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Sample records for genetic resource conservation

  1. Citrus conservation at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the base collection of genetic resources for the National Plant Germplasm System, a network of federal plant collections focused on conserving crops key to American agriculture. NCGRP research scientists have found ways to con...

  2. Conservation of animal genetic resources – A new tact

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For the past 20 years countries have initiated programs to sustainably conserve farm animal genetic resources. At the same time the growing need for increased animal productivity has emerged. Viewing gene banks and in vivo conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product dem...

  3. Citizens' preferences for the conservation of agricultural genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Pouta, Eija; Tienhaara, Annika; Ahtiainen, Heini

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of conservation policies for agricultural genetic resources (AgGR) requires information on the use and non-use values of plant varieties and animal breeds, as well as on the preferences for in situ and ex situ conservation. We conducted a choice experiment to estimate citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) for AgGR conservation programmes in Finland, and used a latent class model to identify heterogeneity in preferences among respondent groups. The findings indicate that citizens have a high interest in the conservation of native breeds and varieties, but also reveal the presence of preference heterogeneity. Five respondent groups could be identified based on latent class modeling: one implying lexicographic preferences, two with reasoned choices, one indicating uncertain support and one with a preference for the current status of conservation. The results emphasize the importance of in situ conservation of native cattle breeds and plant varieties in developing conservation policies.

  4. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  5. Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked.

    PubMed

    Geburek, Thomas; Konrad, H

    2008-04-01

    Genetic diversity is indispensable for long-term forest sustainability and is therefore mentioned in numerous binding and nonbinding political covenants calling for action. Nevertheless, there are significant obstacles to the conservation of forest genetic resources. We discuss hindrances to genetic conservation, mainly in Europe. We identified impediments by reviewing the literature and on the basis of the experiences of the authors in this field and their participation in related political processes. The impediments include (1) difficulties in assessing and monitoring genetic erosion and human impacts (e.g., by the lack of markers showing adaptive variation and the lack of record keeping on the use and transfer of forest-tree germplasm), (2) complexities of European national structures that make the development of a common strategy toward forest genetic conservation problematic, (3) lack of effective forest governance in many parts of the world, (4) the general unattractiveness of genes as flagships in raising public awareness, (5) lack of integration of genetic aspects into biodiversity conservation, and (6) the fact that scientists and politicians are often at cross-purposes. To overcome these impediments, forest geneticists and their peers in species conservation have to participate more actively in decision making. In doing so, they must be prepared to face challenges on 2 fronts: participating in political processes and the provision of significant research findings to ensure that decisions with respect to forest genetic diversity are politically implementable and effectively address targets.

  6. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, François; Koskela, Jarkko; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C; Schüler, Silvio; Bozzano, Michele; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Bakys, Remigijus; Baldwin, Cathleen; Ballian, Dalibor; Black-Samuelsson, Sanna; Bednarova, Dagmar; Bordács, Sándor; Collin, Eric; de Cuyper, Bart; de Vries, Sven M G; Eysteinsson, Thröstur; Frýdl, Josef; Haverkamp, Michaela; Ivankovic, Mladen; Konrad, Heino; Koziol, Czesław; Maaten, Tiit; Notivol Paino, Eduardo; Oztürk, Hikmet; Pandeva, Ivanova Denitsa; Parnuta, Gheorghe; Pilipovič, Andrej; Postolache, Dragos; Ryan, Cathal; Steffenrem, Arne; Varela, Maria Carolina; Vessella, Federico; Volosyanchuk, Roman T; Westergren, Marjana; Wolter, Frank; Yrjänä, Leena; Zariŋa, Inga

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess and monitor forest conservation efforts. The pan-European network has 1967 conservation units, 2737 populations of target trees, and 86 species of target trees. We detected a poor coincidence between FGR conservation and other biodiversity conservation objectives within this network. We identified 2 complementary strategies: a species-oriented strategy in which national conservation networks are specifically designed for key target species and a site-oriented strategy in which multiple-target units include so-called secondary species conserved within a few sites. The network is highly unbalanced in terms of species representation, and 7 key target species are conserved in 60% of the conservation units. We performed specific gap analyses for 11 tree species, including assessment of ecogeographic, demographic, and genetic criteria. For each species, we identified gaps, particularly in the marginal parts of their distribution range, and found multiple redundant conservation units in other areas. The Mediterranean forests and to a lesser extent the boreal forests are underrepresented. Monitoring the conservation efficiency of each unit remains challenging; however, <2% of the conserved populations seem to be at risk of extinction. On the basis of our results, we recommend combining species-oriented and site-oriented strategies.

  7. Poultry genetic resource conservation using primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of poultry genetic resources are maintained in situ in living populations. However, in situ conservation of poultry genetic resources always carries the risk of loss owing to pathogen outbreaks, genetic problems, breeding cessation, or natural disasters. Cryobanking of germplasm in birds has been limited to the use of semen, preventing conservation of the W chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. A further challenge is posed by the structure of avian eggs, which restricts the cryopreservation of ova and fertilized embryos, a technique widely used for mammalian species. By using a unique biological property and accessibility of avian primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursor cells for gametes, which temporally circulate in the vasculature during early development, an avian PGC transplantation technique has been established. To date, several techniques for PGC manipulation including purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture have been developed in chickens. PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced PGC manipulation techniques have enabled ex situ conservation of poultry genetic resources in their complete form. Here, the updated technologies for avian PGC manipulation are introduced, and then the concept of a poultry PGC-bank is proposed by considering the biological properties of avian PGCs. PMID:27210834

  8. Conservation of forest genetic resources in the United States.

    Treesearch

    B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...

  9. Applied reproductive technologies and genetic resource banking for amphibian conservation.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Andrew J; Vance, Carrie K

    2009-01-01

    As amphibian populations continue to decline, both government and non-government organisations are establishing captive assurance colonies to secure populations deemed at risk of extinction if left in the wild. For the most part, little is known about the nutritional ecology, reproductive biology or husbandry needs of the animals placed into captive breeding programs. Because of this lack of knowledge, conservation biologists are currently facing the difficult task of maintaining and reproducing these species. Academic and zoo scientists are beginning to examine different technologies for maintaining the genetic diversity of founder populations brought out of the wild before the animals become extinct from rapidly spreading epizootic diseases. One such technology is genetic resource banking and applied reproductive technologies for species that are difficult to reproduce reliably in captivity. Significant advances have been made in the last decade for amphibian assisted reproduction including the use of exogenous hormones for induction of spermiation and ovulation, in vitro fertilisation, short-term cold storage of gametes and long-term cryopreservation of spermatozoa. These scientific breakthroughs for a select few species will no doubt serve as models for future assisted breeding protocols and the increasing number of amphibians requiring conservation intervention. However, the development of specialised assisted breeding protocols that can be applied to many different families of amphibians will likely require species-specific modifications considering their wide range of reproductive modes. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current state of knowledge in the area of assisted reproduction technologies and gene banking for the conservation of amphibians.

  10. Community standards for genomic resources, genetic conservation, and data integration

    Treesearch

    Jill Wegrzyn; Meg Staton; Emily Grau; Richard Cronn; C. Dana. Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Genetics and genomics are increasingly important in forestry management and conservation. Next generation sequencing can increase analytical power, but still relies on building on the structure of previously acquired data. Data standards and data sharing allow the community to maximize the analytical power of high throughput genomics data. The landscape of incomplete...

  11. Strategies for conserving forest genetic resources in the face of climate change

    Treesearch

    John Bradley St. Clair; Glenn Thomas. Howe

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is important for continued evolution of populations to new environments, as well as continued availability of traits of interest in genetic improvement programs. Rapidly changing climates present new threats to the conservation of forest genetic resources. We can no longer assume that in situ reserves will continue to preserve existing...

  12. A strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources: Survey results

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit genus. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique allelic ...

  13. Development of a strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit species. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique alleli...

  14. Challenges in the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The meeting on ‘Genetic Resources in the Face of New Environmental, Economic and Social Challenges’ held in Montpellier (France) from 20–22 September 2011 brought together about 200 participants active in research and management of the genetic diversity of plant, animal, fungal and microbial species. Attendees had the rare opportunity to hear about agronomy, botany, microbiology, mycology, the social sciences and zoology in the same conference. The research teams presented the results of about 50 projects funded by the French Foundation for Research on Biodiversity to preserve genetic diversity carried out in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. These projects aimed to better understand and manage genetic resources in a rapidly changing world (e.g. structural changes in the agricultural industry, the need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, the challenge of achieving food security despite the growing world population and changing dietary habits, the opportunities provided by the many new molecular biology tools, the problems caused by widespread scientific budget cuts). The meeting also hosted some roundtables open to all participants which provided a forum to establish a much needed dialogue between policy-makers, managers and researchers. PMID:22048892

  15. Challenges in the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco

    2012-06-23

    The meeting on 'Genetic Resources in the Face of New Environmental, Economic and Social Challenges' held in Montpellier (France) from 20-22 September 2011 brought together about 200 participants active in research and management of the genetic diversity of plant, animal, fungal and microbial species. Attendees had the rare opportunity to hear about agronomy, botany, microbiology, mycology, the social sciences and zoology in the same conference. The research teams presented the results of about 50 projects funded by the French Foundation for Research on Biodiversity to preserve genetic diversity carried out in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. These projects aimed to better understand and manage genetic resources in a rapidly changing world (e.g. structural changes in the agricultural industry, the need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, the challenge of achieving food security despite the growing world population and changing dietary habits, the opportunities provided by the many new molecular biology tools, the problems caused by widespread scientific budget cuts). The meeting also hosted some roundtables open to all participants which provided a forum to establish a much needed dialogue between policy-makers, managers and researchers.

  16. What lies underneath: conserving the oceans' genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Jesús M; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M

    2010-10-26

    The marine realm represents 70% of the surface of the biosphere and contains a rich variety of organisms, including more than 34 of the 36 living phyla, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine biota. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with over 18,000 natural products and 4,900 patents associated with genes of marine organisms, with the latter growing at 12% per year, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The diversification of the use of marine living resources by humans calls for an urgent revision of the goals and policies of marine protected areas, to include the protection of MGRs and address emerging issues like biopiracy or benefit sharing. Specific challenges are the protection of these valuable resources in international waters, where no universally accepted legal framework exists to protect and regulate the exploitation of MGRs, and the unresolved issues on patenting components of marine life. Implementing steps toward the protection of MGRs is essential to ensure their sustainable use and to support the flow of future findings of medical and biotechnological interest.

  17. What lies underneath: Conserving the oceans’ genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Jesús M.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    The marine realm represents 70% of the surface of the biosphere and contains a rich variety of organisms, including more than 34 of the 36 living phyla, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine biota. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with over 18,000 natural products and 4,900 patents associated with genes of marine organisms, with the latter growing at 12% per year, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The diversification of the use of marine living resources by humans calls for an urgent revision of the goals and policies of marine protected areas, to include the protection of MGRs and address emerging issues like biopiracy or benefit sharing. Specific challenges are the protection of these valuable resources in international waters, where no universally accepted legal framework exists to protect and regulate the exploitation of MGRs, and the unresolved issues on patenting components of marine life. Implementing steps toward the protection of MGRs is essential to ensure their sustainable use and to support the flow of future findings of medical and biotechnological interest. PMID:20837523

  18. Selective breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lind, C E; Ponzoni, R W; Nguyen, N H; Khaw, H L

    2012-08-01

    To satisfy increasing demands for fish as food, progress must occur towards greater aquaculture productivity whilst retaining the wild and farmed genetic resources that underpin global fish production. We review the main selection methods that have been developed for genetic improvement in aquaculture, and discuss their virtues and shortcomings. Examples of the application of mass, cohort, within family, and combined between-family and within-family selection are given. In addition, we review the manner in which fish genetic resources can be lost at the intra-specific, species and ecosystem levels and discuss options to best prevent this. We illustrate that fundamental principles of genetic management are common in the implementation of both selective breeding and conservation programmes, and should be emphasized in capacity development efforts. We highlight the value of applied genetics approaches for increasing aquaculture productivity and the conservation of fish genetic resources.

  19. Chapter 25: Collecting pollen for genetic resources conservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selection of pollen as a conservation target allows for the preservation of many diverse alleles within a genepool. Although it is possible to generate haploid plants from pollen grains, pollen is more commonly conserved as a gamete for gene conservation. The ease of pollen storage, shipment, and po...

  20. What Are Genetic Resources and Why Should They Be Conserved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the need for producing varieties of plants that can withstand the depredations of pests and diseases and are more adapted to stress conditions. Genes for better resistance and adaption are being found in conserved ancient farmers' varieties and related wild species. The importance of conserving these strains is emphasized. (KR)

  1. What Are Genetic Resources and Why Should They Be Conserved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the need for producing varieties of plants that can withstand the depredations of pests and diseases and are more adapted to stress conditions. Genes for better resistance and adaption are being found in conserved ancient farmers' varieties and related wild species. The importance of conserving these strains is emphasized. (KR)

  2. Valuation of crop genetic resources in Kaski, Nepal: farmers' willingness to pay for rice landraces conservation.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Diwakar; Johnsen, Fred H

    2009-01-01

    Crop genetic resources constitute an important aspect of biodiversity conservation, both because of their direct value to the farmers and due to their indirect global value. This study uses the contingent valuation method to document the economic value of crop genetic resources based on the farmers' willingness to pay for conservation. A total of 107 households in Kaski, Nepal were surveyed in November 2003. Their mean willingness to pay was USD 4.18 for in situ and USD 2.20 for ex situ conservation per annum. Landholding size, household size, education level, socio-economic status, sex of respondent, number of crop landraces grown, and knowledge on biodiversity influenced the willingness to pay for in situ conservation, whereas only landholding size and household size influenced the willingness to pay for ex situ conservation. The respondents were willing to contribute more for in situ than ex situ conservation because of the additional effect of direct use and direct involvement of the farmers in in situ conservation. This study supports the view that economic valuation of crop genetic resources can assist the policy makers in setting conservation priorities.

  3. Chapter 6. Genetic Resources: Collection, Characterization, Conservation and Documentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation of Lens germplasm is almost entirely ex situ as seed, from wild and domestic annuals and also the wild perennials. ICARDA has the global mandate for research on lentil improvement and thus houses the world collection of Lens of 10,800 accessions and other major collections include thos...

  4. Conservation Strategy of Strawberry Genetic Resources in Germany

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National German Strawberry Genebank includes 369 cultivars and the active field collection in Dresden-Pillnitz also contains 318 Fragaria wild species accessions. Conservation of clonal crops requires safety duplication. An earlier calculation of the effort required to establish and maintain a s...

  5. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Maarten van; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  6. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  7. Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N; Cooke, Janice E K; Fady, Bruno; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Heuertz, Myriam; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Lexer, Christian; Staton, Margaret; Whetten, Ross W; Plomion, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forest trees are an unparalleled group of organisms in their combined ecological, economic and societal importance. With widespread distributions, predominantly random mating systems and large population sizes, most tree species harbour extensive genetic variation both within and among populations. At the same time, demographic processes associated with Pleistocene climate oscillations and land-use change have affected contemporary range-wide diversity and may impinge on the potential for future adaptation. Understanding how these adaptive and neutral processes have shaped the genomes of trees species is therefore central to their management and conservation. As for many other taxa, the advent of high-throughput sequencing methods is expected to yield an understanding of the interplay between the genome and environment at a level of detail and depth not possible only a few years ago. An international conference entitled 'Genomics and Forest Tree Genetics' was held in May 2016, in Arcachon (France), and brought together forest geneticists with a wide range of research interests to disseminate recent efforts that leverage contemporary genomic tools to probe the population, quantitative and evolutionary genomics of trees. An important goal of the conference was to discuss how such data can be applied to both genome-enabled breeding and the conservation of forest genetic resources under land use and climate change. Here, we report discoveries presented at the meeting and discuss how the ecological genomic toolkit can be used to address both basic and applied questions in tree biology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. In addition to the physiological effects of higher temperatures on individual animals, the consequences of climate change are likely to include increased risk that geographically restricted rare breed populations will be badly affected by disturbances. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastrics and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by animal genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of animal genetic resources; and wider access to genetic resources and associated knowledge.

  9. Conserving and managing the trees of the future: genetic resources for Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic resource management has historically called for altering the genetic structure of plant populations through selection for traits of interest such as rapid growth. Although this is still a principal component of tree breeding programs in the Pacific Northwest, managing genetic resources now also brings a clear focus on retaining a broad diversity within and...

  10. The conservation of forest genetic resources: case histories from Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; J. Jesús Vargas-Hernández; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1998-01-01

    The genetic codes of living organisms are natural resources no less than soil, air, and water. Genetic resources-from nucleotide sequences in DNA to selected genotypes, populations, and species-are the raw material in forestry: for breeders, for the forest manager who produces an economic crop, for society that reaps the environmental benefits provided by forests, and...

  11. Germplasm Conservation and Access to Genetic Resources: National Plant Germplasm System and the National Clonal Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves more than 550,000 accessions of genetic resources of crop wild relatives and cultivated, economically important crops. These accessions represent more than 20,000 plant species and are stored at about 25 locations throughout the United States. ...

  12. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  13. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M A; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Gandini, G; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The world has more than 7500 livestock breeds and conservation of all of them is not feasible. Therefore, prioritization is needed. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art in approaches for prioritization of breeds for conservation, particularly those approaches that consider molecular genetic information, and to identify any shortcomings that may restrict their application. The Weitzman method was among the first and most well-known approaches for utilization of molecular genetic information in conservation prioritization. This approach balances diversity and extinction probability to yield an objective measure of conservation potential. However, this approach was designed for decision making across species and measures diversity as distinctiveness. For livestock, prioritization will most commonly be performed among breeds within species, so alternatives that measure diversity as co-ancestry (i.e. also within-breed variability) have been proposed. Although these methods are technically sound, their application has generally been limited to research studies; most existing conservation programmes have effectively primarily based decisions on extinction risk. The development of user-friendly software incorporating these approaches may increase their rate of utilization.

  14. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate.

  15. From conservation genetics to conservation genomics.

    PubMed

    Primmer, Craig R

    2009-04-01

    Although the application of population and evolutionary genetic theory and methods to address issues of conservation relevance has a long history, the formalization of conservation genetics as a research field is still relatively recent. One of the periodic catalysts for increased research effort in the field has been advances in molecular technologies, leading to an increasingly wider variety of molecular markers for application in conservation genetic studies. To date, genetic methods have been applied in conservation biology primarily as selectively neutral molecular tools for resolving questions of conservation relevance. However, there has been renewed interest in complementing the analysis of neutral markers with the assessment of loci that may be directly involved in responses to processes such as environmental change, with a view to identifying the genes involved in them. These kinds of studies are now possible due to the increase in availability of genomic resources for nonmodel organisms, and there will likely be an even more rapid increase in the near future due to the advent of new ultrahigh throughput-sequencing technologies. This review considers the implications of the most recent developments in genomic technologies and their potential for contributing to the conservation of populations and species. Three "conservation genomics" case studies are presented (Atlantic salmon, Salmo sala; the butterfly, Melitaea cinxia; and the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus) in order to demonstrate the diversity of applications now possible. While it is clear that genomics approaches in conservation will not replace other tried-and-true methods, these recent developments open up an exciting new range of possibilities that will enable further diversification of the application of genomics in conservation biology.

  16. Genetic selection and conservation of genetic diversity*.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, H D

    2012-08-01

    For 100s of years, livestock producers have employed various types of selection to alter livestock populations. Current selection strategies are little different, except our technologies for selection have become more powerful. Genetic resources at the breed level have been in and out of favour over time. These resources are the raw materials used to manipulate populations, and therefore, they are critical to the past and future success of the livestock sector. With increasing ability to rapidly change genetic composition of livestock populations, the conservation of these genetic resources becomes more critical. Globally, awareness of the need to steward genetic resources has increased. A growing number of countries have embarked on large scale conservation efforts by using in situ, ex situ (gene banking), or both approaches. Gene banking efforts have substantially increased and data suggest that gene banks are successfully capturing genetic diversity for research or industry use. It is also noteworthy that both industry and the research community are utilizing gene bank holdings. As pressures grow to meet consumer demands and potential changes in production systems, the linkage between selection goals and genetic conservation will increase as a mechanism to facilitate continued livestock sector development.

  17. Genetic diversity of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) germplasm collections from Africa: implications for improvement and conservation of genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Hayati, A; Wickneswari, R; Maizura, I; Rajanaidu, N

    2004-05-01

    , whereas for conservation purposes, oil palm populations with high allelic diversity (A(e)), which include populations 22 and 29 from Cameroon, populations 39 and 45 from Nigeria, population 6 from Guinea, populations 5 and 13 from Sierra Leone and population 1 from Madagascar should be selected for capturing as much genetic variation as possible.

  18. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Uzzaman, Md. Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  19. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review.

    PubMed

    Uzzaman, Md Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the F IS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature.

  20. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich.) Harms., a Fading Genetic Resource in a Changing Climate: Prerequisite for Conservation and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nnamani, Catherine Veronica; Ajayi, Sunday Adesola; Oselebe, Happiness Ogba; Atkinson, Christopher John; Igboabuchi, Anastasia Ngozi; Ezigbo, Eucharia Chizoba

    2017-07-12

    The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich.) Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB)), is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD). Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ) were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40-50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific knowledge

  1. Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR): the Next Decade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After 20 years, progress has been made in conserving AnGR; but how it will be in ten years? Viewing gene banks and in situ conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product demand suggest a more efficient use of these practices to support sustainable production. Gene banks sh...

  2. Resource Management and Conservation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, David G.; Baumann, Duane D.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of conservation, the future of resource availability, the status of conservation education today are topics examined and suggestions are made on improving the content and emphasis of conservation courses. (Author)

  3. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    PubMed Central

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  4. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    PubMed

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  5. Genetic Resources of Pinus cembra L. Marginal Populations from the Tatra Mountains: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Celiński, Konrad; Chudzińska, Ewa; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Niemtur, Stanisław

    2015-04-01

    The levels of variation and genetic diversity of offspring of randomly selected old mother trees in four marginal populations of the Pinus cembra in the Tatra Mountains were analyzed. Twenty-four isozyme loci were analyzed (nine of them were monomorphic). The analyzed offspring of Swiss stone pine showed highly diverse polymorphism at the levels of both provenances and individual families (the offspring of one mother tree). The mean observed heterozygosity was low and very similar to that of other Carpathian populations. The genetic diversity (mean Fst = 11%) between the four provenances was higher than that observed for populations from the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. The genetic uniqueness (high genetic richness and diversity) of the analyzed Tatra populations of P. cembra as a whole and particular tree stands requires protection because of their valuable contribution to the species total genetic diversity (gene pool).

