turbulent speed is comparable to the Alfvén speed.

  13. Reconstructing the 3D fracture distribution model from core (10 cm) to outcrop (10 m) and lineament (10 km) scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Bour, O.; de Dreuzy, J.

    2006-12-01

    Considering the role of fractures in hydraulic flow, the knowledge of the 3D spatial distribution of fractures is a basic concern for any hydrogeology-related study (potential leakages in waste repository, aquifer management, ?). Unfortunately geophysical imagery is quite blind with regard to fractures, and only the largest ones are generally detected, if they are. Actually most of the information has to be derived from statistical models whose parameters are defined from a few sparse sampling areas, such as wells, outcrops, or lineament maps. How these observations obtained at different scales can be linked to each other is a critical point, which directly addresses the issue of fracture scaling. In this study, we use one of the most important datasets that have ever been collected for characterizing fracture networks. It was collected by the Swedish company SKB for their research program on deep repository for radioactive waste, and consists of large-scale lineament maps covering about 100 km2, several outcrops of several hundreds of m2 mapped with a fracture trace length resolution down to 0.50 m, and a series of 1000m-deep cored boreholes where both fracture orientations and fracture intensities were carefully recorded. Boreholes are an essential complement to surface outcrops as they allow the sampling of horizontal fracture planes that, generally, are severely undersampled in subhorizontal outcrops. Outcrops, on the other hand, provide information on fracture sizes which is not possible to address from core information alone. However linking outcrops and boreholes is not straightforward: the sampling scale is obviously different and some scaling rules have to be applied to relate both fracture distributions; outcrops are 2D planes while boreholes are mostly 1D records; outcrops can be affected by superficial fracturing processes that are not representative of the fracturing at depth. We present here the stereology methods for calculating the 3D distribution

  14. Scaling analysis of the coupled heat transfer process in the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.C.

    1986-08-01

    The differential equations representing the coupled heat transfer from the solid nuclear core components to the helium in the coolant channels are scaled in terms of representative quantities. This scaling process identifies the relative importance of the various terms of the coupled differential equations. The relative importance of these terms is then used to simplify the numerical solution of the coupled heat transfer for two bounding cases of full-power operation and depressurization from full-system operating pressure for the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. This analysis rigorously justifies the simplified system of equations used in the nuclear safety analysis effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Short period ScP phase amplitude calculations for core-mantle boundary with intermediate scale topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhichao; Ni, Sidao; Wu, Wenbo; Sun, Daoyuan

    2016-04-01

    The core-mantle boundary (CMB) topography plays a key role in constraining geodynamic modeling and core-mantle coupling. It's effective to resolve the intermediate lateral scale topography (hundreds of km) with short period core reflected seismic phases (ScP) due to their small Fresnel-zones at short epicentral distances (<3336 km (30°)). We developed a method based on the ray theory and representation theorem to calculate short period ScP synthetics for intermediate lateral scale CMB topography. The CMB topography we introduced here is axisymmetric and specified with two parameters: H (height) and L (diameter, or lateral length scale). Our numerical computation shows that a bump (H > 0) and dip (H < 0) model would cause defocusing/weakening and focusing/amplifying effects on ScP amplitude. Moreover, the effect of frequency and combination of L and H are quantified with the amplification coefficients. Then we applied this method to estimate a possible CMB topography beneath northeastern Japan, and a CMB model with L = 140 km, H = 1.2 km overall matches the observed pattern of 2D PcP/ScP amplitude ratios. However, it is difficult to totally rule out other factors that may also affect PcP/ScP pattern because of limitation of ray-based algorithms we used here. A hybrid method combining ray theory and numerical method is promising for studying complicated 3D structure and CMB topography in the future.

  16. Large-Scale Gene Relocations following an Ancient Genome Triplication Associated with the Diversification of Core Eudicots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yupeng; Ficklin, Stephen P.; Wang, Xiyin; Feltus, F. Alex; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Different modes of gene duplication including whole-genome duplication (WGD), and tandem, proximal and dispersed duplications are widespread in angiosperm genomes. Small-scale, stochastic gene relocations and transposed gene duplications are widely accepted to be the primary mechanisms for the creation of dispersed duplicates. However, here we show that most surviving ancient dispersed duplicates in core eudicots originated from large-scale gene relocations within a narrow window of time following a genome triplication (γ) event that occurred in the stem lineage of core eudicots. We name these surviving ancient dispersed duplicates as relocated γ duplicates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, relocated γ, WGD and single-gene duplicates have distinct features with regard to gene functions, essentiality, and protein interactions. Relative to γ duplicates, relocated γ duplicates have higher non-synonymous substitution rates, but comparable levels of expression and regulation divergence. Thus, relocated γ duplicates should be distinguished from WGD and single-gene duplicates for evolutionary investigations. Our results suggest large-scale gene relocations following the γ event were associated with the diversification of core eudicots. PMID:27195960

  17. Ice-core data evidence for a prominent near 20 year time-scale of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Petr; Folland, Chris K.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2011-07-01

    Using five ice core data sets combined into a single time series, we provide for the first time strong observational evidence for two distinct time scales of Arctic temperature fluctuation that are interpreted as variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The dominant and the only statistically significant multidecadal signal has a time scale of about 20 years. The longer multidecadal variability of 45-85 years is not well defined and none of the time scales in this band is statistically significant. We compare these observed temperature fluctuations with results of coupled climate model simulations (HadCM3 and GFDL CM2.1). Both the 20-25 year and a variable longer AMO time scale are prominent in the models' long control runs. This periodicity supports our conjecture that the observed ice core fluctuations are a signature of the AMO. The robustness of this short time scale period in both observations and model simulations has implications for understanding the dominant AMO mechanisms in climate.

  18. Unlocking the Physiochemical Controls on Organic Carbon Dynamics from the Soil Pore- to Core-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, M. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bailey, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    The physical organization of soil includes pore networks of varying size and connectivity. These networks control microbial access to soil organic carbon (C) by spatially separating microorganisms and C by both distance and size exclusion. The extent to which this spatially isolated C is vulnerable to microbial transformation under hydrologically dynamic conditions is unknown, and limits our ability to predict the source and sink capacity of soils. We investigated the effects of shifting hydrologic connectivity and soil structure on greenhouse gas C emissions from surface soils collected from the Disney Wilderness Preserve (Florida, USA). We subjected intact soil cores and re-packed homogenized soil cores to simulated groundwater rise or precipitation, monitoring their CO2 and CH4 emissions over 24 hours. Soil pore water was then extracted from each core using different suctions to sample water retained by pore throats of different sizes and then characterized by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. Greater respiration rates were observed from homogenized cores compared to intact cores, and from soils wet from below, in which the wetting front is driven by capillary forces, filling fine pores first. This suggests that C located in fine pores may turn over via diffusion processes that lead to the colocation of this C with other resources and microorganisms. Both the complexity and concentration of soluble-C increased with decreasing pore size domains. Pore water extracted from homogenized cores had greater C concentrations than from intact cores, with the greatest concentrations in pore waters sampled from very fine pores, highlighting the importance of soil structure in physically protecting C. These results suggest that the spatial separation of decomposers from C is a key mechanism stabilizing C in these soils. Further research is ongoing to accurately represent this protection mechanism, and the conditions under which it breaks

  19. Cost assessment of a generic magnetic fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Delene, J.G.; Parsly, L.F.; Ashby, D.E.T.F.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-03-01

    A generic reactor model is used to examine the economic viability of generating electricity by magnetic fusion. The simple model uses components that are representative of those used in previous reactor studies of deuterium-tritium-burning tokamaks, stellarators, bumpy tori, reversed-field pinches (RFPs), and tandem mirrors. Conservative costing assumptions are made. The generic reactor is not a tokamak; rather, it is intended to emphasize what is common to all magnetic fusion rectors. The reactor uses a superconducting toroidal coil set to produce the dominant magnetic field. To this extent, it is not as good an approximation to systems such as the RFP in which the main field is produced by a plasma current. The main output of the study is the cost of electricity as a function of the weight and size of the fusion core - blanket, shield, structure, and coils. The model shows that a 1200-MW(e) power plant with a fusion core weight of about 10,000 tonnes should be competitive in the future with fission and fossil plants. Studies of the sensitivity of the model to variations in the assumptions show that this result is not sensitively dependent on any given assumption. Of particular importance is the result that a fusion reactor of this scale may be realized with only moderate advances in physics and technology capabilities.

  20. Dimensional Regularization is Generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briey discussed.

  1. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) standard specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This standard establishes the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA). The SGOAA includes a generic functional model, processing structural model, and an architecture interface model. This standard defines the requirements for applying these models to the development of spacecraft core avionics systems. The purpose of this standard is to provide an umbrella set of requirements for applying the generic architecture models to the design of a specific avionics hardware/software processing system. This standard defines a generic set of system interface points to facilitate identification of critical services and interfaces. It establishes the requirement for applying appropriate low level detailed implementation standards to those interfaces points. The generic core avionics functions and processing structural models provided herein are robustly tailorable to specific system applications and provide a platform upon which the interface model is to be applied.

  3. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA): Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A space generic open avionics architecture created for NASA is described. It will serve as the basis for entities in spacecraft core avionics, capable of being tailored by NASA for future space program avionics ranging from small vehicles such as Moon ascent/descent vehicles to large ones such as Mars transfer vehicles or orbiting stations. The standard consists of: (1) a system architecture; (2) a generic processing hardware architecture; (3) a six class architecture interface model; (4) a system services functional subsystem architectural model; and (5) an operations control functional subsystem architectural model.

  4. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  5. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) reference model technical guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a full description of the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA). The SGOAA consists of a generic system architecture for the entities in spacecraft avionics, a generic processing architecture, and a six class model of interfaces in a hardware/software system. The purpose of the SGOAA is to provide an umbrella set of requirements for applying the generic architecture interface model to the design of specific avionics hardware/software systems. The SGOAA defines a generic set of system interface points to facilitate identification of critical interfaces and establishes the requirements for applying appropriate low level detailed implementation standards to those interface points. The generic core avionics system and processing architecture models provided herein are robustly tailorable to specific system applications and provide a platform upon which the interface model is to be applied.

  6. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  7. Scaling Graph Community Detection on the Tilera Many-core Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman

    2014-12-01

    In an era when power constraints and data movement are proving to be significant barriers for the application of high-end computing, the Tilera many-core architecture offers a low-power platform exhibiting many important characteristics of future systems, including a large number of simple cores, a sophisticated network-on-chip, and fine-grained control over memory and caching policies. While this emerging architecture has been previously studied for structured compute-intensive kernels, benchmarking the platform for data-bound, irregular applications present significant challenges that have remained unexplored. Community detection is an advanced prototypical graph-theoretic operation with applications in numerous scientific domains including life sciences, cyber security, and power systems. In this work, we explore multiple design strategies toward developing a scalable tool for community detection on the Tilera platform. Using several memory layout and work scheduling techniques we demonstrate speedups of up to 46x on 36 cores of the Tilera TileGX36 platform over the best serial implementation, and also show results that have comparable quality and performance to mainstream x86 platforms. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work addressing graph algorithms on the Tilera platform. This study demonstrates that through careful design space exploration, low-power many-core platforms like Tilera can be effectively exploited for graph algorithms that that embody all the essential characteristics of an irregular application.

  8. Scaling to 150K cores: recent algorithm and performance engineering developments enabling XGC1 to run at scale

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Worley, Patrick H; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Cummings, Julian; Chang, C S

    2009-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods have proven to be effective in discretizing the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations describing the core of toroidal burning plasmas for many decades. Recent physical understanding of the importance of edge physics for stability and transport in tokamaks has lead to development of the rst fully toroidal edge PIC code XGC1. The edge region poses special problems in meshing for PIC methods due to the lack of closed ux surfaces, which makes eld-line following meshes and coordinate systems problematic. We present a solution to this problem with a semi- eld line following mesh method in a cylindrical coordinate system. Additionally, modern supercomputers require highly concurrent algorithms and implementations, with all levels of the memory hierarchy being efficiently utilized to realize optimal code performance. This paper presents a mesh and particle partitioning method, suitable to our meshing strategy, for use on highly concurrent cache-based computing platforms.

  9. Scaling to 150K cores: recent algorithm and performance engineering developments enabling XGC1 to run at scale

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark F.; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Worley, Patrick; D'Azevedo, Ed; Cummings, Julian C.; Chang, C-S

    2009-10-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods have proven to be effective in discretizing the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations describing the core of toroidal burning plasmas for many decades. Recent physical understanding of the importance of edge physics for stability and transport in tokamaks has lead to development of the fi rst fully toroidal edge PIC code - XGC1. The edge region poses special problems in meshing for PIC methods due to the lack of closed flux surfaces, which makes fi eld-line following meshes and coordinate systems problematic. We present a solution to this problem with a semi- field line following mesh method in a cylindrical coordinate system. Additionally, modern supercomputers require highly concurrent algorithms and implementations, with all levels of the memory hierarchy being effe ciently utilized to realize optimal code performance. This paper presents a mesh and particle partitioning method, suitable to our meshing strategy, for use on highly concurrent cache-based computing platforms.

  10. Microstructure-dependent mechanical properties of electrospun core-shell scaffolds at multi-scale levels.

    PubMed

    Horner, Christopher B; Ico, Gerardo; Johnson, Jed; Zhao, Yi; Nam, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical factors among many physiochemical properties of scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering significantly affect tissue morphogenesis by controlling stem cell behaviors including proliferation and phenotype-specific differentiation. Core-shell electrospinning provides a unique opportunity to control mechanical properties of scaffolds independent of surface chemistry, rendering a greater freedom to tailor design for specific applications. In this study, we synthesized electrospun core-shell scaffolds having different core composition and/or core-to-shell dimensional ratios. Two independent biocompatible polymer systems, polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) and gelatin as the core materials while maintaining the shell polymer with polycaprolactone (PCL), were utilized. The mechanics of such scaffolds was analyzed at the microscale and macroscales to determine the potential implications it may hold for cell-material and tissue-material interactions. The mechanical properties of individual core-shell fibers were controlled by core-shell composition and structure. The individual fiber modulus correlated with the increase in percent core size ranging from 0.55±0.10GPa to 1.74±0.22GPa and 0.48±0.12GPa to 1.53±0.12GPa for the PEKK-PCL and gelatin-PCL fibers, respectively. More importantly, it was demonstrated that mechanical properties of the scaffolds at the macroscale were dominantly determined by porosity under compression. The increase of scaffold porosity from 70.2%±1.0% to 93.2%±0.5% by increasing the core size in the PEKK-PCL scaffold resulted in the decrease of the compressive elastic modulus from 227.67±20.39kPa to 14.55±1.43kPa while a greater changes in the porosity of gelatin-PCL scaffold from 54.5%±4.2% to 89.6%±0.4% resulted in the compressive elastic modulus change from 484.01±30.18kPa to 17.57±1.40kPa. On the other hand, the biphasic behaviors under tensile mechanical loading result in a range from a minimum of 5.42±1.05MPa to a maximum

  11. Atomic-scale structure relaxation, chemistry and charge distribution of dislocation cores in SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Ishikawa, Ryo; Feng, Bin; Kumamoto, Akihito; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-09-23

    By using the state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes, we determine the atomic arrangements, occupancy, elemental distribution, and the electronic structures of dislocation cores in the 10° tilted SrTiO3 bicrystal. We identify that there are two different types of oxygen deficient dislocation cores, i.e., the SrO plane terminated Sr0.82Ti0.85O3-x (Ti(3.67+), 0.48 ≤ x ≤ 0.91) and TiO2 plane terminated Sr0.63Ti0.90O3-y (Ti(3.60+), 0.57 ≤ y ≤ 1). They have the same Burgers vector of a[100] but different atomic arrangements and chemical properties. Besides the oxygen vacancies, Sr vacancies and rocksalt-like titanium oxide reconstruction are also identified in the dislocation core with TiO2 plane termination. Our atomic-scale study reveals the true atomic structures and chemistry of individual dislocation cores, providing useful insights into understanding the properties of dislocations and grain boundaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome.

    PubMed

    Matar, Gerald K; Bagchi, Samik; Zhang, Kai; Oerther, Daniel B; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-10-15

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  13. Tree ring and ice core time scales around the Santorini eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfroth, Elin; Muscheler, Raimund; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie

    2010-05-01

    When studying cosmogenic radionuclides in ice core and tree ring archives around the Santorini eruption a ~20 year discrepancy was found between the records (Muscheler 2009). In this study a new 10Be dataset from the NGRIP ice core is presented. It has a resolution of 7 years and spans the period 3752-3244 BP (1803-1295 BC). The NGRIP 10Be record and the previously published 10Be GRIP record were compared to the IntCal datasets to further investigate the discrepancy between the ice core and tree ring chronologies. By modelling the 14C production rate based on atmospheric 14C records a comparison could be made to the 10Be flux which is assumed to represent the 10Be production rate. This showed a time shift of ~23 years between the records. The sensitivity of the results to changes in important model parameters was evaluated. Uncertainties in the carbon cycle model cannot explain a substantial part of the timing differences. Potential influences of climate and atmospheric processes on the 10Be deposition were studied using δ18O from the respective cores and GISP2 ice core ion data. The comparison to δ18O revealed a small but significant correlation between 10Be flux and δ18O when the 14C-derived production signal was removed from the 10Be curves. The ion data, as proxies for atmospheric circulation changes, did not show any correlations to the 10Be record or the 10Be/14C difference. When including possible data uncertainties there is still a minimum discrepancy of ~10 years between the 10Be ice core and the 14C tree ring record. Due to lack of alternative explanations it is concluded that the ice core and/or the tree ring chronologies contains unaccounted errors in this range. This also reconciles the radiocarbon 1627-1600 BC (Friedrich et al., 2006) and ice core 1642±5 BC (Vinther et al., 2006) datings of the Santorini eruption. Friedrich, W.L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeiffer, T., & Talamo, S., 2006: Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to

  14. A scaling study of the natural circulation flow of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400 for designing a scale-down test facility for design verification

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.; Revankar, S. T.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a scaling study on the steady state natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400 is described, and the scaling criteria for reproducing the same steady state thermalhydraulic characteristics of the natural circulation flow as a prototype core catcher cooling system in the scale-down test facility are derived in terms of the down-comer pipe diameter and orifice resistance. (authors)

  15. Global Scale Observation of Scattered Energy from the Core: Seismic Constraints on the F-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; Adam, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPdf phase arrivals in the distance range 149-178 degrees. Within this collection, we have identified an energy packet that arrives 5-20 seconds after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a coda that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. The origin of this scattered energy is unclear and may provide valuable information about structure in the core. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of theses scatterers and try and locate them. Our results show that the scattered energy originates along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameter. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, in particular the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for these scatterers, we show that their origin is most likely at the base of the outer-core, in the F-layer. To assess our interpretation, we model synthetic seismograms and test velocity profiles in the F-layer. We suggest that such a layer may be responsible for the scattering in the PKP coda as observed in the data. The detection and observation of this scattered energy enables us to constrain physical properties of the F-layer that play an important role in the investigation of the geodynamo modelisation and core evolution.

  16. From clouds to cores to envelopes to disks: a multi-scale view of magnetized star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles; Plambeck, R. L.; TADPOL survey Team

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in the formation of stars. However, that importance has been called into question by previous observations showing misalignment between protostellar outflows and magnetic fields (B-fields), as well as inconsistency in field morphology between 10,000 and 1000 AU scales. To investigate these inconsistencies, we used the 1.3 mm full-Stokes polarimeter — which I tested, installed, and calibrated for CARMA, a mm-wave interferometer — to map dust polarization with ~2.5" resolution toward 29 star-forming cores and 8 star-forming regions as part of the TADPOL survey. We find that a subset of the sources have consistent B-field orientations between the large 20") scales measured by single-dish submm bolometers and the small scales measured by CARMA. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations (measured by CARMA), presumably because the B-fields are less twisted by dynamic effects. However, even in these sources, which seem to have retained the memory of the global B-field direction, the fields in the cores are misaligned with the disks and outflows in the central protostars — a key result of the TADPOL survey. Furthermore, the cores with lower polarization fractions tend to have B-fields that are perpendicular to outflows, which suggests that in these sources the B-fields have lost the memory of the larger-scale global field, and have been wrapped up by core rotation. This is an important result for disk formation theory, as it suggests that field misalignment may indeed be the solution to the magnetic braking catastrophe. Finally, we find that all sources exhibit the so-called “polarization hole” effect, where the polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. When this effect was seen in low-resolution single-dish maps, it was attributed to the averaging of unresolved structure in the plane of the sky. However, the higher resolution maps we present here resolve these

  17. EColiCore2: a reference network model of the central metabolism of Escherichia coli and relationships to its genome-scale parent model.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, Oliver; Klamt, Steffen

    2017-01-03

    Genome-scale metabolic modeling has become an invaluable tool to analyze properties and capabilities of metabolic networks and has been particularly successful for the model organism Escherichia coli. However, for several applications, smaller metabolic (core) models are needed. Using a recently introduced reduction algorithm and the latest E. coli genome-scale reconstruction iJO1366, we derived EColiCore2, a model of the central metabolism of E. coli. EColiCore2 is a subnetwork of iJO1366 and preserves predefined phenotypes including optimal growth on different substrates. The network comprises 486 metabolites and 499 reactions, is accessible for elementary-modes analysis and can, if required, be further compressed to a network with 82 reactions and 54 metabolites having an identical solution space as EColiCore2. A systematic comparison of EColiCore2 with its genome-scale parent model iJO1366 reveals that several key properties (flux ranges, reaction essentialities, production envelopes) of the central metabolism are preserved in EColiCore2 while it neglects redundancies along biosynthetic routes. We also compare calculated metabolic engineering strategies in both models and demonstrate, as a general result, how intervention strategies found in a core model allow the identification of valid strategies in a genome-scale model. Overall, EColiCore2 holds promise to become a reference model of E. coli's central metabolism.

  18. EColiCore2: a reference network model of the central metabolism of Escherichia coli and relationships to its genome-scale parent model

    PubMed Central

    Hädicke, Oliver; Klamt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic modeling has become an invaluable tool to analyze properties and capabilities of metabolic networks and has been particularly successful for the model organism Escherichia coli. However, for several applications, smaller metabolic (core) models are needed. Using a recently introduced reduction algorithm and the latest E. coli genome-scale reconstruction iJO1366, we derived EColiCore2, a model of the central metabolism of E. coli. EColiCore2 is a subnetwork of iJO1366 and preserves predefined phenotypes including optimal growth on different substrates. The network comprises 486 metabolites and 499 reactions, is accessible for elementary-modes analysis and can, if required, be further compressed to a network with 82 reactions and 54 metabolites having an identical solution space as EColiCore2. A systematic comparison of EColiCore2 with its genome-scale parent model iJO1366 reveals that several key properties (flux ranges, reaction essentialities, production envelopes) of the central metabolism are preserved in EColiCore2 while it neglects redundancies along biosynthetic routes. We also compare calculated metabolic engineering strategies in both models and demonstrate, as a general result, how intervention strategies found in a core model allow the identification of valid strategies in a genome-scale model. Overall, EColiCore2 holds promise to become a reference model of E. coli’s central metabolism. PMID:28045126

  19. The taxonomy of the Japanese oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kuwaniidae), with a generic diagnosis, a key to species and description of a new species from California.

    PubMed

    San'An, Wu; Nan, Nan; Gullan, Penny; Deng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana), was described from specimens collected from the bark of oak trees (Quercus species) in Japan. More recently, the species has been identified from California and China, but Californian specimens differ morphologically from Japanese material and are considered here to be a new species based on both morphological and molecular data. In this paper, an illustrated redescription of K. quercus is provided based on type specimens consisting of adult females, first-instar nymphs and intermediate-stage females, and a lectotype is designated for Sasakia quercus Kuwana. The new Californian species, Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan, is described and illustrated based on the adult female, first-instar nymph and intermediate-stage female. A new generic diagnosis for Kuwania Cockerell based on adult females and first-instar nymphs, and a key to species based on adult females are included.

  20. The radial scale length of turbulent fluctuations in the main core of TFTR plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.

    1993-07-01

    A new theory of microwave reflectometry in tokamaks has been developed which accounts for all the major characteristics of waves reflected from strong fluctuations near the cutoff layer. The theory has been used for studying the turbulence in the main core of neutral beam heated plasmas of the TFTR tokamak in the supershot regime. The results indicate that the radial correlation length of density fluctuations is a weak decreasing function of beam power, from [approximately]4 cm in Ohmic to [approx]2 cm at 14 MW of heating power. This corresponds to the range of wavelengths k[sub [perpendicular

  1. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  2. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, Barry; Maldonado, Ivan

    2014-01-23

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity.

  3. Mapping alteration minerals at prospect, outcrop and drill core scales using imaging spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Fred A.; L. Bedell, Richard; Taranik, James V.; Peppin, William A.; Weatherbee, Oliver; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer data (also known as ‘hyperspectral imagery’ or HSI) are well established for detailed mineral mapping from airborne and satellite systems. Overhead data, however, have substantial additional potential when used together with ground-based measurements. An imaging spectrometer system was used to acquire airborne measurements and to image in-place outcrops (mine walls) and boxed drill core and rock chips using modified sensor-mounting configurations. Data were acquired at 5 nm nominal spectral resolution in 360 channels from 0.4 to 2.45 μm. Analysis results using standardized hyperspectral methodologies demonstrate rapid extraction of representative mineral spectra and mapping of mineral distributions and abundances in map-plan, with core depth, and on the mine walls. The examples shown highlight the capabilities of these data for mineral mapping. Integration of these approaches promotes improved understanding of relations between geology, alteration and spectral signatures in three dimensions and should lead to improved efficiency of mine development, operations and ultimately effective mine closure. PMID:25937681

  4. Mapping alteration minerals at prospect, outcrop and drill core scales using imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Fred A; L Bedell, Richard; Taranik, James V; Peppin, William A; Weatherbee, Oliver; Calvin, Wendy M

    2012-03-20

    Imaging spectrometer data (also known as 'hyperspectral imagery' or HSI) are well established for detailed mineral mapping from airborne and satellite systems. Overhead data, however, have substantial additional potential when used together with ground-based measurements. An imaging spectrometer system was used to acquire airborne measurements and to image in-place outcrops (mine walls) and boxed drill core and rock chips using modified sensor-mounting configurations. Data were acquired at 5 nm nominal spectral resolution in 360 channels from 0.4 to 2.45 μm. Analysis results using standardized hyperspectral methodologies demonstrate rapid extraction of representative mineral spectra and mapping of mineral distributions and abundances in map-plan, with core depth, and on the mine walls. The examples shown highlight the capabilities of these data for mineral mapping. Integration of these approaches promotes improved understanding of relations between geology, alteration and spectral signatures in three dimensions and should lead to improved efficiency of mine development, operations and ultimately effective mine closure.

  5. A strategy for finding the optimal scale of plant core collection based on Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancheng; Guan, Yajing; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Liwei; Wang, Qitian; Hu, Qijuan; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Core collection is an ideal resource for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A subcore collection is a subset of a core collection. A strategy was proposed for finding the optimal sampling percentage on plant subcore collection based on Monte Carlo simulation. A cotton germplasm group of 168 accessions with 20 quantitative traits was used to construct subcore collections. Mixed linear model approach was used to eliminate environment effect and GE (genotype × environment) effect. Least distance stepwise sampling (LDSS) method combining 6 commonly used genetic distances and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) cluster method was adopted to construct subcore collections. Homogeneous population assessing method was adopted to assess the validity of 7 evaluating parameters of subcore collection. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted on the sampling percentage, the number of traits, and the evaluating parameters. A new method for "distilling free-form natural laws from experimental data" was adopted to find the best formula to determine the optimal sampling percentages. The results showed that coincidence rate of range (CR) was the most valid evaluating parameter and was suitable to serve as a threshold to find the optimal sampling percentage. The principal component analysis showed that subcore collections constructed by the optimal sampling percentages calculated by present strategy were well representative.

  6. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  7. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  8. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: an open label study.

    PubMed

    Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively). However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  9. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: III. Minimum datasets, core parameters, and application of the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene

    2017-03-01

    of the USL in several new areas: (l) A five-fold reduction in the measurement space for unified temperature-strain apparatuses through extrapolation of minimum datasets; (2) Combination of data from separate temperature and strain apparatuses, which provides flexibility and productive use of more limited data; and (3) Full conductor characterization from as little as a single I c(B) curve when a few core parameters have been measured in a similar conductor. Default core scaling parameter values are also given, based on analysis of a wide range of practical Nb3Sn conductors.

  10. The radial scale length of turbulent fluctuations in the main core of TFTR plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.

    1993-07-01

    A new theory of microwave reflectometry in tokamaks has been developed which accounts for all the major characteristics of waves reflected from strong fluctuations near the cutoff layer. The theory has been used for studying the turbulence in the main core of neutral beam heated plasmas of the TFTR tokamak in the supershot regime. The results indicate that the radial correlation length of density fluctuations is a weak decreasing function of beam power, from {approx}4 cm in Ohmic to {approx}2 cm at 14 MW of heating power. This corresponds to the range of wavelengths k{sub {perpendicular}}{rho}{sub i}{approx}0.1--0.3. Over the same interval of heating powers, the level of density fluctuations is observed to steadily increase with beam power by more than an order of magnitude. This trend is inconsistent with mixing length estimates of the fluctuation level.

  11. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  12. Is there a relationship between patient beliefs or communication about generic drugs and medication utilization?

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Cox, Emily; Fischer, Michael A; Mehta, Jyotsna; Brookhart, Alan M; Avorn, Jerry; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2009-03-01

    Insurers and policymakers strive to stimulate more cost-effective prescribing and, increasingly, are educating beneficiaries about generics. To evaluate the relationship between patient beliefs and communication about generic drugs and actual drug use. We performed a national mailed survey of a random sample of 2500 commercially-insured adults. Patient responses were linked to pharmacy claims data to assess actual generic medication use. We used factor analysis to develop 5 multi-item scales from patient survey responses that measured: (1) general preferences for generics, (2) generic safety/effectiveness, (3) generic cost/value, (4) comfort with generic substitution, and (5) communication with providers about generics. The relationship between each scale and the proportion of prescriptions filled for generics was assessed using linear regression, controlling for demographic, health, and insurance characteristics. Separate models were created for each scale and then all 5 scales were included simultaneously in a fully-adjusted model. The usable response rate was 48%. When evaluated independently, a 1 SD increase in each of the 5 scales was associated with a 3.1% to 6.3% increase in generic drug use (P < 0.05 for each). In the fully adjusted model, only 2 scales were significantly associated with generic drug use: comfort with generic substitution (P = 0.021) and communication with providers about generic drugs (P = 0.012). Generic drug use is most closely associated with the 2 actionable items we evaluated: communication with providers about generics and comfort with generic substitution. Educational campaigns that focus on these 2 domains may be most effective at influencing generic drug use.

  13. Jacobsen protocols for large-scale epoxidation of cyclic dienyl sulfones: application to the (+)-pretazettine core.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, G Reza; du Jourdin, Xavier Mollat; Fuchs, Philip L

    2012-05-18

    A Jacobsen epoxidation protocol using H2O2 as oxidant was designed for the large-scale preparation of various epoxy vinyl sulfones. A number of cocatalysts were screened, and pH control led to increased reaction rate, higher turnover number, and improved reliability.

  14. Measurements of Bacterial Concentrations on a Millimeter Scale in Ice Cores With a Scanning Laser Fluorescence Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, P.; Rohde, R. A.; Bramall, N. E.; Bay, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    We report non-destructive detection of variability on a mm depth scale in the organic content of ice cores at NICL, as determined by the fluorescence spectrum measured by a Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensor (TUCS). Many of the spectra we obtained are consistent with the amino acid tryptophan, a strongly fluorescing constituent in microbes. Identification with native fluorescence of microbes is supported by previous measurements of varying microbial concentration in samples from selected regions of the GISP2 core (Tung et al., 2005; 2006) that are consistent with our observations at the same depths. Sub-mm depth resolution was achieved and structure at this scale was observed. At each depth the fluorescence emission spectrum was measured at 5 wavelengths using 20-nm narrow band filters plus a long pass channel. The spectrum of microbes was calibrated by making lab measurements of fluorescence of various species and is distinguishable from mineral dust and metals due to differences in spectral shape. In bulk ice samples from 3 depths in the GISP2 core, where a table of methane concentrations (Ed Brook, unpublished) had shown several excesses above the atmospheric contribution, Tung et al. (2005) found 10-fold excesses of microbial concentrations at 2954 m and 3036 m and a 3-fold excess at 3018 m. In the present work we found strong, rapidly varying organic signals at all three depths. At 3018 m the peak value was much stronger than that obtained by Brook and occurred in the core section below the one he studied. Since he measured methane at several-meter depth intervals, and since we found the microbial excesses to be concentrated in 0.3 m intervals, we conclude that of order 30 microbe-rich regions may be present in GISP2. The 3 microbe-rich depths found by Tung et al. (2005) were less than 90 m above the basal ice at 3041-3053 m. The large fluctuations in apparent tryptophan concentrations that we found at 2954, 3018, and 3036 m are consistent with microbe

  15. Core-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring of CO2-brine mixture in Fontainebleau sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Bellmunt, Fabian; Luquot, Linda; Gouze, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the monitoring stage of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is to obtain an accurate estimation of the subsurface CO2 accumulation and to detect any possible leakage. Laboratory experiments are necessary to investigate the small scale processes governing the CO2-brine-rock interaction. They also provide a means to calibrate the results coming from field scale geophysical methods. In this work we set up an experimental system which is able to perform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) measurements on centimeter-scale rock samples at various P-T conditions. We present the results of two new experiments related to CO2 monitoring, performed on a cylindrical (4 × 8 cm) Fontainebleau rock sample. In the first one, we have quantified the CO2 saturation at different volume fractions, representing zones from a deep saline aquifer with varying degrees of saturation. In the second one, we have monitored and quantified the effect of CO2 dissolution in the brine at a pressure of 40 bar during eight days, emulating the invasion of CO2 into a shallow aquifer. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the contribution of surface conductivity in highly CO2-saturated regions, even in clay-free rocks, and also for brine conductivity variation due to CO2 dissolution. Ignoring any of these effects will end up in a CO2 saturation underestimation. We present a modified CO2 saturation equation to account for these two influences.

