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Sample records for genetic resource conservation

  1. Citrus conservation at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the base collection of genetic resources for the National Plant Germplasm System, a network of federal plant collections focused on conserving crops key to American agriculture. NCGRP research scientists have found ways to con...

  2. Conservation of animal genetic resources – A new tact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past 20 years countries have initiated programs to sustainably conserve farm animal genetic resources. At the same time the growing need for increased animal productivity has emerged. Viewing gene banks and in vivo conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product dem...

  3. Citizens' preferences for the conservation of agricultural genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Pouta, Eija; Tienhaara, Annika; Ahtiainen, Heini

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of conservation policies for agricultural genetic resources (AgGR) requires information on the use and non-use values of plant varieties and animal breeds, as well as on the preferences for in situ and ex situ conservation. We conducted a choice experiment to estimate citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) for AgGR conservation programmes in Finland, and used a latent class model to identify heterogeneity in preferences among respondent groups. The findings indicate that citizens have a high interest in the conservation of native breeds and varieties, but also reveal the presence of preference heterogeneity. Five respondent groups could be identified based on latent class modeling: one implying lexicographic preferences, two with reasoned choices, one indicating uncertain support and one with a preference for the current status of conservation. The results emphasize the importance of in situ conservation of native cattle breeds and plant varieties in developing conservation policies.

  4. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  5. Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked.

    PubMed

    Geburek, Thomas; Konrad, H

    2008-04-01

    Genetic diversity is indispensable for long-term forest sustainability and is therefore mentioned in numerous binding and nonbinding political covenants calling for action. Nevertheless, there are significant obstacles to the conservation of forest genetic resources. We discuss hindrances to genetic conservation, mainly in Europe. We identified impediments by reviewing the literature and on the basis of the experiences of the authors in this field and their participation in related political processes. The impediments include (1) difficulties in assessing and monitoring genetic erosion and human impacts (e.g., by the lack of markers showing adaptive variation and the lack of record keeping on the use and transfer of forest-tree germplasm), (2) complexities of European national structures that make the development of a common strategy toward forest genetic conservation problematic, (3) lack of effective forest governance in many parts of the world, (4) the general unattractiveness of genes as flagships in raising public awareness, (5) lack of integration of genetic aspects into biodiversity conservation, and (6) the fact that scientists and politicians are often at cross-purposes. To overcome these impediments, forest geneticists and their peers in species conservation have to participate more actively in decision making. In doing so, they must be prepared to face challenges on 2 fronts: participating in political processes and the provision of significant research findings to ensure that decisions with respect to forest genetic diversity are politically implementable and effectively address targets.

  6. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, François; Koskela, Jarkko; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C; Schüler, Silvio; Bozzano, Michele; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Bakys, Remigijus; Baldwin, Cathleen; Ballian, Dalibor; Black-Samuelsson, Sanna; Bednarova, Dagmar; Bordács, Sándor; Collin, Eric; de Cuyper, Bart; de Vries, Sven M G; Eysteinsson, Thröstur; Frýdl, Josef; Haverkamp, Michaela; Ivankovic, Mladen; Konrad, Heino; Koziol, Czesław; Maaten, Tiit; Notivol Paino, Eduardo; Oztürk, Hikmet; Pandeva, Ivanova Denitsa; Parnuta, Gheorghe; Pilipovič, Andrej; Postolache, Dragos; Ryan, Cathal; Steffenrem, Arne; Varela, Maria Carolina; Vessella, Federico; Volosyanchuk, Roman T; Westergren, Marjana; Wolter, Frank; Yrjänä, Leena; Zariŋa, Inga

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess and monitor forest conservation efforts. The pan-European network has 1967 conservation units, 2737 populations of target trees, and 86 species of target trees. We detected a poor coincidence between FGR conservation and other biodiversity conservation objectives within this network. We identified 2 complementary strategies: a species-oriented strategy in which national conservation networks are specifically designed for key target species and a site-oriented strategy in which multiple-target units include so-called secondary species conserved within a few sites. The network is highly unbalanced in terms of species representation, and 7 key target species are conserved in 60% of the conservation units. We performed specific gap analyses for 11 tree species, including assessment of ecogeographic, demographic, and genetic criteria. For each species, we identified gaps, particularly in the marginal parts of their distribution range, and found multiple redundant conservation units in other areas. The Mediterranean forests and to a lesser extent the boreal forests are underrepresented. Monitoring the conservation efficiency of each unit remains challenging; however, <2% of the conserved populations seem to be at risk of extinction. On the basis of our results, we recommend combining species-oriented and site-oriented strategies.