  6. Conservation Education Today & Tomorrow: Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Conservation, Springfield.

    This kit was developed by the Illinois Department of Conservation's Education Program with assistance from the State Board of Education, as a teaching tool which can be used to promote conservation awareness of young people. It is designed to enable educators to help students in grades 7-10 learn about Illinois' renewable natural resources through…

  7. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics.

    PubMed

    Ouborg, N Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Bijlsma, R Kuke; Hedrick, Phil W

    2010-04-01

    Over the past twenty years conservation genetics has progressed from being mainly a theory-based field of population biology to a full-grown empirical discipline. Technological developments in molecular genetics have led to extensive use of neutral molecular markers such as microsatellites in conservation biology. This has allowed assessment of the impact of genetic drift on genetic variation, of the level of inbreeding within populations, and of the amount of gene flow between or within populations. Recent developments in genomic techniques, including next generation sequencing, whole genome scans and gene-expression pattern analysis, have made it possible to step up from a limited number of neutral markers to genome-wide estimates of functional genetic variation. Here, we focus on how the transition of conservation genetics to conservation genomics leads to insights into the dynamics of selectively important variation and its interaction with environmental conditions, and into the mechanisms behind this interaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimates of effective population size and inbreeding in South African indigenous chicken populations: implications for the conservation of unique genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, Bohani; Dzama, Kennedy; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Rhode, Clint

    2016-06-01

    Conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. Therefore, the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa initiated a conservation programme for four South African indigenous chicken breeds. The evaluation and monitoring of the genetic constitution of these conservation flocks is important for proper management of the conservation programme. Using molecular genetic analyses, the effective population sizes and relatedness of these conservation flocks were compared to village (field) chicken populations from which they were derived. Genetic diversity within and between these populations are further discussed within the context of population size. The conservation flocks for the respective breeds had relatively small effective population sizes (point estimate range 38.6-78.6) in comparison to the field populations (point estimate range 118.9-580.0). Furthermore, evidence supports a transient heterozygous excess, generally associated with the occurrence of a recent population bottleneck. Genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles, heterozygosity and information index, was also significantly reduced in the conservation flocks. The average relatedness amongst the conservation flocks was high, whilst it remained low for the field populations. There was also significant evidence for population differentiation between field and conservation populations. F st estimates for conservation flocks were moderate to high with a maximum reached between VD_C and VD_F (0.285). However, F st estimates for field population were excessively low between the NN_C and EC_F (0.007) and between EC_F and OV_F (0.009). The significant population differentiation of the conservation flocks from their geographically correlated field populations of origin is further supported by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with 10.51 % of genetic

  9. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure, conservation and utilization of Theobroma cacao L., genetic resources in the Dominican Republic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic, which ranks 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. In an effort to identify propagation mistakes, and estimate genetic diversity and population structure in cacao germplasm accessions a...

  11. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  12. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  13. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  14. Energy conservation resource directory

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, D.; Paddock, D.; Doyle, L.

    1982-05-01

    Listed are energy conservation contacts among governments, local entities, and utilities serving the state of Washington. Statewide organizations and contacts are given, followed by lists for each county, including energy contacts for cities, community action agencies, the council of government, the county, Indian tribes, and utilities serving that county. Whenever possible, program staff people are identified rather than the executive staff. (LEW)

  15. Community-based interventions for the use and conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of indigenous scavenger chicken production in Benin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis C; Herrero, Mario; Baltenweck, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Scavenging chicken production in Africa is important for the livelihood of the poor. In most countries, these low inputs, low output systems employ local breeds making use of the feeding resources available in the household. However, their replacement with introduced exotic breeds with higher productivities represents a risk for their conservation. Here, we present a simulation model to evaluate the impact of community-based interventions aiming to improve the profitability of local chicken breeds and promote their use and conservation. The results indicate that under the current conditions, farmers producing exotic chicken are able to sell more animals in a one year period; however the market price of local chicken makes their production more profitable. Vaccination campaigns significantly reduce the mortality rate of both breeds, having a positive effect on producers' income but its impact on animal off-take is larger for exotic breeds, and the availability of feeding resources is the limiting factor as the flock size increases. The results of the intervention are positive in terms of increasing farmers' income but do not clearly contribute to the conservation of indigenous breeds since after the vaccination campaign, the gap between the profitability of indigenous and exotic breeds is reduced. The simulation model indicates that under the current conditions, the conservation of indigenous chicken breeds in Benin is maintained by the existence of distinct niche markets with consumers able to pay higher prices for indigenous chicken. Policies for the conservation of chicken genetic resources in Benin are discussed.

  16. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  17. Joining forces for genetic conservation

    Treesearch

    Gary Man; Emily Boes; Rhoda Maurer; Michael Dosmann; Matt Lobdell; Kevin Conrad; Mike Kintgen; Rebecca Sucher; Martin Nicholson; David Stevenson; Brianna McTeague; Evan Heck; Richard A. Sniezko

    2017-01-01

    Facing a Challenge Non-native diseases and insects as well as a changing climate pose serious threats to native trees in North America. Genetic variation in a species is key to its enduring persistence in the face of these abiotic and biotic threats. Efforts to conserve genetic diversity of North American tree at-risk species will ensure the genetic...

  18. Molecular and pedigree analysis applied to conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of Brazilian Somali hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta

    2011-10-01

    The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation.

  19. The fewer and the better: prioritization of populations for conservation under limited resources, a genetic study with Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae) in the Pyrenean National Park.

    PubMed

    Segarra-Moragues, J G; Catalán, P

    2010-03-01

    Taxa considered under low International Union for the Conservation of Nature categories of extinction risk often represent cases of concern to conservation biology. Their high relative abundance precludes management of the entire range due to limited economical resources. Therefore, they require a cost-effective management plan. Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae), an endemic plant of the Central Pyrenees and pre-Pyrenees, reaches the French side of the Central Pyrenees on its narrow northernmost boundary at Gavarnie (Parc National des Pyrenées, PNP, France), where it is protected as Vulnerable and considered a priority species. We have used nuclear microsatellite population genetic data to design a management strategy for the 11 populations of B. pyrenaica present in this area and to identify Relevant Genetic Units for its Conservation. The 18 SSR loci analysed identified 56 alleles, 24 of which fulfilled the rarity criterion for this set of populations. Genetic structuring of populations and representativity values derived from regression analyses of probabilities of loss of rare alleles together support differentiation of the B. pyrenaica populations into different management units. Estimates derived from G(ST) values indicate that five populations would adequately represent the 99.9% of the variation relative to most common alleles whereas calculations based on representativity values indicated that these five populations should equate the proportion 2:2:1 from the three different phylogeographical subdivisions of Gavarnie (Western, Eastern-1 and Eastern-2 ranges). This scheme would allow the preservation of 98.21% of the total B. pyrenaica alleles present in Gavarnie, according to the post glacial history of its populations. This conservation genetic approach could be applied to other low-extinction risk categories of extremely rare and subalpine plants in need of regulatory plans in European National Parks and Natural Reserves.

  20. Genetic Resources of Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit quality, watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) share a narrow genetic base. Africa is the center of origin and diversity of watermelon and is considered to be the central continent for collecting and conserving useful ge...

  1. Comparative genetic diversity in a sample of pony breeds from the U.K. and North America: a case study in the conservation of global genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Clare L; Plante, Yves; Hind, Pamela; McMahon, Robert; Hegarty, Matthew J; McEwan, Neil R; Davies-Morel, Mina C G; Morgan, Charly M; Powell, Wayne; Nash, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Most species exist as subdivided ex situ daughter population(s) derived from a single original group of individuals. Such subdivision occurs for many reasons both natural and manmade. Traditional British and Irish pony breeds were introduced to North America (U.S.A. and Canada) within the last 150 years, and subsequently equivalent breed societies were established. We have analyzed selected U.K. and North American equivalent pony populations as a case study for understanding the relationship between putative source and derived subpopulations. Diversity was measured using mitochondrial DNA and a panel of microsatellite markers. Genetic signatures differed between the North American subpopulations according to historical management processes. Founder effect and stochastic drift was apparent, particularly pronounced in some breeds, with evidence of admixture of imported mares of different North American breeds. This demonstrates the importance of analysis of subpopulations to facilitate understanding the genetic effects of past management practices and to lead to informed future conservation strategies. PMID:26380682

  2. Resource Conservation: A Static or Dynamic Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunker, Henry L.

    The educational history of resource conservation as an academic discipline is discussed. Also examined is whether conservation should be taught as a static or dynamic concept. The first conservation text was written in 1910. Since then, geographers have stressed several approaches to resource conservation including the inventory and analysis of…

  3. Maize Genetic Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  4. Genetic applications in avian conservation

    Treesearch

    Susan M. Haig; Whitcomb M. Bronaugh; Rachel S. Crowhurst; Jesse D' Elia; Collin A. Eagles-Smith; Clinton W. Epps; Brian Knaus; Mark P. Miller; Michael L. Moses; Sara Oyler-McCance; W. Douglas Robinson; Brian. Sidlauskas

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond. Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic...

  5. Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

    2011-03-01

    Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters.

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  7. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  8. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  9. Genetic applications in avian conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  10. Simulating the selfing and migration of Luehea divaricata populations in the Pampa biome to investigate the conservation potential of their genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Serrote, C M L; Reiniger, L R S; Stefenon, V M; Curti, A R; Costa, L S; Paim, A F

    2016-08-29

    Computer simulations are an important tool for developing conservation strategies for forest species. This study used simulations to investigate the genetic, ecological, and reproductive patterns that contribute to the genetic structure of the tree Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. in five forest fragments in the Brazilian Pampa biome. Using the EASYPOP model, we determined the selfing and migration rates that would match the corresponding genetic structure of microsatellite marker data (based on observed and expected heterozygosity parameters). The simulated reproductive mode was mixed, with a high rate of outcrossing (rate = 0.7). This was consistent with a selfing-incompatible system in this species, which reduced, but did not prevent, selfing. The simulated migration rate was 0.02, which implied that the forest fragments were isolated by distance, and that the inbreeding coefficients were high. Based on Nei's gene diversity analysis, 94% of the genetic variability was distributed within the forest fragments, and only 6% of the genetic diversity was caused by differences between them. Furthermore, the minimum viable population and minimum viable area genetic conservation parameters (which determine conservation potential in the short and long term) suggested that only the Inhatinhum forest fragment had the short-term potential to maintain its genetic diversity. However, in the long term, none of the forest fragments proved to be sustainable, indicating that the populations will require intervention to prevent a decline in genetic variability. The creation of ecological corridors could be a useful solution to connect forest fragments and enhance gene flow between them.

  11. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Vodouhè, R.; Dansi, A.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees. PMID:22693431

  13. The "bringing into cultivation" phase of the plant domestication process and its contributions to in situ conservation of genetic resources in Benin.

    PubMed

    Vodouhè, R; Dansi, A

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  14. The Potato Cryobank at The International Potato Center (Cip): A Model for Long Term Conservation of Clonal Plant Genetic Resources Collections of the Future.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, R; Villagaray, R; Egusquiza, V; Espirilla, J; García, M; Torres, A; Rojas, E; Panta, A; Barkley, N A; Ellis, D

    Cryobanks are a secure, efficient and low cost method for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources for theoretically centuries or millennia with minimal maintenance. The present manuscript describes CIP's modified protocol for potato cryopreservation, its large-scale application, and the establishment of quality and operational standards, which included a viability reassessment of material entering the cryobank. In 2013, CIP established stricter quality and operational standards under which 1,028 potato accessions were cryopreserved with an improved PVS2-droplet protocol. In 2014 the viability of 114 accessions cryopreserved in 2013 accessions were reassessed. The average recovery rate (full plant recovery after LN exposure) of 1028 cryopreserved Solanum species ranged from 34 to 59%, and 70% of the processed accessions showed a minimum recovery rate of ≥20% and were considered as successfully cryopreserved. CIP has established a new high quality management system for cryobanking. Periodic viability reassessment, strict and clear recovery criteria and the monitoring of the percent of successful accessions meeting the criteria as well as contamination rates are metrics that need to be considered in cryobanks.

  15. Bison conservation initiative: Bison conservation genetics workshop: report and recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Peter Dratch,

    2010-01-01

    One of the first outcomes of the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bison Conservation Initiative was the Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop held in Nebraska in September 2008. The workshop brought together scientists from government agencies and non-governmental organizations with professional population geneticists to develop guidance for the genetic management of the federal bison herds. The scientists agreed on the basic tenets of genetic management for the DOI herds and discussed different approaches to meeting those goals. First, the 12 DOI herds are an irreplaceable resource for the long-term conservation of North American plains bison. Most of the herds show low levels of cattle introgression dating from the time when they were saved from extirpation; those herds should not be mixed without careful consideration as to their origin. Herds that show no evidence of cattle ancestry by the current molecular methods are the highest priority for protection from genetic mixing with any other bison herds. Second, despite the fact that most of the herds now managed by the U.S. government were founded with very few bison and have been maintained for many generations at relatively low population sizes, they do not show obvious effects of inbreeding. They have retained significant amounts of genetic variation by the standard measures, heterozygosity and allelic diversity. This may be explained in part by the fact that most of these herds are not remnants of a single population. Third, to preserve genetic variation in federal bison herds over decades and centuries, herds should be managed at a population or metapopulation level of 1,000 animals or more, with a sex ratio that enables competition between breeding bulls. The parks and refuges that currently have bison herds, with the exception of Yellowstone National Park, do not have enough land to support a population of this size. In the short term, it will be important to develop satellite herds to attain population

  16. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Daniel; Macaya, Gabriel; Guarino, Luigi; Baudoin, Jean Pierre; Rocha, Oscar J

    2008-09-01

    Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1) populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized), 2) populations that did not experience local extinction (control), and 3) populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental). Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean F(st) = 0.2769), followed by control locations (mean F(st) = 0.0576) and experimental locations (mean F(st) = 0.0189). Similar findings were observed for Neis genetic distance between samples (d(ij) = 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively). Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed.

  17. Improving genetic conservation of tree species

    Treesearch

    Pam Allenstein; Jennifer DeWoody; David Gwaze; Valerie Hipkins; Gary Man; Anna Schoettle; Kirsty Shaw; Murphy. Westwood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this workshop breakout group session was to review significant gaps within each of three major themes (In-situ Conservation, Ex-situ Conservation, and Restoration of Species and Ecosystems) and to identify actionable solutions to move genetic conservation efforts forward. In order to identify solutions and action items for the tree conservation community,...

  18. Soil conservation service landscape resource management

    Treesearch

    Sally Schauman; Carolyn Adams

    1979-01-01

    SCS Landscape Resource Management (LRM) is the application of landscape architecture to SCS conservation activities. LRM includes but is not limited to visual resource management. LRM can be summarized in three principles: (1) SCS landscape architecture considers the landscape as a composite of ecological, social and visual resources; (2) SCS landscapes exist in the...

  19. [Genetic risks in plant ex situ conservation].

    PubMed

    Kang, Ming; Ye, Qi-Gang; Huang, Hong-Wen

    2005-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity of rare and endangered species and their evolutionary potential is one of the long-term goals of ex-situ conservation. Some potential genetic risks in ex-situ conservation in botanical gardens are presented. The preserved species may lack genetic representativity because of poor sampling. Inappropriate plantations, inadequate records and unclear kinships jeopardize endangered species to genetic confusion, inbreeding depression or outbreeding depression. Artificial selection and habitat conversion also potentially result endangered plants in adapting to ex-situ conservation, which had been usually overlooked. All the genetic risks can decrease the success of reintroduction and recovery. Therefore, appropriate genetic management should be carried out in botanical gardens to decrease or avoid genetic risks in ex-situ conservation.

  20. Important Hawaiian tree species in need of genetic conservation

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Hauff

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers in Hawaii face unique forest conservation challenges. Invasive species continue to inundate the remote island archipelago, directly threatening its forest resources. Hawaii has the largest number (> 400) of endangered plants in the United States, and managers use genetic approaches to preserve these small populations which are often island...

  1. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  2. Energy Conservation Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddy, Michael D., Ed.; And Others

    Although designed as a resource for teachers in the Guilford County (North Carolina) School System, this guide contains information applicable to most K-12 curricula. There are five color-coded sections, each devoted to specific grade levels: K-3, 4-6, 4-9, 10-12. The Appendices include field trip possibilities, an energy use checklist, and…

  3. Reproductive biotechnologies and management of animal genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global awareness has increased efforts to conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR). Ex-situ conservation and management of AnGR is exclusively dependent upon an array of reproductive and genetic biotechnologies. These technologies range from well established protocols, e.g., cryopreservation of sper...

  4. Plant conservation genetics in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andrea T; Havens, Kayri

    2009-11-01

    Plant conservation genetics provides tools to guide conservation and restoration efforts, measure and monitor success, and ultimately minimize extinction risk by conserving species as dynamic entities capable of evolving in the face of changing conditions. We consider the application of these tools to rare and common species alike, as ongoing threats that increasingly limit their resilience, evolutionary potential and survival. Whereas neutral marker studies have contributed much to conservation genetics, we argue for a renewed focus on quantitative genetic studies to determine how, or if, species will adapt to changing conditions. Because restoration plays an increasingly vital role in conservation, we discuss additional genetic considerations and research questions that must be actively studied now to effectively inform future actions.

  5. Review of Current Conservation Genetic Analyses of Northeast Pacific Sharks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn E; Daly-Engel, Toby S; Phillips, Nicole M

    2017-01-01

    Conservation genetics is an applied science that utilizes molecular tools to help solve problems in species conservation and management. It is an interdisciplinary specialty in which scientists apply the study of genetics in conjunction with traditional ecological fieldwork and other techniques to explore molecular variation, population boundaries, and evolutionary relationships with the goal of enabling resource managers to better protect biodiversity and identify unique populations. Several shark species in the northeast Pacific (NEP) have been studied using conservation genetics techniques, which are discussed here. The primary methods employed to study population genetics of sharks have historically been nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial (mt) DNA. These markers have been used to assess genetic diversity, mating systems, parentage, relatedness, and genetically distinct populations to inform management decisions. Novel approaches in conservation genetics, including next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, environmental DNA (eDNA), and epigenetics are just beginning to be applied to elasmobranch evolution, physiology, and ecology. Here, we review the methods and results of past studies, explore future directions for shark conservation genetics, and discuss the implications of molecular research and techniques for the long-term management of shark populations in the NEP. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ENCORE: Energy Conservation Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Industrial Education.

    This publication contains the energy education materials for middle schools from project ENCORE (Energy Conservation Resources for Education). These modules were originally field tested in Texas schools during the 1976-77 academic year. The revised materials in this publication are organized into four major units and thirteen chapters. The…

  7. Resource Conservation. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for resource conservation occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  8. Genomics and the future of conservation genetics.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Luikart, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    We will soon have complete genome sequences from thousands of species, as well as from many individuals within species. This coming explosion of information will transform our understanding of the amount, distribution and functional significance of genetic variation in natural populations. Now is a crucial time to explore the potential implications of this information revolution for conservation genetics and to recognize limitations in applying genomic tools to conservation issues. We identify and discuss those problems for which genomics will be most valuable for curbing the accelerating worldwide loss of biodiversity. We also provide guidance on which genomics tools and approaches will be most appropriate to use for different aspects of conservation.

  9. role of seed analysis in genetic conservation

    Treesearch

    V.G. Vankus; R.P. Karrfalt

    2017-01-01

    Long term storage of seeds at freezing temperatures is one strategy for genetic conservation of tree species. It can be used to preserve species that produce seeds that remain viable after drying to a low seed moisture content. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS) National Seed Laboratory (NSL) began long term seed storage for genetic...

  10. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  11. When does conservation genetics matter?

    PubMed

    Amos, W; Balmford, A

    2001-09-01

    Is this short review we explore the genetic threats facing declining populations, focusing in particular on empirical studies and the emerging questions they raise. At face value, the two primary threats are slow erosion of genetic variability by drift and short-term lowering of fitness owing to inbreeding depression, of which the latter appears the more potent force. However, the picture is not this simple. Populations that have passed through a severe bottleneck can show a markedly reduced ability to respond to change, particularly in the face of novel challenges. At the same time, several recent studies reveal subtle ways in which species are able to retain more useful genetic variability than they 'should', for example by enhanced reproductive success among the most outbred individuals in a population. Such findings call into question the validity of simple models based on random mating, and emphasize the need for more empirical data aimed at elucidating precisely what happens in natural populations.

  12. Cryopreservation of eucalyptus genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods aside from field plantings of germplasm collections of elite clonal individuals. The use ...

  13. Genetic conservation in applied tree breeding programs.

    Treesearch

    R. Johnson; B. St. Clair; S. Lipow

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews how population size and structure impacts the maintenance of genetic variation in breeding and gene resource populations. We discuss appropriate population sizes for low frequency alleles and point out some examples of low frequency alleles in the literature. Development of appropriate breeding populations and gene resource populations are discussed...

  14. The conservation of Britain's limestone cave resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, P.; Gunn, J.

    1996-10-01

    Limestone caves are an important scientific and recreational resource in Britain. During the mid- to late 1970s, cavers and statutory conservation bodies cooperated in a review of cave resources which resulted in the designation of 48 caves or cave areas as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). During the same period, the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 was introduced to provide more effective planning controls on activities such as agriculture carried out within SSSI boundaries. In one case, at Priddy in the Mendip Hills of Somerset, landowners prevented access to a number of caves in protest over the new, tougher restrictions on agriculture. Faced with the closure, and perceiving that their recreational use of caves might also be controlled, local cavers joined the landowners in opposing the proposals for SSSI designation. As a result the proposals were reviewed, three caves were excluded from the site and controls on the remaining area were relaxed. The case emphasized a need for an effective system to take account of all factors affecting cave conservation, a need which has led to a more constructive dialogue between nature conservation bodies, caver organizations and other interested parties.

  15. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... GENERAL INFORMATION Conditions Screened by US Programs General Resources Genetics Birth Defects Hearing Screening FOR PROFESSIONALS ACT Sheets(ACMG) General Resources Newborn Screening Genetics Birth Defects FOR FAMILIES FAQs ...

  16. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  17. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  18. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  19. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  20. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 970.603... § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the requirement for the conservation of natural resources, encompassing due regard for the prevention of waste...