  16. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may…

  17. A 1000 AU Scale Molecular Outflow Driven by a Candidate First Hydrostatic Core in a Filament Supported by MHD Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Ray; Kitamura, Y.; Shinnaga, H.

    2017-06-01

    To shed light on the physical properties of a first hydrostatic core, first core, in low-mass protostar formation process, we conducted interferometric observations towards an exceptionally young ``proto"star GF9-2 using the CARMA and SMA. The observations have been carried out in the CO J=3-2 line and in the continuum emission at the wavelengths of 3.3 mm, 1.1 mm and 850 micron with a spatial resolution of 400 AU. Our spectroscopic imaging of the CO line revealed that the continuum source is driving a 1000 AU scale molecular outflow, including a pair of lobes where a collimated ``higher" velocity ( 10 km/s with respect to the velocity of the cloud) red lobe exists inside a poorly collimated ``lower" velocity ( 5 km/s) red lobe. These lobes are found to be one of the youngest (dynamical time scales of 500 - 3000 yrs) and the least powerful (momentum rates of 10^{-7}-10^{-6} Msun kms/yr) ones so far detected. All the continuum images detected a single point-like source with an effective beam-deconvolve radius of 250 AU at the center of the 3.5 Sun molecular cloud core. Analyzing the spectral energy distribution of the continuum emission, we estimated a ``circum"stellar mass of the gas and dust to be M_csm 8x10^{-3} Msun within 400 AU in radius, a ``stellar surface" temperature of T* 150 K with an assumption of a ``stellar radius" of 5 AU and a bolometric luminosity of 0.06 Lsun. In addition, a ``stellar" mass of M* < 0.07 +/- 0.02 Msun was estimated using the previously obtained upper limit of the ``stellar" age of tau_* < (2.7 +/- 0.5) x 10^3 yrs and the mass accretion rate of dM/dt_acc = 2.5 x 10^{-5} Msun yr^{-1}. All the observational facts assessed so far reinforces an assertion that the continuum source represents a first core candidate.

  18. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem δ18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation

  19. Generic Survey Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Hints on conducting surveys appropriate for university use are outlined, and sample checklists and forms are provided. The following research elements concerning generic surveys are covered: sequences of events for surveys conducted by mail (15 weeks) and telephone (11 weeks); algorithms for estimating materials costs and quantities; a catalog of…

  20. Interpreting DNAPL saturations in a laboratory-scale injection with GPR data and direct core measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Poeter, Eileen P.

    2003-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is used to track a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) injection in a laboratory sand tank. Before data reduction, GPR data provide a qualitative measure of DNAPL saturation and movement. One-dimensional (1D) GPR modeling provides a quantitative interpretation of DNAPL volume within a given thickness during and after the injection. This is confirmed qualitatively by visual inspection of cores and two-dimensional GPR modeling. DNAPL saturation in sub-layers of that thickness could not be quantified because calibration of the 1D GPR model is non-unique when both permittivity and depth of multiple layers are unknown. Accurate quantitative interpretation of DNAPL volumes using 1D GPR modeling requires: 1) identification of a suitable target that produces a strong reflection and is not subject to any multidimensional interference; 2) knowledge of the exact depth of that target; and 3) use of two-way radar-wave travel times through the medium to the target to determine the permittivity of the intervening material, which eliminates reliance upon reflection amplitude. With geologic conditions that are suitable for GPR surveys (i.e., shallow depths and low electrical conductivities), the procedures in this laboratory study can be adapted to a field site to identify DNAPL source zones after a release has occurred.

  1. Mid-Pleistocene Orbital and Millennial Scale Climate Change in a 200 ky lacustrine sediment core from SW North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Brown, E. T.; Berke, M. A.; Smith, S.; Goff, F. E.; Hurley, L. L.; Cisneros Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J. L.; Fessenden, J. E.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Allen, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    How anthropogenic climate change will affect hydroclimate of the arid regions of SW North America over the next century is a concern. Model projections suggest permanent “dust bowl-like” conditions; however, any anthropogenic change will be superimposed on long-term natural climate variability. We use the paleoclimatic record from an 82-m deep lacustrine sediment core (VC-3) from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico to examine continental climate variations spanning two glacial cycles through the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 to MIS 10 (552 ka to ~360 ka). Both orbital and millennial-scale variations are evident in multiple proxies, and a strong relationship occurs between the warmest temperatures in the record and periods of extended aridity. We suggest that these periods of aridity are characterized by decreased winter as well as summer precipitation amounts. A new group of organic geochemical proxies (MBT and CBT) allow us to reconstruct the annual mean air temperature (MAT) of the Valles Caldera watershed as well as the watershed soil pH down the length of the core. We compare these proxies to climatically sensitive pollen taxa and other core properties. The MAT record of VC-3 shows considerable glacial-interglacial variation and significant variability within individual glacial and interglacial periods. The warmest interglacial MATs (5 to 7°C) compare favorably with modern MATs of ~5°C in the Valle Grande. MIS 11 has three warm substages, based on MAT estimates (2°C warmer than the cool substages), warm (Juniperus, Quercus, Rosaceae) vs. cool (Abies, Picea, Artemisia) pollen taxa and variation in aquatic productivity proxies (TOC, Si:Ti). The three warm substages of MIS 11 appear to correspond to the three precessional peaks that occur during this interval. Glacial MATs range from -5 to +2°C, with multiple millennial-scale temperature oscillations evident. Several of the interstadials show a distinct pattern of relatively slower temperature increases and

  2. The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale

    PubMed Central

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Persson, Björn N.; Rosenberg, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT). Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on

  3. The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale.

    PubMed

    Kajonius, Petri J; Persson, Björn N; Rosenberg, Patricia; Garcia, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck's questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT). Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the

  4. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) standard specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this standard is to provide an umbrella set of requirements for applying the generic architecture interface model to the design of a specific avionics hardware/software system. This standard defines a generic set of system interface points to facilitate identification of critical interfaces and establishes the requirements for applying appropriate low level detailed implementation standards to those interface points. The generic core avionics system and processing architecture models provided herein are robustly tailorable to specific system applications and provide a platform upon which the interface model is to be applied.

  5. A large-scale dynamo and magnetoturbulence in rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae.

    PubMed

    Mösta, Philipp; Ott, Christian D; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F; Schnetter, Erik; Haas, Roland

    2015-12-17

    Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is important in many high-energy astrophysical systems, where instabilities can amplify the local magnetic field over very short timescales. Specifically, the magnetorotational instability and dynamo action have been suggested as a mechanism for the growth of magnetar-strength magnetic fields (of 10(15) gauss and above) and for powering the explosion of a rotating massive star. Such stars are candidate progenitors of type Ic-bl hypernovae, which make up all supernovae that are connected to long γ-ray bursts. The magnetorotational instability has been studied with local high-resolution shearing-box simulations in three dimensions, and with global two-dimensional simulations, but it is not known whether turbulence driven by this instability can result in the creation of a large-scale, ordered and dynamically relevant field. Here we report results from global, three-dimensional, general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations. We show that hydromagnetic turbulence in rapidly rotating protoneutron stars produces an inverse cascade of energy. We find a large-scale, ordered toroidal field that is consistent with the formation of bipolar magnetorotationally driven outflows. Our results demonstrate that rapidly rotating massive stars are plausible progenitors for both type Ic-bl supernovae and long γ-ray bursts, and provide a viable mechanism for the formation of magnetars. Moreover, our findings suggest that rapidly rotating massive stars might lie behind potentially magnetar-powered superluminous supernovae.

  6. Narrow Scale Flow and a Weak Field by the Top of Earth's Core: Evidence from Orsted, Magsat and Secular Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.

  7. Short scale variation in presence and structure of complex core-mantle boundary regions beneath northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasbinsek, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    A set of nine intermediate depth earthquakes with closely spaced epicenters in Central America recorded at a small aperture array in the western United States contain clear core-mantle boundary (CMB) reflections. Cross-correlation of [0.5,2] Hz bandpass filtered seismograms at the 11 station array results in well-constrained stacked PcP and ScP waveforms. Most events contain both PcP and ScP waveforms, providing two distinct areas of core-mantle boundary sampling. In approximately half of the stacked waveforms, additional pre- and/or post-cursory arrivals are observed with both PcP and ScP suggesting the presence of complicated CMB structures. Commonly the extra arrivals have the visual appearance of reverberations. Two primary observations are made: (1) One-dimensional forward modeling indicates that simple one-layer ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) models do not accurately reproduce the PcP and ScP waveforms, instead multi-layer ULVZ models provide a better fit to the waveforms, (2) Spatially the pattern of CMB regions requiring extra structure is contiguous, but change to a simple CMB structure over short distance scales. The simple one-dimensional modeling explored here cannot uniquely constrain the three-dimensional CMB structure, but provides insight into potential CMB structure that may be resolvable with higher accuracy and more computationally intensive forward seismogram modeling.

  8. Modeling of Viscoelastic Properties of Porous Rocks Saturated with Viscous Fluid at Seismic Frequencies at the Core Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Wang, Z.; Wang, F.; Wang, R.

    2015-12-01

    Currently the moduli and velocities of rocks at seismic frequencies are usually measured by the strain-stress method in lab. However, such measurements require well-designed equipment and skilled technicians, which greatly hinders the experimental investigation on the elastic and visco-elastic properties of rocks at seismic frequencies. We attempt to model the dynamic moduli of porous rocks saturated with viscous fluid at seismic frequencies on core scale using the strain-stress method, aiming to provide a complement to real core measurements in lab. First, we build 2D geometrical models containing the pore structure information of porous rocks based on the digital images (such as thin section, SEM, CT, etc.) of real rocks. Then we assume the rock frames are linearly elastic, and use the standard Maxwell spring-dash pot model to describe the visco-elastic properties of pore fluids. Boundary conditions are set according to the strain-stress method; and the displacement field is calculated using the finite element method (FEM). We numerically test the effects of fluid viscosity, frequency, and pore structure on the visco-elastic properties based on the calculation results. In our modeling, the viscosity of the pore fluid ranges from 103mPas to 109mPas; and the frequency varies from 5Hz to 500Hz. The preliminary results indicate that the saturated rock behaves stiffer and shows larger phase lag between stress and strain when the viscosity of the pore fluid and (or) the frequency increase.

  9. Century-scale records of land-based activities recorded in Mesoamerican coral cores.

    PubMed

    Carilli, Jessica E; Prouty, Nancy G; Hughen, Konrad A; Norris, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    The Mesoamerican Reef, the second-largest barrier reef in the world, is located in the western Caribbean Sea off the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras. Particularly in the south, the surrounding watersheds are steep and the climate is extremely wet. With development and agricultural expansion, the potential for negative impacts to the reef from land-based runoff becomes high. We constructed annually resolved century-scale records of metal/calcium ratios in coral skeletons collected from four sites experiencing a gradient of land-based runoff. Our proxy data indicate that runoff onto the reef has increased relatively steadily over time at all sites, consistent with land use trends from historical records. Sediment supply to the reef is greater in the south, and these more exposed reefs will probably benefit most immediately from management that targets runoff reduction. However, because runoff at all sites is steadily increasing, even distal sites will benefit from watershed management.

  10. Internal stresses in pre-stressed micron-scale aluminum core-shell particles and their improved reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Tamura, Nobumichi

    2015-09-01

    Dilatation of aluminum (Al) core for micron-scale particles covered by alumina (Al2O3) shell was measured utilizing x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation for untreated particles and particles after annealing at 573 K and fast quenching at 0.46 K/s. Such a treatment led to the increase in flame rate for Al + CuO composite by 32% and is consistent with theoretical predictions based on the melt-dispersion mechanism of reaction for Al particles. Experimental results confirmed theoretical estimates and proved that the improvement of Al reactivity is due to internal stresses. This opens new ways of controlling particle reactivity through creating and monitoring internal stresses.

  11. Internal stresses in pre-stressed micron-scale aluminum core-shell particles and their improved reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Levitas, Valery I.; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Tamura, Nobumichi

    2015-09-07

    Dilatation of aluminum (Al) core for micron-scale particles covered by alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) shell was measured utilizing x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation for untreated particles and particles after annealing at 573 K and fast quenching at 0.46 K/s. Such a treatment led to the increase in flame rate for Al + CuO composite by 32% and is consistent with theoretical predictions based on the melt-dispersion mechanism of reaction for Al particles. Experimental results confirmed theoretical estimates and proved that the improvement of Al reactivity is due to internal stresses. This opens new ways of controlling particle reactivity through creating and monitoring internal stresses.

  12. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  13. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  14. Are biosimilars really generics?

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop

    2010-04-01

    Ever since the formation of the first biotechnology company almost three decades ago, more than 150 biopharmaceutical products have been marketed across the globe. The oldest of these biotechnology-derived products are now at the end of their patent lives, as a result of which, the development of 'biosimilars' is increasing. The review highlights aspects in which biosimilars differ from generic drugs. The active substance of a biosimilar medicine is similar to the one of the biological reference medicine; however, biosimilars differ from generics of pharmacological drugs in aspects like size and complexity of the active substance, and the nature of the manufacturing process. The manufacture of a biopharmaceutical product is complex and involves several isolation and purification steps. These procedures are proprietary to the manufacturer of the originator product and hence even minor changes in production can have serious implications in terms of safety and efficacy of the product. Biosimilars should not be brought to market using the same procedure applied to generics, and existing and future regulation should prevent inappropriate and automatic substitution of a biosimilar for a reference biopharmaceutical product.

  15. Model-data comparison of soil organic oatter cycling: soil core scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutzler, Thomas; Reichstein, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) cycling is usually modeled as a donor controlled process, most often by first order kinetics. However, evidence of contradition of this donor-paradigm is appearing. One alternative hypothesis is that microbiological consumers of SOM play an important role and need to be taken into account more explicitely. Here we link SOM cycling to the modeling of microbial growth kinetics. We set up a suite of alternative models of microbial growth. Explicitly modelling the cycling of a label across carbon pools allowed to compare the model outputs to data of a soil priming experiment. The experimental data was taken from U. Hamer, & B. Marschner (2002 Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 165(3)), who incubated several 14C labelled substrates at 20°C in a model system that consisted of sand mixed with lignin for 26 days. Data streams of time series total respiration, respiration from labelled amendment and prior information on model parameters were used to determine the posterior probability density function of the model parameters of each of the model variants and to calculate Bayes-Factors, the ratios of the likelihood of the different model variants. This kind of data and Bayesian analysis is usable to compare model structures adapted to processes that determine the dynamics at this scale: co-limitation of depolymerization of older soil organic matter by both substrate and decomposers, prefererrential substrate usage, activation and deactivation and predation of microbes, and usage of both assimilated carbon and carbon of internal pools for maintenance and growth respiration.

  16. A New Automated Technique for the Construction of More Accurate Composite Depth Scales and an Analysis of Core Deformation in Different Sediment Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, L. E.

    2003-12-01

    A composite depth section reconstructs a continuous record of the sediment at a drilling site by splicing together cores from different holes; its corresponding composite depth scale describes the correlation of the sediments between holes. Both are important tools for analyzing the sediment recovered from a drilling site. The standard splicing technique for creating composite depth sections does not correct for distortion within cores, so that a sedimentary feature may have a slightly different composite depth in each hole. Additionally, the splicing technique often results in composite depths which are ˜10% greater than recorded drill depths. A new automated compositing technique aligns features between holes and prevents the artificial increase in composite depth. The results of this technique are compared with the traditional composite depth scale. Additionally, the new technique allows for analysis of the deformation and extension that occurs in cores during the drilling and extraction process. This study describes typical core deformation and its effect on calculated sedimentation rates for the carbonate and siliceous sediments of ODP Leg 138 and the terrigenous-dominated pelagic sediments of ODP Leg 154. Preliminary results indicate that cores from Leg 138 are stretched by more than 5% and those from Leg 154 by nearly 3%. For both legs, extension is greatest in the top half of cores, but variability in deformation may increase toward either end of a core.

  17. Simulating Fine-Scale Atmospheric Processes: A New Core Capability and its Application to Predicting Wildfire Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M M; Leach, M J; Molenkamp, C R; Hall, C H; Wilder, L; Neher, L A

    2003-02-07

    This LDRD project consisted of the development, testing, and prototype application of a new capability to couple atmospheric models of different spatial and temporal scales with a state-of-the-science vegetation-fuel combustion model and a GIs-based analysis system. The research addressed the complex, multi-scale interactions of atmospheric processes, combustion, and vegetative fuel conditions, using a suite of models to simulate their impact on wildfire behavior in areas of complex terrain. During the course of the project, we made substantial progress toward the implementation of a world-class modeling system that could be used as a tool for wildfire risk assessment, wildfire consequence analysis, wildfire suppression planning, fuels management, firefighter training, and public fire-safety education. With one additional year of funding we would have been able conduct combined modeling and field experiments to evaluate the models capability to predict the behavior of prescribed burns before they are ignited. Because of its investment in this LDRD project, LLNL is very close to having a new core capability--likely the world's most generally applicable, most scientifically sound, and most respected wildfire simulation system.

  18. On the extent of size range and power law scaling for particles of natural carbonate fault cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    To determine the size range and both type and extent of the scaling laws for particles of loose natural carbonate fault rocks, six granular fault cores from Mesozoic carbonate strata of central Italy were sampled. Particle size distributions of twelve samples were determined by combining sieving and sedimentation methods. Results show that, regardless of the fault geometry, kinematics, and tectonic history, the size of fault rock particles respects a power law distribution across approximately four orders of magnitude. The fractal dimension ( D) of the particle size distribution in the analysed samples ranges between ˜2.0 and ˜3.5. A lower bound to the power law trend is evident in all samples except in those with the highest D-values; in these samples, the smallest analysed particles (˜0.0005 mm in diameter) were also included in the power law interval, meaning that the lower size limit of the power law distribution decreases for increasing D-values and that smallest particles start to be comminuted with increasing strain (i.e. increasing fault displacement and D-values). For increasing D-values, also the largest particles tends to decrease in number, but this evidence may be affected by a censoring bias connected with the sample size. Stick-slip behaviour is suggested for the studied faults on the basis of the inferred particle size evolutions. Although further analyses are necessary to make the results of this study more generalizable, the preliminary definition of the scaling rules for fault rock particles may serve as a tool for predicting a large scale of fault rock particles once a limited range is known. In particular, data from this study may result useful as input numbers in numerical models addressing the packing of fault rock particles for frictional and hydraulic purposes.

  19. Century-scale high-resolution black carbon records in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Hong, Yuehui; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Lirong; Wang, Jianghai

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) has received increasing attention in the last 20 years because it is not only an absorbent of toxic pollutants but also a greenhouse substance, preserving fire-history records, and more importantly, acting as an indicator of biogeochemical cycles and global changes. By adopting an improved chemothermal oxidation method (WXY), this study reconstructed the century-scale high-resolution records of BC deposition from two fine-grained sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in the South Yellow Sea. The BC records were divided into five stages, which exhibited specific sequences with three BC peaks at approximately 1891, 1921, and 2007 AD, representing times at which the first heavy storms appeared just after the termination of long-term droughts. The significant correlation between the times of the BC peaks in the cores and heavy storms in the area of the Huanghe (Yellow) River demonstrated that BC peaks could result from markedly strengthened sedimentation due to surface runoff, which augmented the atmospheric deposition. Stable carbon isotope analysis indicated that the evident increase in carbon isotope ratios of BC in Stage 5 might have resulted from the input of weathered rock-derived graphitic carbon cardinally induced by the annual anthropogenic modulation of water-borne sediment in the Huanghe River since 2005 AD. Numerical calculations demonstrated that the input fraction of graphitic carbon was 22.97% for Stage 5, whereas no graphitic carbon entered during Stages 1 and 3. The obtained data provide new and important understanding of the source-sink history of BC in the Yellow Sea.

  20. Small-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of the NEEM ice core: observations and numerical model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Llorens, M.-G.; Westhoff, J.; Steinbach, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Bons, P. D.; Griera, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances on the centimetre scale in the stratigraphy of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by an optical line scanner as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the visible folds, discuss their characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. We also analyse the structures with regard to the deformation boundary conditions under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1500 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their similar-fold shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between alternating layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. c-axes orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analysed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c-axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which shows a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. Numerical modelling of crystal viscoplasticity deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures during deformation. The modelling reproduces the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum fabric of the matrix, and also the associated local deformation. We conclude from these results that the observed folding is a consequence of localized deformation at the boundaries of kink bands.

  1. Small-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of the NEEM ice core: observations and numerical model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Llorens, M.-G.; Westhoff, J.; Steinbach, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Bons, P. D.; Griera, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances on the centimetre scale in the stratigraphy of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by an optical line scanner as long as the ice has visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths allow, to a certain extent, a three-dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the visible folds, discuss their characteristics and frequency, and present examples of typical fold structures. We also analyse the structures with regard to the deformation boundary conditions under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1500 m to overturned z folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their similar fold shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between alternating layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. C axes orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analysed, where available, in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which shows a single maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. Numerical modelling of crystal viscoplastic deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures during deformation. The modelling reproduces the development of bands of grains with a tilted-lattice orientation relative to the single maximum fabric of the matrix, and also the associated local deformation. We conclude from these results that the observed folding can be explained by formation of these tilted-lattice bands.

  2. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  3. Fluid Dynamic Eqs.For Adiabatic Convection In Earth's Ultracompressed Core; Turbulence Engendered Large-Scale Motions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. L.

    1996-11-01

    Our analysis is divided into 2 parts, i.e., establishing formalism that predicts (a), convective flows in Earth's, molten, precessing, core that arise from 15-20 heat sources distributed over solid inner core boundary, r=R_ic, how they induce B-field reversals and transport heat of 4 radioactive disintegration chains (some now inactive) contained within, r<= R_ic, and (b) turbulence-en-gendered large-scale \\underlinemer. motion and \\underlineturbulent different rot., which are coupled by Coriolis forces. Beginning with Navier-Stokes eq. we write for Earth's core, ρ dv/dt = ρga + 2 ρ v × Υ -nabla p + (4 π μ)-1 (nabla × B) × B + η nabla^2 v + η \\over 3 nabla (nabla - v) -2 \\over 3 (nabla - v) nabla η + nabla η - nabla v + nabla v - nabla η, where ga is appar. acceleration of gravity. Since coeff. of viscosity η depends only on p, T it is closely only a function of r; η = η(r), altho η = const. will suffice for convection calculations. In \\underlineeq. of secular fluid motion, obtained by forming ensemble mean of vector curl of N-S eq., viscous forces are driving forces and last 3 terms should be retained. Eq. of continuity remains as before but state eq. p = ρkT and adiabaticity eq. for perfect gas fail to apply to liquids and we must adopt eqs. for ultracompressed fluids^1, namely, \\underlinestate eq., κ (p=p_o) = loge ρ/ ρo + \\varepsilon (T-T_o) and \\underlineadiabatic eq., Te ^a/ρ= const., α = Mw \\varepsilon/κ c_V; cV is molar thermal capacity, etc. We subst. this into state equation to avoid dependent variable T getting a p-ρ form of adiabatic law: κ (p-p_o) = log ρ/ρo + \\varepsilon T_o[e^α(ρ_o-1 - ρ-1) - 1] dot = [1 + \\varepsilon α T_o/ρ_o] - (ρ - ρ_o)/ρ_o, r.h. approx. used in \\underlinediscrete juxtaposition. ^1 [-2.3pt] ^1 K L McDonald, Computations In Theoretical Physics ..., Univ. Ut., Expt. Sta. Bul. 138, Vol. 56, No. 27(1966), 129 pp.

  4. Generic medications in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Zore, Matt; Harris, Alon; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Siesky, Brent; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Behzadi, Jennifer; Amireskandari, Annahita; Egan, Patrick; Garff, Kevin; Wirostko, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the process of genericisation of medications in the US and Europe with a focus on ophthalmic drugs. Regulatory guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency will be discussed, and the advantages and concerns of genericisation will be explored. We will look at various studies concerning the safety and efficacy of generic drugs compared to their branded counterparts. In particular, the challenges of assuring bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence in topical ophthalmic drugs will be examined.

  5. Ionic-charge dependence of the intermolecular coulombic decay time scale for aqueous ions probed by the core-hole clock.

    PubMed

    Pokapanich, Wandared; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Ottosson, Niklas; Svensson, Svante; Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Björneholm, Olle

    2011-08-31

    Auger electron spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations has been applied to investigate the decay of the Ca 2p core hole of aqueous Ca(2+). Beyond the localized two-hole final states on the calcium ion, originating from a normal Auger process, we have further identified the final states delocalized between the calcium ion and its water surroundings and produced by core level intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) processes. By applying the core-hole clock method, the time scale of the core level ICD was determined to be 33 ± 1 fs for the 2p core hole of the aqueous Ca(2+). The comparison of this time constant to those associated with the aqueous K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+) ions reveals differences of 1 and up to 2 orders of magnitude. Such large variations in the characteristic time scales of the core level ICD processes is qualitatively explained by different internal decay mechanisms in different ions as well as by different ion-solvent distances and interactions.

  6. Grain-scale imaging and compositional characterization of cryo-preserved India NGHP 01 gas-hydrate-bearing cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on grain-scale characteristics and gas analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing samples retrieved by NGHP Expedition 01 as part of a large-scale effort to study gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern-Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography, we investigated gas hydrate grain morphology and distribution within sediments, gas hydrate composition, and methane isotopic composition of samples from Krishna–Godavari (KG) basin and Andaman back-arc basin borehole sites from depths ranging 26 to 525 mbsf. Gas hydrate in KG-basin samples commonly occurs as nodules or coarse veins with typical hydrate grain size of 30–80 μm, as small pods or thin veins 50 to several hundred microns in width, or disseminated in sediment. Nodules contain abundant and commonly isolated macropores, in some places suggesting the original presence of a free gas phase. Gas hydrate also occurs as faceted crystals lining the interiors of cavities. While these vug-like structures constitute a relatively minor mode of gas hydrate occurrence, they were observed in near-seafloor KG-basin samples as well as in those of deeper origin (>100 mbsf) and may be original formation features. Other samples exhibit gas hydrate grains rimmed by NaCl-bearing material, presumably produced by salt exclusion during original hydrate formation. Well-preserved microfossil and other biogenic detritus are also found within several samples, most abundantly in Andaman core material where gas hydrate fills microfossil crevices. The range of gas hydrate modes of occurrence observed in the full suite of samples suggests a range of formation processes were involved, as influenced by local in situconditions. The hydrate-forming gas is predominantly methane with trace quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons of primarily microbial origin. The composition indicates the gas hydrate is Structure I.

  7. Generic statements require little evidence for acceptance but have powerful implications.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Brandone, Amanda C; Gelman, Susan A

    2010-11-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Birds lay eggs") express generalizations about categories. In this paper, we hypothesized that there is a paradoxical asymmetry at the core of generic meaning, such that these sentences have extremely strong implications but require little evidence to be judged true. Four experiments confirmed the hypothesized asymmetry: Participants interpreted novel generics such as "Lorches have purple feathers" as referring to nearly all lorches, but they judged the same novel generics to be true given a wide range of prevalence levels (e.g., even when only 10% or 30% of lorches had purple feathers). A second hypothesis, also confirmed by the results, was that novel generic sentences about dangerous or distinctive properties would be more acceptable than generic sentences that were similar but did not have these connotations. In addition to clarifying important aspects of generics' meaning, these findings are applicable to a range of real-world processes such as stereotyping and political discourse.

  8. Side effects of generic competition?

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jörgen; Rudholm, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

  9. Leveraging the power of multi-core platforms for large-scale geospatial data processing: Exemplified by generating DEM from massive LiDAR point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xuefeng; Wu, Huayi

    2010-10-01

    In recent years improvements in spatial data acquisition technologies, such as LiDAR, resulted in an explosive increase in the volume of spatial data, presenting unprecedented challenges for computation capacity. At the same time, the kernel of computing platforms the CPU, also evolved from a single-core to multi-core architecture. This radical change significantly affected existing data processing algorithms. Exemplified by the problem of generating DEM from massive air-borne LiDAR point clouds, this paper studies how to leverage the power of multi-core platforms for large-scale geospatial data processing and demonstrates how multi-core technologies can improve performance. Pipelining is adopted to exploit the thread level parallelism of multi-core platforms. First, raw point clouds are partitioned into overlapped blocks. Second, these discrete blocks are interpolated concurrently on parallel pipelines. On the interpolation run, intermediate results are sorted and finally merged into an integrated DEM. This parallelization demonstrates the great potential of multi-core platforms with high data throughput and low memory footprint. This approach achieves excellent performance speedup with greatly reduced processing time. For example, on a 2.0 GHz Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform, the proposed parallel approach can process approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 12 min and produces a 27,500×30,500 raster DEM, using less than 800 MB main memory.

  10. Cognitive and affective determinants of generic drug acceptance and use: cross-sectional and experimental findings

    PubMed Central

    Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-01-01

    An increase in generic substitution could be a viable approach to reduce global healthcare expenditures. In many countries, however, generic drug use is rather low. This study examines cognitive predictors (knowledge and beliefs) and affective predictors (general affect and sacred values) to explain generic drug acceptance and use. Data for the study come from a random postal survey conducted in Switzerland (N = 668). A detailed knowledge scale about generic drugs was developed. In addition, an experimental choice task was constructed in which respondents chose between branded and generic drugs. Generic drug acceptance as well as drug choices were influenced by knowledge, beliefs, and affect. It was also found that generic substitution is chosen less frequently for a more severe illness. Key insights could be used for developing information material or interventions aimed at increasing the substitution of generic drugs in order to make health care more affordable. PMID:25632372

  11. Advertising and generic market entry.

    PubMed

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  12. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  13. Narrow scale flow across a weak field by the top of Earth's core: evidence from Ørsted, Magsat,and SV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhies, C.

    2003-04-01

    To test two geophysical hypotheses against observation, the Ørsted Initial Field Model [Olsen et al., 2000] is used to estimate the radius of Earth's core by spectral methods. The model coefficients are used to compute the mean square magnetic flux density in spherical harmonics of degree n on the reference sphere (radius a = 6371.2 km), which is an observational spectrum R(n). The theoretical spectrum tested, {R(n)} = K[(n+1/2)/(n(n+1))](c/a)**(2n+4), is obtained from the hypotheses of narrow scale flow across a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth's core. It describes a low degree, core-source magnetic energy range and is similar to spectra advanced by Stevenson [1983] and McLeod [1985, 1996]. Core radius c and amplitude K are estimated by fitting log-theoretical to log-observational spectra at low degrees. Estimates of c from R(n) at degrees 1 through N range between 3441 and 3542 km as N increases from 4 to 12. None of these estimates differ significantly from the seismologic core radius (3480 km). Significant differences do occur if N exceeds 12, which is consistent with appreciable non-core (crustal) source fields at degrees 13 and above, or if other spectral forms are assumed. Similar results are obtained from 1980 epoch Magsat models [Sabaka, Olsen &Langel, 2000, 2002; Cain et al., 1990; Langel, Estes &Mead, 1982]. One way to deduce {R(n)} uses the expected low degree spectrum for secular variation (SV) induced by narrow scale flow by the top of the core, {F(n)} = Cn(n+1/2)(n+1)(c/a)**(2n+4). The value of c obtained by fitting this form to the mean observational SV spectrum from model GSFC 9/80 is 3470 +/- 91 km, also in accord with seismologic estimates. This test of the kinematic narrow scale flow hypothesis is independent of the dynamic weak field hypothesis. The agreement between SV, Magsat, Ørsted and seismologic estimates of core radius means the hypotheses pass these tests. Analysis of some recent observational SV spectra, however

  14. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  15. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of heterogeneity in the Heletz sandstone from core to pore scale and quantification of its impact on multi-phase flow

    DOE PAGES

    Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Yang, Feifei; Pini, Ronny; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this paper we present the results of an extensive multiscale characterization of the flow properties and structural and capillary heterogeneities of the Heletz sandstone. We performed petrographic, porosity and capillary pressure measurements on several subsamples. We quantified mm-scale heterogeneity in saturation distributions in a rock core during multi-phase flow using conventional X-ray CT scanning. Core-flooding experiments were conducted under reservoirs conditions (9 MPa, 50 °C) to obtain primary drainage and secondary imbibition relative permeabilities and residual trapping was analyzed and quantified. We provide parameters for relative permeability, capillary pressure and trapping models for further modeling studies. A synchrotron-based microtomographymore » study complements our cm- to mm-scale investigation by providing links between the micromorphology and mm-scale saturation heterogeneities.« less

  17. Characterization of heterogeneity in the Heletz sandstone from core to pore scale and quantification of its impact on multi-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Yang, Feifei; Pini, Ronny; Xiao, Xianghui; Toney, Michael F.; Liu, Yijin; Benson, Sally M.