  7. Poultry genetic resource conservation using primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-10-18

    The majority of poultry genetic resources are maintained in situ in living populations. However, in situ conservation of poultry genetic resources always carries the risk of loss owing to pathogen outbreaks, genetic problems, breeding cessation, or natural disasters. Cryobanking of germplasm in birds has been limited to the use of semen, preventing conservation of the W chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. A further challenge is posed by the structure of avian eggs, which restricts the cryopreservation of ova and fertilized embryos, a technique widely used for mammalian species. By using a unique biological property and accessibility of avian primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursor cells for gametes, which temporally circulate in the vasculature during early development, an avian PGC transplantation technique has been established. To date, several techniques for PGC manipulation including purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture have been developed in chickens. PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced PGC manipulation techniques have enabled ex situ conservation of poultry genetic resources in their complete form. Here, the updated technologies for avian PGC manipulation are introduced, and then the concept of a poultry PGC-bank is proposed by considering the biological properties of avian PGCs.

  8. Poultry genetic resource conservation using primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of poultry genetic resources are maintained in situ in living populations. However, in situ conservation of poultry genetic resources always carries the risk of loss owing to pathogen outbreaks, genetic problems, breeding cessation, or natural disasters. Cryobanking of germplasm in birds has been limited to the use of semen, preventing conservation of the W chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. A further challenge is posed by the structure of avian eggs, which restricts the cryopreservation of ova and fertilized embryos, a technique widely used for mammalian species. By using a unique biological property and accessibility of avian primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursor cells for gametes, which temporally circulate in the vasculature during early development, an avian PGC transplantation technique has been established. To date, several techniques for PGC manipulation including purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture have been developed in chickens. PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced PGC manipulation techniques have enabled ex situ conservation of poultry genetic resources in their complete form. Here, the updated technologies for avian PGC manipulation are introduced, and then the concept of a poultry PGC-bank is proposed by considering the biological properties of avian PGCs. PMID:27210834

  9. Development of a strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit species. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique alleli...

  10. A strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources: Survey results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit genus. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique allelic ...

  11. Challenges in the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco

    2012-06-23

    The meeting on 'Genetic Resources in the Face of New Environmental, Economic and Social Challenges' held in Montpellier (France) from 20-22 September 2011 brought together about 200 participants active in research and management of the genetic diversity of plant, animal, fungal and microbial species. Attendees had the rare opportunity to hear about agronomy, botany, microbiology, mycology, the social sciences and zoology in the same conference. The research teams presented the results of about 50 projects funded by the French Foundation for Research on Biodiversity to preserve genetic diversity carried out in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. These projects aimed to better understand and manage genetic resources in a rapidly changing world (e.g. structural changes in the agricultural industry, the need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, the challenge of achieving food security despite the growing world population and changing dietary habits, the opportunities provided by the many new molecular biology tools, the problems caused by widespread scientific budget cuts). The meeting also hosted some roundtables open to all participants which provided a forum to establish a much needed dialogue between policy-makers, managers and researchers.