  1. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  2. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  4. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  5. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  6. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  7. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  8. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  9. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  10. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  11. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  12. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  13. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  14. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  15. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  16. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  17. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  18. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  19. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  20. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  1. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  2. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  3. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  4. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  5. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  6. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 970.603... § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the requirement for the conservation of natural resources, encompassing due regard for the prevention of waste...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  8. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  9. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  10. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 970.603... § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the requirement for the conservation of natural resources, encompassing due regard for the prevention of waste...

  11. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  12. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  13. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  14. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  15. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  16. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  17. The U.S. Forest Service National Seed Laboratory and Fraxinus ex situ genetic conservation

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service's National Seed Laboratory (NSL) has as part of its mission the conservation of genetic resources for the Forest Service and Forest Service cooperators through long-term seed storage. The Forest Service recognizes ash as one of four priority species for genetic conservation. The NSL is in charge of the Forest Service ash preservation plan...

  18. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; Blackburn, Harvey D

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellites are commonly used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison of genetic resources when samples were not evaluated in a single laboratory. Eleven microsatellites were included in the analysis of 13 US and 9 Brazilian sheep breeds (N = 706). A Bayesian approach was selected and evaluated with and without a shared set of samples analyzed by each country. All markers had a posterior probability of greater than 0.5, which was higher than predicted as reasonable by the software used. Sensitivity analysis indicated no difference between results with or without shared samples. Cluster analysis showed breeds to be partitioned by functional groups of hair, meat, or wool types (K = 7 and 12 of STRUCTURE). Cross-country comparison of hair breeds indicated substantial genetic distances and within breed variability. The selected approach can facilitate the merger and analysis of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison and extend the utility of previously collected molecular markers. In addition, the result of this type of analysis can be used in new and existing conservation programs.

  19. Stress and adaptation in conservation genetics.

    PubMed

    Frankham, R

    2005-07-01

    Stress, adaptation and evolution are major concerns in conservation biology. Stresses from pollution, climatic changes, disease etc. may affect population persistence. Further, stress typically occurs when species are placed in captivity. Threatened species are usually managed to conserve their ability to adapt to environmental changes, whilst species in captivity undergo adaptations that are deleterious upon reintroduction into the wild. In model studies using Drosophila melanogaster, we have found that; (a) inbreeding and loss of genetic variation reduced resistance to the stress of disease, (b) extinction rates under inbreeding are elevated by stress, (c) adaptive evolutionary potential in an increasingly stressful environment is reduced in small population, (d) rates of inbreeding are elevated under stressful conditions, (e) genetic adaptation to captivity reduces fitness when populations are reintroduced into the 'wild', and (f) the deleterious effects of adaptation on reintroduction success can be reduced by population fragmentation.

  20. Identification and conservation of apple genetic diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) maintains a vast collection of plant genetic resources that includes over 570,000 accessions representing nearly 15,000 species. This collection is dispersed amongst 17 active sites throughout the United States. The NPGS base collection at the Nati...

  1. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  2. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  3. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  4. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  5. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  6. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ((RCRA) (Pub. L....

  8. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  9. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  10. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  11. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  12. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  13. Conservation genetics of high elevation five-needle white pines

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bower; Sierra C. McLane; Andrew Eckert; Stacy Jorgensen; Anna Schoettle; Sally Aitken

    2011-01-01

    Conservation genetics examines the biophysical factors influencing genetic processes and uses that information to conserve and maintain the evolutionary potential of species and populations. Here we review published and unpublished literature on the conservation genetics of seven North American high-elevation five-needle pines. Although these species are widely...

  14. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61... for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.61 Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (a... in § 2.20(b)(1), the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Natural...

  15. Organizing phenological data resources to inform natural resource conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Posthumus, Erin E.; Denny, Ellen G.; Guertin, Patricia; Marsh, Lee; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the timing of plant and animal life cycle events, in response to climate change, are already happening across the globe. The impacts of these changes may affect biodiversity via disruption to mutualisms, trophic mismatches, invasions and population declines. To understand the nature, causes and consequences of changed, varied or static phenologies, new data resources and tools are being developed across the globe. The USA National Phenology Network is developing a long-term, multi-taxa phenological database, together with a customizable infrastructure, to support conservation and management needs. We present current and potential applications of the infrastructure, across scales and user groups. The approaches described here are congruent with recent trends towards multi-agency, large-scale research and action.

  16. Range-wide conservation of Pinus aristata: A genetic collection with ecological context for proactive management today and resources for tomorrow

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Jonathan C. Coop

    2017-01-01

    Tree species are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic environmental change, and are increasingly being challenged by non-native pests and climate change. Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are long-lived, exhibit delayed maturation, have low genetic diversity, and inhabit cold, high-elevation environments. They are threatened by the non-native disease white pine blister...

  17. Why preserve and evaluate genetic resources in peanut?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts are produced in more than 100 countries with a total global total production in 2010 of 37,953,949 metric tons (FAO statistics, 2010). Because peanut is an important crop, it is imperative that its germplasm be preserved in order to conserve the genetic diversity and provide a resource to i...

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Federal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal facilities have responsibilities with hazardous waste under RCRA, including the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). .

  19. Conservation genetics of carnivores in Italy.

    PubMed

    Randi, Ettore

    2003-08-01

    Pleistocene climatic changes shaped the patterns of biodiversity in Europe and around the Mediterranean. Describing the phylogeographic structure of animal populations and inferring past population dynamics is essential to develop a framework for conservation biology in Europe. Direct persecution, habitat loss, population fragmentation and hybridization with domesticated conspecifics, are the main threats to the survival of large mammalian species. In this paper I will summarize the available information on phylogeography and population genetics of brown bear, wolf, wildcat and otters in Italy and in Europe.

  20. Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Camila M; Janke, Aline; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Pinheiro, Felipe G; Paggi, Gecele M; Soares, Luis E S; Goetze, Márcia; Büttow, Miriam V; Bered, Fernanda

    2012-12-01

    Bromeliaceae is a morphologically distinctive and ecologically diverse family originating in the New World. Three centers of diversity, 58 genera, and about 3,140 bromeliad species are currently recognized. We compiled all of the studies related to the reproductive biology, genetic diversity, and population structure of the Bromeliaceae, and discuss the evolution and conservation of this family. Bromeliads are preferentially pollinated by vertebrates and show marked variation in breeding systems, from predominant inbreeding to predominant outcrossing, as well as constancy in chromosome number (2n = 2x = 50). Autogamous or mixed mating system bromeliads have a high inbreeding coefficient (F(IS)), while outcrossing species show low F(IS). The degree of differentiation among populations (F(ST))of species ranges from 0.043 to 0.961, which can be influenced by pollen and seed dispersal effects, clonal growth, gene flow rates, and connectivity among populations. The evolutionary history of the Bromeliaceae is poorly known, although some studies have indicated that the family arose in the Guayana Shield roughly 100 Mya. We believe that genetic, cytogenetic, and reproductive data will be essential for diagnosing species status and for assisting conservation programs.

  1. Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Camila M.; Janke, Aline; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Pinheiro, Felipe G.; Paggi, Gecele M.; Soares, Luis E.S.; Goetze, Márcia; Büttow, Miriam V.; Bered, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is a morphologically distinctive and ecologically diverse family originating in the New World. Three centers of diversity, 58 genera, and about 3,140 bromeliad species are currently recognized. We compiled all of the studies related to the reproductive biology, genetic diversity, and population structure of the Bromeliaceae, and discuss the evolution and conservation of this family. Bromeliads are preferentially pollinated by vertebrates and show marked variation in breeding systems, from predominant inbreeding to predominant outcrossing, as well as constancy in chromosome number (2n = 2x = 50). Autogamous or mixed mating system bromeliads have a high inbreeding coefficient (FIS), while outcrossing species show low FIS. The degree of differentiation among populations (FST)of species ranges from 0.043 to 0.961, which can be influenced by pollen and seed dispersal effects, clonal growth, gene flow rates, and connectivity among populations. The evolutionary history of the Bromeliaceae is poorly known, although some studies have indicated that the family arose in the Guayana Shield roughly 100 Mya. We believe that genetic, cytogenetic, and reproductive data will be essential for diagnosing species status and for assisting conservation programs. PMID:23412953

  2. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  3. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  4. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  5. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  6. 2 CFR 215.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 215.16 Section 215.16 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act....

  7. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  8. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  9. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  10. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  11. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  12. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  13. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  14. 2 CFR 215.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 215.16 Section 215.16 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act....

  15. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  16. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  17. 76 FR 28209 - Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... to genetic resources conservation. DATES: Written nominations must be received on or before June 30... to genetic resources conservation. The Executive Director of the Research, Education, and Economics... suggestions and ideas on how USDA can tailor its programs to help maintain purity of non-GE genetics, from...

  18. Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges

    Treesearch

    Gernot Segelbacher; Samuel A. Cushman; Bryan K. Epperson; Marie-Josee Fortin; Olivier Francois; Olivier J. Hardy; Rolf Holderegger; Stephanie Manel

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics plays an increasingly important role in the management and conservation of species. Here, we highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in using landscape genetic approaches in conservation biology. We first discuss challenges related to sampling design and introduce several recent methodological developments in landscape genetics (analyses...

  19. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  20. The atlantic salmon: Genetics, conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verspoor, Eric; Stradmeyer, Lee; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic Salmon is a cultural icon throughout its North Atlantic range; it is the focus of probably the World’s highest profile recreational fishery and is the basis for one of the World’s largest aquaculture industries. Despite this, many wild stocks of salmon are in decline and underpinning this is a dearth of information on the nature and extent of population structuring and adaptive population differentiation, and its implications for species conservation.This important new book will go a long way to rectify this situation by providing a thorough review of the genetics of Atlantic salmon. Sponsored by the European Union and the Atlantic Salmon Trust, this book comprises the work of an international team of scientists, carefully integrated and edited to provide a landmark book of vital interest to all those working with Atlantic salmon.

  1. An overview of forestry in the Farm Bill and Natural Resources Conservation Service forestry resources

    Treesearch

    Andy Henriksen

    2010-01-01

    Since 1935, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (originally the Soil Conservation Service) has provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private landowners and managers conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources. NRCS employees provide technical assistance based on sound science and suited to a customer's...

  2. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    PubMed

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  3. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    PubMed Central

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  4. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golovin, D.; Krause, A.; Gardner, B.; Converse, S.J.; Morey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consider the problem of protecting endangered species by selecting patches of land to be used for conservation purposes. Typically, the availability of patches changes over time, and recommendations must be made dynamically. This is a challenging prototypical example of a sequential optimization problem under uncertainty in computational sustainability. Existing techniques do not scale to problems of realistic size. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for adaptively making recommendations for dynamic conservation planning, and prove that it obtains near-optimal performance. We further evaluate our approach on a detailed reserve design case study of conservation planning for three rare species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Copyright ?? 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservation strategies for forest gene resources

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1986-01-01

    Gene conservation has three facets: (1) the maintenance of diversity in production plantations to buffer against vulnerability to pests and climatic extremes; (2) the preservation of genes for their future value in breeding; (3) the protection of species to promote ecosystem stability. Maintaining diversity as a hedge against damaging agents is a simple strategy in...

  6. Colorado Model for Conservation Education: Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, George; And Others

    This guide is devoted to the presentation and development of concepts dealing with conservation education in the public schools. The guide develops four overriding concepts: (1) The Wholeness of Earth's Systems; (2) The Effects of Ecosystems on Human Beings; (3) Human Beings Are Now the Most Influential of Earth's Organisms; and (4) Our Ability to…

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Orientation Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual provides introductory information on the solid and hazardous waste management programs under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Designed for EPA and state staff, members of the regulated community, and the general public.

  8. Abbreviated Version Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Statutory Checklist

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The RCRA Statutory Checklist is provided to aid attorneys and others in reviewing and documenting statutory provisions required for authorization under Section 3006(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended.

  9. Conservation of resources theory in nurse burnout and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Prapanjaroensin, Aoyjai; Patrician, Patricia A; Vance, David E

    2017-05-24

    To examine how the Conservation of Resources theory explains burnout in the nursing profession. Burnout, which is an accumulation of work-related mental stress in people-oriented occupations, has been an issue of concern for decades for healthcare workers, especially nurses. Yet, few studies have examined a unified theory that explains the aetiology, progression and consequences of nurse burnout. This discussion article integrates current knowledge on nurse burnout using Conservation of Resources theory, which focuses on four resources (i.e., objects, conditions, personal characteristics and energy). The databases that were used in this study included CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO. All reviewed articles were published between January 2006 - June 2016. The Conservation of Resources theory explains that burnout will occur as a result of perceived or actual loss of these four resources. Furthermore, nurse burnout could affect work performance, leading to lower alertness and overall quality of care. Healthcare organizations and nursing administration should develop strategies to protect nurses from the threat of resource loss to decrease nurse burnout, which may improve nurse and patient safety. The Conservation of Resources theory can guide interventions to decrease burnout and future research that examines the relationship between professional nurse burnout and patient safety. The Conservation of Resources theory explains the aetiology, progression and consequences of nurse burnout. Future studies must explore whether nurse performance is a mediating factor between nurse burnout and patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Botanic garden genetics: comparison of two cyacad conservation collections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic data can guide the management of plant conservation collections. Direct assay of an ex situ collection’s genetic diversity, measured against wild plant populations, offers insight for conservation efforts. Here we present a carefully chosen case study, Zamia lucayana, selected for its contra...

  11. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  12. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  13. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  14. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  15. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Grouse Conservation Subcommittee and Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... sage grouse conservation subcommittee and the full Resource Advisory Council will meet as follows... Resource Management Plans to incorporate regulatory mechanisms for conservation of sage grouse habitat....

  16. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the... provisions only as the Administrator deems necessary. (b) NOAA views license phase mining system tests as...

  17. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the... provisions only as the Administrator deems necessary. (b) NOAA views license phase mining system tests as an...

  18. Resource Conservation and a Sustainable Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piechota, Thomas C.

    2014-05-15

    This research project developed educational, research, and outreach activities that addressed the challenges of Las Vegas as related to a secure energy supply through conservation, clean and adequate water supply, economic growth and diversification, air quality, and the best use of land, and usable public places. This was part of the UNLV Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI) that responded to a community and state need where a unifying vision of sustainability was developed in a cost-effective manner that promoted formal working partnerships between government, community groups, and industry.

  19. Conservation Genetics, Precision Conservation, and De-extinction.

    PubMed

    Desalle, Rob; Amato, George

    2017-07-01

    It has been estimated that three species on the planet now go extinct every hour and that this rate is orders of magnitude higher than the planet has seen in previous catastrophic extinction events. We clearly are in the midst of a sixth extinction, and this one is different from the previous five. Why? This sixth extinction is caused by the activity of a single species-us. If there is any hope of ameliorating this extinction, it will entirely be up to us, as the current stewards of this planet, to change the course. There are many challenges, though, to marshaling this effort. Two primary ones immediately come to mind. The first is that we simply haven't found the right biological tools to address this crisis. The second is that many humans on this planet don't even admit we have a problem. These are two very different problems. The first is primarily technological. Only recently has some of the more advanced biologically focused technology been available to conservation biology and extinction science. Humans are enthralled by cutting-edge technology for the most part, and for the public, one of the more exciting possibilities in the realm of conservation biology is that some of the more charismatic species that have gone extinct might be resurrected through next-generation technologies. While our discussion will articulate some weaknesses with the de-extinction approach to conservation biology, we suggest that the "sexiness" of the technologies used in de-extinction may simultaneously provide a definition of the techniques viable in conservation biology and afford a teachable moment. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  20. Conservation Genetics of the Philippine Tarsier: Cryptic Genetic Variation Restructures Conservation Priorities for an Island Archipelago Primate

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; Olson, Karen V.; Duya, Mariano R. M.; Barley, Anthony J.; Duya, Melizar V.; Shekelle, Myron; Neri-Arboleda, Irene; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Ong, Perry S.; Moritz, Gillian L.; Luczon, Adrian; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Siler, Cameron D.

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier. PMID:25136854

  1. Conservation genetics of the Philippine tarsier: cryptic genetic variation restructures conservation priorities for an island archipelago primate.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Weghorst, Jennifer A; Olson, Karen V; Duya, Mariano R M; Barley, Anthony J; Duya, Melizar V; Shekelle, Myron; Neri-Arboleda, Irene; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Ong, Perry S; Moritz, Gillian L; Luczon, Adrian; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C; Siler, Cameron D

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier.

  2. Conservation genetics of managed ungulate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.

    1993-01-01

    Natural populations of many species are increasingly impacted by human activities. Perturbations are particularly pronunced for large ungulates due in part to sport and commercial harvest, to reductions and fragmentation of native habitat, and as the result of reintroductions. These perturbations affect population size, sex and age composition, and population breeding structure, and as a consequence affect the levels and partitioning of genetic variation. Three case histories highlighting long-term ecological genetic research on mule deer Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), white-tailed deer O. virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780), and Alpine ibex Capra i. ibex Linnaeus, 1758 are presented. Joint examinations of population ecological and genetic data from several populations of each species reveal: (1) that populations are not in genetic equilibrium, but that allele frequencies and heterozygosity change dramatically over time and among cohorts produced in successive years, (2) populations are genetically structured over short and large geographic distances reflecting local breeding structure and patterns of gene flow, respectively; however, this structure is quite dynamic over time, due in part to population exploitation, and (3) restocking programs are often undertaken with small numbers of founding individuals resulting in dramatic declines in levels of genetic variability and increasing levels of genetic differentiation among populations due to genetic drift. Genetic characteristics have and will continue to provide valuable indirect sources of information relating enviromental and human perturbations to changes in population processes.

  3. Allozyme markers in forest genetic conservation

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; R. D. Westfall

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity is important in tree-breeding, in managing rare and endangered tree species, and in maintaining healthy populations of widespread native tree species. Allozymes are useful in determining genetic relationships among species, where they can be used to assess affiliations of rare taxa and predict relative endangerment among species. Because allozymes...

  4. BBGRE: brain and body genetic resource exchange.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo Wook; Dixit, Abhishek; Johnston, Caroline; Ogilvie, Caroline M; Collier, David A; Curran, Sarah; Dobson, Richard J B

    2013-01-01

    Studies of copy number variation (genomic imbalance) are providing insight into both complex and Mendelian genetic disorders. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), a tool for detecting copy number variants at a resolution previously unattainable in clinical diagnostics, is increasingly used as a first-line test at clinical genetics laboratories. Many copy number variants are of unknown significance; correlation and comparison with other patients will therefore be essential for interpretation. We present a resource for clinicians and researchers to identify specific copy number variants and associated phenotypes in patients from a single catchment area, tested using array CGH at the SE Thames Regional Genetics Centre, London. User-friendly searching is available, with links to external resources, providing a powerful tool for the elucidation of gene function. We hope to promote research by facilitating interactions between researchers and patients. The BBGRE (Brain and Body Genetic Resource Exchange) resource can be accessed at the following website: http://bbgre.org DATABASE URL: http://bbgre.org.

  5. Managing nut genetic resources under disease threat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) Corvallis, Oregon, is assigned to preserve genetic resources of hazelnuts (Corylus L.) and butternuts (Juglans cinerea L.). Both crops are threatened by fungal diseases. Hazelnuts are challenged by Eastern filbert blight (EFB) [caused by Anis...

  6. Global resources of genetic diversity in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Collecting and preserving genetic resources is critical in order to improve agricultural production around the world. Ensuring enough food to provide adequate nutrition for the global population is going to be a hugh challenge for plant breeders going forward as the human populations increases. Fa...

  7. Grain legume genetic resources for allele mining

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sequencing capacities for higher throughput at significantly lower costs have enabled larger scale genotyping of plant genetic resources. One challenge to sequencing the USDA grain legume collections of pea, chickpea and lentil core accessions is the amount of heterogeneity in the landrace accessio...

  8. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  9. Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  10. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  11. Cryobanking of farm animal gametes and embryos as a means of conserving livestock genetics.

    PubMed

    Mara, L; Casu, Sara; Carta, A; Dattena, M

    2013-04-01

    In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. But, since the removal of single species can affect the functioning of global ecosystems, it is in the interest of international community to conserve the livestock genetics and to maintain biodiversity. Increasing awareness on the reduction of breed diversity has prompted global efforts for conservation of farm animal breeds. The goals of conservation are to keep genetic variation as gene combinations in a reversible form and to keep specific genes of interest. For this purpose two types of strategies are usually proposed: in situ and ex situ conservation. In situ conservation is the breed maintaining within the livestock production system, in its environment through the enhancement of its production characteristics. Ex situ in vivo conservation is the safeguard of live animals in zoos, wildlife parks, experimental farms or other specialized centres. Ex situ in vitro conservation is the preservation of genetic material in haploid form (semen and oocytes), diploid (embryos) or DNA sequences. In the last few years, ex situ in vitro conservation programs of livestock genetic resources have focused interest on cryopreservation of gametes, embryos and somatic cells as well as testis and ovarian tissues, effectively lengthening the genetic lifespan of individuals in a breeding program even after the death. However, although significant progress has been made in semen, oocytes and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, a standardized procedure has not been established yet. The aim of the present review is to describe the cryobanking purposes, the collection goals, the type of genetic material to store and the reproductive biotechnologies utilized for the cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos.

  12. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Soil Surveys, including: (A) Providing leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey which includes conducting and publishing soil surveys; (B) Conducting soil surveys for resource... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and related...

  13. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Soil Surveys, including: (A) Providing leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey which includes conducting and publishing soil surveys; (B) Conducting soil surveys for resource... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and related...

  14. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Soil Surveys, including: (A) Providing leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey which includes conducting and publishing soil surveys; (B) Conducting soil surveys for resource... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and related...

  15. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award...

  16. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award...

  17. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally) with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT) research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR) theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to understanding the role of

  18. Conservation of living resources in a changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teer, James G.

    1996-11-01

    Conservation of living resources is no longer parochial in scope; it is a global challenge. Ecological, social, political, and business interests operate in a network that reaches across seas, continents, and nations. Industries, including the electric utility industry, are diversifying in products and expanding into international markets. They soon discover that, while all nations have common goals for their peoples, conservation and environmental issues in less-developed nations have different dimensions and norms than are encountered in Western, affluent societies. In developing countries, survival is more of an issue than quality of life, and burgeoning human numbers have put tremendous pressures on resources including wildlife and its habitats. Human population, urbanization of society, changes in single-species to ecosystem and landscape levels of management, and protectionists and animal rights philosophies are influences with which conservation of resources and the environment must contend. The human condition and conservation efforts are inextricably linked. Examples to demonstrate this fact are given for Project Tiger in India, the jaguar in Latin America, and the Serengeti ecosystem in Kenya and Tanzania.