    2016-02-02

    In this paper we present the results of an extensive multiscale characterization of the flow properties and structural and capillary heterogeneities of the Heletz sandstone. We performed petrographic, porosity and capillary pressure measurements on several subsamples. We quantified mm-scale heterogeneity in saturation distributions in a rock core during multi-phase flow using conventional X-ray CT scanning. Core-flooding experiments were conducted under reservoirs conditions (9 MPa, 50 °C) to obtain primary drainage and secondary imbibition relative permeabilities and residual trapping was analyzed and quantified. We provide parameters for relative permeability, capillary pressure and trapping models for further modeling studies. A synchrotron-based microtomography study complements our cm- to mm-scale investigation by providing links between the micromorphology and mm-scale saturation heterogeneities.

  18. Generic torus canards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Torus canards are special solutions of fast/slow systems that alternate between attracting and repelling manifolds of limit cycles of the fast subsystem. A relatively new dynamic phenomenon, torus canards have been found in neural applications to mediate the transition from tonic spiking to bursting via amplitude-modulated spiking. In R3, torus canards are degenerate: they require one-parameter families of 2-fast/1-slow systems in order to be observed and even then, they only occur on exponentially thin parameter intervals. The addition of a second slow variable unfolds the torus canard phenomenon, making it generic and robust. That is, torus canards in fast/slow systems with (at least) two slow variables occur on open parameter sets. So far, generic torus canards have only been studied numerically, and their behaviour has been inferred based on averaging and canard theory. This approach, however, has not been rigorously justified since the averaging method breaks down near a fold of periodics, which is exactly where torus canards originate. In this work, we combine techniques from Floquet theory, averaging theory, and geometric singular perturbation theory to show that the average of a torus canard is a folded singularity canard. In so doing, we devise an analytic scheme for the identification and topological classification of torus canards in fast/slow systems with two fast variables and k slow variables, for any positive integer k. We demonstrate the predictive power of our results in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics, where we explain the mechanisms underlying a novel class of elliptic bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting, by constructing the torus canard analogues of mixed-mode oscillations. We also make explicit the connection between our results here with prior studies of torus canards and torus canard explosion in R3, and discuss how our methods can be extended to fast/slow systems of arbitrary (finite) dimension.

  19. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  20. Modeling of viscoelastic properties of nonpermeable porous rocks saturated with highly viscous fluid at seismic frequencies at the core scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zizhen; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Wang, Ruihe