  12. Challenges in the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The meeting on ‘Genetic Resources in the Face of New Environmental, Economic and Social Challenges’ held in Montpellier (France) from 20–22 September 2011 brought together about 200 participants active in research and management of the genetic diversity of plant, animal, fungal and microbial species. Attendees had the rare opportunity to hear about agronomy, botany, microbiology, mycology, the social sciences and zoology in the same conference. The research teams presented the results of about 50 projects funded by the French Foundation for Research on Biodiversity to preserve genetic diversity carried out in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. These projects aimed to better understand and manage genetic resources in a rapidly changing world (e.g. structural changes in the agricultural industry, the need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, the challenge of achieving food security despite the growing world population and changing dietary habits, the opportunities provided by the many new molecular biology tools, the problems caused by widespread scientific budget cuts). The meeting also hosted some roundtables open to all participants which provided a forum to establish a much needed dialogue between policy-makers, managers and researchers. PMID:22048892

  13. What lies underneath: conserving the oceans' genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Jesús M; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M

    2010-10-26

    The marine realm represents 70% of the surface of the biosphere and contains a rich variety of organisms, including more than 34 of the 36 living phyla, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine biota. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with over 18,000 natural products and 4,900 patents associated with genes of marine organisms, with the latter growing at 12% per year, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The diversification of the use of marine living resources by humans calls for an urgent revision of the goals and policies of marine protected areas, to include the protection of MGRs and address emerging issues like biopiracy or benefit sharing. Specific challenges are the protection of these valuable resources in international waters, where no universally accepted legal framework exists to protect and regulate the exploitation of MGRs, and the unresolved issues on patenting components of marine life. Implementing steps toward the protection of MGRs is essential to ensure their sustainable use and to support the flow of future findings of medical and biotechnological interest.

  14. What lies underneath: Conserving the oceans’ genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Jesús M.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    The marine realm represents 70% of the surface of the biosphere and contains a rich variety of organisms, including more than 34 of the 36 living phyla, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine biota. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with over 18,000 natural products and 4,900 patents associated with genes of marine organisms, with the latter growing at 12% per year, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The diversification of the use of marine living resources by humans calls for an urgent revision of the goals and policies of marine protected areas, to include the protection of MGRs and address emerging issues like biopiracy or benefit sharing. Specific challenges are the protection of these valuable resources in international waters, where no universally accepted legal framework exists to protect and regulate the exploitation of MGRs, and the unresolved issues on patenting components of marine life. Implementing steps toward the protection of MGRs is essential to ensure their sustainable use and to support the flow of future findings of medical and biotechnological interest. PMID:20837523

  15. Selective breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lind, C E; Ponzoni, R W; Nguyen, N H; Khaw, H L

    2012-08-01

    To satisfy increasing demands for fish as food, progress must occur towards greater aquaculture productivity whilst retaining the wild and farmed genetic resources that underpin global fish production. We review the main selection methods that have been developed for genetic improvement in aquaculture, and discuss their virtues and shortcomings. Examples of the application of mass, cohort, within family, and combined between-family and within-family selection are given. In addition, we review the manner in which fish genetic resources can be lost at the intra-specific, species and ecosystem levels and discuss options to best prevent this. We illustrate that fundamental principles of genetic management are common in the implementation of both selective breeding and conservation programmes, and should be emphasized in capacity development efforts. We highlight the value of applied genetics approaches for increasing aquaculture productivity and the conservation of fish genetic resources.

  16. Chapter 25: Collecting pollen for genetic resources conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of pollen as a conservation target allows for the preservation of many diverse alleles within a genepool. Although it is possible to generate haploid plants from pollen grains, pollen is more commonly conserved as a gamete for gene conservation. The ease of pollen storage, shipment, and po...

  17. What Are Genetic Resources and Why Should They Be Conserved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the need for producing varieties of plants that can withstand the depredations of pests and diseases and are more adapted to stress conditions. Genes for better resistance and adaption are being found in conserved ancient farmers' varieties and related wild species. The importance of conserving these strains is emphasized. (KR)

  18. Valuation of crop genetic resources in Kaski, Nepal: farmers' willingness to pay for rice landraces conservation.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Diwakar; Johnsen, Fred H

    2009-01-01

    Crop genetic resources constitute an important aspect of biodiversity conservation, both because of their direct value to the farmers and due to their indirect global value. This study uses the contingent valuation method to document the economic value of crop genetic resources based on the farmers' willingness to pay for conservation. A total of 107 households in Kaski, Nepal were surveyed in November 2003. Their mean willingness to pay was USD 4.18 for in situ and USD 2.20 for ex situ conservation per annum. Landholding size, household size, education level, socio-economic status, sex of respondent, number of crop landraces grown, and knowledge on biodiversity influenced the willingness to pay for in situ conservation, whereas only landholding size and household size influenced the willingness to pay for ex situ conservation. The respondents were willing to contribute more for in situ than ex situ conservation because of the additional effect of direct use and direct involvement of the farmers in in situ conservation. This study supports the view that economic valuation of crop genetic resources can assist the policy makers in setting conservation priorities.