  19. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  20. Dynamics of a wellness program: a conservation of resources perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Doo; Hollensbe, Elaine C; Schwoerer, Catherine E; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-01-01

    We leverage conservation of resources theory to explain possible dynamics through which a holistic wellness program results in positive longer-term outcomes. Specifically, we hypothesize that wellness self-efficacy at the end of a wellness program will create a positive resource gain spiral, increasing psychological availability (a sense of having cognitive, physical, and emotional resources to engage oneself) 6 months later, and career satisfaction, 1 year later. To test these hypotheses, using a time-lagged with control group design, we gathered questionnaire data from 160 Episcopal priests who participated in a 10-day off-site wellness program. We developed a scale measuring self-efficacy in the 4 wellness areas the program was designed to improve: physical, spiritual, financial, and vocational. Our findings provide evidence from a field setting of a relatively untested tenet of conservation of resources theory, resource gain spirals. The wellness program that we studied served as an opportunity for participants to gain new resources in the form of wellness self-efficacy, which in turn helped participants experience positive outcomes over time. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

  1. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  2. Conservation Genetics of the Cheetah: Lessons Learned and New Opportunities.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Driscoll, Carlos A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Marker, Laurie

    2017-09-01

    The dwindling wildlife species of our planet have become a cause célèbre for conservation groups, governments, and concerned citizens throughout the world. The application of powerful new genetic technologies to surviving populations of threatened mammals has revolutionized our ability to recognize hidden perils that afflict them. We have learned new lessons of survival, adaptation, and evolution from viewing the natural history of genomes in hundreds of detailed studies. A single case history of one species, the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is here reviewed to reveal a long-term story of conservation challenges and action informed by genetic discoveries and insights. A synthesis of 3 decades of data, interpretation, and controversy, capped by whole genome sequence analysis of cheetahs, provides a compelling tale of conservation relevance and action to protect this species and other threatened wildlife. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Conservation genetics and genomics of amphibians and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Gidiş, Müge; McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Neal, Kevin M; Oyamaguchi, Hilton M; Tellez, Marisa; Toffelmier, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles as a group are often secretive, reach their greatest diversity often in remote tropical regions, and contain some of the most endangered groups of organisms on earth. Particularly in the past decade, genetics and genomics have been instrumental in the conservation biology of these cryptic vertebrates, enabling work ranging from the identification of populations subject to trade and exploitation, to the identification of cryptic lineages harboring critical genetic variation, to the analysis of genes controlling key life history traits. In this review, we highlight some of the most important ways that genetic analyses have brought new insights to the conservation of amphibians and reptiles. Although genomics has only recently emerged as part of this conservation tool kit, several large-scale data sources, including full genomes, expressed sequence tags, and transcriptomes, are providing new opportunities to identify key genes, quantify landscape effects, and manage captive breeding stocks of at-risk species.

  4. Exploitation, conservation, preservation: A geographic perspective on natural resource use

    SciTech Connect

    Cutter, S.L.; Renwick, H.L.; Renwick, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors of this college textbook deliberately chose the title words ''exploitation,'' ''conservation,'' and ''preservation'' to clearly illustrate that people may have very different views of natural resources. The authors state that they have attempted to include a wide range of opinions and interpretations of natural resource issues, and they have achieved this goal remarkable well. Part one (five chapters) examines the economic, ecological, political, and other factors involved in making decisions about resource use. Part two (ten chapters) consists of relatively traditional coverage of the various resources. Part three has a chapter on various models of the future that were prepared by various individuals and organizations. Then there is an epilogue in which each author views the future.

  5. Conserving the zoological resources of Bangladesh under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Das, Bidhan C

    2009-06-01

    It is now well recognized that Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries to climate change and sea level rise. Low levels of natural resources and a high occurrence of natural disasters further add to the challenges faced by the country. The impacts of climate change are anticipated to exacerbate these existing stresses and constitute a serious impediment to poverty reduction and economic development. Ecosystems and biodiversity are important key sectors of the economy and natural resources of the country are selected as the most vulnerable to climate change. It is for these reasons that Bangladesh should prepare to conserve its natural resources under changed climatic conditions. Unfortunately, the development of specific strategies and policies to address the effects of climate change on the ecosystem and on biodiversity has not commenced in Bangladesh. Here, I present a detailed review of animal resources of Bangladesh, an outline of the major areas in zoological research to be integrated to adapt to climate change, and identified few components for each of the aforesaid areas in relation to the natural resource conservation and management in the country.

  6. The Resource Buffer Theory: Connecting the Dots from Conservation to Sustainability

    Treesearch

    Peter E. Black

    2006-01-01

    Review of conservation history and scientific developments helps us understand relationships between humans, environment, and sustainability. Applying “conservation” to natural resources and practical resource management occurred early in the Twentieth Century; practical economic definitions of conservation and natural resource followed. Resource surpluses underpin the...

  7. Genetics and the conservation of natural populations: allozymes to genomes.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W

    2017-01-01

    I consider how the study of genetic variation has influenced efforts to conserve natural populations over the last 50 years. Studies with allozymes in the 1970s provided the first estimates of the amount of genetic variation within and between natural populations at multiple loci. These early studies played an important role in developing plans to conserve species. The description of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA in the early 1980s laid the foundation for the field of phylogeography, which provided a deeper look in time of the relationships and connectivity among populations. The development of microsatellites in the 1990s provided much more powerful means to describe genetic variation at nuclear loci, including the ability to detect past bottlenecks and estimate current effective population size with a single temporal sample. In the 2000s, single nucleotide polymorphisms presented a cornucopia of loci that has greatly improved power to estimate genetic and population demographic parameters important for conservation. Today, population genomics presents the ability to detect regions of the genome that are affected by natural selection (e.g. local adaptation or inbreeding depression). In addition, the ability to genotype historical samples has provided power to understand how climate change and other anthropogenic phenomena have affected populations. Modern molecular techniques provide unprecedented power to understand genetic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, application of this information requires sound understanding of population genetics theory. I believe that current training in conservation genetics focuses too much on the latest techniques and too little on understanding the conceptual basis which is needed to interpret these data and ask good questions.

  8. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.

  9. Influence of ethnic traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaodong; Caiji, Zhuoma; Yang, Jingbiao; Cui, Di; Cao, Guilan; Ma, Xiaoding; Han, Bing; Xue, Dayuan; Han, Longzhi

    2016-10-27

    Crop genetic resources are important components of biodiversity. However, with the large-scale promotion of mono-cropping, genetic diversity has largely been lost. Ex-situ conservation approaches were widely used to protect traditional crop varieties worldwide. However, this method fails to maintain the dynamic evolutionary processes of crop genetic resources in their original habitats, leading to genetic diversity reduction and even loss of the capacity of resistance to new diseases and pests. Therefore, on-farm conservation has been considered a crucial complement to ex-situ conservation. This study aimed at clarifying the genetic diversity differences between ex-situ conservation and on-farm conservation and to exploring the influence of traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation. The conservation status of rice landrace varieties, including Indica and Japonica, non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa) and glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Matsum), was obtained through ethno-biology investigation method in 12 villages of ethnic groups from Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China. The genetic diversity between 24 pairs of the same rice landraces from different times were compared using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers technology. The landrace paris studied were collected in 1980 and maintained ex-situ, while 2014 samples were collected on-farm in southwest of China. The results showed that many varieties of rice landraces have been preserved on-farm by local farmers for hundreds or thousands of years. The number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei genetic diversity index (He) and Shannon information index (I) of rice landraces were significantly higher by 12.3-30.4 % under on-farm conservation than under ex-situ conservation. Compared with the ex-situ conservation approach, rice landraces under on-farm conservation programs had more alleles and higher genetic diversity. In

  10. Developmental hematopoiesis: ontogeny, genetic programming and conservation.

    PubMed

    Ciau-Uitz, Aldo; Monteiro, Rui; Kirmizitas, Arif; Patient, Roger

    2014-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) sustain blood production throughout life and are of pivotal importance in regenerative medicine. Although HSC generation from pluripotent stem cells would resolve their shortage for clinical applications, this has not yet been achieved mainly because of the poor mechanistic understanding of their programming. Bone marrow HSCs are first created during embryogenesis in the dorsal aorta (DA) of the midgestation conceptus, from where they migrate to the fetal liver and, eventually, the bone marrow. It is currently accepted that HSCs emerge from specialized endothelium, the hemogenic endothelium, localized in the ventral wall of the DA through an evolutionarily conserved process called the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. However, the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition represents one of the last steps in HSC creation, and an understanding of earlier events in the specification of their progenitors is required if we are to create them from naïve pluripotent cells. Because of their ready availability and external development, zebrafish and Xenopus embryos have enormously facilitated our understanding of the early developmental processes leading to the programming of HSCs from nascent lateral plate mesoderm to hemogenic endothelium in the DA. The amenity of the Xenopus model to lineage tracing experiments has also contributed to the establishment of the distinct origins of embryonic (yolk sac) and adult (HSC) hematopoiesis, whereas the transparency of the zebrafish has allowed in vivo imaging of developing blood cells, particularly during and after the emergence of HSCs in the DA. Here, we discuss the key contributions of these model organisms to our understanding of developmental hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2014 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Treesearch

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  12. Neutral Genetic Markers and Conservation Genetics: Simulated Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Bataillon, T. M.; David, J. L.; Schoen, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the use of neutral genetic markers to guide sampling from a large germplasm collection with the objective of establishing from it a smaller, but genetically representative sample. We simulated evolutionary change and germplasm sampling in a subdivided population of a diploid hermaphrodite annual plant to create an initially large collection. Several strategies of sampling from this collection were then compared. Our results show that a strategy based on information obtained from marker genes led to retention of the maximum number of neutral and nonneutral alleles in the smaller sample. This occurred when demes were composed of self-fertilizing individuals or when no migration occurred among demes, but not when demes of an outcrossing population were connected by high levels of migration. PMID:8878704

  13. NCBI genetic resources supporting immunogenetic research.

    PubMed

    Feolo, M; Helmberg, W; Sherry, S; Maglott, D R

    2000-01-01

    The NCBI creates and maintains a set of integrated bibliographic, sequence, map, structure and other database resources to promote the efficient retrieval of information and the discovery of novel relationships. The connections made between elements of these resources permit researchers to start a search from a wide spectrum of entry points. These multiple dimensions of data can be roughly categorized by primary content as text or bibliographic (PubMed, PubMedCentral, OMIM, LocusLink), sequence (GenBank, Reference Sequence Project (RefSeq), dbSNP, MMDB), protein structure (MMDB) or map position (MapView). They can also becategorized by level of expert curation, which may range from validation of submissions from external groups (GenBank, PubMed, PubMedCentral,), to automatic computation (HomoloGene, UniGene), and to highly reviewed and corrected (LocusLink, MMDB, OMIM, RefSeq). Searches can be made by words (in an article title, key words, sequence annotation, database value, author) by sequence (BLAST or e-PCR against multiple sequence databases), or by map coordinates. By computing or curating bi-directional links between related objects, NCBI can represent content on the genetics, molecular biology, and clinical considerations of interest to immunogeneticists. There is also an emerging resource developed by the NCBI in collaboration with the IHWG devoted to the presentation of MHC data (dbMHC). How dbMHC will augment existing resources at the NCBI is described.

  14. Relevance of genetics for conservation policies: the case of Minorcan cork oaks

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Zaida; Burgarella, Concetta; de Heredia, Unai López; Lumaret, Roselyne; Petit, Rémy J.; Soto, Álvaro; Gil, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Marginal populations of widely distributed species can be of high conservation interest when they hold a significant or unique portion of the genetic diversity of the species. However, such genetic information is frequently lacking. Here the relevance of genetic surveys to develop efficient conservation strategies for such populations is illustrated using cork oak (Quercus suber) from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) as a case study. Cork oak is highly endangered on the island, where no more than 67 individuals live in small, isolated stands in siliceous sites. As a consequence, it was recently granted protected status. Methods Two Bayesian clustering approaches were used to analyse the genetic structure of the Minorcan population, on the basis of nuclear microsatellite data. The different groups within the island were also compared with additional island and continental populations surrounding Minorca. Key Results Very high genetic diversity was found, with values comparable with those observed in continental parts of the species' range. Furthermore, the Minorcan oak stands were highly differentiated from one another and were genetically related to different continental populations of France and Spain. Conclusions The high levels of genetic diversity and inter-stands differentiation make Minorcan cork oak eligible for specific conservation efforts. The relationship of Minorcan stands to different continental populations in France and Spain probably reflects multiple colonization events. However, discrepancy between chloroplast DNA- and nuclear DNA-based groups does not support a simple scenario of recent introduction. Gene exchanges between neighbouring cork oak stands and with holm oak have created specific and exceptional genetic combinations. They also constitute a wide range of potential genetic resources for research on adaptation to new environmental conditions. Conservation guidelines that take into account these findings are provided

  15. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-06-21

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species.

  16. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species. PMID:7912434

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Aquilaria malaccensis revealed potential for future conservation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pradeep; Nag, Akshay; Parmar, Rajni; Ghosh, Sneha; Bhau, Brijmohan Singh; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The endangered Aquilaria malaccensis,is an important plant with high economic values. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure is receiving tremendous attention for effective conservation of genetic resources. Considering important repositories of biological diversity, the genetic relationships of 127 A. malaccensis accessions from 10 home gardens of three states of northeast India were assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Of the 1153 fragments amplified with four AFLP primer combinations, 916 (79.4%) were found to be polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) of each primer combination correlate significantly with the number of genotypes resolved. Overall, a high genetic diversity (avg. 71.85%) was recorded. Further, high gene flow (Nm: 3.37), low genetic differentiation (FST: 0.069) and high within population genetic variation (93%) suggests that most of the genetic diversity is restricted within population. Neighbour joining (NJ), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian-based STRUCTURE grouped all the accessions in two clusters with significant intermixing between populations, therefore, revealed that two genetically distinct gene pools are operating in the A. malaccensis populations cultivated in home gardens. Based on the various diversity inferences, five diverse populations (JOH, FN, HLF, DHM and ITN) were identified, which can be potentially exploited to develop conservation strategies for A. malaccensis.

  18. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future brood stock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting brood stock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  19. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future broodstock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting broodstock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  20. Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200

  1. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580...

  2. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  3. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  4. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  5. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  6. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  7. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  8. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  10. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  11. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  12. The mixture rule under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), wastes may be classified as hazardous wastes or solid (non-hazardous) wastes. Each classification of wastes has its own applicable handling requirements. In accordance with the definition of hazardous waste under RCRA, waste mixtures containing a hazardous and solid waste component are hazardous wastes, unless certain exceptions apply. The primary purpose of the RCRA waste mixture provisions are to ensure that the Subtitle C (hazardous waste) requirements are applied consistently to both hazardous wastes and waste mixtures. These provisions were intended to discourage the commingling of the hazardous wastes with non-hazardous solid wastes simply to avoid Subtitle C regulation.

  13. Resource conservation program in terms of Vostokgazprom environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Nadyumov, S. V.; Adam, A. M.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article examines a number of key areas of environmental policy of Vostokgazprom. The Associated Petroleum Gas program is an important step within the resource conservation and environmental protection framework. In addition, the company undertakes the extensive work on emergency response programs, and carries out continuous protection of the subsurface and control over environmental safety in all production sites. Vostokgazprom continuously modernizes the basic industrial facilities and invests money in new projects. The study analyzes the steps being taken by the company within the energy saving policy that leads to significant costs cut.

  14. Isozymes and the genetic resources of forest trees

    Treesearch

    A. H. D. Brown; G. F. Moran

    1981-01-01

    Genetic data are an essential prerequisite for analysing the genetic structure of tree populations. The isozyme technique is the best currently available method for obtaining such data. Despite several shortcomings, isozyme data directly evaluate the genetic resources of forest trees, and can thus be used to monitor and manipulate these resources. For example,...

  15. Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; Gephard, Stephen R; Limburg, Karin E; Post, David M; Schultz, Thomas F; Willis, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in conservation biology is the need to broadly prioritize conservation efforts when demographic data are limited. One method to address this challenge is to use population genetic data to define groups of populations linked by migration and then use demographic information from monitored populations to draw inferences about the status of unmonitored populations within those groups. We applied this method to anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), species for which long-term demographic data are limited. Recent decades have seen dramatic declines in these species, which are an important ecological component of coastal ecosystems and once represented an important fishery resource. Results show that most populations comprise genetically distinguishable units, which are nested geographically within genetically distinct clusters or stocks. We identified three distinct stocks in alewife and four stocks in blueback herring. Analysis of available time series data for spawning adult abundance and body size indicate declines across the US ranges of both species, with the most severe declines having occurred for populations belonging to the Southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic Stocks. While all alewife and blueback herring populations deserve conservation attention, those belonging to these genetic stocks warrant the highest conservation prioritization. PMID:24567743

  16. The commerce and crossover of resources: resource conservation in the service of resilience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoshi; Westman, Mina; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Conservation of resources (COR) theory was originally introduced as a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of major and traumatic stress, but following the work of Hobfoll and Shirom (1993), COR theory has been adopted to understanding and predicting work-related stress and both the stress and resilience that occur within work settings and work culture. COR theory underscores the critical role of resource possession, lack, loss and gain and depicts personal, social and material resources co-travelling in resource caravans, rather than piecemeal. We briefly review the principles of COR theory and integrate it in the crossover model, which provides a key mechanism for multi-person exchange of emotions, experiences and resources. Understanding the impact of resource reservoirs, resource passageways and crossover provides a framework for research and intervention promoting resilience to employees as well as to organizations. It emphasizes that the creation and maintenance of resource caravan passageways promote resource gain climates through resource crossover processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Rocky Mountain Center for Conservation Genetics and Systematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quinn, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of molecular genetic tools has become increasingly important in addressing conservation issues pertaining to plants and animals. Genetic information can be used to augment studies of population dynamics and population viability, investigate systematic, refine taxonomic definitions, investigate population structure and gene flow, and document genetic diversity in a variety of plant and animal species. Further, genetic techniques are being used to investigate mating systems through paternity analysis, and analyze ancient DNA samples from museum specimens, and estimate population size and survival rates using DNA as a unique marker. Such information is essential for the sound management of small, isolated populations of concern and is currently being used by universities, zoos, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and numerous state fish and wildlife agencies.

  18. Phylogenetically conserved resource partitioning in the coastal microbial loop.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Samuel; Li, Zhou; Chavez, Francisco; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Mayali, Xavier; Mueller, Ryan S

    2017-08-11

    Resource availability influences marine microbial community structure, suggesting that population-specific resource partitioning defines discrete niches. Identifying how resources are partitioned among populations, thereby characterizing functional guilds within the communities, remains a challenge for microbial ecologists. We used proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) and NanoSIMS analysis of phylogenetic microarrays (Chip-SIP) along with 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing to characterize the assimilation of six (13)C-labeled common metabolic substrates and changes in the microbial community structure within surface water collected from Monterey Bay, CA. Both sequencing approaches indicated distinct substrate-specific community shifts. However, observed changes in relative abundance for individual populations did not correlate well with directly measured substrate assimilation. The complementary SIP techniques identified assimilation of all six substrates by diverse taxa, but also revealed differential assimilation of substrates into protein and ribonucleotide biomass between taxa. Substrate assimilation trends indicated significantly conserved resource partitioning among populations within the Flavobacteriia, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria classes, suggesting that functional guilds within marine microbial communities are phylogenetically cohesive. However, populations within these classes exhibited heterogeneity in biosynthetic activity, which distinguished high-activity copiotrophs from low-activity oligotrophs. These results indicate distinct growth responses between populations that is not apparent by genome sequencing alone.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 11 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.128.

  19. Contribution of conservation genetics in assessing neotropical freshwater fish biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Piorski, N M; Sanches, A; Carvalho-Costa, L F; Hatanaka, T; Carrillo-Avila, M; Freitas, P D; Galetti, P M

    2008-11-01

    Human activities have a considerable impact on hydrographic systems and fish fauna. The present review on conservation genetics of neotropical freshwater fish reveals that DNA analyses have been promoting increased knowledge on the genetic structure of fish species and their response to environmental changes. This knowledge is fundamental to the management of wild fish populations and the establishment of Evolutionary Significant Units capable of conserving genetic integrity. While population structuring can occur even in long-distance migratory fish, isolated populations can show reduced genetic variation and be at greater risk of extinction. Phylogeography and phylogeny have been powerful tools in understanding the evolution of fish populations, species and communities in distinct neotropic environments. Captive fish can be used to introduce new individuals and genes into the wild and their benefits and disadvantages can be monitored through genetic analysis. Understanding how fish biodiversity in neotropical freshwaters is generated and maintained is highly important, as these habitats are transformed by human development and fish communities are increasingly exploited as food sources to sustain a growing human population.