    2017-08-01

    A core scale modeling method for viscoelastic properties of rocks saturated with viscous fluid at low frequencies is developed based on the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli dispersion of viscous fluid is described by the Maxwell's spring-dash pot model. Based on this modeling method, we numerically test the effects of frequency, fluid viscosity, porosity, pore size, and pore aspect ratio on the storage moduli and the stress-strain phase lag of saturated rocks. And we also compared the modeling results to the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The dynamic moduli calculated from the modeling are lower than the predictions of CPA, and both of these fall between the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The modeling results indicate that the frequency and the fluid viscosity have similar effects on the dynamic moduli dispersion of fully saturated rocks. We observed the Debye peak in the phase lag variation with the change of frequency and viscosity. The pore structure parameters, such as porosity, pore size, and aspect ratio affect the rock frame stiffness and result in different viscoelastic behaviors of the saturated rocks. The stress-strain phase lags are larger with smaller stiffness contrasts between the rock frame and the pore fluid. The viscoelastic properties of saturated rocks are more sensitive to aspect ratio compared to other pore structure parameters. The results suggest that significant seismic dispersion (at about 50-200 Hz) might be expected for both compressional and shear waves passing through rocks saturated with highly viscous fluids.Plain Language SummaryWe develop a <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">scale</span> modeling method to simulate the viscoelastic properties of rocks saturated with viscous fluid at low frequencies based on the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli dispersion of viscous fluid is described by the Maxwell's spring-dash pot model. By using this modeling method, we numerically test</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED448742.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED448742.pdf"><span>A <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Metadata Query Tool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Verhoeven, B.; Duval, E.; Olivie, H.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses a <span class="hlt">generic</span> query tool that enables an end user to query a metadata store through filters that impose search criteria on attributes. The Metadata Query Tool (MQT) is <span class="hlt">generic</span> in the sense that it dynamically creates its user interface, based on configuration files that define the metadata scheme and the query functionalities.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25l4210L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25l4210L"><span>Theoretical simulation of a polarization splitter based on dual-<span class="hlt">core</span> soft glass PCF with micron-<span class="hlt">scale</span> gold wire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Qiang; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Xinyu; Shi, Min</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A polarization splitter based on dual-<span class="hlt">core</span> soft glass photonic crystal fiber (PCF) filled with micron-<span class="hlt">scale</span> gold wire is proposed. The characteristics of the polarization splitter are studied by changing the structural parameters of the PCF and the diameter of the gold wire with the finite element method (FEM). The simulation results reveal that the coupling length ratio of the soft glass-based PCF is close to 2 and the corresponding curve is more flat than that of the silica-based PCF. The broadband bandwidth is 226 nm in which the extinction ratio is lower than -20 dB by the soft glass-based PCF, i.e., from 1465 nm to 1691 nm which is competitive in the reported polarization splitters, and the bandwidth is just 32 nm by the silica-based PCF. The insertion loss by our polarization splitter is just 0.00248 dB and 0.43 dB at the wavelength of 1.47 μm and 1.55 μm. The birefringence is obviously increased and the coupling length is decreased by filling gold wire into the soft glass-based or the silica-based PCF. Also the birefringence based on the silica-based PCF is much larger than that based on the soft glass-based PCF whether or not the gold wire is introduced. The fabrication tolerance of the polarization splitter is also considered by changing the structural parameters. The polarization splitter possesses broad bandwidth, low insertion loss, simple structure and high fabrication tolerance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178026, 61475134, and 61505175).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25815705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25815705"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> fabrication and application of magnetite coated Ag NW-<span class="hlt">core</span> water-dispersible hybrid nanomaterials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Baoyu; Zhang, Min; Li, Weizhen; Wang, Linlin; Zheng, Jing; Gan, Wenjun; Xu, Jingli</p> <p>2015-05-07</p> <p>In this work, we report a large <span class="hlt">scale</span> synthetic procedure that allows attachment of magnetite nanoparticles onto Ag NWs in situ, which was conducted in a triethylene glycol (TREG) solution with iron acetylacetonate and Ag NWs as starting materials. The as-prepared Ag NW/Fe3O4 NP composites are well characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM techniques. It was found that the mass ratio of iron acetylacetonate to Ag NWs plays a crucial role in controlling the amount of magnetite nanoparticles decorated on the Ag NWs. The resulting Ag NW/Fe3O4 NP composites exhibit superparamagnetic properties at room temperature, and can be well dispersed in aqueous and organic solutions, which is greatly beneficial for their application and functionality. Thus, the as-prepared magnetic silver nanowires show good catalytic activity, using the catalytic reduction of methylene blue (MB) as a model reaction. Furthermore, the Ag NW/Fe3O4 NP composites can be functionalized with polydopamine (Pdop), resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (PFR), and SiO2, respectively, in aqueous/ethanol solution. Meanwhile they can also be coated with polyphosphazene (PZS) in organic solution, resulting in a unique nanocable with well-defined <span class="hlt">core</span> shell structures. Besides, taking Ag NW/Fe3O4@SiO2 as an example, a hollow magnetic silica nanotube can be obtained with the use of Ag NWs as physical templates and a solution of ammonium and H2O2. These can greatly improve the application of the Ag NW/Fe3O4 NP composites. The as-synthesized above nanocomposites have high potential for applications in the fields of polymers, wastewater treatment, sensors, and biomaterials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16089705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16089705"><span>Phase-matched waveguide four-wave mixing <span class="hlt">scaled</span> to higher peak powers with large-<span class="hlt">core</span>-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konorov, S O; Serebryannikov, E E; Fedotov, A B; Miles, R B; Zheltikov, A M</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Hollow photonic-crystal fibers with large <span class="hlt">core</span> diameters are shown to allow waveguide nonlinear-optical interactions to be <span class="hlt">scaled</span> to higher pulse peak powers. Phase-matched four-wave mixing is predicted theoretically and demonstrated experimentally for millijoule nanosecond pulses propagating in a hollow photonic-crystal fiber with a <span class="hlt">core</span> diameter of about 50 microm , suggesting the way to substantially enhance the efficiency of nonlinear-optical spectral transformations and wave mixing of high-power laser pulses in the gas phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19336925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19336925"><span>Granulation of <span class="hlt">core</span> particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed III. Effect of <span class="hlt">scale</span>, agitator rotational speed and blade shape on granule properties and development of a high accuracy <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamashita, Tomohiro; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The preparation of <span class="hlt">core</span> particles suitable for subsequent film coating was examined using different <span class="hlt">scales</span> of agitation fluidized beds. Specifically, the effects of agitator rotational speed and agitator blade shape in different <span class="hlt">scales</span> of granulators on granule properties such as mass median diameter, apparent density, friability and shape factor were studied. As the agitator rotational speed was increased or when the agitator blade height and angle were large, the mass median diameter and friability of the granules decreased, while the apparent density and shape factor increased, in a manner independent of the vessel size because the granules were subjected to greater compression, shearing and rolling effects. The same <span class="hlt">core</span> particles could not be prepared using granulators with different vessel sizes by simply adopting a conventional <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up theory(1,2)) based on kinetic energy similarity. Here, a novel <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up theory that takes into account agitator blade shape factors is proposed.(3)) When the two <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up theories were compared, our new theory was capable of predicting the granule properties more accurately than the conventional theory. By adopting this novel theory, the same <span class="hlt">core</span> particles could be prepared under different operating conditions in any <span class="hlt">scale</span> of granulator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.B23B..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.B23B..03K"><span>Hg Deposition to Lakes in Northern New England Inferred at Multiple <span class="hlt">Scales</span> From 210Pb-Dated Sediment <span class="hlt">Cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamman, N. C.; Engstrom, D.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems is recognized to be a problem of global consequence, and Hg bioaccumulation poses significant risks to piscivorous animals and humans who consume gamefish. In order to quantify historical and current Hg deposition to the northern New England landscape, we dated and performed Hg analyses on sediments <span class="hlt">cores</span> from various lakes at local and regional <span class="hlt">scales</span>. In this presentation, we contrast results of three studies: a regional assessment of Hg deposition to the VT-NH landscape (10 lakes); a localized study of deposition to the Lye Brook Wilderness of southern VT (four lakes); and the first-ever dated assessment of sediment Hg deposition history for Lake Champlain (three sites + one adjacent inland lake). At the VT-NH <span class="hlt">scale</span>, total Hg (HgT) fluxes to sediments ranged from 5 to 17 μ g.m-2.yr-1 during pre-industrial times, and from 21 to 83 μ g.m-2.yr-1 presently. Present-day HgT fluxes are between 2.1 to 6.9 times greater than pre-1850 fluxes, and atmospheric Hg deposition to the VT-NH region was estimated at 21 μ g.m-2.yr-1. This agrees well with measured HgT deposition, when re-evasion of Hg is accounted for. Hg fluxes to lake sediments have declined in recent decades, owing to reductions in atmospheric Hg deposition to the lake surfaces. In the high-elevation Lye Brook Wilderness landscape, baseline, peak, and present accumulations were higher than those estimated from the VT-NH dataset, a finding that highlights the roles of elevation, watershed size, and dissolved organic carbon export in mediating Hg transport. Available data from the Lake Champlain Basin show the influence of historical and current watershed sediment delivery due to land cultivation, and more recently to land-use conversion. These studies jointly indicate that watershed export of legacy Hg continues despite declines in present-day deposition rates, contributing to the impression that Hg retention by watershed soils has declined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18215706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18215706"><span>Measuring health-related quality of life in children with ESRD: performance of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> and ESRD-specific instrument of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Stuart L; Graham, Nicole; Warady, Bradley A; Seikaly, Mouin; McDonald, Ruth; Burwinkle, Tasha M; Limbers, Christine A; Varni, James W</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Minimal data exist to describe health-related quality of life in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Cross-sectional study. 193 children aged 5 to 18 years with ESRD and 190 parents of children aged 2 to 18 years with ESRD at 4 pediatric nephrology centers across the United States. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> and disease-specific health-related quality of life. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0) <span class="hlt">Generic</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scales</span> encompass: (1) Physical Functioning (8 items), (2) Emotional Functioning (5 items), (3) Social Functioning (5 items), and (4) School Functioning (5 items). The PedsQL 3.0 ESRD Module encompasses: (1) General Fatigue (4 items), (2) About My Kidney Disease (5 items), (3) Treatment Problems (4 items), (4) Family and Peer Interaction (3 items), (5) Worry (10 items), (6) Perceived Physical Appearance (3 items), and (7) Communication (5 items). Internal consistency reliability for the PedsQL 4.0 <span class="hlt">Generic</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scales</span> and the PedsQL 3.0 ESRD Module was acceptable for both parent-proxy report and child self-report, with the exception of 1 parent-proxy report and 3 child self-report <span class="hlt">scales</span> on the ESRD Module. The PedsQL <span class="hlt">Generic</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scales</span> differentiated between healthy children and children with ESRD, supporting discriminant validity. Intercorrelations between the PedsQL <span class="hlt">Generic</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scales</span> and the ESRD Module were in the medium to large range, supporting construct validity. A confirmatory factor analysis further supported construct validity of the ESRD Module. Test-retest reliability was not conducted, limited generalizability may exist given the age distribution of the children included, and imperfect agreement between child and parent-proxy reports. Results support the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL 4.0 <span class="hlt">Generic</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scales</span> in children with ESRD and provide initial support for the PedsQL 3.0 ESRD Module, although additional validation testing is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PEPI..245..103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PEPI..245..103A"><span>Global <span class="hlt">scale</span> observations of scattered energy near the inner-<span class="hlt">core</span> boundary: Seismic constraints on the base of the outer-<span class="hlt">core</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adam, J. M.-C.; Romanowicz, B.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPdf, PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPab phase arrivals in the distance range [149-178°]. Within this collection, we have identified an energy packet that arrives 5-20 s after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a phase that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of these scattered phases and show that they originate along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameters. We therefore refer to this scattered energy the "M" phase. Using the cross-correlation technique to detect and measure the scattered energy arrival times, we compiled a dataset of 1116 records of this M phase. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, nor with the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for this M phase, we show that its origin is most likely in the vicinity of the inner-<span class="hlt">core</span> boundary. A tentative model is found that predicts an M-like phase, and produces good fits to its travel times as well as those of the main <span class="hlt">core</span> phases. In this model, the P velocity profile with depth exhibits an increased gradient from about 400 km to 50 km above the ICB (i.e. slightly faster velocities than in AK135 or PREM), and a ∼ 50 km thick lower velocity layer right above the ICB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.226...53G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.226...53G"><span>Modulation of mantle plumes and heat flow at the <span class="hlt">core</span> mantle boundary by plate-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flow: results from laboratory experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonnermann, Helge M.; Jellinek, A. Mark; Richards, Mark A.; Manga, Michael</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>We report results from analog laboratory experiments, in which a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flow is imposed upon natural convection from a hot boundary layer at the base of a large tank of corn syrup. The experiments show that the subdivision of the convective flow into four regions provides a reasonable conceptual framework for interpreting the effects of large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flow on plumes. Region I includes the area of the hot thermal boundary layer (TBL) that is thinned by the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flow, thereby suppressing plumes. Region II encompasses the critically unstable boundary layer where plumes form. Region III is the area above the boundary layer that is devoid of plumes. Region IV comprises the area of hot upwelling and plume conduits. Quantitative analysis of our experiments results in a <span class="hlt">scaling</span> law for heat flux from the hot boundary and for the spatial extent of plume suppression. When applied to the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle boundary (CMB), our results suggest that large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> mantle flow, due to sinking lithospheric plates, can locally thin the TBL and suppress plume formation over large fractions of the CMB. Approximately 30% of heat flow from the <span class="hlt">core</span> may be due to increased heat flux from plate-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flow. Furthermore, CMB heat flux is non-uniformly distributed along the CMB, with large areas where heat flux is increased on average by a factor of 2. As a consequence, the convective flow pattern in the outer <span class="hlt">core</span> may be affected by CMB heat-flux heterogeneity and sensitive to changes in plate-<span class="hlt">scale</span> mantle flow. Because of plume suppression and 'focusing' of hot mantle from the CMB into zones of upwelling flow, plume conduits (hotspots) are expected to be spatially associated with lower-mantle regions of low seismic velocities, inferred as hot upwelling mantle flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPES....2..492O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPES....2..492O"><span><span class="hlt">Scale</span> Model Test and Transient Analysis of Steam Injector Driven Passive <span class="hlt">Core</span> Injection System for Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu</p> <p></p> <p>A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "high-efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and emergency <span class="hlt">core</span> cooling system of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the <span class="hlt">core</span> covered with water (a severe accident-free concept). This paper describes the results of the <span class="hlt">scale</span> model test, and the transient analysis of SI-driven passive <span class="hlt">core</span> injection system (PCIS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23213854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23213854"><span>Encouraging <span class="hlt">generic</span> use can yield significant savings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zimmerman, Christina</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs is the greatest influencer of <span class="hlt">generic</span> statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using <span class="hlt">generic</span> statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (4) Greater use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331"><span>New <span class="hlt">generic</span> indexing technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeston, Michael</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new <span class="hlt">generic</span> indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...6.1295C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...6.1295C"><span>Low-cost and gram-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell quantum dots in an electric pressure cooker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yanyan; Li, Shenjie; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report an electric pressure cooker for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ~3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch.We report an electric pressure cooker for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ~3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PL decay curves, PL lifetimes, EDS spectra, chemical composition, cost analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05014a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24337019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24337019"><span>Low-cost and gram-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell quantum dots in an electric pressure cooker.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yanyan; Li, Shenjie; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report an electric pressure cooker for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ∼3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13..473K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13..473K"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> drivers of Caucasus climate variability in meteorological records and Mt El'brus ice <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozachek, Anna; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Ekaykin, Alexey; Ginot, Patrick; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Legrand, Michel; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Preunkert, Susanne</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>A 181.8 m ice <span class="hlt">core</span> was recovered from a borehole drilled into bedrock on the western plateau of Mt El'brus (43°20'53.9'' N, 42°25'36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.) in the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009 (Mikhalenko et al., 2015). Here, we report on the results of the water stable isotope composition from this ice <span class="hlt">core</span> with additional data from the shallow <span class="hlt">cores</span>. The distinct seasonal cycle of the isotopic composition allows dating by annual layer counting. Dating has been performed for the upper 126 m of the deep <span class="hlt">core</span> combined with 20 m from the shallow <span class="hlt">cores</span>. The whole record covers 100 years, from 2013 back to 1914. Due to the high accumulation rate (1380 mm w.e. year-1) and limited melting, we obtained isotopic composition and accumulation rate records with seasonal resolution. These values were compared with available meteorological data from 13 weather stations in the region and also with atmosphere circulation indices, back-trajectory calculations, and Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) data in order to decipher the drivers of accumulation and ice <span class="hlt">core</span> isotopic composition in the Caucasus region. In the warm season (May-October) the isotopic composition depends on local temperatures, but the correlation is not persistent over time, while in the cold season (November-April), atmospheric circulation is the predominant driver of the ice <span class="hlt">core</span>'s isotopic composition. The snow accumulation rate correlates well with the precipitation rate in the region all year round, which made it possible to reconstruct and expand the precipitation record at the Caucasus highlands from 1914 until 1966, when reliable meteorological observations of precipitation at high elevation began.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3150029','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3150029"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Substitution Issues: Brand-<span class="hlt">generic</span> Substitution, <span class="hlt">Generic-generic</span> Substitution, and <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023821','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023821"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Software for Spacecraft Avionics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Joseph</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A proposed approach to the development of software for spacecraft avionics is based partly on a concept of <span class="hlt">generic</span> software that could be tailored to satisfy requirements for specific missions. The proposed approach would stand in contrast to the conventional approach of first defining avionics requirements for a specific mission, then developing software specific to those requirements. The proposed approach might also be adaptable to programming computers that control and monitor other complex equipment systems that range in <span class="hlt">scale</span> from automobiles to factories. The concept of a spacecraft avionics functional model (SAFM) is a major element of the proposed approach. An SAFM would be, essentially, a systematic and hierarchical description of the functionality required of the avionics software (and hardware) for a given mission. Although the initial input information used to start the construction of an SAFM would typically amount to a high-level description, the SAFM would thereafter be decomposed to a low level. The resulting low-level version of the model would be used to develop a set of <span class="hlt">generic</span> requirements that could be expected to include a large fraction of all requirements for a large fraction of all missions. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> requirements would be used to develop software modules that could be included in, or excluded from, the final flight software to satisfy the requirements of a specific mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910008259','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910008259"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> interpreters and microprocessor verification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Windley, Phillip J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) <span class="hlt">generic</span> interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987isa..conf..293C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987isa..conf..293C"><span>The <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Data Capture Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of <span class="hlt">generic</span> facilities is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880046425&hterms=data+protection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddata%2Bprotection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880046425&hterms=data+protection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddata%2Bprotection"><span>The <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Data Capture Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of <span class="hlt">generic</span> facilities is considered.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190516','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190516"><span>Hanford <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Interim Safety Basis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lavender, J.C.</p> <p>1994-09-09</p> <p>The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are <span class="hlt">generic</span> to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford <span class="hlt">Generic</span> ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...559A..79R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...559A..79R"><span>APEX/SABOCA observations of small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> structure of infrared-dark clouds . I. Early evolutionary stages of star-forming <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ragan, Sarah E.; Henning, Thomas; Beuther, Henrik</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) harbor the early phases of cluster and high-mass star formation and are comprised of cold (~20 K), dense (n > 104 cm-3) gas. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of IRDCs is dominated by the far-infrared and millimeter wavelength regime, and our initial Herschel study examined IRDCs at the peak of the SED with high angular resolution. Here we present a follow-up study using the SABOCA instrument on APEX which delivers 7.8″ angular resolution at 350 μm, matching the resolution we achieved with Herschel/PACS, and allowing us to characterize substructure on ~0.1 pc <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Our sample of 11 nearby IRDCs are a mix of filamentary and clumpy morphologies, and the filamentary clouds show significant hierarchical structure, while the clumpy IRDCs exhibit little hierarchical structure. All IRDCs, regardless of morphology, have about 14% of their total mass in small <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>-like structures which roughly follow a trend of constant volume density over all size <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Out of the 89 protostellar <span class="hlt">cores</span> we identified in this sample with Herschel, we recover 40 of the brightest and re-fit their SEDs and find their properties agree fairly well with our previous estimates (⟨ T ⟩ ~ 19 K). We detect a new population of "cold <span class="hlt">cores</span>" which have no 70 μm counterpart, but are 100 and 160 μm-bright, with colder temperatures (⟨ T ⟩ ~ 16 K). This latter population, along with SABOCA-only detections, are predominantly low-mass objects, but their evolutionary diagnostics are consistent with the earliest starless or prestellar phase of <span class="hlt">cores</span> in IRDCs. Based on observations carried out with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=all&pg=4&id=EJ1084355','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=all&pg=4&id=EJ1084355"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Example Proving Criteria for All</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We review literature that discusses <span class="hlt">generic</span> example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about <span class="hlt">generic</span> example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as <span class="hlt">generic</span> examples when teaching and advice for developing <span class="hlt">generic</span> example arguments. We provide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=all&pg=4&id=EJ1084355','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=all&pg=4&id=EJ1084355"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Example Proving Criteria for All</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We review literature that discusses <span class="hlt">generic</span> example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about <span class="hlt">generic</span> example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as <span class="hlt">generic</span> examples when teaching and advice for developing <span class="hlt">generic</span> example arguments. We provide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22372719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22372719"><span>Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane as a tool to evaluate sequestration of PAHs in lake sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> at large temporal <span class="hlt">scale</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun; Deng, Jiancai; Gui, Zhifan</p> <p>2012-04-03</p> <p>Although numerous studies have addressed sequestration of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in laboratory, little attention has been paid to its evaluation method in field at large temporal <span class="hlt">scale</span>. A biomimetic tool, triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM), was therefore tested to evaluate sequestration of six PAHs with various hydrophobicity in a well-dated sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> sampled from Nanyi Lake, China. Properties of sediment organic matter (OM) varying with aging time dominated the sequestration of PAHs in the sediment <span class="hlt">core</span>. TECAM-sediment accumulation factors (MSAFs) of the PAHs declined with aging time, and significantly correlated with the corresponding biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa) simultaneously incubated in the same sediment slices. Sequestration rates of the PAHs in the sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> evaluated by TECAM were much lower than those obtained from laboratory study. The relationship between relative availability for TECAM (MSAF(t)/MSAF(0)) and aging time followed the first order exponential decay model. MSAF(t)/MSAF(0) was well-related to the minor changes of the properties of OM varying with aging time. Compared with chemical extraction, sequestration reflected by TECAM was much closer to that by B. aeruginosa. In contrast to B. aeruginosa, TECAM could avoid metabolism and the influences from feeding and other behaviors of organisms, and it is much easier to deploy and ready in laboratory. Hence TECAM provides an effective and convenient way to study sequestration of PAHs and probably other HOCs in field at large temporal <span class="hlt">scale</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336092','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336092"><span>Dynamic Voltage-Frequency and Workload Joint <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> Power Management for Energy Harvesting Multi-<span class="hlt">Core</span> WSN Node SoC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Xiangyu; Xie, Nijie; Tian, Xinyue</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a scheduling and power management solution for energy harvesting heterogeneous multi-<span class="hlt">core</span> WSN node SoC such that the system continues to operate perennially and uses the harvested energy efficiently. The solution consists of a heterogeneous multi-<span class="hlt">core</span> system oriented task scheduling algorithm and a low-complexity dynamic workload <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and configuration optimization algorithm suitable for light-weight platforms. Moreover, considering the power consumption of most WSN applications have the characteristic of data dependent behavior, we introduce branches handling mechanism into the solution as well. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can operate in real-time on a lightweight embedded processor (MSP430), and that it can make a system do more valuable works and make more than 99.9% use of the power budget. PMID:28208730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208730"><span>Dynamic Voltage-Frequency and Workload Joint <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> Power Management for Energy Harvesting Multi-<span class="hlt">Core</span> WSN Node SoC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiangyu; Xie, Nijie; Tian, Xinyue</p> <p>2017-02-08</p> <p>This paper proposes a scheduling and power management solution for energy harvesting heterogeneous multi-<span class="hlt">core</span> WSN node SoC such that the system continues to operate perennially and uses the harvested energy efficiently. The solution consists of a heterogeneous multi-<span class="hlt">core</span> system oriented task scheduling algorithm and a low-complexity dynamic workload <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and configuration optimization algorithm suitable for light-weight platforms. Moreover, considering the power consumption of most WSN applications have the characteristic of data dependent behavior, we introduce branches handling mechanism into the solution as well. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can operate in real-time on a lightweight embedded processor (MSP430), and that it can make a system do more valuable works and make more than 99.9% use of the power budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.430a2038Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.430a2038Z"><span>In-situ observation of Cu-Pt <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanoparticles in the atomic <span class="hlt">scale</span> by XAFS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xusheng; Liu, Shoujie; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Jie; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhiyun; Marcelli, Augosto; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Bimetallic nanoparticles play an important role in potential industrial applications, such as catalysis, optoelectronics, information storage and biological labeling. Herein, homogeneous Cu-Pt <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanoparticles with the averaged size of 8 nm have been synthesized by chemical methods. Cu atoms diffusion process, which motivated by heating, was observed in-situ by using temperature-dependent x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Results show that Cu diffuse gradually from Cu <span class="hlt">core</span> to Pt shell in these nanoparticles with increasing temperature. We also found the surface ligand (O) bonded Pt at the room temperature and were removed gradually by heating the sample. The analysis of the diffusion process in bimetallic nanoparticles will provide important guideline for their designing and tuning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI13A2359N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI13A2359N"><span>Constraints on the Small <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Heterogeneity in D" from Precursors to Short Distance PcP Wave and Implication for Roughness of <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Mantle Boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ni, S.; Zhang, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Volumetric heterogeneity in D" layer and topography variation of the <span class="hlt">Core</span> Mantle Boundary (CMB) are well established on large <span class="hlt">scales</span> (thousand kms) to intermediate <span class="hlt">scales</span> with seismological approaches. However, there are controversies regarding the level of heterogeneity in D" layer at small <span class="hlt">scales</span> ( a few km - 10 km), with lower bound estimate of 0.1% to a few percent. And there are very limited reports of small <span class="hlt">scale</span> topography of CMB. We take advantage of the small amplitude PcP waves at near podal distances (0-10 degree), and use the ratio of short period (1 Hz) PcP and its precursors to constrain level of small <span class="hlt">scale</span> heterogeneity in the D" layer. We computed short period synthetic seismograms with 2D finite code for a series of volumetric heterogeneity models in the crust and in D", and find that PcP is not observable if the heterogeneity in D" is above 2%. We will present evidences of clearly observed PcP at short distances and argue for weak small <span class="hlt">scale</span> heterogeneity in D". Assuming topography of CMB is related to isostasy, the volumetric heterogeneity in D" can be used to estimate CMB roughness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMMR34A..04N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMMR34A..04N"><span>Insights from numerical modeling on the global-<span class="hlt">scale</span> mantle water cycle: evolution of the surface water ocean as a constraint on the plate-mantle-<span class="hlt">core</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakagawa, T.; Spiegelman, M. W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In our previous model on global-<span class="hlt">scale</span> water cycle in the mantle, we considered a boundary condition that provided an `infinite water reservoir' at the surface [Nakagawa and Spiegelman, revised]. However, the volume of the surface water reservoir is clearly finite with 1OM over the age of the Earth [Hamano et al., 2013]. Here we describe a new model where the amount of surface water reservoir is controlled by the degassing-regassing balance. In addition, for addressing the entire evolution of plate-mantle-<span class="hlt">core</span> system in the numerical model, we also include the <span class="hlt">core</span> cooling effects described as global heat balance with the inner <span class="hlt">core</span> growth effects and <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle chemical reaction to transport oxygen and/or volatile from the deep mantle in the model. Since petrological studies suggest that mantle minerals are not necessarily saturated with water at the surface [Asimow and Langmuir, 2003], we introduce the efficiency of regassing for computing both regassing flux and the boundary conditions on mantle water content varying from 10-5(strongly under-saturated) to 1 (completely saturated) as suggested from a parameterized model of mantle water cycle evolution [Sandu et al., 2011]. Checking the model sensitivities to the initial amount of surface water ocean (2 to 5 ocean masses) and the efficiency of regassing, the best-fit scenario for explaining the current amount of surface water reservoir requires a small efficiency of regassing with any choice of initial amount of surface water ocean. If the efficiency of regassing is large, the active plate-like motion easily transports all of surface water ocean into the mantle in about time-<span class="hlt">scale</span> of O(100) Myrs. This suggests that the water content of oceanic lithosphere might be less than the petrological constraints ( 200 ppm [Asimow and Langmiur, 2003]). Since the rheological dependence of water on hydrous minerals enhances the heat transfer of mantle convection, the thermo-chemical evolution of the plate-mantle-<span class="hlt">core</span> system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306302"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> medications for hepatitis C.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jensen, Donald M; Sebhatu, Phoebe; Reau, Nancy S</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The recent development and approval of expensive but highly effective oral agents against hepatitis C has led to restrictions and access limitations in many countries with limited healthcare budgets. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> formulations of many of these agents are available at a fraction of the retail price in several countries because of <span class="hlt">generic</span> licensure agreements. The discounted alternatives are only accessible in developing countries and require manufacturing and distribution regulations to ensure the quality and bioequivalence of the new drug formulations. The continued medication access limitations have driven great interest in the practice of personal drug importation of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulations. This review and debate will address the medical and legal issues involved in the purchase and importation of these medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMOS43A2012S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMOS43A2012S"><span>Decadal-<span class="hlt">scale</span> variability of the <span class="hlt">core</span> layer temperature of North Pacific Transition Region Mode Water: Influence of the quasi-stationary jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugimoto, S.; Ueno, H.; Hoshi, N.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Repeated hydrographic surveys at 155°E conducted by the T/S Oshoro-maru of Hokkaido University of Japan in spring (May/June) of 1989-2010 reveal a dominant decadal-<span class="hlt">scale</span> ( 10 years) variation of <span class="hlt">core</span>-layer temperature and salinity of the North Pacific Transition Region Mode Water (TRMW), a water mass with <span class="hlt">core</span> characterized by potential temperature of 4-8°C, salinity of 33.5-34.0, and potential density of 26.4-26.7 kg m-3. An ocean heat content budget analysis based on historical temperature profiles and atmospheric reanalysis data shows that the observed decadal-<span class="hlt">scale</span> variation of the <span class="hlt">core</span>-layer temperature is not explained by variations in air-sea heat exchange and Ekman heat advection. The satellite-derived dataset and historical temperature-salinity profiles reveal that changes in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) path state, that is, stable state with the two quasi-stationary meanders and unstable state characterized by a convoluted path, are responsible for the formation of temperature-salinity anomalies in the TRMW formation region (40-44°N, 153-162°E). Meso-<span class="hlt">scale</span> eddies that detach northward from the KE in the unstable path state form warmer-saltier conditions in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Confluence region. The warm-salty water is transported northward into the transition region by the quasi-stationary jet flowing from the subtropics to the subarctic, which induces an increase in temperature and salinity in the TRMW formation region, and this results in a peak in temperature and salinity a few years after the arrival of the warm-salty water in the formation region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23706.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23706.pdf"><span>76 FR 57767 - Proposed <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Communication; Draft NRC <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-16</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Communication; Draft NRC <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... NRC <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. This action is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008882','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008882"><span>Software synthesis using <span class="hlt">generic</span> architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhansali, Sanjay</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a <span class="hlt">generic</span> architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI42A..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI42A..04A"><span>Global <span class="hlt">scale</span> observation of scattered energy near the ICB: seismic constraints on the base of the outer-<span class="hlt">core</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adam, J.; Romanowicz, B. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPdf phase arrivals in the distance range 149-178 degrees. Within this collection, we have identified in more than a thousand records an energy packet that arrives 5-20 seconds after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a coda that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. The origin of this scattered energy is unclear and may provide valuable information about structure in the <span class="hlt">core</span>. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of theses scatterers and try and locate them.Our results show that the scattered energy originates along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameter. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, in particular the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for these scatterers, we show that their origin is most likely in the vicinity of the inner-<span class="hlt">core</span> boundary. We refer to this scattered energy the "M" phase.To assess our interpretation, we model synthetic seismograms and explore models of structures at the base of the outer-<span class="hlt">core</span> and search for models that predict the relative travel times and amplitudes of the M to PKPdf without destroying the fit to PKPbc. We show that a ~300km thick layer with a larger gradient than in AK135 over a ~50km lower velocity layer above the ICB provides a good fit to the differential travel times. We also consider the possibility that lateral variations in the thickness or velocity of this layer and ICB topography could produce a M phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1371729-modulation-core-turbulent-density-fluctuations-large-scale-neoclassical-tearing-mode-islands-diii-tokamak','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1371729-modulation-core-turbulent-density-fluctuations-large-scale-neoclassical-tearing-mode-islands-diii-tokamak"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">Core</span> Turbulent Density Fluctuations by Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Neoclassical Tearing Mode Islands in the DIII-D Tokamak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; ...</p> <p>2016-05-26</p> <p>We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density uctuations en (via Beam Emission Spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the <span class="hlt">core</span> of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n was found to be modulated by 14% across the island. Gyrokinetic simulations suggest that en could be dominantly driven by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27284662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27284662"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">Core</span> Turbulent Density Fluctuations by Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Neoclassical Tearing Mode Islands in the DIII-D Tokamak.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bardóczi, L; Rhodes, T L; Carter, T A; Bañón Navarro, A; Peebles, W A; Jenko, F; McKee, G</p> <p>2016-05-27</p> <p>We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density fluctuations n[over ˜] (via beam emission spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the <span class="hlt">core</span> of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n[over ˜] was found to be modulated by 14% across the island. Gyrokinetic simulations suggest that n[over ˜] could be dominantly driven by the ion temperature gradient instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Copper&pg=5&id=EJ771799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Copper&pg=5&id=EJ771799"><span>Copper<span class="hlt">Core</span> Service Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In an e-learning environment there is a need to integrate various e-learning services like assessment services, collaboration services, learning design services and communication services. In this article we present the design and implementation of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> integrative service framework, called Copper<span class="hlt">Core</span> Service Integration (CCSI). We will…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=copper&pg=5&id=EJ771799','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=copper&pg=5&id=EJ771799"><span>Copper<span class="hlt">Core</span> Service Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In an e-learning environment there is a need to integrate various e-learning services like assessment services, collaboration services, learning design services and communication services. In this article we present the design and implementation of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> integrative service framework, called Copper<span class="hlt">Core</span> Service Integration (CCSI). We will…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003226.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003226.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Skin flaking; Scaly skin; Papulosquamous disorders ... <span class="hlt">Scales</span> may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that can cause <span class="hlt">scales</span> include: Eczema Fungal infections such as ringworm , tinea versicolor ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhB.122...29S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhB.122...29S"><span>Development of TDLAS sensor for diagnostics of CO, H2O and soot concentrations in reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> of pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> gasifier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sepman, A.; Ögren, Y.; Gullberg, M.; Wiinikka, H.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the development of the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy sensor near 4350 cm-1 (2298 nm) for measurements of CO and H2O mole fractions and soot volume fraction under gasification conditions. Due to careful selection of the molecular transitions [CO ( υ″ = 0 → υ' = 2) R34-R36 and H2O at 4349.337 cm-1], a very weak (negligible) sensitivity of the measured species mole fractions to the temperature distribution inside the high-temperature zone (1000 K < T < 1900 K) of the gasification process is achieved. The selected transitions are covered by the tuning range of single diode laser. The CO and H2O concentrations measured in flat flames generally agree better than 10 % with the results of 1-D flame simulations. Calibration-free absorption measurements of studied species in the reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> of atmospheric pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> entrained-flow gasifier operated at 0.1 MW power are reported. Soot concentration is determined from the measured broadband transmittance. The estimated uncertainties in the reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> CO and H2O measurements are 15 and 20 %, respectively. The reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> average path CO mole fractions are in quantitative agreement with the µGC CO concentrations sampled at the gasifier output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6710455','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6710455"><span>TRAC code assessment using data from SCTF <span class="hlt">Core</span>-III, a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> 2D/3D facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyack, B.E.; Shire, P.R.; Harmony, S.C.; Rhee, G.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Nine tests from the SCTF <span class="hlt">Core</span>-III configuration have been analyzed using TRAC-PF1/MOD1. The objectives of these assessment activities were to obtain a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during the refill and reflood phases of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, to determine the accuracy to which key parameters are calculated, and to identify deficiencies in key code correlations and models that provide closure for the differential equations defining thermal-hydraulic phenomena in pressurized water reactors. Overall, the agreement between calculated and measured values of peak cladding temperature is reasonable. In addition, TRAC adequately predicts many of the trends observed in both the integral effect and separate effect tests conducted in SCTF <span class="hlt">Core</span>-III. The importance of assessment activities that consider potential contributors to discrepancies between the measured and calculated results arising from three sources are described as those related to (1) knowledge about the facility configuration and operation, (2) facility modeling for code input, and (3) deficiencies in code correlations and models. An example is provided. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198440-acoustic-source-localization-via-time-difference-arrival-estimation-distributed-sensor-networks-using-tera-scale-optical-core-devices','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198440-acoustic-source-localization-via-time-difference-arrival-estimation-distributed-sensor-networks-using-tera-scale-optical-core-devices"><span>Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks Using Tera-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Optical <span class="hlt">Core</span> Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot bemore » readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-<span class="hlt">core</span> devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-<span class="hlt">core</span> digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.732E..65C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.732E..65C"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Software Architecture for Launchers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The definition and reuse of <span class="hlt">generic</span> software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a <span class="hlt">generic</span> platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a <span class="hlt">generic</span> time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of <span class="hlt">generic</span> software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6412V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6412V"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> petrophysical and geomechanical characterization of full <span class="hlt">core</span> from the Groningen Field to understand mechanical stratigraphy and compaction behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Eijs, Rob; Hol, Sander; Marcelis, Fons; Ishmukhametova, Gulfiia; van der Linden, Arjan; Zuiderwijk, Pedro; Makurat, Axel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Groningen gas field in The Netherlands is one of the largest onshore gas reserves known. Advancing production from the field has resulted in field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> deformation with surface subsidence and accompanied local seismicity. Part of the deformation is associated with compaction of the Permian reservoir. While depletion-induced reservoir compaction is expected to be controlled locally by grain-<span class="hlt">scale</span> physical mechanisms such as sub-critical cracking or particle re-arrangement and intergranular pressure solution creep, understanding of the intra-reservoir variability of these mechanisms is still limited, though crucial for predicting the coupling between production, rock deformation, and surface effects. To aid an improved understanding of fundamental processes and <span class="hlt">scaling</span> effects, approximately 200 meters of <span class="hlt">core</span> over the reservoir section was taken from a well in the Groningen Field, drilled in July 2015 close to the village of Zeerijp. Using this material, we have performed detailed laboratory investigations and will continue to do so in significant numbers, to compare the results obtained with well- and field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> observations. In this contribution, we present several exemplary mechanical data sets for the reservoir and caprock, and compare these data with well-<span class="hlt">scale</span> petrophysical and mechanical information, notably sonic, scratch and visual geological details with the aim to arrive at a multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> description of petrophysical and geomechanical rock properties. Our first comparison reveals a strong contrast in compressibility and strength between the reservoir and caprock, as well as a contribution of inelastic strain to the total strain response of the tested rock samples. We will discuss the observed mechanical stratigraphy in considering regional and field <span class="hlt">scale</span> deformation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCHyd.192...60Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCHyd.192...60Q"><span>Characterization of reactive flow-induced evolution of carbonate rocks using digital <span class="hlt">core</span> analysis- part 1: Assessment of pore-<span class="hlt">scale</span> mineral dissolution and deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qajar, Jafar; Arns, Christoph H.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for quantitatively characterizing reactive-flow induced pore structure evolution including local particle detachment, displacement and deposition in carbonate rocks is investigated. In the studies conducted in this field of research, the experimental procedure has involved alternating steps of imaging and ex-situ <span class="hlt">core</span> sample alteration. Practically, it is impossible to return the sample, with micron precision, to the same position and orientation. Furthermore, successive images of a sample in pre- and post-alteration states are usually taken at different conditions such as different <span class="hlt">scales</span>, resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. These conditions accompanying with subresolution features in the images make voxel-by-voxel comparisons of successive images problematic. In this paper, we first address the respective challenges in voxel-wise interpretation of successive images of carbonate rocks subject to reactive flow. Reactive coreflood in two carbonate <span class="hlt">cores</span> with different rock types are considered. For the first rock, we used the experimental and imaging results published by Qajar et al. (2013) which showed a quasi-uniform dissolution regime. A similar reactive <span class="hlt">core</span> flood was conducted in the second rock which resulted in wormhole-like dissolution regime. We particularly examine the major image processing operations such as transformation of images to the same grey-<span class="hlt">scale</span>, noise filtering and segmentation thresholding and propose quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these operations in voxel-wise analysis of successive images of a sample. In the second part, we generalize the methodology based on the three-phase segmentation of normalized images, microporosity assignment and 2D histogram of image intensities to estimate grey-<span class="hlt">scale</span> changes of individual image voxels for a general case where the greyscale images are segmented into arbitrary number of phases. The results show that local (voxel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27389612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27389612"><span>Characterization of reactive flow-induced evolution of carbonate rocks using digital <span class="hlt">core</span> analysis- part 1: Assessment of pore-<span class="hlt">scale</span> mineral dissolution and deposition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qajar, Jafar; Arns, Christoph H</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for quantitatively characterizing reactive-flow induced pore structure evolution including local particle detachment, displacement and deposition in carbonate rocks is investigated. In the studies conducted in this field of research, the experimental procedure has involved alternating steps of imaging and ex-situ <span class="hlt">core</span> sample alteration. Practically, it is impossible to return the sample, with micron precision, to the same position and orientation. Furthermore, successive images of a sample in pre- and post-alteration states are usually taken at different conditions such as different <span class="hlt">scales</span>, resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. These conditions accompanying with subresolution features in the images make voxel-by-voxel comparisons of successive images problematic. In this paper, we first address the respective challenges in voxel-wise interpretation of successive images of carbonate rocks subject to reactive flow. Reactive coreflood in two carbonate <span class="hlt">cores</span> with different rock types are considered. For the first rock, we used the experimental and imaging results published by Qajar et al. (2013) which showed a quasi-uniform dissolution regime. A similar reactive <span class="hlt">core</span> flood was conducted in the second rock which resulted in wormhole-like dissolution regime. We particularly examine the major image processing operations such as transformation of images to the same grey-<span class="hlt">scale</span>, noise filtering and segmentation thresholding and propose quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these operations in voxel-wise analysis of successive images of a sample. In the second part, we generalize the methodology based on the three-phase segmentation of normalized images, microporosity assignment and 2D histogram of image intensities to estimate grey-<span class="hlt">scale</span> changes of individual image voxels for a general case where the greyscale images are segmented into arbitrary number of phases. The results show that local (voxel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1065038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1065038"><span>Breakdown of Volume <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> in Auger Recombination in CdSe/CdS Heteronanocrystals: The Role of the <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Shell Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garcia-Santamaria, Florencio; Brovelli, Sergio; Viswanatha, Ranjani; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han; Crooker, Scott A.; Klimov, Victor I.</p> <p>2011-01-05</p> <p>Spatial confinement of electronic excitations in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) results in a significant enhancement of nonradiative Auger recombination (AR), such that AR processes can easily dominate the decay of multiexcitons. AR is especially detrimental to lasing applications of NCs, as optical gain in these structures explicitly relies on emission from multiexciton states. In standard NCs, AR rates <span class="hlt">scale</span> linearly with inverse NC volume. Here, we investigate multiexciton dynamics in hetero-NCs composed of CdSe <span class="hlt">cores</span> and CdS shells of tunable thickness. We observe a dramatic decrease in the AR rates at the initial stage of shell growth, which cannot be explained by traditional volume <span class="hlt">scaling</span> alone. Rather, fluorescence-line-narrowing studies indicate that the suppression of AR correlates with the formation of an alloy layer at the <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell interface suggesting that this effect derives primarily from the “smoothing” of the confinement potential associated with interfacial alloying. These data highlight the importance of NC interfacial structure in the AR process and provide general guidelines for the development of new nanostructures with suppressed AR for future lasing applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15504449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15504449"><span>Evaluating the performance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention <span class="hlt">core</span> Health-Related Quality of Life <span class="hlt">scale</span> with adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zullig, Keith J; Valois, Robert F; Huebner, E Scott; Drane, J Wanzer</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's <span class="hlt">core</span> Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) <span class="hlt">scale</span> using data from 5,520 public high school students. The 1997 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey was the source of data. Chi-square analysis was applied to assess <span class="hlt">scale</span> construct validity. Adjusted multiple logistic regression with selected tobacco and substance use variables was used to assess known-groups validity of the <span class="hlt">scale</span>'s Healthy Days index (items regarding poor physical and mental health days during the past 30 days). Construct validity was supported for the <span class="hlt">core</span> HRQOL <span class="hlt">scale</span> by the associations between self-perceived health and physical health, mental health, and activity limitation days. A greater number of poor physical health days, poor mental health days, or activity limitation days was associated with poorer self-perceived health (p<0.0001); however, correlation coefficients for the associations between self-perceived health and physical health days (r=0.24; p<0.001), self-perceived health and mental health days (r=0.26; p<0.0001), and self-perceived health and activity limitation days (r=0.23; p<0.0001), although significant, were low in magnitude. Logistic regression analyses conducted with the Healthy Days index revealed significant (p<0.05) HRQOL differences between users and non- users of tobacco and other substance use variables. As hypothesized, as the usage of each substance increased, reported poor HRQOL days increased, supporting the known- groups validity of the <span class="hlt">scale</span>. This study provides preliminary evidence that the HRQOL <span class="hlt">scale</span> items are valid and potentially useful for adolescent surveillance. The results, however, are mixed regarding the inclusion of self-perceived health as a measure of HRQOL for adolescents, given the low correlation coefficients for the associations between self-perceived health and the other HRQOL <span class="hlt">scale</span> items. These results suggest that adolescents may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21B4759M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21B4759M"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> volcaniclastic turbidites from subaerial caldera-forming eruptions at Dominica: insights from IODP site U1398 <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maeno, F.; Ishizuka, O.; Kataoka, K.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; Villemant, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Volcaniclastic turbidity currents can be caused by subaerial explosive eruptions. However, their flow and emplacement processes in oceanic environment are still ambiguous. <span class="hlt">Core</span> data obtained by deep-ocean drilling give constraints on the origin of such turbidity currents and resultant deposits. In this presentation, stratigraphy and grain data of volcaniclastic deposits from IODP site U1398 <span class="hlt">cores</span> are shown and the origin of the deposit is discussed. The site is located 120 km southwest of Dominica Island. The uppermost unit that we study extends 0-40 mbsf. The main part is composed of a series of thick massive volcaniclastic turbidites, and is divided into several subunits. Each subunit has a few to 10 m thick and is separated by thin layers of fine materials or hemipelagic mud. Most of the layers are massive, composed of sorted, medium to coarse sand, and poor in fines. Some are normally graded. The upper turbidite is thick and massive, and contains abundant pumice clasts. They tend to concentrate in middle or upper part of the layer. Components of matrix are represented by pumice, massive lava, crystals (pl, opx, cpx, qz, hbl, titanomagnetite), and sparse carbonates. Generally, in normally graded layers, upper finer part is rich in pumice and bioclasts, and lower part is richer in crystals. In some layers, crystal concentration in matrix vary in proportion up to 80 wt.%, and its variation is correlated with magnetic susceptibility data. Grain size and component characteristics and their variations are thought to reflect emplacement process of volcaniclastic turbidity currents. Importantly, the grain characteristics are almost identical to the previous description for subaerial deposits or piston <span class="hlt">core</span> data of the Roseau Tuff (~30 ka B.P.) that originated from the largest eruption in the Lesser Antilles in the last 200,000 years. The eruption formed caldera(s) on land in Dominica, and the most of the materials were deposited beneath the sea. Also it has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016287','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016287"><span>QUANTIFYING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD FROM LARGE-<span class="hlt">SCALE</span> CLOUD TO COLLAPSING <span class="hlt">CORE</span>: SELF-SIMILARITY, MASS-TO-FLUX RATIO, AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koch, Patrick M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Dust polarization observational results are analyzed for the high-mass star formation region W51 from the largest parent cloud ({approx}2 pc, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) to the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> envelope ({approx}0.5 pc, BIMA array) down to the collapsing <span class="hlt">core</span> e2 ({approx}60 mpc, Submillimeter Array). Magnetic field and dust emission gradient orientations reveal a correlation which becomes increasingly more tight with higher resolution. The previously developed polarization-intensity-gradient method is applied in order to quantify the magnetic field significance. This technique provides a way to estimate the local magnetic field force compared to gravity without the need of any mass or field strength measurements, solely making use of measured angles which reflect the geometrical imprint of the various forces. All three data sets clearly show regions with distinct features in the field-to-gravity force ratio. Azimuthally averaged radial profiles of this force ratio reveal a transition from a field dominance at larger distances to a gravity dominance closer to the emission peaks. Normalizing these profiles to a characteristic <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">scale</span> points toward self-similarity. Furthermore, the polarization-intensity-gradient method is linked to the mass-to-flux ratio, providing a new approach to estimate the latter one without mass and field strength inputs. A transition from a magnetically supercritical to a subcritical state as a function of distance from the emission peak is found for the e2 <span class="hlt">core</span>. Finally, based on the measured radius-dependent field-to-gravity force ratio we derive a modified star formation efficiency with a diluted gravity force. Compared to a standard (free-fall) efficiency, the observed field is capable of reducing the efficiency down to 10% or less.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf"><span>27 CFR 4.24 - <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf"><span>27 CFR 4.24 - <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf"><span>27 CFR 4.24 - <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf"><span>27 CFR 4.24 - <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec4-24.pdf"><span>27 CFR 4.24 - <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Generic</span>, semi-<span class="hlt">generic</span>, and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1107826','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1107826"><span><span class="hlt">Scaling</span> To A Million <span class="hlt">Cores</span> And Beyond: Using Light-Weight Simulation to Understand The Challenges Ahead On The Road To Exascale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Engelmann, Christian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>As supercomputers <span class="hlt">scale</span> to 1,000 PFlop/s over the next decade, investigating the performance of parallel applications at <span class="hlt">scale</span> on future architectures and the performance impact of different architecture choices for high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design is crucial. This paper summarizes recent efforts in designing and implementing a novel HPC hardware/software co-design toolkit. The presented Extreme-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Simulator (xSim) permits running an HPC application in a controlled environment with millions of concurrent execution threads while observing its performance in a simulated extreme-<span class="hlt">scale</span> HPC system using architectural models and virtual timing. This paper demonstrates the capabilities and usefulness of the xSim performance investigation toolkit, such as its scalability to 2^27 simulated Message Passing Interface (MPI) ranks on 960 real processor <span class="hlt">cores</span>, the capability to evaluate the performance of different MPI collective communication algorithms, and the ability to evaluate the performance of a basic Monte Carlo application with different architectural parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.467.4753N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.467.4753N"><span>Two-dimensional ice mapping of molecular <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noble, J. A.; Fraser, H. J.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Craigon, A. M.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We present maps of the column densities of H2O, CO2 and CO ices towards the molecular <span class="hlt">cores</span> B 35A, DC 274.2-00.4, BHR 59 and DC 300.7-01.0. These ice maps, probing spatial distances in molecular <span class="hlt">cores</span> as low as 2200 au, challenge the traditional hypothesis that the denser the region observed, the more ice is present, providing evidence that the relationships between solid molecular species are more varied than the <span class="hlt">generic</span> picture we often adopt to model gas-grain chemical processes and explain feedback between solid phase processes and gas phase abundances. We present the first combined solid-gas maps of a single molecular species, based upon observations of both CO ice and gas phase C18O towards B 35A, a star-forming dense <span class="hlt">core</span> in Orion. We conclude that molecular species in the solid phase are powerful tracers of 'small-<span class="hlt">scale</span>' chemical diversity, prior to the onset of star formation. With a component analysis approach, we can probe the solid phase chemistry of a region at a level of detail greater than that provided by statistical analyses or <span class="hlt">generic</span> conclusions drawn from single pointing line-of-sight observations alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10198.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10198.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-10198.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-10198.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10198.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10198.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10198.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10198.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818033T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818033T"><span>The <span class="hlt">generic</span> danger and the idiosyncratic support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This contribution argues two main points. First, that <span class="hlt">generic</span> landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these <span class="hlt">generic</span> landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-<span class="hlt">scale</span>, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10083E..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10083E..04S"><span>mJ range all-fiber MOPA prototype with hollow-<span class="hlt">core</span> fiber beam delivery designed for large <span class="hlt">scale</span> laser facilities seeding (Conference Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scol, Florent; Gouriou, Pierre; Perrin, Arnaud; Gleyze, Jean-François; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Laser megajoule (LMJ) is a French large <span class="hlt">scale</span> laser facility dedicated to inertial fusion research. Its front-ends are based on fiber laser technology and generate highly controlled beams in the nanojoule range. <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> the energy of those fiber seeders to the millijoule range is a way explored to upgrade LMJ's architecture. We report on a fully integrated narrow line-width all-fiber MOPA prototype at 1053 nm designed to meet stringent requirements of large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> laser facilities seeding. We achieve 750 µJ temporally-shaped pulses of few nanoseconds at 1 kHz. Thanks to its original longitudinal geometry and its wide output <span class="hlt">core</span> (26µm MFD), the Yb-doped tapered fiber used in the power amplifier stage ensures a single-mode operation and negligible spectro-temporal distortions. The transport of 30 kW peak power pulses (from tapered fiber) in a 17 m long large mode area (39µm) hollow-<span class="hlt">core</span> (HC) fiber is presented and points out frequency modulation to amplitude modulation conversion management issues. A S² measurement of this fiber allows to attribute this conversion to a slightly multimode behavior (< 13dB of extinction between the fundamental mode and higher order modes). Other HC fibers exhibiting a really single-mode behavior (<20 dB) have been tested and the comparison will be presented in the conference. Finally, fiber spatial beam shaping from coherent Gaussian beam to coherent top-hat intensity profile beam in the mJ range with a specifically designed and fabricated fiber will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7999B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7999B"><span>A 50,000-year climatic record from the new coastal TALDICE ice <span class="hlt">core</span>: consequences on millennial-<span class="hlt">scale</span> variability features through the Antarctic continent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buiron, Daphné; Stenni, Barbara; Frezzoti, Massimo; Chappellaz, Jerome; Lemieux, Benedicte; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Schilt, Adrian</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The TALDICE project retrieved a new ice <span class="hlt">core</span> from a peripheral dome of East Antarctica. Talos Dome (72° 49' S, 159° 11' E; 2315 m; mean accumulation rate 80 kg m-2 yr-1; mean annual temp. -41°C) is located in the Northern Victoria Land, close to the Ross Sea. Back-trajectory analyses suggest that the site is mostly fed by air masses arriving both from the Pacific (and Ross Sea) and Indian Ocean sectors. The drilling team reached the depth of 1619.2 m in December 2007, covering more than 300,000 years of climatic records according to a preliminary age <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Up to 50,000 years before present, the ice <span class="hlt">core</span> dating is based on the use of a glaciological model and an inverse method, constrained by numerous and reliable age markers. They are defined from the synchronization of CH4 records of Talos Dome and Greenland ice <span class="hlt">cores</span>, using in particular the rapid CH4 changes associated with the last termination and the D/O events. Measurements of the CH4 mixing ratio have been performed by LGGE and Bern laboratories using slightly different techniques, with a depth resolution ranging between 0.5 to 4 m. The comparison of water isotopic profiles from Talos Dome, EDC, EDML (Antarctica) and North-GRIP (Greenland) ice <span class="hlt">cores</span>, once put on a common time <span class="hlt">scale</span> deduced from CH4 and the optimisation from the inverse method, reveals that during the last deglaciation and the last glacial period, climatic changes at Talos Dome were essentially in phase with the Antarctic plateau, extending the bipolar seesaw sequence to this coastal site. This comparison also highlights different climatic behaviors between sites situated in the Indo/Pacific sector and in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, the latter showing more abrupt swings toward relatively warm conditions of the Antarctic Isotope Maxima. We will discuss this feature with respect to the bipolar seesaw model of Stocker (2003) and with respect to other climatic proxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-9929.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-9929.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.9929 - Polyurea (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurea (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). 721.9929 Section... Substances § 721.9929 Polyurea (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as a polyurea (PMN P-01-716) is subject...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614755M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614755M"><span>Strike-slip linked <span class="hlt">core</span> complexes: A new kinematic model of basement rock exhumation in a crustal-<span class="hlt">scale</span> fault system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, Sven Erik; Passchier, Cees; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span> complexes usually develop as extensional features during continental crustal thinning, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-<span class="hlt">scale</span> strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of <span class="hlt">core</span> complexes. We report on two such structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15 km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140 km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE-trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome <span class="hlt">core</span>, without overprinting, and changes by more than 90 degrees from a NS-trending strike-slip zone to an EW-trending 40 degree south-dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike-slip shear zone during 40 km of horizontal strike-slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed later during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit <span class="hlt">core</span> complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27634573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27634573"><span>Massively parallel algorithm and implementation of RI-MP2 energy calculation for peta-<span class="hlt">scale</span> many-<span class="hlt">core</span> supercomputers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katouda, Michio; Naruse, Akira; Hirano, Yukihiko; Nakajima, Takahito</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>A new parallel algorithm and its implementation for the RI-MP2 energy calculation utilizing peta-flop-class many-<span class="hlt">core</span> supercomputers are presented. Some improvements from the previous algorithm (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 5373) have been performed: (1) a dual-level hierarchical parallelization scheme that enables the use of more than 10,000 Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes and (2) a new data communication scheme that reduces network communication overhead. A multi-node and multi-GPU implementation of the present algorithm is presented for calculations on a central processing unit (CPU)/graphics processing unit (GPU) hybrid supercomputer. Benchmark results of the new algorithm and its implementation using the K computer (CPU clustering system) and TSUBAME 2.5 (CPU/GPU hybrid system) demonstrate high efficiency. The peak performance of 3.1 PFLOPS is attained using 80,199 nodes of the K computer. The peak performance of the multi-node and multi-GPU implementation is 514 TFLOPS using 1349 nodes and 4047 GPUs of TSUBAME 2.5. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26509211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26509211"><span>CO2 Exsolution from CO2 Saturated Water: <span class="hlt">Core-Scale</span> Experiments and Focus on Impacts of Pressure Variations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; Jiang, Peixue</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>For CO2 sequestration and utilization in the shallow reservoirs, reservoir pressure changes are due to the injection rate changing, a leakage event, and brine withdrawal for reservoir pressure balance. The amounts of exsolved CO2 which are influenced by the pressure reduction and the subsequent secondary imbibition process have a significant effect on the stability and capacity of CO2 sequestration and utilization. In this study, exsolution behavior of the CO2 has been studied experimentally using a <span class="hlt">core</span> flooding system in combination with NMR/MRI equipment. Three series of pressure variation profiles, including depletion followed by imbibitions without or with repressurization and repetitive depletion and repressurization/imbibition cycles, were designed to investigate the exsolution responses for these complex pressure variation profiles. We found that the exsolved CO2 phase preferentially occupies the larger pores and exhibits a uniform spatial distribution. The mobility of CO2 is low during the imbibition process, and the residual trapping ratio is extraordinarily high. During the cyclic pressure variation process, the first cycle has the largest contribution to the amount of exsolved CO2. The low CO2 mobility implies a certain degree of self-sealing during a possible reservoir depletion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-08/pdf/2011-28895.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-08/pdf/2011-28895.pdf"><span>76 FR 69294 - Proposed <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Communication Draft <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-08</p> <p>... COMMISSION Proposed <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Communication Draft <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997CP....216...99H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997CP....216...99H"><span>Accurate density-functional calculation of <span class="hlt">core</span>-electron binding energies with a <span class="hlt">scaled</span> polarized triple-zeta basis set. (III). Extension to open-shell molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Ching-Han; Chong, Delano P.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>Density functional theory and the unrestricted generalized transition state (uGTS) model were applied to study the <span class="hlt">core</span>-electron binding energies (CEBEs) of open-shell molecules. Basis set <span class="hlt">scaling</span> based on Clementi and Raimondi's rules for atomic screening was used along with the cc-pVTZ basis set. The <span class="hlt">scaled</span> pVTZ basis set is almost as good as the cc-pV5Z and complete basis set limit in predicting CEBEs. For small molecules (O 2, NO, NF 2 and NO 2) the average absolute deviation (aad) of our prediction (<span class="hlt">scaled</span> pVTZ) is only 0.29 eV. For the larger molecule (CF 3) 2NO the aad is 0.56 eV, compared with experimental uncertainty of 0.5 eV. Theoretical predicted multiplet splittings for the small molecules agree quite well with experiment: the average deviation is -0.33 eV. For (CF 3) 2NO the calculated multiplet splittings are much smaller than the experimental ones. We also predict the CEBEs of PO, SN and SO, which have not been observed experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U43B0848K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U43B0848K"><span>Interannual to decadal <span class="hlt">scale</span> North Pacific climate dynamics during the last millennium from Eclipse Icefield (St. Elias Mountains) ice <span class="hlt">core</span> stable isotope records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C.; Yalcin, K.; Vogan, N.; Introne, D.; Fisher, D.; Osterberg, E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A 345 meter ice <span class="hlt">core</span> recovered from the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory, Canada during 2002 has been continuously analyzed for stable hydrogen isotopes (deltaD), and is used to interpret changes in the North Pacfic hydrologic cycle and climate variability over the past 1000 years. Given the high annual snow accumulation rate at the site (1.5 meters/year), the record is high resolution (subannual) and annually dated to 1450 AD, and dated with ice flow models prior to 1450 AD. Five-year averaged isotope data over the past millennium display a classic Little Ice Age (LIA)/Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) pattern; that is, lower isotope ratios during the LIA, and higher isotope ratios during the MCA. Using the simple isotope/temperature relationship typically applied to ice <span class="hlt">core</span> data, the Eclipse record may indicate lower regional temperatures and enhanced temperature variability during the period 1250 to 1700 AD. However, isotope data from an ice <span class="hlt">core</span> recovered near the summit of Mt. Logan is clearly related to different hydrologic regimes. Regardless of the <span class="hlt">scaling</span> used on the Eclipse isotope data, a distinct drop in isotope ratio occurs just prior to 1200AD, and may correspond with changes observed in tropical coral records. We suggest that fundamental changes in teleconnection and/or ENSO/PDO dynamics between the high and low latitudes in the Pacific may be responsible for the 13th century event. Based on the 1000-year record at 5-year resolution, as well as annual isotope data for the past 550 years, the 20th century is not anomalous with respect to previous time periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27300764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27300764"><span>Broadband and Low-Loss Plasmonic Light Trapping in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Micrometer-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Rodlike and Spherical <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Shell Plasmonic Particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malekshahi Byranvand, Mahdi; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Taghavinia, Nima; Dabirian, Ali</p> <p>2016-06-29</p> <p>Dielectric scattering particles have widely been used as embedded scattering elements in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to improve the optical absorption of the device. Here we systematically study rodlike and spherical <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell silica@Ag particles as more effective alternatives to the dielectric scattering particles. The wavelength-<span class="hlt">scale</span> silica@Ag particles with sufficiently thin Ag shell support hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonance modes that have low parasitic absorption losses and a broadband optical response. Both of these features lead to their successful deployment in light trapping in high-efficiency DSCs. Optimized rodlike silica@Ag@silica particles improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSC from 6.33 to 8.91%. The dimension, surface morphology, and concentration of these particles are optimized to achieve maximal efficiency enhancement. The rodlike silica particles are prepared in a simple one-pot synthesis process and then are coated with Ag in a liquid-phase deposition process by reducing an Ag salt. The aspect ratio of silica rods is tuned by adjusting the temperature and duration of the growth process, whereas the morphology of Ag shell is tailored by controlling the reduction rate of Ag salt, where slower reduction in a polyol process gives a smoother Ag shell. Using optical calculations, the superior performance of the plasmonic <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell particles is related to the large number of hybrid photonic-plasmonic resonance modes that they support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042936','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042936"><span>Recent Advances in Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction: <span class="hlt">Scale</span>-up Synthesis Structure and Activity of Pt Shells on Pd <span class="hlt">Cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sasaki K.; Wang J.X.; Naohara H.; Marinkovic N.; More K.; Inada H.; Adzic R.R.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We have established a <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up synthesis method to produce gram-quantities of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts. The <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell structure of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst has been verified using the HAADF-STEM Z-contrast images, STEM/EELS, and STEM/EDS line profile analysis. The atomic structure of this electrocatalyst and formation of a Pt monolayer on Pd nanoparticle surfaces were examined using in situ EXAFS. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst for ORR is considerably higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts. The results with Pt monolayer electrocatalysts may significantly impact science of electrocatalysis and fuel-cell technology, as they have demonstrated an exceptionally effective way of using Pt that can resolve problems of other approaches, including electrocatalysts inadequate activity and high Pt content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...302..394L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...302..394L"><span>A single-step route for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell palladium@platinum dendritic nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide with enhanced electrocatalytic properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Qi; Xu, Yan-Ru; Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this report, a facile, seed-less and single-step method is developed for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis of <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell Pd@Pt dendritic nanocrystals anchored on reduced graphene oxide (Pd@Pt DNC/rGO) under mild conditions. Poly(ethylene oxide) is employed as a structure-directing and stabilizing agent. Compared with commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) and Pd/C (20 wt%) catalysts, the as-obtained nanocomposite has large electrochemically active surface area (114.15 m2gmetal-1), and shows superior catalytic activity and stability with the mass activities of 1210.0 and 1128.5 mAmgmetal-1 for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. The improved catalytic activity is mainly the consequence of the synergistic effects between Pd and Pt of the dendritic structures, as well as rGO as a support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477667"><span>Patients' perceptions of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about <span class="hlt">generics</span> have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about <span class="hlt">generics</span>, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term '<span class="hlt">generic</span>' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on <span class="hlt">generics</span> is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a <span class="hlt">generic</span>, followed by the cost of the <span class="hlt">generic</span>. Almost half of the patients know about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a <span class="hlt">generic</span>. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3137552','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3137552"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Language in Parent-Child Conversations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gelman, Susan A.; Goetz, Peggy J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Flukes, Jonathan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop <span class="hlt">generic</span> knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express <span class="hlt">generic</span> knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to <span class="hlt">generic</span> kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn <span class="hlt">generic</span> forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as <span class="hlt">generic</span>. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of <span class="hlt">generics</span>, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP23B1846K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP23B1846K"><span>Seasonal to centennial-<span class="hlt">scale</span> variability of microparticle concentration and size distribution in the WAIS Divide ice <span class="hlt">core</span> over the past 2.4 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreutz, K. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Breton, D. J.; Dunbar, N. W.; Kurbatov, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We present results from continuous analysis of mineral dust in the upper 577 m (2.4 ka) of the WAIS Divide deep ice <span class="hlt">core</span>, WDC06A. The <span class="hlt">core</span> was melted using the UMaine WAIS Melt Monitor system, which allows accurate mm-<span class="hlt">scale</span> depth co-registration of electrical conductivity and particle data, with subsequent collection of discrete samples for expanded particle, glaciochemical and geochemical analysis. The concentration and size distribution of microparticles were measured using a flow-through Klotz Abakus laser particle detector, developed by Ruth et al (2002) and calibrated with Coulter-Counter measurements. We found that background dust concentrations during the past two millennia have been low, comparable to other sites in interior Antarctica. Particle concentration ranges seasonally from ~20-1000 particles/ml. Particle deposition generally shows an annual signal, although the phasing varies relative to seasonal chemical indicators such as nssSO42-. Dust deposition on decadal to centennial timescales appears to be linked to hemispheric-<span class="hlt">scale</span> climate variability during the late Holocene, and particularly to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) climate oscillation. We compared the coarse particle percentage (5-10 μm diameter relative to 1-10 μm diameter) to a proxy record of the SAM developed using sea salt concentrations in the Law Dome, East Antarctica, ice <span class="hlt">core</span> (Goodwin et al, 2004). Spectral characteristics of the coarse particle percentage at WAIS Divide seem to match the Law Dome proxy for the SAM. This suggests a coherent signal for the SAM and the potential to develop a particle size distribution proxy for the strength of the circum-Antarctic atmospheric circulation. Within the past two centuries of dust deposition, there were several dusty decades in the early-to-mid 1900s followed by a dramatic increase around 1980. Given that the particle size distribution does not show significant coeval change, we infer that this increased dust deposition has been driven</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..206..259C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..206..259C"><span>The Impact of Century-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Changes in the <span class="hlt">Core</span> Magnetic Field on External Magnetic Field Contributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cnossen, Ingrid</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Earth's internal magnetic field controls to a degree the strength, geographic positioning, and structure of currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, which produce their own (external) magnetic fields. The secular variation of the Earth's internal magnetic field can therefore lead to long-term changes in the externally produced magnetic field as well. Here we will examine this more closely. First, we obtain <span class="hlt">scaling</span> relations to describe how the strength of magnetic perturbations associated with various different current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere depends on the internal magnetic field intensity. Second, we discuss how changes in the orientation of a simple dipolar magnetic field will affect the current systems. Third, we use model simulations to study how actual changes in the Earth's internal magnetic field between 1908 and 2008 have affected some of the relevant current systems. The influence of the internal magnetic field on low- to mid-latitude currents in the ionosphere is relatively well understood, while the effects on high-latitude current systems and currents in the magnetosphere still pose considerable challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20826391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20826391"><span>Collective response to public health emergencies and large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> disasters: putting hospitals at the <span class="hlt">core</span> of community resilience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paturas, James L; Smith, Deborah; Smith, Stewart; Albanese, Joseph</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Healthcare organisations are a critical part of a community's resilience and play a prominent role as the backbone of medical response to natural and manmade disasters. The importance of healthcare organisations, in particular hospitals, to remain operational extends beyond the necessity to sustain uninterrupted medical services for the community, in the aftermath of a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> disaster. Hospitals are viewed as safe havens where affected individuals go for shelter, food, water and psychosocial assistance, as well as to obtain information about missing family members or learn of impending dangers related to the incident. The ability of hospitals to respond effectively to high-consequence incidents producing a massive arrival of patients that disrupt daily operations requires surge capacity and capability. The activation of hospital emergency support functions provides an approach by which hospitals manage a short-term shortfall of hospital personnel through the reallocation of hospital employees, thereby obviating the reliance on external qualified volunteers for surge capacity and capability. Recent revisions to the Joint Commission's hospital emergency preparedness standard have impelled healthcare facilities to participate actively in community-wide planning, rather than confining planning exclusively to a single healthcare facility, in order to harmonise disaster management strategies and effectively coordinate the allocation of community resources and expertise across all local response agencies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20384761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20384761"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> products of antiepileptic drugs: a perspective on bioequivalence and interchangeability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bialer, Meir; Midha, Kamal K</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available as <span class="hlt">generic</span> products, yet neurologists and patients are reluctant to switch to <span class="hlt">generics</span>. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> AEDs are regarded as bioequivalent to brand AEDs after meeting the average bioequivalence criteria; consequently, they are considered to be interchangeable with their respective brands without loss of efficacy and safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the present bioequivalence requirements are already so rigorous and constrained that there is little possibility that <span class="hlt">generics</span> that meet regulatory bioequivalence criteria could lead to therapeutic problems. So is there a scientific rationale for the concerns about switching patients with epilepsy to bioequivalent <span class="hlt">generics</span>? Herein we discuss the assessment of bioequivalence and propose a <span class="hlt">scaled</span>-average bioequivalence approach where <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of bioequivalence is carried out based on brand lot-to-lot variance as an alternative to the conventional bioequivalence test as a means to determine whether switching patients to <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulations, or vice versa, is a safe and effective therapeutic option. Meeting the proposed <span class="hlt">scaled</span>-average bioequivalence requirements will ensure that when an individual patient is switched, he or she has fluctuations in plasma levels similar to those from lot-to-lot of the brand reference levels and thus should make these <span class="hlt">generic</span> products safely switchable without change in efficacy and safety outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dedes&pg=2&id=EJ850561','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dedes&pg=2&id=EJ850561"><span><span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schaffhauser, Dian</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The common approach to <span class="hlt">scaling</span>, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3018179','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3018179"><span>The Controversy over <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Antiepileptic Drugs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shaw, Susan J.; Hartman, Adam L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>As patent protection ends for the next generation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a complex debate continues over <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution of AEDs. On one hand, <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug formulations provide cost savings for patients and society. On the other hand, patients with epilepsy and physicians are wary about the adequacy and efficacy of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) standards for <span class="hlt">generics</span>. This article reviews current and proposed bioequivalence test procedures, summarizes new <span class="hlt">generic</span> AED formulations and their costs, and discusses potential pitfalls in the current standards. These shortcomings include certain pharmacokinetic factors and clinical pharmacologic factors that may affect bioequivalence of <span class="hlt">generic</span> AEDs, and statistical limitations of the standards. While the drug concentration differences between the brand name drug and each <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulation are unlikely to be substantial, the differences with <span class="hlt">generic-to-generic</span> switches will be greater and potentially clinically significant. Conversely, owing to their more favorable pharmacokinetic profile, newer AEDs may be less prone to problems with <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution than older ones. Unfortunately, very few data are available to guide decisions regarding what is best for an individual patient. Based on new prediction methods, <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution should be safe for many patients but identifying them ultimately requires more rigorous study. PMID:22477799</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170621','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170621"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Crystalline Disposal Reference Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng</p> <p>2015-02-20</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">generic</span> reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010830','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010830"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> trending and analysis system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keehan, Lori; Reese, Jay</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Trending and Analysis System (GTAS) is a <span class="hlt">generic</span> spacecraft performance monitoring tool developed by NASA Code 511 and Loral Aerosys. It is designed to facilitate quick anomaly resolution and trend analysis. Traditionally, the job of off-line analysis has been performed using hardware and software systems developed for real-time spacecraft contacts; then, the systems were supplemented with a collection of tools developed by Flight Operations Team (FOT) members. Since the number of upcoming missions is increasing, NASA can no longer afford to operate in this manner. GTAS improves control center productivity and effectiveness because it provides a <span class="hlt">generic</span> solution across multiple missions. Thus, GTAS eliminates the need for each individual mission to develop duplicate capabilities. It also allows for more sophisticated tools to be developed because it draws resources from several projects. In addition, the GTAS software system incorporates commercial off-the-shelf tools software (COTS) packages and reuses components of other NASA-developed systems wherever possible. GTAS has incorporated lessons learned from previous missions by involving the users early in the development process. GTAS users took a proactive role in requirements analysis, design, development, and testing. Because of user involvement, several special tools were designed and are now being developed. GTAS users expressed considerable interest in facilitating data collection for long term trending and analysis. As a result, GTAS provides easy access to large volumes of processed telemetry data directly in the control center. The GTAS archival and retrieval capabilities are supported by the integration of optical disk technology and a COTS relational database management system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085208"><span>Problems with the dating of sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> using excess (210)Pb in a freshwater system impacted by large <span class="hlt">scale</span> watershed changes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baskaran, Mark; Nix, Joe; Kuyper, Clark; Karunakara, N</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Pb-210 dating of freshwater and coastal sediments have been extensively conducted over the past 40 years for historical pollution reconstruction studies, sediment focusing, sediment accumulation and mixing rate determination. In areas where there is large <span class="hlt">scale</span> disturbance of sediments and the watershed, the vertical profiles of excess (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) could provide erroneous or less reliable information on sediment accumulation rates. We analyzed one sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> from Hendrix Lake in southwestern Arkansas for excess (210)Pb and (137)Cs. There is no decrease in excess (210)Pb activity with depth while the (137)Cs profile indicates sharp peak corresponding to 1963 and the (137)Cs penetration depth of (137)Cs corresponds to 1952. The historical data on the accelerated mercury mining during 1931-1944 resulted in large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Hg input to this watershed. Using the peak Hg activity as a time marker, the obtained sediment accumulation rates agree well with the (137)Cs-based rates. Four independent evidences (two-marker events based on (137)Cs and two marker events based on Hg mining activity) result in about the same sedimentation rates and thus, we endorse earlier suggestion that (210)Pb profile always needs to be validated with at least one another independent method. We also present a concise discussion on what important factors that can affect the vertical profiles of (210)Pbxs in relatively smaller lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1078006','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1078006"><span>Scalable Triadic Analysis of Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Graphs: Multi-<span class="hlt">Core</span> vs. Multi-Processor vs. Multi-Threaded Shared Memory Architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chin, George; Marquez, Andres; Choudhury, Sutanay; Feo, John T.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Triadic analysis encompasses a useful set of graph mining methods that is centered on the concept of a triad, which is a subgraph of three nodes and the configuration of directed edges across the nodes. Such methods are often applied in the social sciences as well as many other diverse fields. Triadic methods commonly operate on a triad census that counts the number of triads of every possible edge configuration in a graph. Like other graph algorithms, triadic census algorithms do not <span class="hlt">scale</span> well when graphs reach tens of millions to billions of nodes. To enable the triadic analysis of large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> graphs, we developed and optimized a triad census algorithm to efficiently execute on shared memory architectures. We will retrace the development and evolution of a parallel triad census algorithm. Over the course of several versions, we continually adapted the code’s data structures and program logic to expose more opportunities to exploit parallelism on shared memory that would translate into improved computational performance. We will recall the critical steps and modifications that occurred during code development and optimization. Furthermore, we will compare the performances of triad census algorithm versions on three specific systems: Cray XMT, HP Superdome, and AMD multi-<span class="hlt">core</span> NUMA machine. These three systems have shared memory architectures but with markedly different hardware capabilities to manage parallelism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6617885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6617885"><span>Ash deposits - Initiating the change from empiricism to <span class="hlt">generic</span> engineering. Part 1: The <span class="hlt">generic</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagoner, C.L.; Wessel, R.A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Empiricism has traditionally been used to relate laboratory and pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> measurements of fuel characteristics with the design, performance, and the slagging and fouling behavior of steam generators. Currently, a new engineering approach is being evaluated. The goal is to develop and use calculations and measurements from several engineering disciplines that exceed the demonstrated limitations of present empirical techniques for predicting slagging/fouling behavior. In Part I of this paper, the <span class="hlt">generic</span> approach to deposits and boiler performance is defined and a matrix of engineering concepts is described. General relationships are presented for assessing the effects of deposits and sootblowing on the real-time performance of heat transfer surfaces in pilot- and commercial-<span class="hlt">scale</span> steam generators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/939049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/939049"><span>Descriptive Model of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> WAMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a <span class="hlt">generic</span> WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6103681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6103681"><span>GLAD: A <span class="hlt">Generic</span> LAttice Debugger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, M.J.</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (<span class="hlt">Generic</span> LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279766"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> thin-shell gravastars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt; Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S.N. E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We construct <span class="hlt">generic</span> spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.450.4137G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.450.4137G"><span>Mapping the <span class="hlt">core</span> mass function to the initial mass function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guszejnov, Dávid; Hopkins, Philip F.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>It has been shown that fragmentation within self-gravitating, turbulent molecular clouds (`turbulent fragmentation') can naturally explain the observed properties of protostellar <span class="hlt">cores</span>, including the <span class="hlt">core</span> mass function (CMF). Here, we extend recently developed analytic models for turbulent fragmentation to follow the time-dependent hierarchical fragmentation of self-gravitating <span class="hlt">cores</span>, until they reach effectively infinite density (and form stars). We show that turbulent fragmentation robustly predicts two key features of the initial mass function (IMF). First, a high-mass power-law <span class="hlt">scaling</span> very close to the Salpeter slope, which is a <span class="hlt">generic</span> consequence of the <span class="hlt">scale</span>-free nature of turbulence and self-gravity. We predict the IMF slope (-2.3) is slightly steeper than the CMF slope (-2.1), owing to the slower collapse and easier fragmentation of large <span class="hlt">cores</span>. Secondly, a turnover mass, which is set by a combination of the CMF turnover mass (a couple solar masses, determined by the `sonic <span class="hlt">scale</span>' of galactic turbulence, and so weakly dependent on galaxy properties), and the equation of state (EOS). A `soft' EOS with polytropic index γ < 1.0 predicts that the IMF slope becomes `shallow' below the sonic <span class="hlt">scale</span>, but fails to produce the full turnover observed. An EOS, which becomes `stiff' at sufficiently low surface densities Σgas ˜ 5000 M⊙ pc-2, and/or models, where each collapsing <span class="hlt">core</span> is able to heat and effectively stiffen the EOS of a modest mass (˜0.02 M⊙) of surrounding gas, are able to reproduce the observed turnover. Such features are likely a consequence of more detailed chemistry and radiative feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26462056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26462056"><span>Impact of brand or <span class="hlt">generic</span> labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a <span class="hlt">generic</span> preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and <span class="hlt">generic</span> labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "<span class="hlt">Generic</span> Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue <span class="hlt">scale</span> prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a <span class="hlt">generic</span> label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a <span class="hlt">generic</span> label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while <span class="hlt">generic</span> labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of <span class="hlt">generics</span> may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27646863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27646863"><span>Interchangeability between first-line <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiretroviral products prequalified by WHO using adjusted indirect comparisons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gwaza, Luther; Gordon, John; Welink, Jan; Potthast, Henrike; Leufkens, Hubert; Stahl, Matthias; García-Arieta, Alfredo</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">scaling</span>-up of access to antiretroviral therapy, particularly in low- to middle-income countries, was facilitated by the introduction and widespread use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiretroviral medicines and fixed-dose combinations. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on the demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator or reference product, as well as meeting quality standards. In clinical practice, however, it is not unusual for <span class="hlt">generics</span> to be interchanged between each other. This study investigated the differences in bioavailability between WHO-prequalified first-line antiretroviral <span class="hlt">generics</span> by means of adjusted indirect comparisons to ensure interchangeability between these <span class="hlt">generics</span>. Data on 34 products containing emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and efavirenz in single formulations or fixed-dose combinations were included in the analysis. The 90% CI for the adjusted indirect comparisons was calculated using the homoscedastic method that uses the conventional t-test, and assumes homogeneity of variances between the studies and small sample sizes. The combined standard deviation of both bioequivalence studies was calculated from the variability of each individual study. The adjusted indirect comparisons between <span class="hlt">generics</span> showed that the differences, expressed as 90% CIs, are less than 30%. Confidence in the interchangeability of two <span class="hlt">generic</span> products was reduced if the mean difference between the test and reference in the original studies is more than 10%. From a bioequivalence perspective, the <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiretroviral medicines prequalified by WHO are interchangeable with the reference, as well as between each other without safety or efficacy concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1896171','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1896171"><span>The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian <span class="hlt">generics</span> policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Löfgren, Hans</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global <span class="hlt">generics</span> companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and <span class="hlt">generics</span> sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to <span class="hlt">generic</span> competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised <span class="hlt">generics</span>'. The <span class="hlt">generics</span> segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap <span class="hlt">generics</span> in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower <span class="hlt">generics</span> prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products. PMID:17543115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2739237','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2739237"><span>Beliefs about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs among elderly adults in hospital-based primary care practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iosifescu, Alice; Halm, Ethan A.; McGinn, Thomas; Siu, Albert L.; Federman, Alex D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective This study aimed to characterize seniors’ beliefs about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, and examine potential correlates of these beliefs, including socioeconomic and health status variables, health literacy, and physician communication skills. Methods Older adults (≥65 years) were interviewed in two primary care practices of an inner-city, tertiary care hospital (n = 311). Beliefs about <span class="hlt">generics</span> were measured using a <span class="hlt">scale</span> that compared <span class="hlt">generic</span> and brand name drugs across four domains. Beliefs were modeled with multivariable linear regression. Results Negative beliefs about <span class="hlt">generics</span> were associated with non-white race (p < 0.0001), lower education (p = 0.008) and income (p = 0.001), and having Medicaid coverage (p = 0.001). Individuals with low health literacy and who reported that their physicians had poor communication skills were more likely to hold negative views (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively). In multivariable analysis, black race (β = -2.30, p = 0.006) and inadequate health literacy (β = -2.17, p = 0.0004) remained strongly associated with negative views about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. Poor physician communication skills also predicted negative beliefs about <span class="hlt">generics</span> but the association was not significant for all levels of communication skill. Conclusion Many low-income seniors mistrust <span class="hlt">generic</span> medications, especially African-Americans and seniors with low health literacy. Practice implications Educational efforts to promote <span class="hlt">generic</span> medications should account for patients’ health literacy and cultural backgrounds. PMID:18706784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008616','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008616"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Airspace Concepts and Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mogford, Richard H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "<span class="hlt">generic</span> center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the <span class="hlt">generic</span> sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120985','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120985"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7332E..1BM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7332E..1BM"><span>Toward a <span class="hlt">generic</span> UGV autopilot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Kevin L.; Whitehorn, Mark; Weinstein, Alejandro J.; Xia, Junjun</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Much of the success of small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) has arguably been due to the widespread availability of low-cost, portable autopilots. While the development of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) has led to significant achievements, as typified by recent grand challenge events, to date the UGV equivalent of the UAV autopilot is not available. In this paper we describe our recent research aimed at the development of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> UGV autopilot. Assuming we are given a drive-by-wire vehicle that accepts as inputs steering, brake, and throttle commands, we present a system that adds sonar ranging sensors, GPS/IMU/odometry, stereo camera, and scanning laser sensors, together with a variety of interfacing and communication hardware. The system also includes a finite state machine-based software architecture as well as a graphical user interface for the operator control unit (OCU). Algorithms are presented that enable an end-to-end scenario whereby an operator can view stereo images as seen by the vehicle and can input GPS waypoints either from a map or in the vehicle's scene-view image, at which point the system uses the environmental sensors as inputs to a Kalman filter for pose estimation and then computes control actions to move through the waypoint list, while avoiding obstacles. The long-term goal of the research is a system that is <span class="hlt">generically</span> applicable to any drive-by-wire unmanned ground vehicle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41A2763W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41A2763W"><span>CO2 Reaction Induced Wettability Alteration and its Impacts on CO2 Storage: Pore to <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Reservoir Condition Experimental Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Jung, J.; Kim, T.; Dong, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Wettability of the mineral surfaces plays an important role in subsurface multiphase flow and transport. Wettability affects the capillary pressure-saturation (Pc- S) relations, relative permeability (kr) of each fluid phase, and relative phase occupancy in reservoir pores. Although wettability issues have been studied extensively in other fields, significant knowledge gaps remain when applying the existing understanding to geological carbon sequestration; due largely to the unique physical-chemical properties of supercritical (sc) CO2 relative to other common non-wetting fluids such as air and oil. Here, we report our recent progress on wettability alteration upon reaction with CO2 and the resulting differences in capillary trapping of CO2 versus air. (1) Pore <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Studies. There are conflict predictions in the literature concerning the effect of wettability on capillary trapping; some find that larger contact angles lead to lower capillary trapping while others have found opposite behavior. We hypothesized that spontaneous imbibition becomes energetically unfavorable with decreased wettability, so that increased residual trapping of scCO2 should occur during the post-injection inbibition stage. We developed a laboratory high-pressure and elevated temperature microscopic-micromodel system that is capable of controlling fine <span class="hlt">scale</span> capillary pressure of scCO2-brine, and enabled us to conduct imbibition under controlled capillary pressures at the pore <span class="hlt">scale</span>. We found that the de-wetting enhanced scCO2 capillary trapping is significant. These results suggest that scCO2 reaction induced dewetting can result in higher degrees of CO2 residual trapping in the post-injection stage than previously predicted. (2) <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Studies. Capillary <span class="hlt">scaling</span> is used routinely to predict Pc(S) relations for scCO2-brine systems at field <span class="hlt">scale</span>, based on relations measured with air-water or mercury porosimetry. However, <span class="hlt">scaling</span>-based predictions for CO2-brine systems have not been</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22186075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22186075"><span>[<span class="hlt">Generic</span> drugs in morocco: survey of physicians].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaoui, Sanaa; Hakkou, Farid; Filali, Houda</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To assess the knowledge of physicians about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and their prescribing habits, with a view to making proposals for developing the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug in Morocco. Prospective study conducted among 100 physicians working in different sectors, using a questionnaire comprising 14 questions. The points raised in this questionnaire focused on assessing the knowledge of physicians about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, their prescribing habits, and their point of view towards the rights of substitution. The prescription of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines is more than 20% of drug prescriptions in less than half of doctors. For 68% of physicians, a <span class="hlt">generic</span> is not always effective. When the definition of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug only 66% of physicians mentioned bioequivalence with the brand-name drug, and when the definition of bioequivalence, for almost half (51%) of physicians, a <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug bioequivalent to the brand-name drug is a drug with the same half-life. Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the doctors prescribe <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs when lower cost is met. Seventy percent of physicians (70%) prescribe <span class="hlt">generics</span> when bioequivalence is demonstrated with the brand-name drug. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of doctors are against the substitution because it presents an obstacle to their freedom of prescription. In order to increase the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, better information for physicians is necessary. Other ways can be implemented, first establish the quality of Moroccan <span class="hlt">generic</span> by bioequivalence studies and think about steps to put in place to encourage doctors and pharmacists to prescribe and dispense <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, particularly the rights of substitution. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930008331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930008331"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> domain models in software engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Maiden, Neil</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of <span class="hlt">generic</span> models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these <span class="hlt">generic</span> models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of <span class="hlt">generic</span> domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038892','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038892"><span>Determinants of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug substitution in Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Since <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the <span class="hlt">generics</span>' market on <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> or not) was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups) and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments) and the <span class="hlt">generics</span>' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available <span class="hlt">generics</span>, etc.). Results The overall <span class="hlt">generics</span>' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments) was associated with lower <span class="hlt">generic</span> use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the <span class="hlt">generic</span>, and with the number of <span class="hlt">generics</span> on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a <span class="hlt">generic</span>. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and beliefs are probably the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC54B..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC54B..01T"><span>Long-distance relationship between large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> tropical SSTs and ice <span class="hlt">core</span>-derived oxygen isotopic records in the Third Pole Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Lin, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The tropical hydrological cycle is a key factor coupling isotopic records from ice <span class="hlt">core</span>, speleothem and lake records with tropical SSTs and the vertical amplification of temperature in the Tropics. Stable isotopic ratios, particularly of oxygen, preserved in glacier ice provide high resolution records of climate changes over long time periods. In polar ice sheets the isotopic signal is driven primarily by temperature while in low-latitudes it depends on a variety of hydrologic and thermal influences in the broad geographic region that supplies moisture to the mountain glaciers. The strong correlation between ice <span class="hlt">core</span>-derived isotopic records throughout the low- and mid-latitudes and tropical SSTs likely reflects the dominance of tropical evaporation in the flux of water vapor to the atmosphere and provides a possible explanation for the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> isotopic links among low- and mid-latitude paleoclimate records. Many low- to mid-latitude ice fields provide continuous, annually-resolved proxy records of climatic and environmental variability recorded by many preserved and measurable parameters including oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios and net mass balance (accumulation). These records present an opportunity to examine the nature of climate variability in these regions in greater detail and to extract new information about long-distance relationships in the climate system. Understanding these relationships is essential for proper interpretation of the isotopic records archived in glaciers, lakes, speleothems and other paleo-archives in the Third Pole (TP) Region. Here we compare high resolution records from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya, a speleothem record from Wanxiang Cave in Gansu Province on the TP and the annually resolved ice <span class="hlt">core</span> records from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Andes of South America. The purpose is to explore the role of long-distance processes in determining the isotopic composition of paleo archives on the TP. Running correlations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987708','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987708"><span><span class="hlt">Scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Murray Gibson</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Musical <span class="hlt">scales</span> involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987708"><span><span class="hlt">Scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray Gibson</p> <p>2007-04-27</p> <p>Musical <span class="hlt">scales</span> involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19674739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19674739"><span>Information learned from <span class="hlt">generic</span> language becomes central to children's biological concepts: evidence from their open-ended explanations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cimpian, Andrei; Markman, Ellen M</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> sentences (e.g., "Snakes have holes in their teeth") convey that a property (e.g., having holes in one's teeth) is true of a category (e.g., snakes). We test the hypothesis that, in addition to this basic aspect of their meaning, <span class="hlt">generic</span> sentences also imply that the information they express is more conceptually central than the information conveyed in similar non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> sentences (e.g., "This snake has holes in his teeth"). To test this hypothesis, we elicited 4- and 5-year-old children's open-ended explanations for <span class="hlt">generic</span> and non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> versions of the same novel properties. Based on arguments in the categorization literature, we assumed that, relative to more peripheral properties, properties that are understood as conceptually central would be explained more often as causes and less often as effects of other features, behaviors, or processes. Two experiments confirmed the prediction that preschool-age children construe novel information learned from <span class="hlt">generics</span> as more conceptually central than the same information learned from non-<span class="hlt">generics</span>. Additionally, Experiment 2 suggested that the conceptual status of novel properties learned from <span class="hlt">generic</span> sentences becomes similar to that of familiar properties that are already at the category <span class="hlt">core</span>. These findings illustrate the power of <span class="hlt">generic</span> language to shape children's concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23620145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23620145"><span>Rational use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> psychotropic drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>For economic reasons, the <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> and the original drug to overlap within ±20 %. However, therapeutic equivalence has been challenged for several psychotropic agents by retrospective studies and case reports. To evaluate the degree of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of branded and <span class="hlt">generic</span> psychotropic drugs, we performed an electronic search (from database inception until 24 May 2012 and without language restrictions) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms were "(<span class="hlt">generic</span>) AND (psychotropic OR psychoactive OR antipsychotic OR antiepileptic OR antidepressant OR stimulant OR benzodiazepine)" or the respective individual substances. We included clinical studies, regardless of design, comparing branded with <span class="hlt">generic</span> psychotropic drug formulations, identifying 35 such studies. We also included case reports/series reporting on outcomes after a switch between brand and <span class="hlt">generic</span> psychotropics, identifying 145 clinical cases. Bioequivalence studies in healthy controls or animals, in-vitro studies, and health economics studies without medical information were excluded. An overview of the few randomized controlled studies supports that US FDA regulations assure clinically adequate drug delivery in the majority of patients switched from brand to <span class="hlt">generic</span>. However, with a growing number of competing <span class="hlt">generic</span> products for one substance, and growing economic pressure to substitute with the currently cheapest <span class="hlt">generic</span>, frequent <span class="hlt">generic-generic</span> switches, often unbeknownst to prescribing clinicians, raise concerns, particularly for antiepileptics/mood stabilizers. <span class="hlt">Generic-generic</span> switches may vary by more than ±20 % from each other in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.tmp...21J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.tmp...21J"><span>The early Cretaceous orogen-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Dabieshan metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-<span class="hlt">cored</span> dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-<span class="hlt">scale</span> metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJEaS.106.1311J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJEaS.106.1311J"><span>The early Cretaceous orogen-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Dabieshan metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-<span class="hlt">cored</span> dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-<span class="hlt">scale</span> metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25095903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25095903"><span>Analysis of French <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines retail market: why the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines is limited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The market share of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines in France round off this perspective paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tiger&pg=4&id=EJ858961','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tiger&pg=4&id=EJ858961"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can <span class="hlt">Generics</span> Highlight Properties as Central?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Many languages distinguish <span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how <span class="hlt">generic</span> language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tiger&pg=4&id=EJ858961','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tiger&pg=4&id=EJ858961"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can <span class="hlt">Generics</span> Highlight Properties as Central?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Many languages distinguish <span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how <span class="hlt">generic</span> language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991baec.rept.....T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991baec.rept.....T"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> linear microcircuit test requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanemura, Steve K.; Mitchell, Ronald R.</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Linear Microcircuit Test Requirements Program is outlined. The objective was to develop new series-4000 test specifications to standardize testing of linear devices. The drafts developed will replace the existing series-4000 methods in MIL-STD-883C. New series-4000 drafts for 11 device families were developed, which will cover the majority of the linear microcircuits used in military systems. The test methods specified in each draft referenced a variety of sources including M38510 slash sheets, industry standard procedures, literature, existing test methods in MIL-STD-883C, and newly developed methods. Completion of these drafts will provide more consistent testing of linear devices. All aspects of the program are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C24A..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C24A..03K"><span>Seasonal climate information preserved within West Antarctic ice <span class="hlt">cores</span> and its relation to large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> atmospheric circulation and regional sea ice variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Küttel, M.; Steig, E. J.; Ding, Q.; Battisti, D. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that West Antarctica has been warming since at least the 1950s. With the instrumental record being limited to the mid-20th century, indirect information from stable isotopes (δ18O and δD, hereafter collectively δ) preserved within ice <span class="hlt">cores</span> have commonly been used to place this warming into a long term context. Here, using a large number of δ records obtained during the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE), past variations in West Antarctic δ are not only investigated over time but also in space. This study therefore provides an important complement to longer records from single locations as e.g. the currently being processed West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) Divide ice <span class="hlt">core</span>. Although snow accumulation rates at the ITASE sites in West Antarctica are variable, they are generally high enough to allow studies on sub-annual <span class="hlt">scale</span> over the last 50-100 years. Here, we show that variations in δ in this region are strongly related to the state of the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> atmospheric circulation as well as sea ice variations in the adjacent Southern Ocean, with important seasonal changes. While a strong relationship to sea ice changes in the Ross and Amundsen Sea as well as to the atmospheric circulation offshore is found during austral fall (MAM) and winter (JJA), only modest correlations are found during spring (SON) and summer (DJF). Interestingly, the correlations with the atmospheric circulation in the latter two seasons have the strongest signal over the Antarctic continent, but not offshore - an important difference to MAM and JJA. These seasonal changes are in good agreement with the seasonally varying predominant circulation: meridional with more frequent storms in the Amundsen Sea during MAM and JJA and more zonal and stable during SON and DJF. The relationship to regional temperature is similarly seasonally variable with highest correlations found during MAM and JJA. Notably, the circulation pattern found to be strongest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668341"><span>[Original brands and <span class="hlt">generic</span> preparations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, K U</p> <p>2000-01-15</p> <p>Modern guidelines of drug approval aim at interchangeability of drugs containing the same active ingredients. Therapeutic equivalence of original and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs is assumed as soon as bioequivalence is documented. For this to be accepted, first, pharmaceutical equivalence must prevail (the same amount of active substances in the same dosage forms) and, second, differences in bioavailabilities must not exceed certain limits. Drastic deviations from the original--not infrequent in the past--have become rare under the new sets of rules. However, there is still room for sometimes stunning discrepancies between approved drugs, since the current procedures--mainly for economic reasons--do not cover some potentially relevant aspects: Usually, studies are performed on young, healthy, mostly male volunteers; possible effects of meals on bioavailability are not investigated and, after approval of a drug, maintenance of attested quality--as with all manufacturers--is not monitored. Moreover, the tolerated deviations from the bioavailability of the original drug are quite large; with certain substances, a change from the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug with the lowest bioavailability to that with the highest could mean transition from low efficacy to a toxic dose level. Documented examples include carbamazepine, phenytoin, levothyroxin, verapamil, and aspirin. In conclusion, even today's sophisticated rules do not suffice to cover all eventualities. In particular, drugs with a narrow therapeutic range require close scrutiny in product selection. Pertinent are drug documentation as well as the distinguishing features of the respective manufacturers, mainly scientific support and record of product reliability. Besides the sometimes insufficient official documentation, the internet has been gaining importance as a source of information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20826685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20826685"><span>Augmenting the <span class="hlt">core</span> battery with supplementary subtests: Wechsler adult intelligence <span class="hlt">scale</span>--IV measurement invariance across the United States and Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including <span class="hlt">core</span> and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence <span class="hlt">Scale</span>-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) were compared across the U.S. and Canadian standardization samples. Populations were compared on the 15 subtest version of the test in people aged 70 and younger and on the 12 subtest version in people aged 70 or older. Results indicated that a slightly modified version of the four-factor model reported in the WAIS-IV technical manual provided the best fit in both populations and in both age groups. The null hypothesis of measurement invariance across populations was not rejected, and the results provide direct evidence for the generalizability of convergent and discriminant validity studies with the WAIS-IV across populations. Small to medium differences in latent means favoring Canadians highlight the value of local norms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27303065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27303065"><span>Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a New Rating <span class="hlt">Scale</span> to Assess the Performance of Everyday Life Tasks in Dementia: The <span class="hlt">Core</span> Elements Method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Werd, Maartje M E; Hoelzenbein, Angela C; Boelen, Daniëlle H E; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Hüell, Michael; Kessels, Roy P C; Voigt-Radloff, Sebastian</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Errorless learning (EL) is an instructional procedure involving error reduction during learning. Errorless learning is mostly examined by counting correctly executed task steps or by rating them using a Task Performance <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (TPS). Here, we explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure, the <span class="hlt">core</span> elements method (CEM), which rates essential building blocks of activities rather than individual steps. Task performance was assessed in 35 patients with Alzheimer's dementia recruited from the Relearning methods on Daily Living task performance of persons with Dementia (REDALI-DEM) study using TPS and CEM independently. Results showed excellent interrater reliabilities for both measure methods (CEM: intraclass coefficient [ICC] = .85; TPS: ICC = .97). Also, both methods showed a high agreement (CEM: mean of measurement difference [MD] = -3.44, standard deviation [SD] = 14.72; TPS: MD = -0.41, SD = 7.89) and correlated highly (>.75). Based on these results, TPS and CEM are both valid for assessing task performance. However, since TPS is more complicated and time consuming, CEM may be the preferred method for future research projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhA.115..979L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhA.115..979L"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> fabrication of polymer/Ag <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanorod array as flexible SERS substrate by combining direct nanoimprint and electroless deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Sisi; Xu, Zhimou; Sun, Tangyou; Zhao, Wenning; Wu, Xinghui; Ma, Zhichao; Xu, Haifeng; He, Jian; Chen, Cunhua</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We demonstrate a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, which consists of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) assembled on the surface of a nanopatterned polymer film. The fabrication route of a polymer/Ag <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanorod (PACSN) array employed a direct nanoimprint technique to create a high-resolution polymer nanorod array. The obtained nanopatterned polymer film was subjected to electroless deposition to form a sea-cucumber-like Ag shell over the surface of the polymer nanorod. The morphology and structures of PACSNs were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized PACSNs exhibited a remarkable SERS activity and Raman signal reproducibility to rhodamine 6G, and a concentration down to 10-12 M can be identified. The effect of electroless deposition time of Ag NPs onto the polymer nanorod surface was investigated. It was found that the electroless deposition time played an important role in SERS activity. Our results revealed that the combination of direct nanoimprint and electroless deposition provided a convenient and cost-effective way for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> fabrication of reliable SERS substrates without the requirement of expensive instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726990"><span>Self-Assembled Monolayer of Wavelength-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Shell Particles for Low-Loss Plasmonic and Broadband Light Trapping in Solar Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dabirian, Ali; Byranvand, Mahdi Malekshahi; Naqavi, Ali; Kharat, Ali Nemati; Taghavinia, Nima</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Scattering particles constitute a key light trapping solution for thin film photovoltaics where either the particles are embedded in the light absorbing layer or a thick layer of them is used as a reflector. Here we introduce a monolayer of wavelength-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell silica@Ag particles as a novel light trapping strategy for thin film photovoltaics. These particles show hybrid photonic-plasmonic resonance modes that scatter light strongly and with small parasitic absorption losses in Ag (<1.5%). In addition, their scattering efficiency does not vary significantly with the refractive index of the surrounding medium. A monolayer of these particles is applied as the top-scattering layers in a dye-sensitized solar cells and it improves the short-circuit current density of a cell with 7 μm-thick dye-sensitized layer by 38%. Optical measurements of the scattering properties of these particles confirm that the strong scattering and low-parasitic absorption losses constitute the main reason for this efficient light trapping.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1157535','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1157535"><span>Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Disposal System Concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - <span class="hlt">scale</span> detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17485758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17485758"><span>Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, price competition, and consumers' welfare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berndt, Ernst R; Mortimer, Richard; Bhattacharjya, Ashoke; Parece, Andrew; Tuttle, Edward</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The growing frequency of authorized <span class="hlt">generics</span> has important implications for the welfare of prescription drug consumers. Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry could affect the timing of <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry, brand-name and <span class="hlt">generic</span> prices, and <span class="hlt">generic</span> penetration. We reviewed 1999-2003 data and found that <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry in the absence of short-run exclusivity restrictions benefits consumers through lower short-run prices. We suggest that these benefits likely also result from authorized <span class="hlt">generics</span>. We posit that long-run prices and shares are likely essentially unaffected by authorized <span class="hlt">generics</span> and that potential costs to consumers from any delayed <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry are likely small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020087020','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020087020"><span>Composite <span class="hlt">Cores</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer <span class="hlt">cores</span> is a composite of gapped and ungapped <span class="hlt">cores</span> assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped <span class="hlt">core</span> with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped <span class="hlt">core</span>. The uncut <span class="hlt">core</span> functions under normal operating conditions and the cut <span class="hlt">core</span> takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. <span class="hlt">Cores</span> also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cave&pg=6&id=EJ663343','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cave&pg=6&id=EJ663343"><span>Children's Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Noun Phrases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of <span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated <span class="hlt">generics</span> ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gelman&pg=4&id=EJ968255','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gelman&pg=4&id=EJ968255"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Four studies examined the role of <span class="hlt">generic</span> language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either <span class="hlt">generic</span> or specific…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gelman&pg=7&id=EJ772621','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gelman&pg=7&id=EJ772621"><span>Developmental Changes in the Understanding of <span class="hlt">Generics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how <span class="hlt">generic</span> nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6205250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6205250"><span>HTGR <span class="hlt">generic</span> technology program plan (FY 80)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> technology program breaks into the base technology, <span class="hlt">generic</span> component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pizza&pg=2&id=EJ968255','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pizza&pg=2&id=EJ968255"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Four studies examined the role of <span class="hlt">generic</span> language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either <span class="hlt">generic</span> or specific…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=core+AND+competencies+AND+business&pg=7&id=ED481595','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=core+AND+competencies+AND+business&pg=7&id=ED481595"><span>Defining <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Skills. At a Glance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cave&pg=5&id=EJ663343','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cave&pg=5&id=EJ663343"><span>Children's Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Noun Phrases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of <span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated <span class="hlt">generics</span> ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uri&pg=4&id=EJ1018731','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uri&pg=4&id=EJ1018731"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Proving: Reflections on Scope and Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leron, Uri; Zaslavsky, Orit</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We analyze the role of <span class="hlt">generic</span> proofs in helping students access difficult proofs more easily and naturally. We present three examples of <span class="hlt">generic</span> proving--an elementary one on numbers, a more advanced one on permutations, and yet more advanced one on groups--and consider the affordances and pitfalls of the method by reflecting on these examples. A…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21219120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21219120"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> drug approval: a US perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagori, B P; Mathur, V; Garg, S</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> drugs are identical or bioequivalent versions of the brand name drugs. They are the economic alternative of the costlier brand name drugs. This article presents a general overview of the procedure and regulatory aspects relating to <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug approval in the US. A computerized search was conducted to find literature on <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug approval in the US. The literature was searched using the following key words: <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug, brand name drug, Hatch-Waxman Act, Medicare Act, NDA, ANDA, CTD and exclusivity. The search results were filtered for the literature describing and analyzing the procedure and regulatory provisions for <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug approval in the US. After the screening total 19 applicable literature remained. In the US standardized procedures for the recognition of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs have been laid down under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, 1984 (the Hatch-Waxman Act). Provisions of this Act such as patent challenge, patent term extension and data exclusivity have created profound effects on the approval, sale and distribution of the pharmaceuticals in the US. The Hatch-Waxman Act is an excellent piece of legislation that takes care of the rights of both the brand name and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug companies. This article presents only an overview of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug approvals and for all practical purposes official resources should be referred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fabricating&pg=4&id=ED220578','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fabricating&pg=4&id=ED220578"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Skills. Keys to Job Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Arthur De W.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Student+AND+designed+AND+mapping+AND+project&pg=2&id=EJ717870','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Student+AND+designed+AND+mapping+AND+project&pg=2&id=EJ717870"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Skills Curricula: A Recommended Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robley, Will; Whittle, Sue; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Since the 1997 Dearing Report, <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills development has become an essential part of higher education in the UK. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> skills programmes are, in the main, either run in parallel with existing curricula or "embedded" within them. In 1993 the General Medical Council introduced student selected components (SSCs) into the UK medical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25830930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25830930"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Olanzapine Substitution in Patients With Schizophrenia: Assessment of Serum Concentrations and Therapeutic Response After Switching.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Italiano, Domenico; Bruno, Antonio; Santoro, Vincenza; Lanza, Giulia; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria; Zoccali, Rocco; Spina, Edoardo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Several reports of loss of efficacy or adverse effects have been described after <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution of antipsychotics. To date, studies comparing serum drug levels in patients switched to <span class="hlt">generic</span> antipsychotics in a standard clinical setting are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate if switching to <span class="hlt">generic</span> olanzapine in patients affected by schizophrenia is associated with differences in its serum concentrations and therapeutic response. Preswitching and postswitching serum olanzapine concentrations were compared in schizophrenic outpatients who were switched from a chronic treatment with branded olanzapine to the same dose of its <span class="hlt">generic</span> alternative. The Positive and Negative Syndrome <span class="hlt">Scale</span> was concurrently administered to assess modifications in schizophrenia symptom control. A total of 25 patients (13 women and 12 men, mean age 41.2 ± 12.8 years) concluded the study. Mean olanzapine dose was 12.2 ± 5.4 mg/d. The mean olanzapine serum concentrations decreased from 27.7 ± 14.4 ng/mL during treatment with the branded formulation to 22.6 ± 12.3 ng/mL after switching to the <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulation (P < 0.01). The log-transformed ratio of <span class="hlt">generic</span>/brand-name olanzapine serum concentration at steady state was 0.81 (90% confidence interval: 0.72-0.91). The total Positive and Negative Syndrome <span class="hlt">Scale</span> scores did not significantly change after switching from branded to <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulation (49.6 ± 8.3 versus 48.6 ± 9.5, P = 0.777). No patient exhibited disease relapse or required dose adjustment after switching. Significantly lower serum olanzapine concentrations were found after switching from branded to <span class="hlt">generic</span> olanzapine. Although these modifications did not significantly impair schizophrenia symptoms control, it cannot be excluded that a longer exposure to lower olanzapine serum concentrations may result in relapse of schizophrenic symptoms. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> substitution should be considered as an indication for therapeutic drug monitoring in psychiatry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26201987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26201987"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> lamotrigine versus brand-name Lamictal bioequivalence in patients with epilepsy: A field test of the FDA bioequivalence standard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ting, Tricia Y; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Wong, Jessica; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Krumholz, Allan; Temple, Robert; Polli, James E</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>To test the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioequivalence standard in a comparison of <span class="hlt">generic</span> and brand-name drug pharmacokinetic (PK) performance in "<span class="hlt">generic</span>-brittle" patients with epilepsy under clinical use conditions. This randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, steady-state, fully replicated bioequivalence study compared <span class="hlt">generic</span> lamotrigine to brand-name Lamictal in "<span class="hlt">generic</span>-brittle" patients with epilepsy (n = 34) who were already taking lamotrigine. Patients were repeatedly switched between masked Lamictal and <span class="hlt">generic</span> lamotrigine. Intensive PK blood sampling at the end of each 2-week treatment period yielded two 12-h PK profiles for brand-name and <span class="hlt">generic</span> forms for each patient. Steady-state area under the curve (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax ), and minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) data were subjected to conventional average bioequivalence (ABE) analysis, reference-<span class="hlt">scaled</span> ABE analysis, and within-subject variability (WSV) comparisons. In addition, <span class="hlt">generic</span>-versus-brand comparisons in individual patients were performed. Secondary clinical outcomes included seizure frequency and adverse events. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> demonstrated bioequivalence to brand. The 90% confidence intervals of the mean for steady-state AUC, Cmax , and Cmin for <span class="hlt">generic</span>-versus-brand were 97.2-101.6%, 98.8-104.5%, and 93.4-101.0%, respectively. The WSV of <span class="hlt">generic</span> and brand were also similar. Individual patient PK ratios for <span class="hlt">generic</span>-versus-brand were similar but not identical, in part because brand-versus-brand profiles were not identical, even though subjects were rechallenged with the same product. Few subjects had seizure exacerbations or tolerability issues with product switching. One subject, however, reported 267 focal motor seizures, primarily on <span class="hlt">generic</span>, although his brand and <span class="hlt">generic</span> PK profiles were practically identical. Some neurologists question whether bioequivalence in healthy volunteers ensures therapeutic equivalence of brand and <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiepileptic drugs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PEPI...91..161G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PEPI...91..161G"><span>A very slow basal layer underlying large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> low-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle beneath the Pacific: evidence from <span class="hlt">core</span> phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garnero, Edward J.; Helmberger, Donald V.</p> <p></p> <p>A multi-phase analysis using long-period World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network and Canadian Network data has been conducted using <span class="hlt">core</span>-phases for deep focus events from the southwest Pacific. These include SKS, S2KS, SV diff, and SP dKS. The last phase emerges from SKS near 106° and is associated with a P-wave diffracting along the bottom of the mantle. Patterns in S2KS - SKS differential travel times ( TS2KS - SKS) correlate with those in SP dKS - SKS ( TSP dKS - SKS ). TS2KS - SKS values strongly depend on variations in VS structure in the lower third of the mantle, whereas TSP dKS - SKS values mainly depend on VP structure and variations in a thin zone (100 km or less) at the very base of the mantle. Anomalously large TS2KS - SKS and TSP dKS - SKS values (relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM)) are present for Fiji-Tonga and Kermadec events (recorded in North and South America), along with anomalously large SV diff amplitudes well into the <span class="hlt">core</span>'s shadow. More northerly paths beneath the Pacific to North America for Indonesian and Solomon events display both PREM-like and anomalous times. A model compatible with the observations is presented, and contains a thin very-low-velocity layer at the base of the mantle that underlies the large volumetric lower-mantle low-velocity regions in the southwest Pacific. A low-velocity layer of 20-100 km thickness with reductions of up to 5-10% (relative to PREM) can reproduce TSP dKS - SKS as well as SV diff amplitudes. Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> (more than 1000 km) lower-mantle VS heterogeneity (2-4%) can explain long-wavelength trends in TS2KS - SKS. The exact thickness and velocity reduction in the basal layer is uncertain, owing to difficulties in resolving whether anomalous structure occurs on the source- and/or receiver-side of wavepaths (at the CMB).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12729542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12729542"><span>[<span class="hlt">Generic</span> drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and prescribing habits].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs are.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160008427','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160008427"><span>Hollow-<span class="hlt">Core</span> Fiber Lamp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hollow-<span class="hlt">core</span> capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter <span class="hlt">scale</span> are provided. The hollow-<span class="hlt">core</span> capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-<span class="hlt">core</span> photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-30/pdf/2013-23767.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-30/pdf/2013-23767.pdf"><span>78 FR 59911 - <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Information Collection for Land Management Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>... Forest Service <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Information Collection for Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... information collection, <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Information Collection for Land Management Planning. DATES: Comments must be... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Information Collection for Land Management...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22342022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22342022"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> drugs in dermatology: part II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug industry, described how <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and <span class="hlt">generic</span> medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19225372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19225372"><span>Risks and benefits of <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiepileptic drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Alonso, Juan; Kanner, Andrés M; Herranz, José Luis; Molins, Albert; Gil-Nagel, Antonio</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>In most therapeutic areas, prescribing <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs seems to lower costs without sacrificing efficacy. The use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs for treating epilepsy may, however, be more controversial. A systematic review of the literature on <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiepileptic drugs has been carried out based primarily on a bibliographical search in the Medline database. Published studies are usually of a descriptive nature and are sometimes based on <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs that were approved in times when regulatory agency requirements were not as strict as they are now. Experts claim that a change in pharmaceutical formulations could cause seizure recurrence in cases that had been successfully controlled in the past, with severe effects on patients. Meanwhile, several health organizations have provided inconsistent recommendations on the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiepileptic drugs. In order to obtain scientific evidence on the potential risks and benefits of interchanging branded and <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiepileptic drugs, high methodological comparative studies are necessary. These studies could bring consensus about the role of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs for treating epilepsy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480963"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> antibiotic drugs: is effectiveness guaranteed?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gauzit, R; Lakdhari, M</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>There are recently published arguments suggesting all <span class="hlt">generic</span> antibiotic drugs do not present the full reliability needed to claim therapeutic equivalence with branded drugs. The problem is especially crucial for <span class="hlt">generic</span> intravenous drugs, which do not need any bioequivalence study before they can be marketed. The evaluation of <span class="hlt">generic</span> antibiotic drug effectiveness yields an important dispersion of results according to antibiotic agents and for the same antibiotic agent all <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs are not equivalent. There are differences at all levels: drug components, levels of impurity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, in vitro effectiveness, therapeutic effectiveness in experimental models, etc. So that finally, the specifications approved in the initial submission file of a brand name drugs are not always respected by a <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug. There is also a specific problem of taste and treatment acceptability for pediatric oral antibiotic drugs. Available data on clinical effectiveness is excessively rare. The marketing of a great number of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs of the same specialty is followed by a sometimes very important increase of their use, even in countries where consumption is low. The corollary of this increase in consumption is an increase of resistance, and this is especially true for oral fluoroquinolones. Even if most of this information needs to be verified, it seems necessary to review regulations for marketing authorization of <span class="hlt">generic</span> antibiotic drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953472"><span>A reappraisal of <span class="hlt">generic</span> bisphosphonates in osteoporosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanis, J A; Reginster, J-Y; Kaufman, J-M; Ringe, J-D; Adachi, J D; Hiligsmann, M; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The competitive price of <span class="hlt">generic</span> bisphosphonates has had a marked effect on practice guidelines, but an increasing body of evidence suggests that they have more limited effectiveness than generally assumed. The purpose of this study is to review the impact of <span class="hlt">generic</span> bisphosphonates on effectiveness in the treatment of osteoporosis. This study is a literature review. A substantial body of evidence indicates that many <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulations of alendronate are more poorly tolerated than the proprietary preparations which results in significantly poorer adherence and thus effectiveness. Poorer effectiveness may result from faster disintegration times of many <span class="hlt">generics</span> that increase the likelihood of adherence of particulate matter to the oesophageal mucosa. Unfortunately, market authorisation, based on the bioequivalence of <span class="hlt">generics</span> with a proprietary formulation, does not take into account the potential concerns about safety. The poor adherence of many <span class="hlt">generic</span> products has implications for guideline development, cost-effectiveness and impact of treatment on the burden of disease. The impact of <span class="hlt">generic</span> bisphosphonates requires formal testing to re-evaluate their role in the management of osteoporosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27819247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27819247"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> oncology drugs: are they all safe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Y Tony; Nagai, Sumimasa; Chen, Brian K; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lebby, Akida A; Kessler, Samuel; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Raisch, Dennis W; Sartor, Oliver; Hermanson, Terhi; Kane, Robert C; Hrushesky, William J; Riente, Joshua J; Norris, LeAnn B; Bobolts, Laura R; Armitage, James O; Bennett, Charles L</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Although the availability of <span class="hlt">generic</span> oncology drugs allows access to contemporary care and reduces costs, there is international variability in the safety of this class of drugs. In this Series paper, we review clinical, policy, safety, and regulatory considerations for <span class="hlt">generic</span> oncology drugs focusing on the USA, Canada, the European Union (EU), Japan, China, and India. Safety information about <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulations is reviewed from one agent in each class, for heavy metal drugs (cisplatin), targeted agents (imatinib), and cytotoxic agents (docetaxel). We also review regulatory reports from Japan and the USA, countries with the largest pharmaceutical expenditures. Empirical studies did not identify safety concerns in the USA, Canada, the EU, and Japan, where regulations and enforcement are strong. Although manufacturing problems for <span class="hlt">generic</span> pharmaceuticals exist in India, where 40% of all <span class="hlt">generic</span> pharmaceuticals used in the USA are manufactured, increased inspections and communication by the US Food and Drug Administration are occurring, facilitating oversight and enforcement. No safety outbreaks among <span class="hlt">generic</span> oncology drugs were reported in developed countries. For developing countries, oversight is less intensive, and concerns around drug safety still exist. Regulatory agencies should collaboratively develop procedures to monitor the production, shipment, storage, and post-marketing safety of <span class="hlt">generic</span> oncology drugs. Regulatory agencies for each country should also aim towards identical definitions of bioequivalence, the cornerstone of regulatory approval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPPP2120S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPPP2120S"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Magnetic Fusion Reactor Revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheffield, John; Milora, Stanley</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The original <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper was published in 1986. This update describes what has changed in 30 years. Notably, the construction of ITER is providing important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs. In addition, we use a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence. But these cost-increasing factors are offset by greater optimism on the thermal-electric conversion efficiency and potential availability. The main examples show the cost of electricity (COE) as a function of aspect ratio and neutron flux to the first wall. The dependence of the COE on availability, thermo-electric efficiency, electrical power output, and the present day's low interest rates is also discussed. Interestingly, at fixed aspect ratio there is a shallow minimum in the COE at neutron flux around 2.5 MW/m2. The possibility of operating with only a small COE penalty at even lower wall loadings (to 1.0 MW/m2 at larger plant size) and the use of niobium-titanium coils are also investigated. J. Sheffield was supported by ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610390"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> theory for channel sinuosity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a <span class="hlt">generic</span> theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835224"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">generic</span> polar harmonic transforms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoang, Thai V; Tabbone, Salvatore</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> polar harmonic transforms have recently been proposed to extract rotation-invariant features from images and their usefulness has been demonstrated in a number of pattern recognition problems. However, direct computation of these transforms from their definition is inefficient and is usually slower than some efficient computation strategies that have been proposed for other methods. This paper presents a number of novel computation strategies to compute these transforms rapidly. The proposed methods are based on the inherent recurrence relations among complex exponential and trigonometric functions used in the definition of the radial and angular kernels of these transforms. The employment of these relations leads to recursive and addition chain-based strategies for fast computation of harmonic function-based kernels. Experimental results show that the proposed method is about 10× faster than direct computation and 5× faster than fast computation of Zernike moments using the q-recursive strategy. Thus, among all existing rotation-invariant feature extraction methods, polar harmonic transforms are the fastest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93f2112P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93f2112P"><span>Distinguishability of <span class="hlt">generic</span> quantum states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> mixed state of a bipartite system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.664h2039N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.664h2039N"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> OPC UA Server Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper describes a new approach for <span class="hlt">generic</span> design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666670','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666670"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> theory for channel sinuosity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a <span class="hlt">generic</span> theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5360762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5360762"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> physical protection logic trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paulus, W.K.