  20. Population genetics data help to guide the conservation of palm species with small population sizes and fragmented habitats in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Rajaovelona, Landy R.; Clubbe, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Background The need to incorporate genetic data into conservation management decisions is increasingly recognised. However, many published studies represent a ‘gold standard’ of sampling, techniques, and analyses. Such rigour is often not possible with limited funding and resourcing available for developing plans for the increasing number of threatened species requiring conservation management. Two endemic palm species of the Itremo Massif in central Madagascar, Dypsis ambositrae and D. decipiens, are known to be threatened with extinction and conservation management for these species is a priority for the newly created protected area in the region. Methods The genetic diversity of these two species was studied using the relatively low-cost and rapid AFLP technique. DNA fragments generated using three primer combinations were analysed for 20 and 50 individuals of the two species, respectively, from across their ranges. Results Genetic diversity was relatively low for both species. The two sites where the highly restricted D. ambositrae grows were found to be genetically distinct (although overall heterozygosity was low). Despite having a much wider distribution and relatively large population, D. decipiens did not show clear geographical nor genetic groupings and had similarly low genetic heterozygosity to D. ambositrae. Discussion and Recommendations With so few individuals remaining in the wild and two genetically distinct subpopulations, it is recommended that both sites of D. ambositrae are conserved and that seed are collected from both for ex situ conservation and potential future reintroduction. It may be less important to focus resources on conserving or collecting ex situ material from all sites where D. decipiens is found, as the genetic diversity represented by each subpopulation is limited and increasing sampling may not protect significantly higher levels of genetic diversity. This study provides data that inform and support conservation decisions

  1. Population genetics data help to guide the conservation of palm species with small population sizes and fragmented habitats in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Lauren M; Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Rajaovelona, Landy R; Clubbe, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The need to incorporate genetic data into conservation management decisions is increasingly recognised. However, many published studies represent a 'gold standard' of sampling, techniques, and analyses. Such rigour is often not possible with limited funding and resourcing available for developing plans for the increasing number of threatened species requiring conservation management. Two endemic palm species of the Itremo Massif in central Madagascar, Dypsis ambositrae and D. decipiens, are known to be threatened with extinction and conservation management for these species is a priority for the newly created protected area in the region. The genetic diversity of these two species was studied using the relatively low-cost and rapid AFLP technique. DNA fragments generated using three primer combinations were analysed for 20 and 50 individuals of the two species, respectively, from across their ranges. Genetic diversity was relatively low for both species. The two sites where the highly restricted D. ambositrae grows were found to be genetically distinct (although overall heterozygosity was low). Despite having a much wider distribution and relatively large population, D. decipiens did not show clear geographical nor genetic groupings and had similarly low genetic heterozygosity to D. ambositrae. With so few individuals remaining in the wild and two genetically distinct subpopulations, it is recommended that both sites of D. ambositrae are conserved and that seed are collected from both for ex situ conservation and potential future reintroduction. It may be less important to focus resources on conserving or collecting ex situ material from all sites where D. decipiens is found, as the genetic diversity represented by each subpopulation is limited and increasing sampling may not protect significantly higher levels of genetic diversity. This study provides data that inform and support conservation decisions taken for both species within this region, and in the

  2. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.246 Section 250.246 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the...

  3. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California.

    PubMed

    Calil, Juliano; Beck, Michael W; Gleason, Mary; Merrifield, Matthew; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Newkirk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S. Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as "repetitive loss." During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds.

  4. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California

    PubMed Central

    Calil, Juliano; Beck, Michael W.; Gleason, Mary; Merrifield, Matthew; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Newkirk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S. history. Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as “repetitive loss.” During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds. PMID:26200353

  5. Systematic review on the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? Materials and Methods We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications. We analyzed the annual trend of publications in this field of research, including the number of authors, levels of collaboration among authors, year of publication, publishing journal and the countries from where genetic samples were collected. Additionally, we identified main research clusters, authors, and institutional collaborations, based on co-citation and co-occurrence networks. Results We found that during the study period there was a positive trend in the number of publications and a reduction in the number of authors per paper. Twenty-five countries contributed, with the majority of publications authored by researchers in the USA, Kenya and South Africa. The majority of samples were collected in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Research outputs are associated with the existence of long-term conservation/research projects and research potential as measured by the literacy rate and the number of higher education institutions in a country. Five research clusters were identified, focusing on the origin and evolution of the species, methodological issues and the relatedness among elephant species. Conclusions Research in

  6. Systematic review on the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Daniel; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications. We analyzed the annual trend of publications in this field of research, including the number of authors, levels of collaboration among authors, year of publication, publishing journal and the countries from where genetic samples were collected. Additionally, we identified main research clusters, authors, and institutional collaborations, based on co-citation and co-occurrence networks. We found that during the study period there was a positive trend in the number of publications and a reduction in the number of authors per paper. Twenty-five countries contributed, with the majority of publications authored by researchers in the USA, Kenya and South Africa. The majority of samples were collected in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Research outputs are associated with the existence of long-term conservation/research projects and research potential as measured by the literacy rate and the number of higher education institutions in a country. Five research clusters were identified, focusing on the origin and evolution of the species, methodological issues and the relatedness among elephant species. Research in this field should be expanded to additional countries

  7. The NCRPIS - Providing Diverse Plant Genetic Resources for Worldwide Research and Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) is an active plant genebank of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). Dedicated to conserving and providing plant genetic resources and valuable information to researchers worldwide, the NPGS is a network of federal and state ...

  8. Preservation of plant genetic resources in the biotechnology era.

    PubMed

    Börner, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    Thousands of years ago humans began domesticating crops as a food source. Among the wild germplasm available, they selected those that were best adapted for cultivation and utilization. Although wild ancestors have continued to persist in regions where domestication took place, there is a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices. Recognizing this danger, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide, more than 6 million accessions have been accumulated including the German ex situ genebank in Gatersleben, one of the four largest global collections, housing 150,000 accessions belonging to 890 genera and 3032 species. This review summarizes the ex situ plant genetic resources conservation behavior with a special emphasis on German activities. Strategies for maintenance and management of germplasm collections are reviewed, considering modern biotechnologies (in vitro and cryo preservation). General aspects on genetic diversity and integrity are discussed.

  9. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Matthew T.; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J.; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis. PMID:27524992

  10. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    PubMed

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  11. Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Uphyrkina, O; Miquelle, D; Quigley, H; Driscoll, C; O'Brien, S J

    2002-01-01

    The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed.

  12. The Caribbean Landscape Conservation Cooperative: a new framework for effective conservation of natural and cultural resources in the Caribbean

    Treesearch

    William Gould; K.R. Jacobs; M. Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Governmental and nongovernmental organizations charged with managing natural resources increasingly emphasize the need to work across jurisdictional boundaries. Their challenge is to manage shifting resources under rapidly changing climate and land-use scenarios. Scientists, resource managers, and conservation planners, and their organizations and agencies routinely...

  13. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580 codified... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 30.16 Section 30.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  14. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  15. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  16. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  17. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  18. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  19. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  20. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  1. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  2. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 30.16 Section 30.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580...

  3. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  4. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of used oil recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.; Weinstein, N.J.; Emmerson, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environment is considered within four scenarios ranging from unrestricted burning of used oil without government constraints to complete prohibition of burning thereby funneling all used automotive lube oils to re-refining. Two other areas have been reevaluated in the context of burning versus re-refining of automotive lube oils in the US. These are the material and energy advantages to be realized in terms of resource conservation through either burning or re-refining and an estimation of the economics and profit potential currently available in the disposition of used lube oil. It was found that environmental concerns as presently regulated do not alone provide a persuasive case for re-refining over burning of used automotive lubricating oil. However, in view of the increased use of paraffinic crude oil for the manufacture of automotive lubricating oil, production costs will rise and product yields will be lower. In this context, this study shows that the energy required to produce. As a produce a gallon of lube oil from paraffinic crude oil is greater than that to produce a gallon of lube oil from used lubricating oil. As a result, the re-refining of collectible used automotive lube oil could conserve 43 to 76 trillion Btu's per year, equivalent to 7 to 12 million barrels of imported crude oil worth between a quarter and a half billion dollars. Additionally, this study indicates that new technology such as solvent/distillation re-refining would provide a 26 percent after-tax return on investment based upon 1980 markets and costs.

  5. Genetic diversity of Vietnamese domestic chicken populations as decision-making support for conservation strategies.

    PubMed

    Pham, M H; Berthouly-Salazar, C; Tran, X H; Chang, W H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Lin, D Y; Hoang, V T; Lee, Y P; Tixier-Boichard, M; Chen, C F

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the genetic diversity of 17 populations of Vietnamese local chickens (VNN) and one Red Jungle Fowl population, together with six chicken populations of Chinese origin (CNO), and to provide priorities supporting the conservation of genetic resources using 20 microsatellites. Consequently, the VNN populations exhibited a higher diversity than did CNO populations in terms of number of alleles but showed a slightly lower observed heterozygosity. The VNN populations showed in total seven private alleles, whereas no CNO private alleles were found. The expected heterozygosity of 0.576 in the VNN populations was higher than the observed heterozygosity of 0.490, leading to heterozygote deficiency within populations. This issue could be partly explained by the Wahlund effect due to fragmentation of several populations between chicken flocks. Molecular analysis of variance showed that most of genetic variation was found within VNN populations. The Bayesian clustering analysis showed that VNN and CNO chickens were separated into two distinct groups with little evidence for gene flow between them. Among the 24 populations, 13 were successfully assigned to their own cluster, whereas the structuring was not clear for the remaining 11 chicken populations. The contributions of 24 populations to the total genetic diversity were mostly consistent across two approaches, taking into account the within- and between-populations genetic diversity and allelic richness. The black H'mong, Lien Minh, Luong Phuong and Red Jungle Fowl were ranked with the highest priorities for conservation according to Caballero and Toro's and Petit's approaches. In conclusion, a national strategy needs to be set up for Vietnamese chicken populations, with three main components: conservation of high-priority breeds, within-breed management with animal exchanges between flocks to avoid Wahlund effect and monitoring of inbreeding rate. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics

  6. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  7. Mapping Malus sieversii: A valuable genetic resource for apple breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit has established a collection of Malus from around the world in order to preserve and develop genetic resources important to the apple industry. Among this collection is Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of the domestic apple, collected from Central Asia ...

  8. Genetic approaches refine ex situ lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) conservation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Lalonde, Danielle R; Quse, Viviana; Shoemaker, Alan; Russello, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Ex situ conservation management remains an important tool in the face of continued habitat loss and global environmental change. Here, we use microsatellite marker variation to evaluate conventional assumptions of pedigree-based ex situ population management and directly inform a captive lowland tapir breeding program within a range country. We found relatively high levels of genetic variation (N(total) = 41; mean H(E) = 0.67 across 10 variable loci) and little evidence for relatedness among founder individuals (N(founders) = 10; mean relatedness = -0.05). Seven of 29 putative parent-offspring relationships were excluded by parentage analysis based on allele sharing, and we identified 2 individuals of high genetic value to the population (mk genetic markers were used to inform kinship. We discuss our results within the context of recent studies that have assessed the utility of neutral molecular markers for ex situ conservation.

  9. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Yearbook, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    This yearbook covers the period from January 1975 to May 1976. It reviews the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' (IUCN) conservation strategy for the coming years, important international conservation treaties, IUCN organizational reforms, and the financial report for 1975. Conservation discussions include…

  10. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Yearbook, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    This yearbook covers the period from January 1975 to May 1976. It reviews the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' (IUCN) conservation strategy for the coming years, important international conservation treaties, IUCN organizational reforms, and the financial report for 1975. Conservation discussions include…

  11. 78 FR 40425 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource... Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation Center Land Transfer... of land at the J. Phil Campbell, Senior (JPC), Natural Resource Conservation Center (NRCC) from...

  12. 75 FR 79392 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby... Natural Resources (``IDNR'') against Old GM under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA... Agreement. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural...

  13. Conservation genetics and North American bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2009-01-01

    The many millions of North American bison in the mid-19th century were reduced to near extinction by the middle 1880s. Plains bison, the subspecies found in the United States, were saved from extinction primarily by 5 private ranchers and the survival of a small herd in what is now Yellowstone National Park. This bottleneck resulted in the present-day plains bison population being descended from less than 100 founders. In addition, many conservation herds have cattle ancestry because of hybridization promoted by these ranchers in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Today, although there are around 500,000 plains bison in North America, only 4% (20,000) are in conservation herds. Only 1 conservation herd with no known ancestry from cattle has an effective population size of more than 1000. Here I review and evaluate this situation and provide recommendations for the reduction of cattle ancestry, avoidance of inbreeding depression, and maintenance of genetic variation in the conservation herds of bison.

  14. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  15. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  16. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  17. Prioritizing Tiger Conservation through Landscape Genetics and Habitat Linkages

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E.; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status to

  18. Gene co-ops and the biotrade: translating genetic resource rights into sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Reid, W V

    1996-04-01

    The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity marks a basic change in the international status of genetic resources. Prior to the Convention, these resources were considered to be the "heritage of mankind.' Although the intent of this open access regime was to ensure the widespread availability of genetic resources for agriculture and industry, commercial use of the resources provided no additional economic incentive for conservation by source countries. The Biodiversity Convention corrects this policy failure by establishing that states have sovereign rights over their genetic resources, thereby enabling market incentives to complement various multilateral mechanisms that might directly fund biodiversity conservation. A number of obstacles face countries that are translating this broad right to regulate access into specific policies, laws, and regulations designed to meet conservation and development objectives. A review of these obstacles and of trends in technological development suggest that nations and developing country institutions should take a set of actions to develop access legislation and Material Transfer Agreements, establish biodiversity "cooperatives' and intermediary institutions to facilitate information exchange, develop minimum standards for access legislation, and require that prior informed consent of local communities be obtained by all biodiversity collectors.

  19. Genetic Structure and Selection of a Core Collection for Long Term Conservation of Avocado in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Luis F.; Machida-Hirano, Ryoko; Borrayo, Ernesto; Cortés-Cruz, Moisés; Espíndola-Barquera, María del Carmen; Heredia García, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Mexico, as the center of origin of avocado (Persea americama Mill.), harbors a wide genetic diversity of this species, whose identification may provide the grounds to not only understand its unique population structure and domestication history, but also inform the efforts aimed at its conservation. Although molecular characterization of cultivated avocado germplasm has been studied by several research groups, this had not been the case in Mexico. In order to elucidate the genetic structure of avocado in Mexico and the sustainable use of its genetic resources, 318 avocado accessions conserved in the germplasm collection in the National Avocado Genebank were analyzed using 28 markers [9 expressed sequence tag-Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and 19 genomic SSRs]. Deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and high inter-locus linkage disequilibrium were observed especially in drymifolia, and guatemalensis. Total averages of the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.59 and 0.75, respectively. Although clear genetic differentiation was not observed among 3 botanical races: americana, drymifolia, and guatemalensis, the analyzed Mexican population can be classified into two groups that correspond to two different ecological regions. We developed a core-collection by K-means clustering method. The selected 36 individuals as core-collection successfully represented more than 80% of total alleles and showed heterozygosity values equal to or higher than those of the original collection, despite its constituting slightly more than 10% of the latter. Accessions selected as members of the core collection have now become candidates to be introduced in cryopreservation implying a minimum loss of genetic diversity and a back-up for existing field collections of such important genetic resources. PMID:28286510

  20. Human Genetics: Educational Resources for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greendale, Karen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Potential sources of information and assistance on human genetics are identified, including a brief description of the National Clearinghouse for Human Genetic Diseases, genetic service centers, voluntary groups, state programs, commercial procedures, workshops, speakers, curriculum development aids, and general references. (DC)

  1. Human Genetics: Educational Resources for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greendale, Karen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Potential sources of information and assistance on human genetics are identified, including a brief description of the National Clearinghouse for Human Genetic Diseases, genetic service centers, voluntary groups, state programs, commercial procedures, workshops, speakers, curriculum development aids, and general references. (DC)

  2. Conservation genetics and geographic patterns of genetic variation of the endangered officinal herb Fritillaria pallidiflora

    Treesearch

    Zhihao Su; Borong Pan; Stewart C. Sanderson; Xiaolong Jiang; Mingli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Fritillaria pallidiflora is an endangered officinal herb distributed in the Tianshan Mountains of northwestern China. We examined its phylogeography to study evolutionary processes and suggest implications for conservation. Six haplotypes were detected based on three chloroplast non-coding spacers (psbA-trnH, rps16, and trnS-trnG); genetic variation mainly occurred...

  3. Conservation genetics and geographic patterns of genetic variation of the vulnerable officinal herb Fritillaria walujewii (Liliaceae)

    Treesearch

    Zhihao Su; Borong Pan; Stewart C. Sanderson; Xiaojun Shi; Xiaolong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herb Fritillaria walujewii Regel is an important officinal species that is vulnerable because of over-harvesting. Here, we examined the geographic pattern of genetic variation across the species entire range, to study its evolution process and give implication needed for the conservation. Nine haplotypes were detected on the basis of three chloroplast...

  4. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  5. Long-term ex situ conservation of biological resources and the role of biological resource centers.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N; Day, John G

    2007-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of biological resource centers (BRCs) requires careful attention to implementation of reliable preservation technologies and appropriate quality control to ensure that recovered cultures and other biological materials perform in the same way as the originally isolated culture or material. There are many types of BRC that vary both in the kinds of material they hold and in the purposes for which the materials are provided. All BRCs are expected to provide materials and information of an appropriate quality for their application and work to standards relevant to those applications. There are important industrial, biomedical, and conservation issues that can only be addressed through effective and efficient operation of BRCs in the long- term. This requires a high degree of expertise in the maintenance and management of collections of biological materials at ultra-low temperatures, or as freeze-dried material, to secure their long-term integrity and relevance for future research, development, and conservation.

  6. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  7. EURISCO: The European search catalogue for plant genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Stephan; Oppermann, Markus; Maggioni, Lorenzo; van Hintum, Theo; Knüpffer, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources, EURISCO, provides information about 1.8 million crop plant accessions preserved by almost 400 institutes in Europe and beyond. EURISCO is being maintained on behalf of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. It is based on a network of National Inventories of 43 member countries and represents an important effort for the preservation of world's agrobiological diversity by providing information about the large genetic diversity kept by the collaborating collections. Moreover, EURISCO also assists its member countries in fulfilling legal obligations and commitments, e.g. with respect to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, the Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, or the Convention on Biological Diversity. EURISCO is accessible at http://eurisco.ecpgr.org. PMID:27580718

  8. Integration of georeferencing, habitat, sampling, and genetic data for documentation of wild plant genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant genetic resource collections provide novel materials to the breeding and research communities. Availability of detailed documentation of passport, phenotypic, and genetic data increases the value of the genebank accessions. Inclusion of georeferenced sources, habitats, and sampling data in co...

  9. Conservation biology, genetically modified organisms, and the biosafety protocol.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan; Sendashonga, Cyrie

    2006-12-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects on biological diversity of the use of living modified organisms (LMOs, which are commonly known by similar terms such as genetically modified organisms). At the international level these concerns are addressed in part by an agreement known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and include potential toxic effects of insect-resistant crops on nontarget organisms and potential ecological effects of gene flow from modified crops, fish, microorganisms, or insects to wild species or counterparts. We reviewed the protocol's main provisions, including those dealing with risk assessment and risk management, decision making on imports, documentation accompanying shipments, and liability resulting from damages caused by LMOs. A medium-term program of work has been adopted by the parties, which includes the potential contribution of conservation biologists to delivering capacity building, developing risk assessment guidance, evaluating mechanisms of potential ecological damages from LMOs, and other issues. Conservation biologists and other experts have opportunities to influence the negotiations and implementation of the protocol by providing inputs at meetings, offering expertise to governments and organizations, and participating in or developing relevant projects and initiatives. Involvement of conservation biologists in the implementation and further development of the protocol would contribute to its effectiveness.

  10. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology in the era of genomics.

    PubMed

    Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-02-23

    As one of the final activities of the ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, a conference entitled 'Integrating Population Genetics and Conservation Biology' was held at Trondheim, Norway, from 23 to 26 May 2009. Conference speakers and poster presenters gave a display of the state-of-the-art developments in the field of conservation genetics. Over the five-year running period of the successful ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, much progress has been made in theoretical approaches, basic research on inbreeding depression and other genetic processes associated with habitat fragmentation and conservation issues, and with applying principles of conservation genetics in the conservation of many species. Future perspectives were also discussed in the conference, and it was concluded that conservation genetics is evolving into conservation genomics, while at the same time basic and applied research on threatened species and populations from a population genetic point of view continues to be emphasized.

  11. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: Facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for conserving animal genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellites have been used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsa...

  12. NIASGBdb: NIAS Genebank databases for genetic resources and plant disease information.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Masaru; Yamasaki, Fukuhiro; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Aoki, Takayuki; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Toshirou; Tomioka, Keisuke; Tomooka, Norihiko; Sato, Toyozo; Kawase, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) is implementing the NIAS Genebank Project for conservation and promotion of agrobiological genetic resources to contribute to the development and utilization of agriculture and agricultural products. The project's databases (NIASGBdb; http://www.gene.affrc.go.jp/databases_en.php) consist of a genetic resource database and a plant diseases database, linked by a web retrieval database. The genetic resources database has plant and microorganism search systems to provide information on research materials, including passport and evaluation data for genetic resources with the desired properties. To facilitate genetic diversity research, several NIAS Core Collections have been developed. The NIAS Rice (Oryza sativa) Core Collection of Japanese Landraces contains information on simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms. SSR marker information for azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and black gram (V. mungo) and DNA sequence data from some selected Japanese strains of the genus Fusarium are also available. A database of plant diseases in Japan has been developed based on the listing of common names of plant diseases compiled by the Phytopathological Society of Japan. Relevant plant and microorganism genetic resources are associated with the plant disease names by the web retrieval database and can be obtained from the NIAS Genebank for research or educational purposes.

  13. NIASGBdb: NIAS Genebank databases for genetic resources and plant disease information

    PubMed Central

    Takeya, Masaru; Yamasaki, Fukuhiro; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Aoki, Takayuki; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Toshirou; Tomioka, Keisuke; Tomooka, Norihiko; Sato, Toyozo; Kawase, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) is implementing the NIAS Genebank Project for conservation and promotion of agrobiological genetic resources to contribute to the development and utilization of agriculture and agricultural products. The project’s databases (NIASGBdb; http://www.gene.affrc.go.jp/databases_en.php) consist of a genetic resource database and a plant diseases database, linked by a web retrieval database. The genetic resources database has plant and microorganism search systems to provide information on research materials, including passport and evaluation data for genetic resources with the desired properties. To facilitate genetic diversity research, several NIAS Core Collections have been developed. The NIAS Rice (Oryza sativa) Core Collection of Japanese Landraces contains information on simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms. SSR marker information for azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and black gram (V. mungo) and DNA sequence data from some selected Japanese strains of the genus Fusarium are also available. A database of plant diseases in Japan has been developed based on the listing of common names of plant diseases compiled by the Phytopathological Society of Japan. Relevant plant and microorganism genetic resources are associated with the plant disease names by the web retrieval database and can be obtained from the NIAS Genebank for research or educational purposes. PMID:20952407

  14. Genetic conservation and management of the California endemic, Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry): Implications of genetic rescue in a genetically depauperate species.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; Royauté, Raphaël; Wright, Jessica W; Hodgskiss, Paul; Ledig, F Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Rare species present a challenge under changing environmental conditions as the genetic consequences of rarity may limit species ability to adapt to environmental change. To evaluate the evolutionary potential of a rare species, we assessed variation in traits important to plant fitness using multigenerational common garden experiments. Torrey pine, Pinus torreyana Parry, is one of the rarest pines in the world, restricted to one mainland and one island population. Morphological differentiation between island and mainland populations suggests adaptation to local environments may have contributed to trait variation. The distribution of phenotypic variances within the common garden suggests distinct population-specific growth trajectories underlay genetic differences, with the island population exhibiting substantially reduced genetic variance for growth relative to the mainland population. Furthermore, F1 hybrids, representing a cross between mainland and island trees, exhibit increased height accumulation and fecundity relative to mainland and island parents. This may indicate genetic rescue via intraspecific hybridization could provide the necessary genetic variation to persist in environments modified as a result of climate change. Long-term common garden experiments, such as these, provide invaluable resources to assess the distribution of genetic variance that may inform conservation strategies to preserve evolutionary potential of rare species, including genetic rescue.