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388524"><span>A perturbation method for the Ornstein-Zernike equation and the <span class="hlt">generic</span> van der Waals equation of state for a square well potential model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eu, Byung Chan; Qin, Yuan</p> <p>2007-04-12</p> <p>We calculate the <span class="hlt">generic</span> van der Waals parameters A and B for a square well model by means of a perturbation theory. To calculate the pair distribution function or the cavity function necessary for the calculation of A and B, we have used the Percus-Yevick integral equation, which is put into an equivalent form by means of the Wiener-Hopf method. This latter method produces a pair of integral equations, which are solved by a perturbation method treating the Mayer function or the well width or the functions in the square well region exterior to the hard <span class="hlt">core</span> as the perturbation. In the end, the Mayer function times the well width is identified as the perturbation parameter in the present method. In this sense, the present perturbation method is distinct from the existing thermodynamic perturbation theory, which expands the Helmholtz free energy in a perturbation series with the inverse temperature treated as an expansion parameter. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> van der Waals parameters are explicitly calculated in analytic form as functions of reduced temperature and density. The van der Waals parameters are recovered from them in the limits of vanishing density and high temperature. The equation of state thus obtained is tested against Monte Carlo simulation results and found reliable, provided that the temperature is in the supercritical regime. By <span class="hlt">scaling</span> the packing fraction with a temperature-dependent hard <span class="hlt">core</span>, it is suggested to construct an equation of state for fluids with a temperature-dependent hard <span class="hlt">core</span> that mimicks a soft <span class="hlt">core</span> repulsive force on the basis of the equation of state derived for the square well model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3522080','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3522080"><span>Perception of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Prescription Drugs and Utilization of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Drug Discount Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Omojasola, Anthony; Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Jones, Lovell</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective Our study aimed to assess patient’s perceptions of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and utilization of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug discount programs. Design, Setting and Participants A survey was administered to adult participants at community health centers and community-based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the strength of association between <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug perception and utilization of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug discount programs. Results Respondents who agreed that “<span class="hlt">Generic</span> prescription drugs are as effective as brand name prescription drugs,” were 3 times as likely to utilize <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug discount programs (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–4.8, P<.001). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 1.4–76.4) and Hispanics (OR: 10.3; 95% CI: 1.3–79.4) were 10 times as likely to agree that <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs have more side effects than brand name drugs. Conclusion Race/ethnicity had no impact in utilization of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug discount programs, despite racial disparities in perception toward <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs’ side effects and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs being inferior to brand name drugs. PMID:23140080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23494466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23494466"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> substitution, financial interests, and imperfect agency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rischatsch, Maurus; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Policy makers around the world seek to encourage <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution. In this paper, the importance of prescribing physicians' imperfect agency is tested using the fact that some Swiss jurisdictions allow physicians to dispense drugs on their own account (physician dispensing, PD) while others disallow it. We estimate a model of physician drug choice with the help of drug claim data, finding a significant positive association between PD and the use of <span class="hlt">generics</span>. While this points to imperfect agency, <span class="hlt">generics</span> are prescribed more often to patients with high copayments or low incomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149531"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens</p> <p>2014-08-08</p> <p>Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large <span class="hlt">scale</span> hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026162"><span>A standardised, <span class="hlt">generic</span>, validated approach to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anti-cancer therapies: the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (ESMO-MCBS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; de Vries, E G E; Piccart, M J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The value of any new therapeutic strategy or treatment is determined by the magnitude of its clinical benefit balanced against its cost. Evidence for clinical benefit from new treatment options is derived from clinical research, in particular phase III randomised trials, which generate unbiased data regarding the efficacy, benefit and safety of new therapeutic approaches. To date, there is no standard tool for grading the magnitude of clinical benefit of cancer therapies, which may range from trivial (median progression-free survival advantage of only a few weeks) to substantial (improved long-term survival). Indeed, in the absence of a standardised approach for grading the magnitude of clinical benefit, conclusions and recommendations derived from studies are often hotly disputed and very modest incremental advances have often been presented, discussed and promoted as major advances or 'breakthroughs'. Recognising the importance of presenting clear and unbiased statements regarding the magnitude of the clinical benefit from new therapeutic approaches derived from high-quality clinical trials, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has developed a validated and reproducible tool to assess the magnitude of clinical benefit for cancer medicines, the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (ESMO-MCBS). This tool uses a rational, structured and consistent approach to derive a relative ranking of the magnitude of clinically meaningful benefit that can be expected from a new anti-cancer treatment. The ESMO-MCBS is an important first step to the critical public policy issue of value in cancer care, helping to frame the appropriate use of limited public and personal resources to deliver cost-effective and affordable cancer care. The ESMO-MCBS will be a dynamic tool and its criteria will be revised on a regular basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479700"><span>Dissolution testing for <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs: an FDA perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anand, Om; Yu, Lawrence X; Conner, Dale P; Davit, Barbara M</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In vitro dissolution testing is an important tool used for development and approval of <span class="hlt">generic</span> dosage forms. The objective of this article is to summarize how dissolution testing is used for the approval of safe and effective <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug products in the United States (US). Dissolution testing is routinely used for stability and quality control purposes for both oral and non-oral dosage forms. The dissolution method should be developed using an appropriate validated method depending on the dosage form. There are several ways in which dissolution testing plays a pivotal role in regulatory decision-making. It may be used to waive in vivo bioequivalence (BE) study requirements, as BE documentation for <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Up and Post Approval Changes (SUPAC), and to predict the potential for a modified-release (MR) drug product to dose-dump if co-administered with alcoholic beverages. Thus, in vitro dissolution testing plays a major role in FDA's efforts to reduce the regulatory burden and unnecessary human studies in <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug development without sacrificing the quality of the drug products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24750309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24750309"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J; Wennberg, L; Connor, A; Rasmussen, A; Backman, L</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of <span class="hlt">generic</span> equivalents, which are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three <span class="hlt">generic</span> brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for <span class="hlt">generic</span> tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this <span class="hlt">generic</span> tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other SOT patients, including lung and heart recipients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804091"><span>[<span class="hlt">Generic</span> competences in medical undergraduate education].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kääpä, Pekka; Hoffren, Johanna</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In medical practice physicians need both vocational and <span class="hlt">generic</span> competences. The importance of <span class="hlt">generic</span> competences In medical undergraduate curriculum is often poorly appreciated. We assessed by questionnaires the opinions of medical students of the importance of <span class="hlt">generic</span> competences in medical practice and of their anticipated development during undergraduate medical education in the University of Turku. Students thought that application of medical knowledge in practice, information acquisition, independent working and problem solving skills are important in medical practice and are also well-handled in undergraduate education. On the other hand, students felt that competences, like coping at work, tolerance of uncertainty and organizing skills are often needed in medical profession, but are insufficiently considered in basic education. The balance between importance in medical practice and educational development of <span class="hlt">generic</span> competences should be more explicitly considered in undergraduate medical teaching.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725079"><span>Are <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs really inferior medicines?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, N; Berdaï, D; Bégaud, B</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>In this issue Gagne et al. report an elegant case-crossover study of seizures in patients on antiepileptic drugs. They found that a dispensation episode approximately triples the risk of having a seizure within 21 days, but the risk is not statistically different whether the dispensation was of the same brand-name or <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug as previously used or a switch from brand-name to a <span class="hlt">generic</span> or from a <span class="hlt">generic</span> to a brand name. The cause of the seizure might be a delay in taking medication or late redispensation, among others, but apparently the nature of the product dispensed is not relevant in this study; this may alleviate some of the concerns about <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and epilepsy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18291074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18291074"><span>[Economy of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs in Latin America].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tobar, Federico</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In terms of economics, implementing <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug policy is nothing other than consolidating (or even, creating) drug markets that set competitive prices, the result of which favors public access to essential drugs. This article approaches the topic of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs from the economic perspective by examining various regulatory models in order to evaluate and leverage <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug policy implementation options as a mechanism for battling some of the markets' specific weaknesses. The conclusion is that there is no single unequivocal method for promoting the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs, and that the most favorable way to integrate markets may be through a broad combination of alternatives. These alternatives are grouped and analyzed according to the market issues or challenges that must be overcome. Several options are then identified based on the degree of market consolidation to be obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002143','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002143"><span>Hydrodynamic design of <span class="hlt">generic</span> pump components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eastland, A. H. J.; Dodson, H. C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Inducer and impellar base geometries were defined for a fuel pump for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> generator cycle. Blade surface data and inlet flowfield definition are available in sufficient detail to allow computational fluid dynamic analysis of the two components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22929573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22929573"><span>[Medical mistakes due to <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal</p> <p>2012-08-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1231807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1231807"><span>GEOS-<span class="hlt">CORE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-06-24</p> <p>GEOS-<span class="hlt">CORE</span> is a code that integrates open source Libraries for linear algebra and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physical behaviors both implicitly and explicitly, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on <span class="hlt">generic</span> HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic and quasistatic damage problems; problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GEOS-<span class="hlt">CORE</span> also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations fo state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models, beyond the aforementioned linear elastic and quasi-static damage models, will not be part of the current release. GEOS-<span class="hlt">CORE</span>'s secondary applications include granular materials behavior under different load paths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002830','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002830"><span>Aerodynamic and acoustic effects of eliminating <span class="hlt">core</span> swirl from a full <span class="hlt">scale</span> 1.6 stage pressure ratio fan (QF-5A)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Woodward, R. P.; Acker, L. W.; Stakolich, E. G.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Fan QF-5A was a modification of fan QF-5 which had an additional <span class="hlt">core</span> stator and adjusted support struts to turn the <span class="hlt">core</span> exit flow from a 30 deg swirl to the axial direction. This modification was necessary to eliminate the impingement of the swirling <span class="hlt">core</span> flow on the axial support pylon of the NASA-Lewis Quiet Fan Facility that caused aerodynamic, acoustic and structural problems with the original fan stage at fan speeds greater than 85 percent of design. The redesigned fan QF-5A did obtain the design bypass ratio with an increased <span class="hlt">core</span> airflow suggesting that the flow problem was resolved. Acoustically, the redesigned stage showed a low frequency broadband noise reduction compared to the results for fan QF-5 at similar operating conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317637"><span>[<span class="hlt">Generic</span> drugs in the treatment of epilepsy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González de Dios, J; Ochoa-Sangrador, C; Sempere, A P</p> <p></p> <p>We discuss some controversial aspects with prescription of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs (GD) and the problems concerning bioequivalence, mainly in the case of drugs with non-linear pharmacokinetics and/or narrow therapeutic rank, like the antiepileptic drugs (AED). There is considerable debate about GD in the treatment of epilepsy, with clearly advantages (cost saving) and disadvantages (loss of seizure control or drug toxicity) in prescribing <span class="hlt">generics</span> anticonvulsants. We make a systematic review of the literature in primary (PubMed) and secondary (Tripdatabase and Cochrane Library) bibliographic databases in relation to GD and AED. The main information is about classical AED (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid and primidone) and we don't found studies in this area about the new AED. The level of evidence is, generally, weak, based on case-series and expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal (except in phenytoin with level of evidence moderate, based on some analytical studies). In Spain, at this moment, there are only two <span class="hlt">generic</span> AED, one-classical (carbamazepine) and one-new (gabapentin). The American Academy of Neurology and Epilepsy Foundation maintains that the individual and physician should be notified and give their consent before a switch in antiepileptic medications is made, whether it involves <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution for brand name products, or <span class="hlt">generic</span> to <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28838223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28838223"><span>Determination and variation of <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community in a two-stage full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> anaerobic reactor treating high-strength pharmaceutical wastewater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Haijun; Ye, Lin; Hu, Haidong; Zhang, Lulu; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>The functional characterization and temporal variation of anaerobic bacterial population is important to better understanding of microbial process of two-stage anaerobic reactor. However, due to the high diversity of anaerobic bacteria, close attention should be prioritized to be paid to the frequently abundant bacteria that were defined as <span class="hlt">core</span> bacteria and putatively functionally important. Here in this study, using Miseq sequencing technology, the <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community of 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was determined in a two-stage upflow blanket filter reactors treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community accounted for 61.66% of the total sequences and accurately predicted the sample location in the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) scatter plot as the total bacterial OTUs did. The <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community in the first-stage (FS) and second-stage (SS) reactors were generally distinct that FS <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community was indicated to be more related to higher-level fermentation process and SS <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community contained more microbes in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Moreover, the different responses of FS and SS <span class="hlt">core</span> bacterial community to the temperature shock and influent disturbance caused by solid contamination were fully investigated. Co-occurring analysis at the order level implied that Bacteroidales, Selenomonadales, Anaerolineales, Syneristales and Thermotogales might play keystone roles in anaerobic digestion due to their high abundance and tight correlation with other microbes. These findings advanced our knowledge about the <span class="hlt">core</span> bacteria community and its temporal variability for future comparative research and the improvement of the two-stage anaerobic system operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ExFl...41..543F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ExFl...41..543F"><span>Structure of the jet from a <span class="hlt">generic</span> catheter tip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Foust, J.; Rockwell, D.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">generic</span> feature of a wide variety of central venous catheters, which are typically located within the superior vena cava (SVC), is a jet from a side hole of the catheter tip. Particle image velocimetry is employed in conjunction with a <span class="hlt">scaled</span>-up water facility, in order to characterize the structure of the jet as a function of dimensionless hole diameter and jet velocity ratio. Quantitative patterns in the radial and crossflow planes of the catheter-SVC system define the jet evolution. It has distinctive features, relative to the classical jet in a crossflow, which issues from a small opening in a planar surface into a region of large extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573841"><span>The diffusion of <span class="hlt">generics</span> after patent expiry in Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Stargardt, Tom</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>To identify the influences on the diffusion of <span class="hlt">generics</span> after patent expiry, we analyzed 65 <span class="hlt">generic</span> entries using prescription data of a large German sickness fund between 2007 and 2012 in a sales model. According to theory, several elements are responsible for technology diffusion: (1) time reflecting the rate of adaption within the social system, (2) communication channels, and (3) the degree of incremental innovation, e.g., the modifications of existing active ingredient's strength. We investigated diffusion in two ways: (1) <span class="hlt">generic</span> market share (percentage of <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescriptions of all prescriptions of a substance) and, (2) <span class="hlt">generic</span> sales quantity (number of units sold) over time. We specified mixed regression models. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> diffusion takes considerable time. An average <span class="hlt">generic</span> market share of about 75 % was achieved not until 48 months. There was a positive effect of time since <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry on <span class="hlt">generic</span> market share (p < 0.001) and sales (p < 0.001). Variables describing the communication channels and the degree of innovation influenced <span class="hlt">generic</span> market share (mostly p < 0.001), but not <span class="hlt">generic</span> sales quantity. Market structure, e.g., the number of <span class="hlt">generic</span> manufacturers (p < 0.001) and prices influenced both <span class="hlt">generic</span> market share and sales. Imperfections in <span class="hlt">generic</span> uptake through informational cascades seem to be largely present. Third-party payers could enhance means to promote <span class="hlt">generic</span> diffusion to amplify savings through <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf"><span>42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (a) Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf"><span>42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (a) Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf"><span>42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (a) Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf"><span>42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (a) Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol4-sec447-506.pdf"><span>42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. (a) Authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized <span class="hlt">generic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MRE.....4g5044K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MRE.....4g5044K"><span>Gram-<span class="hlt">scale</span> synthesis, thermal stability, magnetic properties, and microwave absorption application of extremely small Co-C <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Liang, Bingbing; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; Ma, Songshan; He, Jun; Wang, Shiliang</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Co-C <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized in large quantity (in grams) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with analytical cobalt (III) acetylacetonate as precursor. Extremely small nanoparticles with an average <span class="hlt">core</span> diameter of 3 nm and a shell thickness of 1-2 nm, and relatively large nanoparticles with an average <span class="hlt">core</span> diameter of 23 nm and a shell thickness of 5-20 nm were obtained, depending on the deposition regions. The 3 nm Co nanocores are thermally stable up to 200 °C in air atmosphere, and do not exhibit visible structural and morphological changes after exposure to air at room temperature for 180 d. The extremely small <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanoparticles exhibit typical superparamagnetic behaviors with a small coercivity of 5 Oe, while the relative large nanoparticles are a typical ferromagnetic material with a high coercivity of 584 Oe. In the microwave absorption tests, a low reflection loss (RL) of  -80.3 dB and large effective bandwidth (frequency range for \\text{RL}≤slant -10~ dB) of 10.1 GHz are obtained in the nanoparticle-paraffin composites with appropriate layer thicknesses and particle contents. This suggests that the as-synthesized Co-C <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanoparticles have a high potential as the microwave-absorbing materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......155A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......155A"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">core</span> simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdel-Khalik, Hany Samy</p> <p></p> <p> numerical solutions to demanding computational models, matrix methods are often employed to produce approximately equivalent discretized computational models that may be manipulated further by computers. The discretized models are described by matrix operators that are often rank-deficient, i.e. ill-posed. We introduce a novel set of matrix algorithms, denoted by Efficient Subspace Methods (ESM), intended to approximate the action of very large, dense, and numerically rank-deficient matrix operators. We demonstrate that significant reductions in both computational and storage burdens can be attained for a typical BWR <span class="hlt">core</span> simulator adaption problem without compromising the quality of the adaption. We demonstrate robust and high fidelity adaption utilizing a virtual <span class="hlt">core</span>, e.g. <span class="hlt">core</span> simulator predicted observables with the virtual <span class="hlt">core</span> either based upon a modified version of the <span class="hlt">core</span> simulator whose input data are to be adjusted or an entirely different <span class="hlt">core</span> simulator. Further, one specific application of ESM is demonstrated, that is being the determination of the uncertainties of important <span class="hlt">core</span> attributes such as <span class="hlt">core</span> reactivity and <span class="hlt">core</span> power distribution due to the available ENDF/B cross-sections uncertainties. The use of ESM is however not limited to adaptive <span class="hlt">core</span> simulation techniques only, but a wide range of engineering applications may easily benefit from the introduced algorithms, e.g. machine learning and information retrieval techniques highly depends on finding low rank approximations to large <span class="hlt">scale</span> matrices. In the appendix, we present a stand-alone paper that presents a generalized framework for ESM, including the mathematical theory behind the algorithms and several demonstrative applications that are central to many engineering arenas---(a) sensitivity analysis, (b) parameter estimation, and (c) uncertainty analysis. We choose to do so to allow other engineers, applied mathematicians, and scientists from other scientific disciplines to take direct advantage of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23885646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23885646"><span>Clopidogrel <span class="hlt">generic</span> formulations in the era of new antiplatelets: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsoumani, Maria E; Kalantzi, Kallirroi I; Goudevenos, Ioannis A; Tselepis, Alexandros D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Clopidogrel is a thienopyridine that selectively and irreversibly inhibits the ADP purinergic receptor P2Y12 and the subsequent ADP-mediated platelet activation. Clopidogrel has been approved for clinical use as clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) salt. The clinical usefulness of clopidogrel bisulfate salt has been proved in a wide variety of large <span class="hlt">scale</span> clinical trials, thus clopidogrel bisulfate has been extensively used in a large spectrum of patients been under thrombotic risk. Recently, several <span class="hlt">generic</span> clopidogrel formulations have been approved for clinical use. Consequently, clopidogrel is currently a cost-effective antiplatelet agent. Only small studies have compared the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various clopidogrel <span class="hlt">generic</span> salt formulations with the innovator bisulfate salt. In addition few data are available concerning the clinical efficacy and safety of these <span class="hlt">generic</span> clopidogrel formulations in order to guide clinicians in deciding when <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution is appropriate. The aim of this review is to summarize the physicochemical properties as well as the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> clopidogrel salts. We also critically present existing data on the clinical efficacy and safety of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> clopidogrel formulations compared with the innovator clopidogrel bisulfate salt in patients with cardiovascular disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4440425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4440425"><span>Understanding and perceptions of final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students about <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: a quantitative insight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamad Izham Mohamad; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Sharrad, Adheed Khalid; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>General objective To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type <span class="hlt">scale</span> questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.62. Results Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as <span class="hlt">generic</span> equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). Conclusion The current study identified a positive perception toward <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines but also gaps in the understanding of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines and increase the <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicine use in Pakistan. PMID:26028981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028981"><span>Understanding and perceptions of final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students about <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: a quantitative insight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamad Izham Mohamad; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Sharrad, Adheed Khalid; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan. A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type <span class="hlt">scale</span> questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.62. Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as <span class="hlt">generic</span> equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). The current study identified a positive perception toward <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines but also gaps in the understanding of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines and increase the <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicine use in Pakistan.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MSSP...28..622W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MSSP...28..622W"><span>A <span class="hlt">generic</span> probabilistic framework for structural health prognostics and uncertainty management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Pingfeng; Youn, Byeng D.; Hu, Chao</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Structural health prognostics can be broadly applied to various engineered artifacts in an engineered system. However, techniques and methodologies for health prognostics become application-specific. This study thus aims at formulating a <span class="hlt">generic</span> framework of structural health prognostics, which is composed of four <span class="hlt">core</span> elements: (i) a <span class="hlt">generic</span> health index system with synthesized health index (SHI), (ii) a <span class="hlt">generic</span> offline learning scheme using the sparse Bayes learning (SBL) technique, (iii) a <span class="hlt">generic</span> online prediction scheme using the similarity-based interpolation (SBI), and (iv) an uncertainty propagation map for the prognostic uncertainty management. The SHI enables the use of heterogeneous sensory signals; the sparseness feature employing only a few neighboring kernel functions enables the real-time prediction of remaining useful lives (RULs) regardless of data size; the SBI predicts the RULs with the background health knowledge obtained under uncertain manufacturing and operation conditions; and the uncertainty propagation map enables the predicted RULs to be loaded with their statistical characteristics. The proposed <span class="hlt">generic</span> framework of structural health prognostics is thus applicable to different engineered systems and its effectiveness is demonstrated with two cases studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960021249','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960021249"><span>A <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (<span class="hlt">Generically</span> Used Expert Scheduling System)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (<span class="hlt">Generically</span> Used Expert Scheduling System).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523947"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">generic</span> versus non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback on motor learning in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Drews, Ricardo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback refers to a specific event and implies that performance is malleable, while <span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback implies that task performance reflects an inherent ability. The present study examined the influences of <span class="hlt">generic</span> versus non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback on motor performance and learning in 10-year-old children. In the first experiment, using soccer ball kicking at a target as a task, providing participants with <span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback resulted in worse performance than providing non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback, after both groups received negative feedback. The second experiment measured more permanent effects. Results of a retention test, performed one day after practicing a throwing task, showed that participants who received non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback during practice outperformed the <span class="hlt">generic</span> feedback group, after receiving a negative feedback statement. The findings demonstrate the importance of the wording of feedback. Even though different positive feedback statements may not have an immediate influence on performance, they can affect performance, and presumably individuals' motivation, when performance is (purportedly) poor. Feedback implying that performance is malleable, rather than due to an inherent ability, seems to have the potential to inoculate learners against setbacks--a situation frequently encountered in the context of motor performance and learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+relativity&pg=6&id=EJ388142','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+relativity&pg=6&id=EJ388142"><span>Using Masculine <span class="hlt">Generics</span>: Does <span class="hlt">Generic</span> He' Increase Male Bias in the User's Imagery?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Mykol C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Studies the effect of the use of the male <span class="hlt">generic</span> on imagery. Finds that male bias is higher in the masculine <span class="hlt">generic</span> condition than in the unbiased condition, and that male subjects are more male-biased than female subjects. Discusses findings in terms of linguistic relativity, prototypicality, and activation of multiple meanings. (FMW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RCD....21..665B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RCD....21..665B"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> perturbations of linear integrable Hamiltonian systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bounemoura, Abed</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we investigate perturbations of linear integrable Hamiltonian systems, with the aim of establishing results in the spirit of the KAM theorem (preservation of invariant tori), the Nekhoroshev theorem (stability of the action variables for a finite but long interval of time) and Arnold diffusion (instability of the action variables). Whether the frequency of the integrable system is resonant or not, it is known that the KAM theorem does not hold true for all perturbations; when the frequency is resonant, it is the Nekhoroshev theorem that does not hold true for all perturbations. Our first result deals with the resonant case: we prove a result of instability for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> perturbation, which implies that the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem do not hold true even for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> perturbation. The case where the frequency is nonresonant is more subtle. Our second result shows that for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> perturbation the KAM theorem holds true. Concerning the Nekhrosohev theorem, it is known that one has stability over an exponentially long (with respect to some function of ɛ -1) interval of time and that this cannot be improved for all perturbations. Our third result shows that for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> perturbation one has stability for a doubly exponentially long interval of time. The only question left unanswered is whether one has instability for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> perturbation (necessarily after this very long interval of time).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13679734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13679734"><span>[Analysis of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug supply in France].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The list of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between <span class="hlt">generic</span> and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between <span class="hlt">generics</span> and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the <span class="hlt">generic</span> market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840741"><span>A lifeline to treatment: the role of Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> manufacturers in supplying antiretroviral medicines to developing countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waning, Brenda; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Moon, Suerie</p> <p>2010-09-14</p> <p>Indian manufacturers of <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiretroviral (ARV) medicines facilitated the rapid <span class="hlt">scale</span> up of HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries though provision of low-priced, quality-assured medicines. The legal framework in India that facilitated such production, however, is changing with implementation of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, and intellectual property measures being discussed in regional and bilateral free trade agreement negotiations. Reliable quantitative estimates of the Indian role in <span class="hlt">generic</span> global ARV supply are needed to understand potential impacts of such measures on HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries. We utilized transactional data containing 17,646 donor-funded purchases of ARV tablets made by 115 low- and middle-income countries from 2003 to 2008 to measure market share, purchase trends and prices of Indian-produced <span class="hlt">generic</span> ARVs compared with those of non-Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> and brand ARVs. Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> manufacturers dominate the ARV market, accounting for more than 80% of annual purchase volumes. Among paediatric ARV and adult nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor markets, Indian-produced <span class="hlt">generics</span> accounted for 91% and 89% of 2008 global purchase volumes, respectively. From 2003 to 2008, the number of Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> manufactures supplying ARVs increased from four to 10 while the number of Indian-manufactured <span class="hlt">generic</span> products increased from 14 to 53. Ninety-six of 100 countries purchased Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> ARVs in 2008, including high HIV-burden sub-Saharan African countries. Indian-produced <span class="hlt">generic</span> ARVs used in first-line regimens were consistently and considerably less expensive than non-Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> and innovator ARVs. Key ARVs newly recommended by the World Health Organization are three to four times more expensive than older regimens. Indian <span class="hlt">generic</span> producers supply the majority of ARVs in developing countries. Future <span class="hlt">scale</span> up using newly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703627"><span>Accuracy of <span class="hlt">generic</span> musculoskeletal models in predicting the functional roles of muscles in human gait.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa, Tomas A; Baker, Richard; Graham, H Kerr; Pandy, Marcus G</p> <p>2011-07-28</p> <p>Biomechanical assessments of muscle function are often performed using a <span class="hlt">generic</span> musculoskeletal model created from anatomical measurements obtained from cadavers. Understanding the validity of using <span class="hlt">generic</span> models to study movement biomechanics is critical, especially when such models are applied to analyze the walking patterns of persons with impaired mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of <span class="hlt">scaled-generic</span> models in determining the moment arms and functional roles of the lower-limb muscles during gait. The functional role of a muscle was described by its potential to contribute to the acceleration of a joint or the acceleration of the whole-body center of mass. A muscle's potential acceleration was defined as the acceleration induced by a unit of muscle force. Dynamic simulations of walking were generated for four children with cerebral palsy and five age-matched controls. Each subject was represented by a <span class="hlt">scaled-generic</span> model and a model developed from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Calculations obtained from the <span class="hlt">scaled-generic</span> model of each subject were evaluated against those derived from the corresponding MR-based model. Substantial differences were found in the muscle moment arms computed using the two models. These differences propagated to calculations of muscle potential accelerations, but predictions of muscle function (i.e., the direction in which a muscle accelerated a joint or the center of mass and the magnitude of the muscle's potential acceleration relative to that of other muscles) were consistent between the two modeling techniques. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">scaled-generic</span> models and image-based models yield similar assessments of muscle function in both normal and pathological gait. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED553290.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED553290.pdf"><span>Enacting Common <span class="hlt">Core</span> Instruction: How Intermediate Unit 13 Leveraged Its Position as an Educational Service Agency to Implement and <span class="hlt">Scale</span> the LDC Initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Research For Action, 2014</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Funded by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) and Math Design Collaborative (MDC) offer a set of instructional and formative assessment tools in literacy and math, which were developed to help educators better prepare all students to meet the Common <span class="hlt">Core</span> State Standards (CCSS) and succeed beyond high…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054348&hterms=Geodynamo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGeodynamo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054348&hterms=Geodynamo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGeodynamo"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Core</span> Dynamics Modeling to <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Mantle Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Weijia</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Observations have demonstrated that length of day (LOD) variation on decadal time <span class="hlt">scales</span> results from exchange of axial angular momentum between the solid mantle and the <span class="hlt">core</span>. There are in general four <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle interaction mechanisms that couple the <span class="hlt">core</span> and the mantle. Of which, three have been suggested likely the dominant coupling mechanism for the decadal <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle angular momentum exchange, namely, gravitational <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle coupling arising from density anomalies in the mantle and in the <span class="hlt">core</span> (including the inner <span class="hlt">core</span>), the electromagnetic coupling arising from Lorentz force in the electrically conducting lower mantle (e.g. D-layer), and the topographic coupling arising from non-hydrostatic pressure acting on the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle boundary (CMB) topography. In the past decades, most effort has been on estimating the coupling torques from surface geomagnetic observations (kinematic approach), which has provided insights on the <span class="hlt">core</span> dynamical processes. In the meantime, it also creates questions and concerns on approximations in the studies that may invalidate the corresponding conclusions. The most serious problem is perhaps the approximations that are inconsistent with dynamical processes in the <span class="hlt">core</span>, such as inconsistencies between the <span class="hlt">core</span> surface flow beneath the CMB and the CMB topography, and that between the D-layer electric conductivity and the approximations on toroidal field at the CMB. These inconsistencies can only be addressed with numerical <span class="hlt">core</span> dynamics modeling. In the past few years, we applied our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent and Three-dimensional) <span class="hlt">core</span> dynamics model to study <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle interactions together with geodynamo simulation, aiming at assessing the effect of the dynamical inconsistencies in the kinematic studies on <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle coupling torques. We focus on topographic and electromagnetic <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle couplings and find that, for the topographic coupling, the consistency between the <span class="hlt">core</span> flow and the CMB topography is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054348&hterms=inner+core&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinner%2Bcore','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054348&hterms=inner+core&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinner%2Bcore"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Core</span> Dynamics Modeling to <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Mantle Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Weijia</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Observations have demonstrated that length of day (LOD) variation on decadal time <span class="hlt">scales</span> results from exchange of axial angular momentum between the solid mantle and the <span class="hlt">core</span>. There are in general four <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle interaction mechanisms that couple the <span class="hlt">core</span> and the mantle. Of which, three have been suggested likely the dominant coupling mechanism for the decadal <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle angular momentum exchange, namely, gravitational <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle coupling arising from density anomalies in the mantle and in the <span class="hlt">core</span> (including the inner <span class="hlt">core</span>), the electromagnetic coupling arising from Lorentz force in the electrically conducting lower mantle (e.g. D-layer), and the topographic coupling arising from non-hydrostatic pressure acting on the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle boundary (CMB) topography. In the past decades, most effort has been on estimating the coupling torques from surface geomagnetic observations (kinematic approach), which has provided insights on the <span class="hlt">core</span> dynamical processes. In the meantime, it also creates questions and concerns on approximations in the studies that may invalidate the corresponding conclusions. The most serious problem is perhaps the approximations that are inconsistent with dynamical processes in the <span class="hlt">core</span>, such as inconsistencies between the <span class="hlt">core</span> surface flow beneath the CMB and the CMB topography, and that between the D-layer electric conductivity and the approximations on toroidal field at the CMB. These inconsistencies can only be addressed with numerical <span class="hlt">core</span> dynamics modeling. In the past few years, we applied our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent and Three-dimensional) <span class="hlt">core</span> dynamics model to study <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle interactions together with geodynamo simulation, aiming at assessing the effect of the dynamical inconsistencies in the kinematic studies on <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle coupling torques. We focus on topographic and electromagnetic <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle couplings and find that, for the topographic coupling, the consistency between the <span class="hlt">core</span> flow and the CMB topography is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMaPh.344..427K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMaPh.344..427K"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kocić, Saša</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are <span class="hlt">generically</span>, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are <span class="hlt">generically</span> {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are <span class="hlt">generically</span> {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QuIP...15.3383W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QuIP...15.3383W"><span>Quantum teleportation of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> two-photon state with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We present a scheme for teleporting a <span class="hlt">generic</span> two-photon polarization state by using two EPR states as quantum channel based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. As the <span class="hlt">core</span> component of the present framework, the quantum nondemolition detector based on the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity acts as an EPR entangler as well as the Bell-state analyzer. This makes the teleportation protocol be achieved near deterministically and be feasible in the current experimental technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023539"><span>The formal verification of <span class="hlt">generic</span> interpreters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of <span class="hlt">generic</span> interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348909','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348909"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> programming in POOMA and PETE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crotinger, J.A.; Cummings, J.C.; Haney, S.W.; Humphrey, W.F.; Karmesin, S.R.; Reynders, J.V.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.J.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>POOMA is a C++ framework for developing portable scientific applications for serial and parallel computers using high-level physical abstractions. PETE is the expression template library used by POOMA. This paper discusses <span class="hlt">generic</span> programming techniques that are used to achieve flexibility and high performance in POOMA and PETE. POOMA uses an engine class that factors the data representation out of its array classes. PETE`s expression templates are used to build up and operate efficiently on expressions. PETE itself uses <span class="hlt">generic</span> techniques to adapt to a variety of client-class interfaces, and to provide a powerful and flexible compile-time expression-tree traversal mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2719790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2719790"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Entry, Reformulations, and Promotion of SSRIs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Donohue, Julie M.; Koss, Catherine; Berndt, Ernst R.; Frank, Richard G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous research has shown that a manufacturer’s promotional strategy for a brand-name drug is typically affected by <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry. However, little is known about how newer strategies to extend patent life, including product reformulation introduction or obtaining approval to market for additional clinical indications, influence promotion. Objective To examine the relationship between promotional expenditures, <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry, reformulation entry, and new indication approval. Study Design/Setting We used quarterly data on national product-level promotional spending (including expenditures for physician detailing and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), and the retail value of free samples distributed in physician offices) for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) over the period 1997 through 2004. We estimated econometric models of detailing, DTCA, and total quarterly promotional expenditures as a function of the timing of <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry, entry of new product formulations, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for new clinical indications for existing medications in the SSRI class. Main Outcome Measure Expenditures by pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotion of antidepressant medications. Results Over the period 1997–2004, there was considerable variation in the composition of promotional expenditures across the SSRIs. Promotional expenditures for the original brand molecule decreased dramatically when a reformulation of the molecule was introduced. Promotional spending (both total and detailing alone) for a specific molecule was generally lower after <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry than before, although the effect of <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry on promotional spending appears to be closely linked with the choice of product reformulation strategy pursued by the manufacturer. Detailing expenditures for Paxil were increased after the manufacturer received FDA approval to market the drug for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the likelihood of DTCA outlays</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-6225.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-6225.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.6225 - Activities eligible for funding under <span class="hlt">Core</span> Program Cooperative Agreements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions <span class="hlt">Core</span> Program Cooperative Agreements § 35.6225... health risks at hazardous waste sites (including but not limited to the development of <span class="hlt">generic</span> health and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-22/pdf/2013-09370.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-22/pdf/2013-09370.pdf"><span>78 FR 23743 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Clearance for Questionnaire Pretesting...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-22</p> <p>... Questionnaire Pretesting Research AGENCY: Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... of small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> questionnaire pretesting activities under this <span class="hlt">generic</span> clearance. A block of hours... research program will be used by the Census Bureau and survey sponsors to improve questionnaires...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22020485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22020485"><span><span class="hlt">GENERIC</span> MODEL FOR MAGNETIC EXPLOSIONS APPLIED TO SOLAR FLARES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melrose, D. B.