  15. Conservation genetics as applied evolution: from genetic pattern to evolutionary process

    PubMed Central

    Latta, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Conservation genetics can be seen as the effort to influence the evolutionary process in ways that enhance the persistence of populations. Much published research in the field applies genetic sampling techniques to infer population parameters from the patterns of variation in threatened populations. The limited resolution of these inferences seems to yield limited confidence which results in conservative policy recommendations. As an alternative, I suggest that conservation genetics focus on the relationships between those variables conservationists can control, and the probability of desirable evolutionary outcomes. This research would involve three phases – a greater use of existing evolutionary theory; testing management options using experimental evolution; and ‘field trials’ under an adaptive management framework. It would take a probabilistic approach that recognizes the stochasticity inherent in evolutionary change. This would allow a more nuanced approach to conservation policy than rule of thumb guidelines. Moreover, it would capitalize on the fact that evolution is a unifying theory in biology and draw on the substantial body of evolutionary knowledge that has been built up over the last half a century. PMID:25567493

  16. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S.; Gido, Keith B.; Turner, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits, and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model, and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage. PMID:25327780

  17. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic-spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most tributary basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and in response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genetic Linkage Maps: Strategies, Resources and Achievements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter is for the sunflower volume in the Crop GGB (Genetics, Genomics and Breeding) Book Series. The book includes chapters covering basic information about the sunflower plant, germplasm diversity, classical genetics and traditional breeding, genome mapping, regulation of seed oil conte...

  19. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.246 Section 250.246 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... (dpp) and Development Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource...

  20. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  1. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  2. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  3. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  4. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  5. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  6. 75 FR 29584 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ..., inter alia, to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') for its...] [FR Doc No: 2010-12584] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby given that on May 19, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree...

  7. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149... Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.149 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  8. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  9. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149... Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.149 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  11. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  12. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  14. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  15. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  16. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  17. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  18. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  19. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  1. 14 CFR § 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). § 1260.116 Section § 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  3. A Selected List of Filmstrips on the Conservation of Natural Resources, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean Larson; Michaud, Howard H.

    This pamphlet describes 115 conservation filmstrips as to content, sources, suggested grade level(s), curriculum area(s), and notes of interest to the user. The filmstrips are divided into the following areas: (1) general conservation, (2) ecology and resource interrelationships, (3) forest trees and other plants, (4) forest conservation, (5)…

  4. A Selected List of Filmstrips on the Conservation of Natural Resources, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean Larson; Michaud, Howard H.

    This pamphlet describes 115 conservation filmstrips as to content, sources, suggested grade level(s), curriculum area(s), and notes of interest to the user. The filmstrips are divided into the following areas: (1) general conservation, (2) ecology and resource interrelationships, (3) forest trees and other plants, (4) forest conservation, (5)…

  5. Application of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and fisheries management: recent advances in population structure analysis and conservation strategies.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Muneer, P M

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management.

  6. Cryopreservation of Mammalian oocyte for conservation of animal genetics.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Jennifer R; Anzar, Muhammad

    2010-09-21

    The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

  7. Intensification: A Resource for Amplifying Population-Genetic Signals with Protein Repeats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieming; Wang, Bo; Regan, Lynne; Gerstein, Mark

    2017-02-03

    Large-scale genome sequencing holds great promise for the interpretation of protein structures through the discovery of many, rare functional variants in the human population. However, because protein-coding regions are under high selective constraints, these variants occur at low frequencies, such that there is often insufficient statistics for downstream calculations. To address this problem, we develop the Intensification approach, which uses the modular structure of repeat protein domains to amplify signals of selection from population genetics and traditional interspecies conservation. In particular, we are able to aggregate variants at the codon level to identify important positions in repeat domains that show strong conservation signals. This allows us to compare conservation over different evolutionary timescales. It also enables us to visualize population-genetic measures on protein structures. We make available the Intensification results as an online resource (http://intensification.gersteinlab.org) and illustrate the approach through a case study on the tetratricopeptide repeat.

  8. Cryopreservation of strawberry genetic resources in Germany

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National German Strawberry Genebank includes 369 cultivars and the active field collection in Dresden-Pillnitz also contains 318 Fragaria wild species accessions. Conservation of clonal crops requires safety duplication. An earlier calculation of the effort required to establish and maintain a s...

  9. The Agassiz's desert tortoise genome provides a resource for the conservation of a threatened species.

    PubMed

    Tollis, Marc; DeNardo, Dale F; Cornelius, John A; Dolby, Greer A; Edwards, Taylor; Henen, Brian T; Karl, Alice E; Murphy, Robert W; Kusumi, Kenro

    2017-01-01

    Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is a long-lived species native to the Mojave Desert and is listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. To aid conservation efforts for preserving the genetic diversity of this species, we generated a whole genome reference sequence with an annotation based on deep transcriptome sequences of adult skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and blood. The draft genome assembly for G. agassizii has a scaffold N50 length of 252 kbp and a total length of 2.4 Gbp. Genome annotation reveals 20,172 protein-coding genes in the G. agassizii assembly, and that gene structure is more similar to chicken than other turtles. We provide a series of comparative analyses demonstrating (1) that turtles are among the slowest-evolving genome-enabled reptiles, (2) amino acid changes in genes controlling desert tortoise traits such as shell development, longevity and osmoregulation, and (3) fixed variants across the Gopherus species complex in genes related to desert adaptations, including circadian rhythm and innate immune response. This G. agassizii genome reference and annotation is the first such resource for any tortoise, and will serve as a foundation for future analysis of the genetic basis of adaptations to the desert environment, allow for investigation into genomic factors affecting tortoise health, disease and longevity, and serve as a valuable resource for additional studies in this species complex.

  10. Rangeland CEAP: An assessment of natural resources conservation service practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The NRCS uses science-based technology to provide conservation planning and assistance to land owners and land operators to maintain productive lands and healthy ecosystems. Evaluating science-based literature on effectiveness of rangeland conservation practices is an important first step as it pro...

  11. A Classroom Teaching and Resource Guide in Conservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, William M.

    In this teaching guide the natural and social sciences are integrated with an emphasis on conservation and ecology. The guide contains ten teaching units dealing with various physical and biological aspects of the environment. Unit one deals with the question of what is conservation. Unit two is concerned with the question of what is a natural…

  12. A restoration genetics guide for coral reef conservation.

    PubMed

    Baums, Iliana B

    2008-06-01

    Worldwide degradation of coral reef communities has prompted a surge in restoration efforts. They proceed largely without considering genetic factors because traditionally, coral populations have been regarded as open over large areas with little potential for local adaptation. Since, biophysical and molecular studies indicated that most populations are closed over shorter time and smaller spatial scales. Thus, it is justified to re-examine the potential for site adaptation in corals. There is ample evidence for differentiated populations, inbreeding, asexual reproduction and the occurrence of ecotypes, factors that may facilitate local adaptation. Discovery of widespread local adaptation would influence coral restoration projects mainly with regard to the physical and evolutionary distance from the source wild and/or captive bred propagules may be moved without causing a loss of fitness in the restored population. Proposed causes for loss of fitness as a result of (plant) restoration efforts include founder effects, genetic swamping, inbreeding and/or outbreeding depression. Direct evidence for any of these processes is scarce in reef corals due to a lack of model species that allow for testing over multiple generations and the separation of the relative contributions of algal symbionts and their coral hosts to the overall performance of the coral colony. This gap in our knowledge may be closed by employing novel population genetic and genomics approaches. The use of molecular tools may aid managers in the selection of appropriate propagule sources, guide spatial arrangement of transplants, and help in assessing the success of coral restoration projects by tracking the performance of transplants, thereby generating important data for future coral reef conservation and restoration projects.

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. Results We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Conclusions Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been

  14. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  15. Sunflower genetic, genomic, and ecological resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long a major focus of genetic research and breeding, sunflowers (Helianthus) are emerging as an increasingly important experimental system for ecological and evolutionary studies. Here we review the various attributes of wild and domesticated sunflowers that make them valuable for ecological experim...

  16. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, George M.; Thompson, Lorraine M.; Ussery, David W.; Paskin, Norman; Baker, Dwight; Desmeth, Philippe; Schindel, D.E.; Ong, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The principles underlying fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of genetic resources are set out in Article 15 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which stipulate that access to genetic resources is subject to the prior informed consent of the country where such resources are located and to mutually agreed terms regarding the sharing of benefits that could be derived from such access. One issue of particular concern for provider countries is how to monitor and track genetic resources once they have left the provider country and enter into use in a variety of forms. This report was commissioned to provide a detailed review of advances in DNA sequencing technologies, as those methods apply to identification of genetic resources, and the use of globally unique persistent identifiers for persistently linking to data and other forms of digital documentation that is linked to individual genetic resources. While the report was written for an audience with a mixture of technical, legal, and policy backgrounds it is relevant to the genomics community as it is an example of downstream application of genomics information. PMID:21304641

  17. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby given... addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed... Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P...

  18. Estimating conservation needs for rangelands using USDA National Resources Inventory Assessments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has used resource inventories for over 65 years to assess the Nation’s natural resources on non-Federal lands. Since 1995, an interagency group composed of the NRCS, Agricultural Research Service, and Geological Survey have worked together to de...

  19. Partitioning of resources: the evolutionary genetics of sexual conflict over resource acquisition and allocation.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, F; Connallon, T

    2017-04-01

    Fitness depends on both the resources that individuals acquire and the allocation of those resources to traits that influence survival and reproduction. Optimal resource allocation differs between females and males as a consequence of their fundamentally different reproductive strategies. However, because most traits have a common genetic basis between the sexes, conflicting selection between the sexes over resource allocation can constrain the evolution of optimal allocation within each sex, and generate trade-offs for fitness between them (i.e. 'sexual antagonism' or 'intralocus sexual conflict'). The theory of resource acquisition and allocation provides an influential framework for linking genetic variation in acquisition and allocation to empirical evidence of trade-offs between distinct life-history traits. However, these models have not considered the emergence of trade-offs within the context of sexual dimorphism, where they are expected to be particularly common. Here, we extend acquisition-allocation theory and develop a quantitative genetic framework for predicting genetically based trade-offs between life-history traits within sexes and between female and male fitness. Our models demonstrate that empirically measurable evidence of sexually antagonistic fitness variation should depend upon three interacting factors that may vary between populations: (1) the genetic variances and between-sex covariances for resource acquisition and allocation traits, (2) condition-dependent expression of resource allocation traits and (3) sex differences in selection on the allocation of resource to different fitness components.

  20. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  1. Toward conservation of genetic and phenotypic diversity in Japanese sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Jun; Mori, Seiichi

    2016-10-13

    Stickleback fishes have been established as a leading model system for studying the genetic mechanisms that underlie naturally occurring phenotypic diversification. Because of the tremendous diversification achieved by stickleback species in various environments, different geographical populations have unique phenotypes and genotypes, which provide us with unique opportunities for evolutionary genetic research. Among sticklebacks, Japanese species have several unique characteristics that have not been found in other populations. The sympatric marine threespine stickleback species Gasterosteus aculeatus and G. nipponicus (Japan Sea stickleback) are a good system for speciation research. Gasterosteus nipponicus also has several unique characteristics, such as neo-sex chromosomes and courtship behaviors, that differ from those of G. aculeatus. Several freshwater populations derived from G. aculeatus (Hariyo threespine stickleback) inhabit spring-fed ponds and streams in central Honshu and exhibit year-round reproduction, which has never been observed in other stickleback populations. Four species of ninespine stickleback, including Pungitius tymensis and the freshwater, brackish water and Omono types of the P. pungitius-P. sinensis complex, are also excellent model systems for speciation research. Anthropogenic alteration of environments, however, has exposed several Japanese stickleback populations to the risk of extinction and has actually led to extinction of several populations and species. Pungitius kaibarae, which is endemic to East Asia, used to inhabit Kyoto and Hyogo prefectures, but is now extinct. Causes of extinction include depletion of spring water, landfill of habitats, and construction of river-mouth weirs. Here, we review the importance of Japanese sticklebacks as genetic resources, the status of several endangered stickleback populations and species, and the factors putting these populations at risk.

  2. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  3. The conservation genetics juggling act: integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Haig, Susan M; Miller, Mark P; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M; Mercer, Dacey M; Mullins, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980s following the development of polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our laboratory has 'grown up' with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multidisciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal laboratory, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list, or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions.

  4. Fungal genetic resource centres and the genomic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew J; Smith, David

    2004-12-01

    Fungal research and education has for many years been supported by public service genetic resource centres, whose roles have been to maintain, preserve and supply living cultures to the research community. In the genomic era, genetic resource centres are perhaps more important than ever before. The cultures held, many of which are described and validated by expert biosystematists, are valuable resources for the future. There is a need to supply genomic and proteomic research programmes with fully characterised organisms, as usage of organisms from unreliable sources can prove disastrous, not least in economical terms. However, mycologists often require more than just the organisms, for example, their associated information is vital for bioinformatic applications and some researchers may only require genomic DNA from the organism rather than the organism per se. Genetic resource centres are continually adapting to meet the needs of their users and the wider mycological research community, this associated with OECD international initiatives should ensure they exist to support research for many years to come. This review considers the impact of such initiatives, the current roles of fungal genetic resource centres, the mechanisms used to preserve organisms in a stable manner and the range of resources that are offered for genomic research.

  5. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious.

  6. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  7. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Treesearch

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  8. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Treesearch

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  9. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  10. Multi-level, multi-scale resource selection functions and resistance surfaces for conservation planning: Pumas as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Katherine A; Vickers, T Winston; Ernest, Holly B; Boyce, Walter M

    2017-01-01

    The importance of examining multiple hierarchical levels when modeling resource use for wildlife has been acknowledged for decades. Multi-level resource selection functions have recently been promoted as a method to synthesize resource use across nested organizational levels into a single predictive surface. Analyzing multiple scales of selection within each hierarchical level further strengthens multi-level resource selection functions. We extend this multi-level, multi-scale framework to modeling resistance for wildlife by combining multi-scale resistance surfaces from two data types, genetic and movement. Resistance estimation has typically been conducted with one of these data types, or compared between the two. However, we contend it is not an either/or issue and that resistance may be better-modeled using a combination of resistance surfaces that represent processes at different hierarchical levels. Resistance surfaces estimated from genetic data characterize temporally broad-scale dispersal and successful breeding over generations, whereas resistance surfaces estimated from movement data represent fine-scale travel and contextualized movement decisions. We used telemetry and genetic data from a long-term study on pumas (Puma concolor) in a highly developed landscape in southern California to develop a multi-level, multi-scale resource selection function and a multi-level, multi-scale resistance surface. We used these multi-level, multi-scale surfaces to identify resource use patches and resistant kernel corridors. Across levels, we found puma avoided urban, agricultural areas, and roads and preferred riparian areas and more rugged terrain. For other landscape features, selection differed among levels, as did the scales of selection for each feature. With these results, we developed a conservation plan for one of the most isolated puma populations in the U.S. Our approach captured a wide spectrum of ecological relationships for a population, resulted in

  11. Multi-level, multi-scale resource selection functions and resistance surfaces for conservation planning: Pumas as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Ernest, Holly B.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of examining multiple hierarchical levels when modeling resource use for wildlife has been acknowledged for decades. Multi-level resource selection functions have recently been promoted as a method to synthesize resource use across nested organizational levels into a single predictive surface. Analyzing multiple scales of selection within each hierarchical level further strengthens multi-level resource selection functions. We extend this multi-level, multi-scale framework to modeling resistance for wildlife by combining multi-scale resistance surfaces from two data types, genetic and movement. Resistance estimation has typically been conducted with one of these data types, or compared between the two. However, we contend it is not an either/or issue and that resistance may be better-modeled using a combination of resistance surfaces that represent processes at different hierarchical levels. Resistance surfaces estimated from genetic data characterize temporally broad-scale dispersal and successful breeding over generations, whereas resistance surfaces estimated from movement data represent fine-scale travel and contextualized movement decisions. We used telemetry and genetic data from a long-term study on pumas (Puma concolor) in a highly developed landscape in southern California to develop a multi-level, multi-scale resource selection function and a multi-level, multi-scale resistance surface. We used these multi-level, multi-scale surfaces to identify resource use patches and resistant kernel corridors. Across levels, we found puma avoided urban, agricultural areas, and roads and preferred riparian areas and more rugged terrain. For other landscape features, selection differed among levels, as did the scales of selection for each feature. With these results, we developed a conservation plan for one of the most isolated puma populations in the U.S. Our approach captured a wide spectrum of ecological relationships for a population, resulted in

  12. HPV16 E7 Genetic Conservation Is Critical to Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mirabello, Lisa; Yeager, Meredith; Yu, Kai; Clifford, Gary M; Xiao, Yanzi; Zhu, Bin; Cullen, Michael; Boland, Joseph F; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Nelson, Chase W; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Chen, Zigui; Bass, Sara; Song, Lei; Yang, Qi; Steinberg, Mia; Burdett, Laurie; Dean, Michael; Roberson, David; Mitchell, Jason; Lorey, Thomas; Franceschi, Silvia; Castle, Philip E; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Kreimer, Aimée R; Beachler, Daniel C; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Porras, Carolina; Burk, Robert D; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-09-07

    Although most cervical human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections become undetectable within 1-2 years, persistent HPV16 causes half of all cervical cancers. We used a novel HPV whole-genome sequencing technique to evaluate an exceptionally large collection of 5,570 HPV16-infected case-control samples to determine whether viral genetic variation influences risk of cervical precancer and cancer. We observed thousands of unique HPV16 genomes; very few women shared the identical HPV16 sequence, which should stimulate a careful re-evaluation of the clinical implications of HPV mutation rates, transmission, clearance, and persistence. In case-control analyses, HPV16 in the controls had significantly more amino acid changing variants throughout the genome. Strikingly, E7 was devoid of variants in precancers/cancers compared to higher levels in the controls; we confirmed this in cancers from around the world. Strict conservation of the 98 amino acids of E7, which disrupts Rb function, is critical for HPV16 carcinogenesis, presenting a highly specific target for etiologic and therapeutic research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species.

  14. Genetic divergence and units for conservation in the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis

    PubMed Central

    Ciofi, C.; Beaumont, M. A.; Swingland, I. R.; Bruford, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade much attention has focused on the role that genetics can play in the formation of management strategies in conservation. Here, we describe genetic diversity in the world's largest lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), examining the evolutionary relationships and population genetic history of the four islands in south-east Indonesia, which form the vast majority of its range. We identify distinct genetic groups for conservation. The population on the island of Komodo shows by far the largest values of genetic divergence and is proposed that it should be a separate conservation management unit. Other populations, surviving either on small islands with substantially reduced genetic variability, or in isolated patches, are identified as particularly vulnerable to stochastic threats and habitat loss. Our results provide an example of how data defining intraspecific levels of genetic divergence can provide information to help management plans, ensure the maintenance of genetic variability across populations and identify evolutionary potential within endangered species.

  15. Taxonomic complexity and breeding system transitions: conservation genetics of the Epipactis leptochila complex (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Squirrell, J; Hollingsworth, P M; Bateman, R M; Tebbitt, M C; Hollingsworth, M L

    2002-10-01

    The genus Epipactis contains a problematical complex of autogamous taxa among which species limits are difficult to define. Different authors have treated these plants in different ways, some recognizing the different taxa as distinct species, others considering them as minor intraspecific variants. These contrasting treatments have a direct impact on the conservation resources and status such plants command; 'endemic orchid species' are perceived as having high conservation value, 'localized minor variants' are not. We used allozyme and chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing analyses to investigate patterns of population genetic structure underlying the taxonomic complexity in this group. Populations of E. dunensis, E. leptochila and E. muelleri were homozygous and uniform for all loci studied here. There were, however, fixed genetic differences among these taxa. Comparisons with published data from the putative progenitor species for the autogamous taxa (the widespread, allogamous E. helleborine) suggest iterative origins of autogamy, rather than the self-pollinating taxa all being merely mutational variants of a single autogamous lineage.

  16. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  17. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  18. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... erosion control, sediment reduction, pollution abatement, land use planning, multiple use, improvement of... national leadership in evaluating and coordinating land use policy, and administer the Farmland Protection... and financial assistance to land users in carrying out locally adapted soil and water conservation...

  19. 77 FR 60677 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic... Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Convention) established the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic... Convention and a member of CCAMLR and its Scientific Committee. The Antarctic Marine Living...

  20. A Toolbox for Corrective Action: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facilities Investigation Remedy Selection Track

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this toolbox is to help EPA Regional staff and their partners to take advantage of the efficiency and quality gains from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facilities Investigation Remedy Selection Track (FIRST) approach.

  1. Notification: EPA Oversight of Delegated State Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0033, September 19, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's oversight of authorized state hazardous waste programs that fall under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  2. Development of a global conservation strategy for citrus genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus is an economically important world tree fruit crop with production in more than 146 countries. The center of origin for citrus is considered to be Southeastern Asia including southern China, northeastern India, and Malaysia, with secondary centers in surrounding areas. Novel and commercially ...

  3. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  4. The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit maintains the second largest peanut germplasm collection in the world consisting of both cultivated and wild germplasm with a total of 9,924 Arachis accessions. A cultivated core (831 accessions) and mini core (112 accessions) collections were esta...

  5. Natural resource assessment and decision support tools for bird conservation planning

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Korschgen; Melinda G. Knutson; Timothy J. Fox; Leslie Holland-Bartels; Henry C. Dehaan; Charles H. Theiling; Jason J. Rohweder; Kevin Kenow; Linda E. Leake; Tom Will

    2005-01-01

    We have used a place-based decision support system for several years to identify bird conservation issues relating to the management and planning needs of resource managers. Public and private land managers are constantly seeking better ways to incorporate landscape, species, and habitat relationships into the conservation planning process. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  6. Snakes. A Conservation Education Program of the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Kelly; Theiss, Nancy S.

    The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources is charged with the responsibility to preserve, protect, and perpetuate the fish and wildlife in Kentucky. Involved in this broad program are a number of services, including the Wildlife Conservation Education Program. During the months of September through April, Conservation Club leaders…

  7. Snakes. A Conservation Education Program of the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Kelly; Theiss, Nancy S.

    The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources is charged with the responsibility to preserve, protect, and perpetuate the fish and wildlife in Kentucky. Involved in this broad program are a number of services, including the Wildlife Conservation Education Program. During the months of September through April, Conservation Club leaders…

  8. Idaho Energy Conservation Resource Guide for Language Arts, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Niki; And Others

    This manual is a resource guide on energy conservation for teachers of language arts from grades seven to twelve. It contains a multitude of student activities which are classified into 7 thematically oriented units. The aim of all the activities is to increase the student's awareness and knowledge of energy conservation. The four basic goals of…

  9. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580, codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any...

  10. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149 Section 600.149 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  11. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149 Section 600.149 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  12. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149 Section 600.149 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  13. Resource Competition Shapes the Response of Genetic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yili; Huang, Hsin-Ho; Jiménez, José I; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2017-04-03

    A common approach to design genetic circuits is to compose gene expression cassettes together. While appealing, this modular approach is challenged by the fact that expression of each gene depends on the availability of transcriptional/translational resources, which is in turn determined by the presence of other genes in the circuit. This raises the question of how competition for resources by different genes affects a circuit's behavior. Here, we create a library of genetic activation cascades in E. coli bacteria, where we explicitly tune the resource demand by each gene. We develop a general Hill-function-based model that incorporates resource competition effects through resource demand coefficients. These coefficients lead to nonregulatory interactions among genes that reshape the circuit's behavior. For the activation cascade, such interactions result in surprising biphasic or monotonically decreasing responses. Finally, we use resource demand coefficients to guide the choice of ribosome binding site and DNA copy number to restore the cascade's intended monotonically increasing response. Our results demonstrate how unintended circuit's behavior arises from resource competition and provide a model-guided methodology to minimize the resulting effects.

  14. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 1210.16 Resource... given in procurement programs to the purchase of specific products containing recycled materials identified in guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (40 CFR Parts 247 through 254...

  15. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 1210.16 Resource... given in procurement programs to the purchase of specific products containing recycled materials identified in guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (40 CFR Parts 247 through 254...

  16. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specific products containing recycled materials identified in guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (40 CFR parts 247-254). Accordingly, State and local institutions of higher education... Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 600.116 Resource...

  17. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 1210.16 Resource... given in procurement programs to the purchase of specific products containing recycled materials identified in guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (40 CFR Parts 247 through 254...

  18. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 1210.16 Resource... given in procurement programs to the purchase of specific products containing recycled materials identified in guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (40 CFR Parts 247 through 254...

  19. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  20. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  1. 50 CFR 622.29 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protected resources. (a) Gulf reef fish commercial vessels and charter vessels/headboats—(1) Sea turtle... Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii) Such owner...

  2. Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Soils are the fundamental resource enabling land to provide a wide array of benefits. Both humans and wildlife rely on soils for the production of life-sustaining nourishment and shelter. Soil is important to society because it supports plants that supply food, fibers, drugs, and other essentials and because it filters water and recycles wastes.The factors that affect...

  3. International efforts to protect the global cotton genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic resources of cotton are classified into five tetraploid species in the primary gene pool, 20 diploid species in the secondary gene pool, and 25 diploid species in the tertiary gene pool. Unlike several globally important grain crops, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural R...

  4. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  5. Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

  6. Weighting issues in recreation research and in identifying support for resource conservation management alternatives

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Sheaffer; Jay Beaman; Joseph T. O' Leary; Rebecca L. Williams; Doran M. Mason

    2001-01-01

    Sampling for research in recreation settings in an ongoing challenge. Often certain groups of users are more likely to be sampled. It is important in measuring public support for resource conservation and in understanding use of natural resources for recreation to evaluate issues of bias in survey methodologies. Important methodological issues emerged from a statewide...

  7. Guide to Environmental Education: Conservation of Natural Resources, Kindergarten-Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide was designed to serve as a tool which elementary teachers may use to incorporate basic princples concerning the conservation of all natural resources into their instruction. From the suggestions offered, teachers are encouraged to develop concepts in six major areas: soil, water, minerals, wildlife, plants, and resources--recreational,…

  8. Preparing for a National Emergency: The Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources, 1939-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In March 1940 the U.S. National Resources Planning Board established the Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources to plan for the protection of federal cultural institutions during national emergencies. The committee provided a mechanism to bring officials together to consider protective measures for and evacuation of valuable books,…

  9. Guide to Environmental Education: Conservation of Natural Resources, Kindergarten-Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide was designed to serve as a tool which elementary teachers may use to incorporate basic princples concerning the conservation of all natural resources into their instruction. From the suggestions offered, teachers are encouraged to develop concepts in six major areas: soil, water, minerals, wildlife, plants, and resources--recreational,…

  10. Preparing for a National Emergency: The Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources, 1939-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In March 1940 the U.S. National Resources Planning Board established the Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources to plan for the protection of federal cultural institutions during national emergencies. The committee provided a mechanism to bring officials together to consider protective measures for and evacuation of valuable books,…

  11. 76 FR 76763 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Doc No: 2011-31448] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby given that on December 1, 2011, a proposed consent decree in... sought civil penalties and injunctive relief to address alleged violations of the Resource...

  12. Conservation and population genetic diversity of Curcuma wenyujin (Zingiberaceae), a multifunctional medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W H; Zhuo, Y; Liang, L; Ding, W Y; Liang, L Y; Wang, X F

    2015-09-08

    Curcuma wenyujin is an important multifunctional medicinal herb in China. Currently, populations of C. wenyujin are decreasing, and wild individuals have almost disappeared from their natural habitats. Moreover, little is known regarding the molecular characteristics of this plant. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and variation of five populations of C. wenyujin, using ran-dom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We found that the percentages of polymorphic loci (PPL) at the species level (98.25% by RAPD and 100% by ISSR) were significantly higher than those at the population level (66.32% by RAPD and 67.14% by ISSR). The highest values of PPL, expected heterozygosity, and Shannon's information index were in Pop1, while the lowest values were in Pop2. Both DNA markers revealed a short genetic distance between Pop1 and Pop2 (0.1424 by RAPD and 0.1904 by ISSR). Phylogenetic trees produced similar results, with Pop1, Pop2, and Pop5 in one group and Pop3 and Pop4 in another. There were no significant correlations between their genetic distances and their geographical distances. The highest genetic diversity was in Pop1 and the lowest was in Pop2, and genetic diversity at the species level was relatively low, but much higher than that at the population level. We recommended the establishment of a germplasm bank, in situ con-servation, and propagation of wild individuals. The present study will improve the evaluation, protection, and utilization of the population resources of C. wenyujin.

  13. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  14. Investigation of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a Japanese native horse breed for suggestions on its conservation.

    PubMed

    Onogi, Akio; Shirai, Kouichi; Amano, Tomoko

    2017-07-21

    Because native breeds can serve as genetic resources for adapting to environment changes, their conservation is important for future agroecosystems. Using pedigree analysis, we investigated genetic diversity and inbreeding in Japanese Hokkaido native horses, which have adapted to a cold climate and roughage diet. Genetic diversity was measured as the number of founders and the effective number of founders, ancestors and genomes. All metrics imply a decrease in genetic diversity. A comparison of these metrics suggested that pedigree bottlenecks contributed more than did random gene losses to the reduction of genetic diversity. Estimates of marginal contributions of ancestors suggest that the bottlenecks arose mainly because related stallions had been used for breeding. A tendency for an increase in inbreeding coefficients was observed. F-statistics revealed that a small effective population size majorly contributed to this increase, although non-random mating in particular regions also contributed. Because the bottlenecks are thought to have reduced the effective population size, our results imply that mitigation of bottlenecks is important for conservation. To this end, breeding should involve genetically diverse stallions. In addition, to prevent non-random mating observed in particular regions, efforts should be made to plan mating with consideration of kinships. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Applied conservation genetics and the need for quality control and reporting of genetic data used in fisheries and wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Morin, Phillip A; Martien, Karen K; Archer, Frederick I; Cipriano, Frank; Steel, Debbie; Jackson, Jennifer; Taylor, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    Genetic data are often critical for defining populations for management purposes (e.g., identifying geographic boundaries or diagnostic characters for genetically discrete subunits) but can be called into question by both scientific and legal review. This can result in reversed or delayed implementation of management actions. We discuss methods for data quality control and quality analysis and describe examples of steps applied to 2 of the most common types of genetic data, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and microsatellite genotypes. These steps can serve both as guides to conservation geneticists and as an initial protocol for managers to determine whether genetic data will hold up against legal and scientific challenges. In addition, we suggest types of data and quality measures that should be reported as supplementary materials to published reports. These supplementary data serve to reduce the occurrence of legal and conservation controversies and improve reproducibility over time in population genetics studies where genetic monitoring is likely to play an increasing role.

  16. Dynamic genetic conservation in the presence of invasive insect and pathogen threats to forest tree species of the United States

    Treesearch

    J.L. Koch; R.A. Sniezko

    2017-01-01

    Ex-situ genetic conservation focused on collection and storage of seed can play an important role in conserving the genetic diversity of species under grave threat by biotic organisms or a changing climate. However, ex-situ genetic conservation is primarily a static activity and does not allow for evolution of the species under a continuing,...

  17. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  18. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Frankham, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious impacts. Genetic adaptation to captivity is primarily due to rare alleles that in the wild were deleterious and partially recessive. The extent of adaptation to captivity depends upon selection intensity, genetic diversity, effective population size and number of generation in captivity, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory. Minimizing generations in captivity provides a highly effective means for minimizing genetic adaptation to captivity, but is not a practical option for most animal species. Population fragmentation and crossing replicate captive populations provide practical means for minimizing the deleterious effects of genetic adaptation to captivity upon populations reintroduced into the wild. Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations. Genetic adaptation to captivity is expected to have major effects on reintroduction success for species that have spent many generations in captivity. This issue deserves a much higher priority than it is currently receiving.

  19. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  20. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gizaw, Solomon; Komen, Hans; Windig, Jack J; Hanotte, Olivier; van Arendonk, Johan AM

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers) and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits). Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04) as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83). We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan. PMID:18558075

  1. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms.

  2. Population genetic structure and conservation genetics of threatened Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, James D.; Jelks, Howard L.; Tate, Bill; Johnson, Aria R.; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Imperiled Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small, benthic fish limited to six streams that flow into three bayous of Choctawhatchee Bay in northwest Florida, USA. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci for 255 and 273 Okaloosa darters, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses and AMOVA reflect congruent population genetic structure in both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. This structure reveals historical isolation of Okaloosa darter streams nested within bayous. Most of the six streams appear to have exchanged migrants though they remain genetically distinct. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently reclassified Okaloosa darters from endangered to threatened status. Our genetic data support the reclassification of Okaloosa darter Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) in the larger Tom's, Turkey, and Rocky creeks from endangered to threatened status. However, the three smaller drainages (Mill, Swift, and Turkey Bolton creeks) remain at risk due to their small population sizes and anthropogenic pressures on remaining habitat. Natural resource managers now have the evolutionary information to guide recovery actions within and among drainages throughout the range of the Okaloosa darter.

  3. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  4. The Natural Resources Conservation Service land resource hierarchy and ecological sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resource areas of the NRCS have long been important to soil geography. At both regional and landscape scales, resource areas are used to stratify programs and practices based on geographical areas where resource concerns, problems, or treatment needs are similar. However, the inability to quantifiab...

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  6. De-extinction and Conservation Genetics in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    One interesting feature of de-extinction-particularly with respect to long-extinct species such as the passenger pigeon, thylacine, and mammoth-is that it does not fit neatly into the primary rationales for adopting novel ecosystem-management and species-conservation technologies and strategies: efficiency and necessity. The efficiency rationale is that the new technology or strategy enables conservation biologists to do what they already do more effectively. Why should researchers embrace novel information technologies? Because they allow scientists to better track, monitor, map, aggregate, and analyze species behaviors, biological systems, and human-environment interactions. This enables better decision-making about how to protect species, which areas to conserve, and how to reduce anthropogenic impacts on ecological systems. Many projects in conservation genomics are justified in this way. But de-extinction is not a more efficient or necessary means to some conservation aim that is already recognized as acceptable or important. In fact, because it is focused on reconstituting approximations of nonexistent species, rather than maintaining extant ones, the social and ethical assessment of de-extinction is not limited to asking whether it is a good means. We can ask as well whether de-extinction is a worthwhile "conservation" goal in the first place. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  7. Population genetic analysis and conservation strategies for redtail shrimp Fenneropenaeus penicillatus using ten microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y Y; Shangguan, J B; Li, Z B

    2017-03-15

    Fenneropenaeus penicillatus, which is on the Red List of Endangered Species for China, is an important shrimp species. However, there is not enough genetic information on F. penicillatus for conservation and management purposes. Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and population structure of F. penicillatus to provide scientific information for the conservation of the species. Low genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation were found among 12 putative populations [Beihai, Dongshan (DS), Hainan (HN), Lianjiang, Nanao (NA), Ningde (ND), Putian, Quanzhou (QZ), Xiamen (XM), Shenzhen, Zhanjiang, and Zhangpu] along the southeast coast of China. QZ, XM, and DS exhibited the highest genetic diversity, while NA and ND had the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation among all populations, except HN, was low compared to the genetic differentiation between HN and the other 11 putative populations. These 12 putative populations were divided into two subgroups. One group consisted of XM, DS, and QZ. The other group consisted of the other eight putative populations with the exception of HN. The HN Island population requires further study due to its large genetic distance from the other 11 putative populations. Problems with the current conservation strategy are pointed out and suggestions given based on genetic information.

  8. Lack of Variation at Phosphoglucose Isomerase (Pgi) in Bumblebees: Implications for Conservation Genetics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jonathan S.; Turner, Lucy M.; Knight, Mairi E.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits is increasingly of interest and importance in population and conservation genetics. For some groups generally useful markers exist for examining the relative role of selection and drift in shaping genetic diversity e.g. the major histocompatibility complex in vertebrates and self-incompatibility loci in plants. For invertebrates there is no such generally useful locus. However, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) has been proposed as a useful functional marker in the conservation genetics of invertebrates. Where thermal microclimate varies, balanced polymorphisms may be maintained due to trade-offs between thermally stable and kinetically advantageous allelic forms. We here report very low levels of Pgi variation in bumblebees rendering this locus to be of little use as an adaptive marker in a conservation genetics context in this group. Potential explanations for this lack of variation are considered. PMID:23750269

  9. Lack of variation at phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) in bumblebees: implications for conservation genetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jonathan S; Turner, Lucy M; Knight, Mairi E

    2013-01-01

    Assessing genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits is increasingly of interest and importance in population and conservation genetics. For some groups generally useful markers exist for examining the relative role of selection and drift in shaping genetic diversity e.g. the major histocompatibility complex in vertebrates and self-incompatibility loci in plants. For invertebrates there is no such generally useful locus. However, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) has been proposed as a useful functional marker in the conservation genetics of invertebrates. Where thermal microclimate varies, balanced polymorphisms may be maintained due to trade-offs between thermally stable and kinetically advantageous allelic forms. We here report very low levels of Pgi variation in bumblebees rendering this locus to be of little use as an adaptive marker in a conservation genetics context in this group. Potential explanations for this lack of variation are considered.

  10. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  11. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  12. DNA barcoding as a complementary tool for conservation and valorisation of forest resources

    PubMed Central

    Laiou, Angeliki; Mandolini, Luca Aconiti; Piredda, Roberta; Bellarosa, Rosanna; Simeone, Marco Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since the pre-historic era, humans have been using forests as a food, drugs and handcraft reservoir. Today, the use of botanical raw material to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In recent years, DNA barcoding has been suggested as a useful molecular technique to complement traditional taxonomic expertise for fast species identification and biodiversity inventories. In this study, in situ application of DNA barcodes was tested on a selected group of forest tree species with the aim of contributing to the identification, conservation and trade control of these valuable plant resources. The “core barcode” for land plants (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) was tested on 68 tree specimens (24 taxa). Universality of the method, ease of data retrieval and correct species assignment using sequence character states, presence of DNA barcoding gaps and GenBank discrimination assessment were evaluated. The markers showed different prospects of reliable applicability. RbcL and trnH-psbA displayed 100% amplification and sequencing success, while matK did not amplify in some plant groups. The majority of species had a single haplotype. The trnH-psbA region showed the highest genetic variability, but in most cases the high intraspecific sequence divergence revealed the absence of a clear DNA barcoding gap. We also faced an important limitation because the taxonomic coverage of the public reference database is incomplete. Overall, species identification success was 66.7%. This work illustrates current limitations in the applicability of DNA barcoding to taxonomic forest surveys. These difficulties urge for an improvement of technical protocols and an increase of the number of sequences and taxa in public databases. PMID:24453558

  13. DNA barcoding as a complementary tool for conservation and valorisation of forest resources.

    PubMed

    Laiou, Angeliki; Mandolini, Luca Aconiti; Piredda, Roberta; Bellarosa, Rosanna; Simeone, Marco Cosimo

    2013-12-30

    Since the pre-historic era, humans have been using forests as a food, drugs and handcraft reservoir. Today, the use of botanical raw material to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In recent years, DNA barcoding has been suggested as a useful molecular technique to complement traditional taxonomic expertise for fast species identification and biodiversity inventories. In this study, in situ application of DNA barcodes was tested on a selected group of forest tree species with the aim of contributing to the identification, conservation and trade control of these valuable plant resources. The "core barcode" for land plants (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) was tested on 68 tree specimens (24 taxa). Universality of the method, ease of data retrieval and correct species assignment using sequence character states, presence of DNA barcoding gaps and GenBank discrimination assessment were evaluated. The markers showed different prospects of reliable applicability. RbcL and trnH-psbA displayed 100% amplification and sequencing success, while matK did not amplify in some plant groups. The majority of species had a single haplotype. The trnH-psbA region showed the highest genetic variability, but in most cases the high intraspecific sequence divergence revealed the absence of a clear DNA barcoding gap. We also faced an important limitation because the taxonomic coverage of the public reference database is incomplete. Overall, species identification success was 66.7%. This work illustrates current limitations in the applicability of DNA barcoding to taxonomic forest surveys. These difficulties urge for an improvement of technical protocols and an increase of the number of sequences and taxa in public databases.

  14. Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program plan, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the safe, cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is also responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the program management of specific Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closures at the Hanford Site. This program plan addresses only the surplus facilities. The criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Restoration Division. The guidelines are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities until disposal.

  15. Report of the Public's Comments on the RCA Draft Documents, January-March 1980. [Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 1977 (RCA) directed the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to assess the country's nonfederal soil and water resources and to develop a program to conserve these and related natural resources. During this process, the USDA prepared and circulated for public comment a draft appraisal,…

  16. 78 FR 24778 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On April 16.... Environmental Protection Agency administrative order issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and should refer to United States v. Government...

  17. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Emergency... day that the Consent Decree was lodged with the Court, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery... Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to...

  18. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is... generation, storage, and transport provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to...

  19. 77 FR 24740 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act and the Emergency... August 12, 2011, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), 42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq..., Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to...

  20. 78 FR 77493 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') On... disposal of hazardous wastes in violation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), which... the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division and should refer to...

  1. 77 FR 18266 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Clean Air Act... compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') and the Clean Air Act (``CAA''). The... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  2. 75 FR 41239 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA... Bus Authority of Puerto Rico's (``MBA'') violations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed...

  3. 78 FR 27430 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On April 26... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), 42 U.S.C. 6934(a). The proposed consent decree requires... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  4. Using the Eastern Hellbender Salamander in a High School Genetics & Ecological Conservation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudyk, Sarah; McMillan, Amy; Lange, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article contains an original 5E lesson plan developed from conservation genetics research on the giant North American hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. The lesson plan provides background information on the hellbender, reviews basic genetics, and exposes students to the scientific process that is used during…

  5. Using the Eastern Hellbender Salamander in a High School Genetics & Ecological Conservation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudyk, Sarah; McMillan, Amy; Lange, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article contains an original 5E lesson plan developed from conservation genetics research on the giant North American hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. The lesson plan provides background information on the hellbender, reviews basic genetics, and exposes students to the scientific process that is used during…

  6. Banking on the future: progress, challenges and opportunities for the genetic conservation of forest trees

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Robert M. Jetton; Andrew Bower; Douglass F. Jacobs; Gary Man; Valerie D. Hipkins; Murphy Westwood

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity provides the essential basis for the adaptation and resilience of tree species to environmental stress and change. The genetic conservation of tree species is an urgent global necessity as forest conversion and fragmentation continue apace, damaging insects and pathogens are transported between continents, and climate change alters local habitat...

  7. Implications of spatial genetic patterns for conserving African leopards.

    PubMed

    Ropiquet, Anne; Knight, Andrew T; Born, Céline; Martins, Quinton; Balme, Guy; Kirkendall, Lawrence; Hunter, Luke; Senekal, Charl; Matthee, Conrad A

    2015-11-01

    The leopard (Panthera pardus) is heavily persecuted in areas where it predates livestock and threatens human well-being. Attempts to resolve human-leopard conflict typically involve translocating problem animals; however, these interventions are rarely informed by genetic studies and can unintentionally compromise the natural spatial genetic structure and diversity, and possibly the long-term persistence, of the species. No significant genetic discontinuities were definable within the southern African leopard population. Analysis of fine-scale genetic data derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed that the primary natural process shaping the spatial genetic structure of the species is isolation-by-distance (IBD). The effective gene dispersal (σ) index can inform leopard translocations and is estimated to be 82 km for some South African leopards. The importance of adopting an evidence-based strategy is discussed for supporting the integration of genetic data, spatial planning and social learning institutions so as to promote collaboration between land managers, government agency staff and researchers.

  8. Implications for management and conservation of the population genetic structure of the wedge clam Donax trunculus across two biogeographic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Marie, Amandine D; Lejeusne, Christophe; Karapatsiou, Evgenia; Cuesta, José A; Drake, Pilar; Macpherson, Enrique; Bernatchez, Louis; Rico, Ciro

    2016-12-19

    In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D. trunculus. A total of 514 samples from seven different localities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, from the Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz) to the north-western Mediterranean were genotyped. The analysis of the population genetic structure displayed a clear distinction along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition with different clusters in the Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean. Consequently, we recommend that these three areas should be considered as different management units. We showed that all populations seem to be at high long-term risk of extinction with the exception of the protected Doñana National Park population which still seems to have evolutionary potential. Therefore, our results emphasized the necessity of protection of this economic resource and the validity of molecular tools to evaluate the population dynamics.