</p> <p>2012-04-10</p> <p>An accepted model for magnetospheric substorms is proposed as the basis for a <span class="hlt">generic</span> model for magnetic explosions and is applied to solar flares. The model involves widely separated energy-release and particle-acceleration regions, with energy transported Alfvenically between them. On a global <span class="hlt">scale</span>, these regions are coupled by a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> current that is set up during the explosion by redirection of pre-existing current associated with the stored magnetic energy. The explosion-related current is driven by an electromotive force (EMF) due to the changing magnetic flux enclosed by this current. The current path and the EMF are identified for an idealized quadrupolar model for a flare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26693587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26693587"><span>Supersaturation-controlled surface structure evolution of Pd@Pt <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanocrystals: enhancement of the ORR activity at a sub-10 nm <span class="hlt">scale</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qi, Kun; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang</p> <p>2016-01-21</p> <p>Here, we designed and implemented a facile strategy for controlling the surface evolution of Pd@Pt <span class="hlt">core</span>-shell nanostructures by simply adjusting the volume of OH(-) to control the reducing ability of ascorbic acid and finally manipulating the supersaturation in the reaction system. The surface structure of the obtained Pd@Pt bimetallic nanocrystals transformed from a Pt {111} facet-exposed island shell to a conformal Pt {100} facet-exposed shell by increasing the pH value. The as-prepared well aligned Pd@Pt <span class="hlt">core</span>-island shell nanocubes present both significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and favorable long-term stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073970"><span>Estimated <span class="hlt">generic</span> prices for novel treatments for drug-resistant tuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gotham, Dzintars; Fortunak, Joseph; Pozniak, Anton; Khoo, Saye; Cooke, Graham; Nytko, Frederick E; Hill, Andrew</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The estimated worldwide annual incidence of MDR-TB is 480 000, representing 5% of TB incidence, but 20% of mortality. Multiple drugs have recently been developed or repurposed for the treatment of MDR-TB. Currently, treatment for MDR-TB costs thousands of dollars per course. To estimate <span class="hlt">generic</span> prices for novel TB drugs that would be achievable given large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> competitive manufacture. Prices for linezolid, moxifloxacin and clofazimine were estimated based on per-kilogram prices of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Other costs were added, including formulation, packaging and a profit margin. The projected costs for sutezolid were estimated to be equivalent to those for linezolid, based on chemical similarity. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> prices for bedaquiline, delamanid and pretomanid were estimated by assessing routes of synthesis, costs/kg of chemical reagents, routes of synthesis and per-step yields. Costing algorithms reflected variable regulatory requirements and efficiency of <span class="hlt">scale</span> based on demand, and were validated by testing predictive ability against widely available TB medicines. Estimated <span class="hlt">generic</span> prices were US$8-$17/month for bedaquiline, $5-$16/month for delamanid, $11-$34/month for pretomanid, $4-$9/month for linezolid, $4-$9/month for sutezolid, $4-$11/month for clofazimine and $4-$8/month for moxifloxacin. The estimated <span class="hlt">generic</span> prices were 87%-94% lower than the current lowest available prices for bedaquiline, 95%-98% for delamanid and 94%-97% for linezolid. Estimated <span class="hlt">generic</span> prices were $168-$395 per course for the STREAM trial modified Bangladesh regimens (current costs $734-$1799), $53-$276 for pretomanid-based three-drug regimens and $238-$507 for a delamanid-based four-drug regimen. Competitive large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">generic</span> manufacture could allow supplies of treatment for 5-10 times more MDR-TB cases within current procurement budgets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179932"><span>Should Physicians be Encouraged to use <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Names and to Prescribe <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Drugs?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riaz, Haris; Krasuski, Richard A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>While using the brand names seems like a trivial issue at the outset, using these names is inherently problematic. Cardiovascular drugs remain the most commonly prescribed drugs by the physicians. The junior doctors are likely to introject practices of their seniors and consequently to reciprocate from the experiences learnt from their preceptors. Using the <span class="hlt">generic</span> names may be one way to facilitate prescription of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs who have a better cost profile and similar efficacy than the more expensive branded drugs. In this editorial, we have outlined several arguments to suggest the importance of using the <span class="hlt">generic</span> names in academic discussions and clinical documentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035918','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035918"><span>Gas hydrate characterization and grain-<span class="hlt">scale</span> imaging of recovered <span class="hlt">cores</span> from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stern, L.A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, J.C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of <span class="hlt">core</span> recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously <span class="hlt">cored</span> from 606.5. m to 760.1. m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9. m and 661.0. m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70-75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20-120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the <span class="hlt">cores</span>, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas. ?? 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042568','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042568"><span>Gas hydrate characterization and grain-<span class="hlt">scale</span> imaging of recovered <span class="hlt">cores</span> from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, John C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of <span class="hlt">core</span> recovered from the BPXA–DOE–USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously <span class="hlt">cored</span> from 606.5 m to 760.1 m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9 m and 661.0 m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70–75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20–120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the <span class="hlt">cores</span>, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12457372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12457372"><span>The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian <span class="hlt">generic</span> pharmaceuticals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hollis, Aidan</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first <span class="hlt">generic</span> competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first <span class="hlt">generic</span> entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among <span class="hlt">generics</span>) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-<span class="hlt">generic</span> equivalents as a preemptive strike against true <span class="hlt">generic</span> competitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20721822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20721822"><span>European <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Medicines Association (EGA)--16th Annual Conference.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kennedy, Bob</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The 16th Annual Conference of the European <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Medicines Association (EGA), held in Rome, included topics covering new developments and challenges in the <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines industry in Europe. This conference report highlights selected presentations on developments for <span class="hlt">generics</span> in the Italian healthcare system, a summary of the EGA pharmaceutical sector inquiry on the delayed market entry of <span class="hlt">generics</span>, developments and trends in the European <span class="hlt">generics</span> market, the evolution and growth of the global <span class="hlt">generics</span> industry, and a CEO perspective on the challenges facing the industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27917846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27917846"><span>Knowledge and attitudes of physicians and pharmacists towards the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines in Bosnia and Herzegovina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Čatić, Tarik; Avdagić, Lejla; Martinović, Igor</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Aim To investigate and assess knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists and physicians towards <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs prescription in order to evaluate current trends, obstacles to prescribe/dispense <span class="hlt">generics</span> and suggest possible improvements of rational and economic prescribing having in mind scarce public budgets for drugs. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 450 primary care physicians (prescribers) and pharmacists in four major cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla and Mostar) during the period between January and March 2016 was conducted. The survey (questionnaire) was developed and physicians' and pharmacists' perception was examined using the 5-point Likert <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Descriptive statistics was used to examine respondents' characteristics and their responses to survey questions. The respondents perception based on different characteristics was assessed using ordinal logistic regression. Results Generally, positive attitudes towards <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs were found. Majority of respondents, 392 (87.0%) considered <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs the same as originators and they could be mutually substituted. Physicians were more likely to prescribe branded drugs, 297 (66.6%), even 391 (86.8%) were aware of <span class="hlt">generic</span> alternatives. Respondents believed that patients considered <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs less effective, 204 (45.4%), and 221 (49.0%) disapproved <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that further education and more information about benefits of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs should be provided to key stakeholders including patients. Also, clearer <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs policies should be introduced in order to improve <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescribing and potentially improve access and optimize pharmaceutical public expenditures. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Paul%2c+AND+Alice&pg=7&id=EJ613364','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Paul%2c+AND+Alice&pg=7&id=EJ613364"><span>The National Engineering Education Delivery System: A Digital Library for Engineering Education [and] Reference Linking in a Hybrid Library Environment (Part 1: Frameworks for Linking & Part 2:SFX, a <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Linking Solution) [and] The State of the Dublin <span class="hlt">Core</span> Metadata Initiative [and] Distributed Information and Computation in Scientific and Engineering Environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muramatsu, Brandon; Agogino, Alice M.; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Hochstenbach, Patrick; Weibel, Stuart; Patrikalakis, Nicholas M.; Fortier, Paul J.; Ioannidis, Yannis E.; Nikolaou, Christos N.; Robinson, Allan R.; Rossignac, Jarek R.; Vinacua, Alvar; Abrams, Stephen L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes NEEDS (National Engineering Education Delivery System), a distributed server architecture developed to enable new pedagogical models based on Internet-mediated learning environments; linking solutions for electronic library services; Dublin <span class="hlt">Core</span> updates citing relationship to other metadata efforts; and the computational, structural and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1054.photos.046338p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1054.photos.046338p/"><span>24. A <span class="hlt">CORE</span> WORKER DISPLAYS THE <span class="hlt">CORE</span> BOX AND <span class="hlt">CORES</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>24. A <span class="hlt">CORE</span> WORKER DISPLAYS THE <span class="hlt">CORE</span> BOX AND <span class="hlt">CORES</span> FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A <span class="hlt">CORE</span> BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=strategies+AND+teaching+AND+learning+AND+nursing&pg=2&id=EJ1061972','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=strategies+AND+teaching+AND+learning+AND+nursing&pg=2&id=EJ1061972"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Accelerated Nursing Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year <span class="hlt">generic</span> accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SECURITY+AND+STUDIES+AND+APPROACHES&pg=7&id=ED466757','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SECURITY+AND+STUDIES+AND+APPROACHES&pg=7&id=ED466757"><span>Focussing on <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Skills in Training Packages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dawe, Susan</p> <p></p> <p>A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=push+AND+pull+AND+theory&pg=2&id=EJ801340','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=push+AND+pull+AND+theory&pg=2&id=EJ801340"><span>Baldrige Theory into Practice: A <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arif, Mohammed</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a <span class="hlt">generic</span> framework for MBQA that can be used by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795561.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795561.pdf"><span>Using a <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Invasion Game for Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harvey, Stephen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Tactical approaches to teaching are, arguably, still under-utilized in physical education settings, and this may be due to the lack of pertinent assessment materials. The purpose of this article is to present a <span class="hlt">generic</span> invasion-game unit and to link it to a variety of assessment materials using three tactical components from the Game Performance…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED297183.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED297183.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glauber, Joseph W.</p> <p></p> <p>The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue <span class="hlt">generic</span> certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004663','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004663"><span>A <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Biokinetic Model for C-14</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Manger, Ryan P</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">generic</span> biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the treatment of systemic radiocarbon assumes uniform distribution of activity in tissues and a biological half-time of 40 d. This model is intended to generate cautiously high estimates of dose per unit intake of C-14 and, in fact, generally predicts a much higher effective dose than systemic models that have been developed on the basis of biokinetic studies of specific carbon compounds. The simplistic model formulation precludes its application as a bioassay model or adjustment to fit case-specific bioassay data. This paper proposes a new <span class="hlt">generic</span> biokinetic model for systemic radiocarbon that is less conservative than the current ICRP model but maintains sufficient conservatism to overestimate the effective dose coefficients generated by most radiocarbon-compound-specific models. The proposed model includes two systemic pools with different biological half-times representing an initial systemic form of absorbed radiocarbon, a submodel describing the behaviour of labelled carbon dioxide produced in vivo, and three excretion pathways: breath, urine and faeces. <span class="hlt">Generic</span> excretion rates along each path are based on multi-phase excretion curves observed in experimental studies of radiocarbons. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> model structure is designed so that the user may adjust the level of dosimetric conservatism to fit the information at hand and may adjust parameter values for consistency with subject-specific or site-specific bioassay data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=montrul&pg=4&id=EJ761582','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=montrul&pg=4&id=EJ761582"><span><span class="hlt">Genericity</span> and Aspect in L2 Acquisition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Slabakova, Roumyana; Montrul, Silvina</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this experimental study, we focus on the following semantic universal: if a habitual clause reading, then <span class="hlt">generic</span> pronominal subject; if an episodic clause reading, then specific pronominal subject. We argue that although this set of two conditionals is a universal property of all natural languages, English-speaking second-language (L2)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+sample+AND+test&id=EJ1061972','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+sample+AND+test&id=EJ1061972"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Accelerated Nursing Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year <span class="hlt">generic</span> accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ903907.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ903907.pdf"><span>A Critique of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Learning Outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Stephen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Learning Outcomes (GLOs) are intended to enable cultural heritage organisations to be aware of the effectiveness of the environment for learning that they provide and to provide quantitative evidence of the impact of museums libraries and archives on learning, nationally. This paper presents a logical critique of their strengths and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3062.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3062.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3062 - Haloarylalkylketoester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3062 Haloarylalkylketoester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=push+AND+pull+AND+theory&pg=2&id=EJ801340','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=push+AND+pull+AND+theory&pg=2&id=EJ801340"><span>Baldrige Theory into Practice: A <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arif, Mohammed</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a <span class="hlt">generic</span> framework for MBQA that can be used by…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=team+AND+working+AND+skills+AND+workplace&pg=3&id=ED466757','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=team+AND+working+AND+skills+AND+workplace&pg=3&id=ED466757"><span>Focussing on <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Skills in Training Packages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dawe, Susan</p> <p></p> <p>A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2893359','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2893359"><span>Does the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life Differ Based on <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Versus Disease-Targeted Instruments?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Snook, Erin M.; Gliottoni, Rachael C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background There has been an increased interest in the study of physical activity and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic disease conditions. The investigations have used either <span class="hlt">generic</span> or disease-targeted instruments for measuring QOL and HRQL, but have not examined differences in the associations as a function of the types of instruments. Purpose The present study examined the associations among physical activity, QOL, and HRQL using <span class="hlt">generic</span> and disease-targeted instruments in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Participants were 292 individuals with MS who wore an accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Multiple Sclerosis Impact <span class="hlt">Scale</span>-29 (MSIS-29), Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (LMSQOL), Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12), and Satisfaction With Life <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (SWLS). Results Accelerometer counts and GLTEQ scores had similarly sized correlations with scores from <span class="hlt">generic</span> (SF-12) and the disease-specific (MSIS-29)measures of HRQL and <span class="hlt">generic</span> (SWLS) and the disease-specific (LMSQOL) measures of QOL. Path analysis indicated a similar pattern of directional relationships between accelerometer counts and GLTEQ scores with physical and mental HRQL and, in turn, physical and mental HRQL with QOL using <span class="hlt">generic</span> and disease-targeted instruments. Conclusions Our results suggest that in cross-sectional analysis, physical activity is similarly related with QOL and HRQL using <span class="hlt">generic</span> and disease-targeted instruments in persons with MS. PMID:18719976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152781"><span>The Portuguese <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines market: a policy analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simoens, Steven</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>This study aims to conduct a descriptive analysis of the policy environment surrounding the <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines retail market in Portugal. The policy analysis focuses on supply-side measures (i.e. market access, pricing, reference-pricing and reimbursement of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines) and demand-side measures (i.e. incentives for physicians to prescribe, for pharmacists to dispense and for patients to use <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines). The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting <span class="hlt">generic</span> for originator medicines in Portugal using IMS Health data. Portugal has developed a successful <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines market by increasing reimbursement of <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines (until October 2005), by introducing a reference-pricing system, by encouraging physicians to prescribe by international non-proprietary name (INN), and by allowing <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution by pharmacists. However, the development of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines market has been hindered by the existence of copies, pricing regulation, certain features of the reference-pricing system, weak incentives for physicians to prescribe <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines. Increased <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 45%. The development of the Portuguese <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines market has mainly been fuelled by supply-side measures. To support the further expansion of the market, policy makers need to strengthen demand-side measures inciting physicians to prescribe, pharmacists to dispense and patients to use <span class="hlt">generic</span> medicines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19918104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19918104"><span>Plasma concentrations of <span class="hlt">generic</span> lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV type-1-infected individuals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Lugt, Jasper; Lange, Joep; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Sealoo, Siriporn; Burger, David; Gorowara, Meena; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> drugs can contribute to access to treatment for HIV-infected patients. However quality and safety remains an issue of concern. Therefore, we evaluated minimal plasma concentrations and short-term safety of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50 mg tablet formulation. In a single-centre prospective pilot study, patients receiving protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral treatment were switched to a <span class="hlt">generic</span> lopinavir/ritonavir tablet at the standard dose (400/100 mg twice daily). Minimum drug concentrations (C(min)) of lopinavir and ritonavir were performed before switching (in 16 patients who were on Kaletra((R)) soft-gel capsules) and after 4 weeks (in all patients). Plasma levels of lopinavir and ritonavir were determined by a validated HPLC method. Either the Wilcoxon signed-rank or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. A total of 37 patients (18 females) were included in the study. Two stopped their study medications prematurely because of intolerance. The median (interquartile range) lopinavir C(min) was 7.2 mg/l (5.8-8.3) and no patients had subtherapeutic levels <1.0 mg/l. No significant difference of lopinavir C(min) levels was found between Kaletra((R)), and the <span class="hlt">generic</span> product (P=0.224). By contrast, the C(min) of <span class="hlt">generic</span> ritonavir was higher (P=0.012). Food did not affect the drug levels. Mild gastrointestinal complaints were reported in 12 patients. The <span class="hlt">generic</span> lopinavir/ritonavir tablet showed C(min) plasma concentrations similar to what is described for the branded product, with good stability, independent of food intake. These data support the efforts in <span class="hlt">scaling</span> up access to <span class="hlt">generic</span> second-line treatment in middle- and low-income countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1382C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1382C"><span>Monitoring soil and vegetation fluxes of carbon and water at the global <span class="hlt">scale</span>: the land carbon <span class="hlt">core</span> information service of geoland2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calvet, J.-C.; Balsamo, G.; Chevallier, F.; Kullmann, L.; Papale, D.; Seufert, G.; The, H.; Gibelin, A.-L.; Horanyi, A.; Lafont, S.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The vegetation/land component of GMES is called "Land Monitoring <span class="hlt">Core</span> service" (LMCS). The geoland2 European project (FP7, 2008-2012) is a demonstrator of the evolution of the LMCS, including the consolidation of prototype services and the test of their operational capacity. In particular, the perimeter of the LMCS is extended, with a global component (biogeophysical parameters), and thematic <span class="hlt">core</span> information services. The main mission of the land carbon <span class="hlt">core</span> information service (LC-CIS) of geoland2 is to assess the impact of weather and climate variability on terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes, in the context of international conventions. The LC-CIS aims at monitoring the global terrestrial carbon fluxes (e.g. to support reporting obligations in the course of the Kyoto Protocol) and setting-up pre-operational infrastructures for providing global products, both in near real time and off-line mode. A multi-model carbon accounting system is developed, coupled with EO data assimilation schemes. Emphasis is put on validation (in-situ data), with downscaling on reference European countries (F, NL, HU). The C-TESSEL and SURFEX modelling platforms (of ECMWF and Météo-France, respectively) are used for production. The ORCHIDEE modelling platform (LSCE) is used for benchmarking and validation purposes. The ECWMF reanalysis (ERA-Interim) will be used to build a global 20-y climatology of carbon and water fluxes, LAI and vegetation biomass, in order to rank the near-real time simulations. Gradually, EO data will be integrated in the modelling platforms, in order to improve the atmospheric constraint on the model (e.g. downwelling solar radiation from the EUMETSAT's Land-SAF), analyse soil moisture and vegetation biomass (e.g. assimilate the EUMETSAT's ASCAT soil moisture product and MODIS and/or SPOT/VGT LAI estimates). Finally, EO data will be used for model verification (e.g. land surface temperature).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23134096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23134096"><span>Pharmacists' experiences and attitudes regarding <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs and <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution: two sides of the coin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olsson, Erika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> drug substitution reduces costs for medicines, but the downsides include unintentional double medication, confusion and anxiety among patients. Information from pharmacists affects patients' experiences of substitution with <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and attitudes to <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution among Swedish community pharmacists. An interview guide was developed. Semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was inductive; extracts from the transcripts were compared and combined to form themes and subcategories. Pharmacists from a heterogeneous convenience sample of pharmacies were interviewed until data saturation had been achieved. Sixteen pharmacists were interviewed. Three main themes and twelve subcategories were identified, with the main themes being the role of the pharmacist, pharmacists' concerns regarding patients, and the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug. Pharmacists found it positive that <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution decreases the costs for pharmaceuticals but also emphasized that the switch can confuse and worry patients, which could result in less benefit from treatment. Respondents claimed that <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution has changed the focus in the pharmacist-patient meeting towards economics and regulations. According to the interviewed pharmacists <span class="hlt">generic</span> substitution is not primarily an issue of <span class="hlt">generic</span> versus brand-name products, but concerns above all the challenges that the switch implies for patients and pharmacists. To prevent known confusion and concerns among patients it is important that community pharmacists acquire the necessary tools and knowledge to manage this situation; pharmacists themselves as well as pharmacy owners and authorities share responsibility for this. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474700"><span>Prescribing <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs using a <span class="hlt">generic</span> name: Are we teaching it right?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamath, Ashwin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, state that "Every physician should, as far as possible, prescribe drugs with <span class="hlt">generic</span> names and he/she shall ensure that there is a rational prescription and use of drugs.". Undergraduate medical students are introduced to drug nomenclature early on during their pharmacology course. They are told that <span class="hlt">generic</span> name or, more appropriately, non-proprietary name (usually international non-proprietary name INN), is to be used while writing prescriptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7163434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7163434"><span>Nonlinear theory of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> Cerenkov free-electron laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In this thesis a <span class="hlt">generic</span> nonlinear model of the slow-wave FEL is presented. Both the single-particle (low beam current density) and collective (high beam current density) operation regimes of the device are studied. In the single-particle regime the maximum efficiency <span class="hlt">scales</span> roughly as L/[lambda][gamma][sup 4], while the saturation electric field <span class="hlt">scales</span> approximately as L/[lambda][gamma][sup 3], where [gamma] = 1/[radical](1[minus](v/c)[sup 2]), L is the length of interaction region, and [lambda] is the wavelength. In the collective regime the maximum efficiency <span class="hlt">scales</span> as [gamma]J1/3 [lambda] 2/3, and the saturation electric field <span class="hlt">scales</span> as [gamma]J2/3 [lambda]1/3, where J is the current density. These <span class="hlt">scaling</span> relationships are confirmed by numerical simulation. The transverse motion of the electrons in the presence and absence of a longitudinal magnetic guiding field is also examined and the results suggest that it is possible to operate the device down to moderate beam energy without a guiding field. The basic Cerenkov devices may use either dielectric film or metal grating guide to couple the electron beam with the electromagnetic field. The guiding properties of the film are reviewed and a detailed discussion of the gain of a grating-based FEL operating near the zero-group-velocity point (the [open quote][pi] point[close quote]) of the grating waveguide is included in the appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021566"><span>Psychiatrists' decision making between branded and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>To study psychiatrists' decision making between <span class="hlt">generic</span> and branded antipsychotics or antidepressants a hypothetical decision scenario involving decisions between branded and <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs was presented to a sample of German psychiatrists. Factors influencing this decision were identified using a regression analysis. n=410 Psychiatrists participated in the survey. Psychiatrists were more likely to choose branded drugs when imagining choosing the drug for themselves (vs. recommending a drug to a patient). In addition, psychiatrists were more likely to choose <span class="hlt">generic</span> antidepressants than <span class="hlt">generic</span> antipsychotics. Additional predictors for choosing a <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug were a higher share of outpatients, less negative attitudes toward <span class="hlt">generics</span> and higher uncertainty tolerance. In conclusion, psychiatrists' decision making in choosing between branded or <span class="hlt">generic</span> antidepressants or antipsychotics is to a large extent influenced by vague attitudes towards properties of <span class="hlt">generics</span> and branded drugs as well as by "non-evidence based" factors such as uncertainty tolerance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21667222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21667222"><span>Requirements for <span class="hlt">generic</span> antiepileptic medicines: a clinical perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trinka, Eugen; Krämer, Günter; Graf, Martin</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are now available as a <span class="hlt">generic</span> product. This can potentially save the healthcare providers massive costs. Hence, governmental authorities have introduced rules and incentives for clinicians to switch from the original branded AED to a <span class="hlt">generic</span> product. Clinicians and patients with epilepsy are reluctant to switch. The licensing of <span class="hlt">generic</span> AEDs is based on the equation that bioavailability means therapeutic equivalence. However, from a clinical standpoint one has to consider several other relevant issues: (1) Do <span class="hlt">generic</span> AEDs have the same efficacy, safety and quality? (2) Can <span class="hlt">generic</span> AEDs be used as substitutions for brand AEDs? (3) Can <span class="hlt">generic</span> products of AEDs be used interchangeably? (4) Does the <span class="hlt">generic</span> AED manufacturer guarantee the long-term consistency of availability on the market? (4) Do <span class="hlt">generic</span> AEDs reduce the costs, and--if so--are these costs worth any additional risk to patient's safety? This article reviews the clinical issues related to current bioequivalence, prescribability, and switchability of AEDs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19555236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19555236"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsules: in vitro performance evaluations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Terry; Smith, Anjanette; Ye, Wei; Toler, Duckhee Y; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Lionberger, Robert; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence; Buhse, Lucinda F</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>After the patent on omeprazole delayed-release capsules expired, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved several <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsule applications. FDA has received some complaints concerning a lack of therapeutic effect of the <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsules. To investigate the quality of five different marketed <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsules. The dissolution characteristics of these <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsules were determined according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Additional dissolution studies under simulated in vivo physiological conditions were also conducted to determine whether <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole capsules would perform similarly under these conditions. The experimental data show that all the <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsules met the USP standards. The in vitro dissolution of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs is similar to that of the brand omeprazole product. There is no scientific evidence to support the claims that the <span class="hlt">generic</span> omeprazole delayed-release capsules perform differently from the brand omeprazole product in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21586809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21586809"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4/Cu2ZnSnS4 <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Z Q; Shi, J H; Liu, Q Q; Chen, Y W; Sun, Z; Yang, Z; Huang, S M</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We present a fast and simple protocol for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> preparation of quaternary Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) (CZTSe), as well as CZTSe/Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell nanowires using CuSe nanowire bundles as self-sacrificial templates. CuSe nanowire bundles were synthesized by reacting Cu(2 - x)Se nanowire bundles with sodium citrate solution. CZTSe nanowires were prepared by reacting CuSe nanowire bundles with Zn(CH(3)COO)(2) and SnCl(2) in triethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction studies show that stannite CZTSe is formed. The formed CZTSe nanowire bundles have diameters of 200-400 nm and lengths of up to hundreds of micrometers. CZTSe/CZTS nanocable bundles with similar morphologies were grown by the addition of some elemental sulfur to the reaction system for growth of CZTSe bundles. The stannite CZTSe/kesterite CZTS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell structure of the grown nanocables was confirmed by XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscope investigation. The influence of S/Se molar ratio in the reaction system on the crystallographic structures and optical properties of CZTSe/CZTS nanocables was studied. The obtained CZTSe/CZTS <span class="hlt">core</span>/shell nanocable bundles show broad and enhanced optical absorption over the visible and near-infrared region, which is promising for use in photovoltaic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QuRes..80..291L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QuRes..80..291L"><span>100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-<span class="hlt">scale</span> linkage between eastern North American mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-<span class="hlt">core</span> oxygen isotope trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine W.; Brook, George; Durika, Nancy J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We document frequent, rapid, strong, millennial-<span class="hlt">scale</span> paleovegetation shifts throughout the late Pleistocene, within a 100,000+ yr interval (~ 115-15 ka) of terrestrial sediments from the mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of North America. High-resolution analyses of fossil pollen from one <span class="hlt">core</span> locality revealed a continuously shifting sequence of thermally dependent forest assemblages, ranging between two endmembers: subtropical oak-tupelo-bald cypress-gum forest and high boreal spruce-pine forest. Sedimentary textural evidence indicates fluvial, paludal, and loess deposition, and paleosol formation, representing sequential freshwater to subaerial environments in which this record was deposited. Its total age-depth model, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence ages, ranges from terrestrial oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 6 to 1. The particular <span class="hlt">core</span> sub-interval presented here is correlative in trend and timing to that portion of the oxygen isotope sequence common among several Greenland ice <span class="hlt">cores</span>: interstades GI2 to GI24 (≈ OIS2-5 d). This site thus provides the first evidence for an essentially complete series of 'Dansgaard-Oeschger' climate events in the MAR. These data reveal that the ~ 100,000 yr preceding the Late Glacial and Holocene in the MAR of North America were characterized by frequently and dynamically changing climate states, and by vegetation shifts that closely tracked the Greenland paleoclimate sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20436769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20436769"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In this article, we explore the penetration of <span class="hlt">generic</span> atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of <span class="hlt">generic</span> risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, <span class="hlt">generic</span> penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.120..170L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.120..170L"><span>Cloud-<span class="hlt">scale</span> simulation study of Typhoon Hagupit (2008) Part I: Microphysical processes of the inner <span class="hlt">core</span> and three-dimensional structure of the latent heat budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jiangnan; Wang, Gang; Lin, Wenshi; He, Qihua; Feng, Yerong; Mao, Jiangyu</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to conduct simulation experiments with a 3 km resolution for Typhoon Hagupit (2008). The primary results show the following: (1) the control experiment reproduces well the environmental field, track, storm propagation speed, intensity change, latent heating vertical profile of the typhoon inner <span class="hlt">core</span> area, and wind and precipitation distribution of the typhoon. (2) The average total latent heating profile of the inner <span class="hlt">core</span> reaches its peak value at a height of 7 km. At heights below 500 m, there is mainly an evaporative cooling effect. From 1 to 4 km, mainly condensation heating is present. Above 10 km, there is mainly a deposition effect. (3) Condensation heating exists principally within the inner flank of the cloud wall. Its maximum height is 2-5 km, and can reach 11 km. Melt cooling takes place in the outer flank of the cloud wall, whereas freeze heating is in the cloud wall, above the zero degree isotherm. (4) The large magnitude of microphysical process conversion rates is attributable to rainwater collected by graupel, melting of graupel, rainwater collected by snow, and water vapor condensation into cloud water. The dominant microphysical processes for releasing latent heat are water vapor condensation into cloud water and depositional growth of snow and cloud ice. The dominant microphysical processes for absorbing latent heat are evaporation of rainwater, sublimation of snow, and melting of graupel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010039527&hterms=Archimedes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DArchimedes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010039527&hterms=Archimedes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DArchimedes"><span>The Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated With the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm: IMAGE EUV Observations and Global <span class="hlt">Core</span> Plasma Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density, trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. In EUV, this density, trough appears as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1900 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images, Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global <span class="hlt">Core</span> Plasma Model (GCPM) and the Dynamic Global <span class="hlt">Core</span> Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density, depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/984770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/984770"><span>Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks using Tera-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Optical-<span class="hlt">Core</span> Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot be readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-<span class="hlt">core</span> devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-<span class="hlt">core</span> digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010039527&hterms=archimedes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Darchimedes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010039527&hterms=archimedes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Darchimedes"><span>The Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated With the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm: IMAGE EUV Observations and Global <span class="hlt">Core</span> Plasma Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density, trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. In EUV, this density, trough appears as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1900 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images, Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global <span class="hlt">Core</span> Plasma Model (GCPM) and the Dynamic Global <span class="hlt">Core</span> Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density, depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965061"><span>[Intention of purchasing <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescription drugs on the part of consumers in Asturias, Spain].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González Hernando, Santiago; González Mieres, Celina; Díaz Martín, Ana M</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Ascertaining how consumers perceive the risk related to the use of <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescription drugs and those factors which have the greatest impact on the intention to request a <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug from the prescribing physician and/or the pharmacist for the purpose of determining any possible barriers or hindrances to the acceptance of <span class="hlt">generics</span> and to gather information to aid healthcare managers in their decision-making processes. Study on prescription drug use revolving around the degree to which patients are willing to request an EFG. In this quantitative transversal study, a total of 542 individuals were individually surveyed upon exiting a healthcare center or pharmacy in Asturias. A <span class="hlt">scale</span> for measuring the perceived risk involved in the purchase of a prescription drug including 15 attributes grouped into five aspects was included in the questionnaire. Information was also gathered regarding the intention of using <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescription drugs and on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of those surveyed. For the analysis of the results, a factorial confirmational analysis, multiple regression and univariate analysis were used. The data was processed using the EQS and SPSS statistics programs. Mean perception of the risk (<span class="hlt">scales</span> 1-7): functional: 2.75; physical: 2.68: financial: 2.19; psychological: 1.99; social: 1.42. Factors having a bearing on the intention of requesting <span class="hlt">generic</span> prescription drugs from their physician: psychological risk (p = 0.000). On requesting the same from their pharmacist: psychological risk (p = 0.000) and social risk (p = 0.020). The agents interested in the development on the EFG market should target their communication efforts on putting the functional and financial aspects of the manufacturer's specialties and <span class="hlt">generic</span> specialties on the same level, but should not leave out psychological and social aspects of the consumers' purchasing behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994EOSTr..75R.522.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994EOSTr..75R.522."><span><span class="hlt">Core</span> transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Good news for all petroleum geoscientists, mining and environmental scientists, university researchers, and the like: Shell Oil Company has deeded its Midland <span class="hlt">core</span> and sample repository to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at the University of Texas at Austin. The Midland repository includes more than 1 million linear meters of slab, whole <span class="hlt">core</span>, and prepared cuttings. Data comprising one of the largest U.S. <span class="hlt">core</span> collections—the geologic samples from wells drilled in Texas and 39 other states—are now public data and will be incorporated into the existing BEG database. Both Shell and the University of Texas at Austin are affiliated with the American Geological Institute, which assisted in arranging the transfer as part of its goal to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System at regional centers across the United States.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18492862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18492862"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> and product-specific health claim processes for functional foods across global jurisdictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jew, Stephanie; Vanstone, Catherine A; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Jones, Peter J H</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Worldwide consumer interest in functional foods and their potential health benefits has been increasing over the past 10 y. To respond to this interest, regulatory bodies have developed guidelines for assessing health claims on functional foods. The objective of this article is to investigate the type and amount of evidence needed in various jurisdictions on a worldwide basis to substantiate both <span class="hlt">generic</span> and product-specific health claims. Two types of health claims were examined using separate case studies. Analysis of <span class="hlt">generic</span> health claims was highlighted by (n-3) fatty acids and their relation to heart health; whereas examination of product-specific health claims was conducted using probiotics and their association with gastrointestinal well-being. Results showed a common <span class="hlt">core</span> for use of convincing high-quality human data, especially in the form of randomized controlled trials (RCT), but there was significant variability in the type and amount of scientific evidence needed to substantiate health claims, both <span class="hlt">generic</span> and product specific, across different jurisdictions. Product-specific claims tended to use human RCT as the main basis for claims, whereas <span class="hlt">generic</span> claims tended to base their statements on a wider spectrum of literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363388.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363388.pdf"><span>The Development of a <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Pharmaceutical Training Institute.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lindeman, Lynn William; Boerner, Hank</p> <p></p> <p>The manufacture of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drugs is a growing industry, generally composed of small companies that are more dependent than brand-name companies on hiring entry-level workers. To provide standardized training for employees in the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug manufacturing field, the <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Pharmaceutical Training Institute (GPTI) was established by a partnership…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10689.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10689.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10689 - Organo zinc salts (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organo zinc salts (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). 721.10689... Substances § 721.10689 Organo zinc salts (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as organo zinc salts (PMN P-13-225...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-638.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-638.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as silyl amine, potassium salt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-638.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-638.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as silyl amine, potassium salt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-638.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-638.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as silyl amine, potassium salt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-638.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-638.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as silyl amine, potassium salt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-638.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-638.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as silyl amine, potassium salt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED493988.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED493988.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Generic</span> Skills in Vocational Education and Training: Research Readings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gibb, Jennifer, Ed.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Possessing <span class="hlt">generic</span> or employability skills is vital in the current labour market. The vocational education and training (VET) sector, like other education sectors, must ensure its clients gain and develop <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills. This volume of readings summarises NCVER managed research into <span class="hlt">generic</span> skills undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The work covers four…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-8660.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-8660.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as a propionic acid methyl ester...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21779154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21779154"><span>A developmental analysis of <span class="hlt">generic</span> nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generic</span> noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce <span class="hlt">generic</span> noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of <span class="hlt">generic</span> acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which <span class="hlt">generics</span> are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on <span class="hlt">generics</span> was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish <span class="hlt">generic</span> from non-<span class="hlt">generic</span> utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood <span class="hlt">generics</span> as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that <span class="hlt">generics</span>, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that <span class="hlt">generic</span> interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, <span class="hlt">generic</span> interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of <span class="hlt">generic</span> information in linguistic expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-3110.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-3110.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as a polycarboxylic acid ester...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3110.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3110.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as a polycarboxylic acid ester...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-9973.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-9973.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442282.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442282.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Genericization</span>: A Theory of Semantic Broadening in the Marketplace.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clankie, Shawn M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Genericization</span> theory developed as a response to claims from outside of linguistics that <span class="hlt">generic</span> use in brand names (for example, using Kleenex as a <span class="hlt">generic</span> noun for all facial tissues, or Xerox for all photocopiers) is the result of marketing factors or misuse by consumers. This paper examines the linguistic factors that create an environment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1070171','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1070171"><span>Drug patent expirations and the speed of <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bae, J P</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: Using recent data, to analyze the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug entry phenomenon to determine the factors that influence the speed and likelihood of <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug entries. DATA SOURCES: Data for 81 drugs that have lost patent between 1987 and 1994. Patent and exclusive marketing rights expiration dates: Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalent Evaluations (1986-1989). <span class="hlt">Generic</span> entry dates: FDA Drug and Device Product Approvals (Jan. 1987-Dec. 1994). Numbers of pending <span class="hlt">generic</span> applications: FDA Office of <span class="hlt">Generic</span> Drugs Quantitative Report-ANDAs and AADAs (Nov. 1990-Jan. 1993). Sales revenue: Pharmaceutical Data Services, Walsh-America. STUDY DESIGN: This study appropriately recognizes <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry as a survival problem, and uses a proportional hazard method for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1) There is a negative relationship between an innovative drug's sales revenue and the time to <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry. (2) Entries of <span class="hlt">generics</span> tend to be slower for drugs that have either very few or a very large number of competing brands in the marketplace. (3) The time to <span class="hlt">generic</span> entry increased overall between 1987 and 1994. (4) Drugs that primarily treat chronic symptoms tend to enter faster than the types of drugs that primarily treat acute illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">generic</span> industry is targeting large-revenue products and chronic drug markets. Entry of a <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug is influenced by the existing branded substitutes in the marketplace. Surprisingly, the <span class="hlt">generic</span> drug entry process has slowed despite many changes that would facilitate entry. PMID:9108806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-1655.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-1655.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-1680.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-1680.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as substituted benzoic acid (PMN P...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-3110.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-3110.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as a polycarboxylic acid ester...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10320.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10320.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (<span class="hlt">generic</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (<span class="hlt">generic</span>). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified <span class="hlt">generically</span> as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is subject...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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