  9. Implications for management and conservation of the population genetic structure of the wedge clam Donax trunculus across two biogeographic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Amandine D.; Lejeusne, Christophe; Karapatsiou, Evgenia; Cuesta, José A.; Drake, Pilar; Macpherson, Enrique; Bernatchez, Louis; Rico, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D. trunculus. A total of 514 samples from seven different localities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, from the Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz) to the north-western Mediterranean were genotyped. The analysis of the population genetic structure displayed a clear distinction along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition with different clusters in the Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean. Consequently, we recommend that these three areas should be considered as different management units. We showed that all populations seem to be at high long-term risk of extinction with the exception of the protected Doñana National Park population which still seems to have evolutionary potential. Therefore, our results emphasized the necessity of protection of this economic resource and the validity of molecular tools to evaluate the population dynamics. PMID:27991535

  10. Implications for management and conservation of the population genetic structure of the wedge clam Donax trunculus across two biogeographic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Amandine D.; Lejeusne, Christophe; Karapatsiou, Evgenia; Cuesta, José A.; Drake, Pilar; MacPherson, Enrique; Bernatchez, Louis; Rico, Ciro

    2016-12-01

    In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D. trunculus. A total of 514 samples from seven different localities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, from the Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz) to the north-western Mediterranean were genotyped. The analysis of the population genetic structure displayed a clear distinction along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition with different clusters in the Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean. Consequently, we recommend that these three areas should be considered as different management units. We showed that all populations seem to be at high long-term risk of extinction with the exception of the protected Doñana National Park population which still seems to have evolutionary potential. Therefore, our results emphasized the necessity of protection of this economic resource and the validity of molecular tools to evaluate the population dynamics.

  11. Building strong relationships between conservation genetics and primary industry leads to mutually beneficial genomic advances.

    PubMed

    Galla, Stephanie J; Buckley, Thomas R; Elshire, Rob; Hale, Marie L; Knapp, Michael; McCallum, John; Moraga, Roger; Santure, Anna W; Wilcox, Phillip; Steeves, Tammy E

    2016-11-01

    Several reviews in the past decade have heralded the benefits of embracing high-throughput sequencing technologies to inform conservation policy and the management of threatened species, but few have offered practical advice on how to expedite the transition from conservation genetics to conservation genomics. Here, we argue that an effective and efficient way to navigate this transition is to capitalize on emerging synergies between conservation genetics and primary industry (e.g., agriculture, fisheries, forestry and horticulture). Here, we demonstrate how building strong relationships between conservation geneticists and primary industry scientists is leading to mutually-beneficial outcomes for both disciplines. Based on our collective experience as collaborative New Zealand-based scientists, we also provide insight for forging these cross-sector relationships. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Robert; Zawadzka, Dorota; Suchecka, Ewa; Merta, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380–500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country’s natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia), and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs). This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU. PMID:28376095

  13. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Robert; Zawadzka, Dorota; Suchecka, Ewa; Merta, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380-500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country's natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia), and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs). This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU.

  14. Genetic diversity and the conservation priority of Glycine soja populations from Northern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y L; Guo, W Y; Bai, L R; Zhao, J C

    2015-12-11

    Knowledge of the spatial patterns of genetic variation in wild populations has significant implications for in situ conservation and the determination of conservation order. To study the levels of genetic diversity, spatial genetic structures, and genetic distances in Glycine soja, 11 natural populations in northern China were analyzed by estimating genetic coefficients using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprints via mixed sampling strategies. Sixteen ISSR primers generated 98 reproducible polymorphic amplification banding patterns of 172 scored, accounting for 56.98% of the polymorphisms among the populations. The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance showed that distinct genetic differentiation occurred in G. soja. The Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean cluster analysis indicated two broad groups, and one contained all of the populations except three from Chengde, which formed the smaller second group. The spatial genetic structure evident in the wild soybean populations may be attributed to restricted seed dispersal and the dominant breeding system of this species. The detection of genetic structures in wild soybean populations could be a significant index for the effective conservation of many wild populations, and it could be exploited by soybean breeding programs to increase production.

  15. Capturing neutral and adaptive genetic diversity for conservation in a highly structured tree species.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Santos-Del-Blanco, Luis; Serra-Varela, María Jesús; Koskela, Jarkko; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Alía, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Preserving intraspecific genetic diversity is essential for long-term forest sustainability in a climate change scenario. Despite that, genetic information is largely neglected in conservation planning, and how conservation units should be defined is still heatedly debated. Here, we use maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an outcrossing long-lived tree with a highly fragmented distribution in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, to prove the importance of accounting for genetic variation, of both neutral molecular markers and quantitative traits, to define useful conservation units. Six gene pools associated to distinct evolutionary histories were identified within the species using 12 microsatellites and 266 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, height and survival standing variation, their genetic control, and plasticity were assessed in a multisite clonal common garden experiment (16 544 trees). We found high levels of quantitative genetic differentiation within previously defined neutral gene pools. Subsequent cluster analysis and post hoc trait distribution comparisons allowed us to define 10 genetically homogeneous population groups with high evolutionary potential. They constitute the minimum number of units to be represented in a maritime pine dynamic conservation program. Our results uphold that the identification of conservation units below the species level should account for key neutral and adaptive components of genetic diversity, especially in species with strong population structure and complex evolutionary histories. The environmental zonation approach currently used by the pan-European genetic conservation strategy for forest trees would be largely improved by gradually integrating molecular and quantitative trait information, as data become available. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mariel; Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-12-01

    Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management-relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs should be

  17. Activities for Learning about Conservation of Forest Resources: A Guide for Leaders of Youth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to support the leader of a youth group in increasing the awareness of members of the need for good forest conservation practices. Sections include: (1) science fundamentals; (2) making informative exhibits; (3) gaining community involvement; (4) Christmas activities; (5) games and crafts; and (6) a list of resources and…

  18. Black walnut suitability index: a Natural Resources Conservation Service national soil information system based interpretive model

    Treesearch

    Douglas c. Wallace; Fred J. Young

    2008-01-01

    Suitable site conditions are essential for productive growth of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). Field officers at the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) in the Midwest are often asked, "What is a good walnut soil?" Current NRCS information available to most field offices rates soils only as "suitable" or "...

  19. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 40.145-1 Section 40.145-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Programs for which a Federal grant is awarded by the Environmental Protection Agency to a State, municipal...

  20. RESOURCES CONSERVATIONS COMPANY - B.E.S.T. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Resources Conservation Company (RCC) Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) solvent extraction technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils, sediments, and sludges contaminated with organics. B...

  1. Conserving Limited Resources. Secondary Learning Guide 14. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on conserving limited resources is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems; establish…

  2. RESOURCES CONSERVATIONS COMPANY - B.E.S.T. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Resources Conservation Company (RCC) Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) solvent extraction technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils, sediments, and sludges contaminated with organics. B...

  3. Energy Conservation in Construction Trades. Special Packages: Instructional Resources for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers and administrators, this resource package on energy conservation in construction trades contains three sections of information. Section I provides an instructional module (developed by the Wisconsin Vocational Studies Center) on solar energy; the module is organized into seven units:…

  4. Rainforests: Conservation and resource management. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conservation of rainforest ecology and management of natural resources. Topics include plant community structure and development, nutrient dynamics, rainfall characteristics and water budgets, and forest dynamics. Studies performed in specific forest areas are included. Effects of human activities are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Preservation and Conservation of Information Resources in the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    Preservation and conservation of library materials is an important aspect of library and information management. Their importance and necessity are more paramount in countries where resources are limited and libraries need to balance them with the needs of an ever increasing number of students hoping to use them. This article reports on the…

  6. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  7. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  8. Formative Life Experiences and the Recruitment of Natural Resource Conservation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting young people to serve as future leaders is a major concern for many organizations involved in natural resource conservation. One of the primary reasons for this concern is that youth are becoming less connected to the natural world because of the synergistic effects of urbanization, electronic media, and reduced opportunities to explore…

  9. Conserving Limited Resources. Learning Guide 14. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide on conserving limited resources is part of a series of learning guides developed for competency-based adult consumer and homemaking education programs in community colleges, adult education centers, community centers, and the workplace. Focus is on the connections among personal, family, and job responsibilities so that these…

  10. Criterion II: Indicators for conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources on rangelands (Chapter 3)

    Treesearch

    Linda A. Joyce; William Fox; Paul Geissler; Rodney Heitschmidt; Lori Hidinger; Duncan Patten; John Spence; Laurence L. Strong; Robert Unnasch; Robert A. Washington-Allen

    2010-01-01

    Five criteria were established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable to be used to assess rangeland sustainability on a national scale. One of those criteria is the conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources. Within this criterion, 10 indicators were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel...

  11. Formative Life Experiences and the Recruitment of Natural Resource Conservation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting young people to serve as future leaders is a major concern for many organizations involved in natural resource conservation. One of the primary reasons for this concern is that youth are becoming less connected to the natural world because of the synergistic effects of urbanization, electronic media, and reduced opportunities to explore…

  12. Activities for Learning about Conservation of Forest Resources: A Guide for Leaders of Youth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to support the leader of a youth group in increasing the awareness of members of the need for good forest conservation practices. Sections include: (1) science fundamentals; (2) making informative exhibits; (3) gaining community involvement; (4) Christmas activities; (5) games and crafts; and (6) a list of resources and…

  13. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resources Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Tom

    The guide is designed to aid the instructor in implementing the student guide entitled "Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book For Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry". Intended for use in the secondary level vocational agriculture curriculum, general concepts, student record-keeping skills,…

  14. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  15. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  16. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  17. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  18. Preservation and Conservation of Information Resources in the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    Preservation and conservation of library materials is an important aspect of library and information management. Their importance and necessity are more paramount in countries where resources are limited and libraries need to balance them with the needs of an ever increasing number of students hoping to use them. This article reports on the…

  19. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small island developing states.

    PubMed

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2017-06-06

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We report the outcomes of an exercise to identify research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy within Oceania's small island developing states. Respondents from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations across the region surveyed online proposed 270 questions, and subsequently identified 38 of these as high priority. High priority questions speak to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation within small island developing states, and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the socio-cultural context of Oceania. Our comparison with research priorities identified globally and for other regions revealed broad thematic similarities but also highlighted important differences in specific issues that are relevant to particular conservation contexts. This emphasizes the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. We found that priorities were reasonably well aligned between sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered to be already answered; this may indicate a smaller than expected knowledge-action gap. We hope that these questions can act to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. The California forest germplasm conservation project: a case for genetic conservation of temperate tree species

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Tremendous species diversity, together with accelerating deforestation and land development, has been a formula for rampant extinction and community collapse in tropical forests. Conservationists have brought the crisis of tropical forests to the attention of the international community, showing that continued efforts are needed to conserve the biotic riches of these...

  1. Genetic diversity and conservation of Mexican forest trees

    Treesearch

    C. Wehenkel; S. Mariscal-Lucero; J.P. Jaramillo-Correa; C.A. López-Sánchez; J.J. Vargas Hernández; C. Sáenz-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 200 years, humans have impacted the genetic diversity of forest trees. Because of widespread deforestation and over-exploitation, about 9,000 tree species are listed worldwide as threatened with extinction, including more than half of the ~600 known conifer taxa. A comprehensive review of the floristic-taxonomic literature compiled a list of 4,331...

  2. Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart; Robin S. Waples

    2007-01-01

    In response to ever-increasing anthropogenic changes to natural ecosystems, regional, national and international organizations have established guidelines for monitoring biological diversity. Most monitoring programs, however, do not take full advantage of the potential afforded by molecular genetic markers, which can provide information relevant to both ecological and...

  3. Conserving genetic diversity in Ponderosa Pine ecosystem restoration

    Treesearch

    L.E. DeWald

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) ecosystems of the southwestern United States often include removing over 80 percent of post-EuroAmerican settlement-aged trees to create healthier forest structural conditions. These types of stand density reductions can have negative effects on genetic diversity. Allozyme analyses...

  4. Conservation genetics of the endangered Isle Royale gray wolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayne, R.K.; Lehman, N.; Girman, D.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Gilbert, D.A.; Hansen, K.; Peterson, R.O.; Seal, U.S.; Eisenhawer, A.; Mech, L.D.; Krumenaker, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The small group of wolves on Isle Royale has been studied for over three decades as a model of the relationship between large carnivores and their prey. During the last ten years the population declined from 50 individuals to as few as 12 individuals. The causes of this decline may be food shortages, disease, or reduced genetic variability. We address the issues of genetic variability and relationships of Isle Royale wolves using allozyme electrophoresis, mtDNA restriction-site analysis, and multilocus hypervariable minisatellite DNA analysis (genetic fingerprinting). Our results indicate that approximately 50% of the allozyme heterozygosity has been lost in the island population, a decline similar to that expected if no immigration had occurred from the mainland. The genetic fingerprinting data indicate that the seven sampled Isle Royale wolves are as similar as captive populations of siblings. Surprisingly, the Isle Royale wolves have an mtDNA genotype that is very rare on the mainland, being found in only one of 144 mainland wolves. This suggests that the remaining Isle Royale wolves are probably derived from a single female founder.

  5. Effective population size and genetic conservation criteria for bull trout

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Rieman; F. W. Allendorf

    2001-01-01

    Effective population size (Ne) is an important concept in the management of threatened species like bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. General guidelines suggest that effective population sizes of 50 or 500 are essential to minimize inbreeding effects or maintain adaptive genetic variation, respectively....

  6. Conservation genetics of the European beech in France

    Treesearch

    A. Ducousso; B. Musch; S. Irola; A. Quenu; A. Hampe; R.J. Petit

    2017-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is one of the most abundant tree species in Europe. Its genetic structure and diversity have been investigated using both molecular markers and adaptive traits as assessed in field and laboratory experimental tests looking at adaptative traits. A great deal of information also exists on the Quaternary history of the...

  7. Diachronic analysis of genetic diversity in rice landraces under on-farm conservation in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Di; Li, Jinmei; Tang, Cuifeng; A, Xinxiang; Yu, Tengqiong; Ma, Xiaoding; Zhang, Enlai; Cao, Guilan; Xu, Furong; Qiao, Yongli; Dai, Luyuan; Han, Longzhi

    2016-01-01

    Diachronic analysis showed no significant changes in the level of genetic diversity occurred over the past 27 years' domestication, which indicated genetic diversity was successfully maintained under on-farm conservation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the earliest domesticated crop species. Its genetic diversity has been declining as a result of natural and artificial selection. In this study, we performed the first analysis of the levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in rice genomes under on-farm conservation in Yunnan during a 27-year period of domestication. We performed large-scale sequencing of 600 rice accessions with high diversity, which were collected in 1980 and 2007, using ten unlinked nuclear loci. Diachronic analysis showed no significant changes in the level of genetic diversity occurring over the past 27 years' domestication, which indicated genetic diversity was successfully maintained under on-farm conservation. Population structure revealed that the rice landraces could be grouped into two subpopulations, namely the indica and japonica groups. Interestingly, the alternate distribution of indica and japonica rice landraces could be found in each ecological zone. The results of AMOVA showed that on-farm conservation provides opportunities for continued differentiation and variation of landraces. Therefore, dynamic conservation measures such as on-farm conservation (which is a backup, complementary strategy to ex situ conservation) should be encouraged and enhanced, especially in crop genetic diversity centers. The results of this study offered accurate insights into short-term evolutionary processes and provided a scientific basis for on-farm management practices.

  8. The National Animal Germplasm Program: challenges and opportunities for poultry genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, H D

    2006-02-01

    In the United States, poultry genetic resources have consolidated because of economic pressures. Such consolidations can potentially jeopardize the poultry industry and the ability of research communities to respond to future challenges. To address the loss of genetic resources for all livestock and aquatic species, USDA established the National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) in 1999. Since the initiation of NAGP, population surveys have been conducted on nonindustrial chicken and turkey breeds. These surveys not only provide insight into breed status, but also serve as a benchmark for future comparisons. The survey results revealed that 20 chicken breeds and 9 turkey breeds were in various stages of being lost. The NAGP has initiated an ex situ repository for cryopreserved germplasm and tissue that already contains 59 chicken lines and 2,915 tissue samples. As the NAGP, along with its industry and university partners, continues developing the ex situ collection, there are research opportunities in cryopreserved tissue utilization and studies of genetic diversity. For cryopreserved tissues, several key research areas include improving the cryopreservation protocols for rooster and tom semen by using cryoprotectants other than glycerol and utilizing embryonic cells. Although surveys have been conducted on public research lines and rare breeds, there is a void in understanding the level of genetic diversity present in U.S. poultry populations. Therefore, an opportunity exists to perform a series of genetic diversity studies using molecular- based approaches. Such an evaluation can help clarify population differences between research lines and rare breeds and, thereby, facilitate conservation strategies. There appears to be growing consumer interest in poultry products derived from heritage breeds and/or poultry raised in nonindustrial production systems. Although the depth of such market trends is unknown, such an interest may provide an important niche for rare

  9. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The links between resource dependency and attitude of commercial fishers to coral reef conservation in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nadine A; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Rouphael, Tony

    2010-06-01

    The imperative to further constrain extractive uses of natural resources will strengthen as resources degrade through over-use or exposure to climate changes. Here, we explore an approach to increase the support for marine conservation among coral reef fishers. We explore the proposition that resource dependency in the Egyptian Red Sea can act as a barrier to conservation. We administered face-to-face surveys to 49% of the fishing industry to: (i) identify the level of compliance to the local marine protected area (MPA), (ii) assess the level of dependency on marine resources in the region and (iii) examine the relationship between resource dependency and conservation attitudes. Only 11.4% of fishers were aware of the MPA. Fishers were mostly limited in their social flexibility and livelihood options. Results suggest that resource dependency is highly and negatively correlated with conservation attitudes suggesting that management efforts need to seriously focus on reducing dependency if conservation goals are to be met.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  12. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  13. Population genetic structure and conservation of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Vicki L.; Birt, T.P.; Piatt, J.F.; Golightly, R.T.; Newman, S.H.; Hebert, P.N.; Congdon, B.C.; Gissing, G.

    2005-01-01

    Marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) are coastal seabirds that nest from California to the Aleutian Islands. They are declining and considered threatened in several regions. We compared variation in the mitochondrial control region, four nuclear introns and three microsatellite loci among 194 murrelets from throughout their range except Washington and Oregon. Significant population genetic structure was found: nine private control region haplotypes and three private intron alleles occurred at high frequency in the Aleutians and California; global estimates of FST or ??ST and most pairwise estimates involving the Aleutians and/or California were significant; and marked isolation-by-distance was found. Given the available samples, murrelets appear to comprise five genetic management units: (1) western Aleutian Islands, (2) central Aleutian Islands, (3) mainland Alaska and British Columbia, (4) northern California, and (5) central California.

  14. Genetic characterization of Neotropical Jabiru Storks: Insights for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, I.F.; Haig, S.M.; Lama, S.N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Jabiru Stork (Jabiru mycteria is listed under Appendix I of CITES and considered threatened in Central America. The first population genetic analysis of Jabiru Storks was carried out using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences (520 bp) and five heterologous microsatellite loci. Samples were collected from the field (N = 49) and museum skins (N = 22) in Central (mainly Belize, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil). A decline of mtDNA diversity was observed in comparisons between past (N = 20) and present (N = 40) samples collected in Central America and northern South America. Similar levels of microsatellite loci diversity were observed among contemporary samples. Lower levels of mtDNA variability were observed in samples from Central America and northern South America when compared to the Brazilian Pantanal region. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were found between contemporary locations sampled, whereas non-significant results were observed for historic samples. The non-geographic association of haplotypes observed at the cladograms and the recent divergence times estimated between locations are indicative of an evolutionary history of a large population size with limited population structure. Reconnection of populations via increased gene flow, particularly in Central America, is recommended if genetic structure and status are to be restored.

  15. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  16. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  17. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  18. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources: from biodiversity to human genetics.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Doris; Lasén-Díaz, Carolina

    2006-12-01

    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as to enable research subjects to claim a share of the benefits to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis. Our conclusion on this question is: 'No, the CBD should not be expanded to include human genetic resources.' There are essential differences between human and non-human genetic resources, and, in the context of research on humans, an essentially fair exchange model is already available between the health care industry and research subjects. Those who contribute to research should receive benefits in the form of accessible new health care products and services, suitable for local health needs and linked to economic prosperity (e.g. jobs). When this exchange model does not apply, as is often the case in developing countries, individually negotiated benefit sharing agreements between researchers and research subjects should not be used as 'window dressing'. Instead, national governments should focus their finances on the best economic investment they could make; the investment in population health and health research as outlined by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health; whilst international barriers to such spending need to be removed.

  19. Transcriptome resources for the frogs Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, emphasizing antimicrobial peptides and conserved loci for phylogenetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; Cornman, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed genetic resources for two North American frogs, Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, widespread native amphibians that are potential indicator species of environmental health. For both species, mRNA from multiple tissues was sequenced using 454 technology. De novo assemblies with Mira3 resulted in 50 238 contigs (N50 = 687 bp) and 48 213 contigs (N50 = 686 bp) for L. clamitans and P. regilla, respectively, after clustering with CD-Hit-EST and purging contigs below 200 bp. We performed BLASTX similarity searches against the Xenopus tropicalis proteome and, for predicted ORFs, HMMER similarity searches against the Pfam-A database. Because there is broad interest in amphibian immune factors, we manually annotated putative antimicrobial peptides. To identify conserved regions suitable for amplicon resequencing across a broad taxonomic range, we performed an additional assembly of public short-read transcriptome data derived from two species of the genus Rana and identified reciprocal best TBLASTX matches among all assemblies. Although P. regilla, a hylid frog, is substantially more diverged from the ranid species, we identified 56 genes that were sufficiently conserved to allow nondegenerate primer design with Primer3. In addition to providing a foundation for comparative genomics and quantitative gene expression analysis, our results enable quick development of nuclear sequence-based markers for phylogenetics or population genetics.

  20. Promoting Utilization of Saccharum spp. Genetic Resources through Genetic Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C.; Kuhn, David N.; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A.; Comstock, Jack C.; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance. PMID:25333358