  19. Chapter 6. Genetic Resources: Collection, Characterization, Conservation and Documentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation of Lens germplasm is almost entirely ex situ as seed, from wild and domestic annuals and also the wild perennials. ICARDA has the global mandate for research on lentil improvement and thus houses the world collection of Lens of 10,800 accessions and other major collections include thos...

  20. Conservation Strategy of Strawberry Genetic Resources in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National German Strawberry Genebank includes 369 cultivars and the active field collection in Dresden-Pillnitz also contains 318 Fragaria wild species accessions. Conservation of clonal crops requires safety duplication. An earlier calculation of the effort required to establish and maintain a s...

  1. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  2. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Maarten van; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  3. Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N; Cooke, Janice E K; Fady, Bruno; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Heuertz, Myriam; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Lexer, Christian; Staton, Margaret; Whetten, Ross W; Plomion, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forest trees are an unparalleled group of organisms in their combined ecological, economic and societal importance. With widespread distributions, predominantly random mating systems and large population sizes, most tree species harbour extensive genetic variation both within and among populations. At the same time, demographic processes associated with Pleistocene climate oscillations and land-use change have affected contemporary range-wide diversity and may impinge on the potential for future adaptation. Understanding how these adaptive and neutral processes have shaped the genomes of trees species is therefore central to their management and conservation. As for many other taxa, the advent of high-throughput sequencing methods is expected to yield an understanding of the interplay between the genome and environment at a level of detail and depth not possible only a few years ago. An international conference entitled 'Genomics and Forest Tree Genetics' was held in May 2016, in Arcachon (France), and brought together forest geneticists with a wide range of research interests to disseminate recent efforts that leverage contemporary genomic tools to probe the population, quantitative and evolutionary genomics of trees. An important goal of the conference was to discuss how such data can be applied to both genome-enabled breeding and the conservation of forest genetic resources under land use and climate change. Here, we report discoveries presented at the meeting and discuss how the ecological genomic toolkit can be used to address both basic and applied questions in tree biology.

  4. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. In addition to the physiological effects of higher temperatures on individual animals, the consequences of climate change are likely to include increased risk that geographically restricted rare breed populations will be badly affected by disturbances. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastrics and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by animal genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of animal genetic resources; and wider access to genetic resources and associated knowledge.

  5. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M A; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Gandini, G; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The world has more than 7500 livestock breeds and conservation of all of them is not feasible. Therefore, prioritization is needed. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art in approaches for prioritization of breeds for conservation, particularly those approaches that consider molecular genetic information, and to identify any shortcomings that may restrict their application. The Weitzman method was among the first and most well-known approaches for utilization of molecular genetic information in conservation prioritization. This approach balances diversity and extinction probability to yield an objective measure of conservation potential. However, this approach was designed for decision making across species and measures diversity as distinctiveness. For livestock, prioritization will most commonly be performed among breeds within species, so alternatives that measure diversity as co-ancestry (i.e. also within-breed variability) have been proposed. Although these methods are technically sound, their application has generally been limited to research studies; most existing conservation programmes have effectively primarily based decisions on extinction risk. The development of user-friendly software incorporating these approaches may increase their rate of utilization.

  6. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  7. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate.

  8. Genetic selection and conservation of genetic diversity*.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, H D

    2012-08-01

    For 100s of years, livestock producers have employed various types of selection to alter livestock populations. Current selection strategies are little different, except our technologies for selection have become more powerful. Genetic resources at the breed level have been in and out of favour over time. These resources are the raw materials used to manipulate populations, and therefore, they are critical to the past and future success of the livestock sector. With increasing ability to rapidly change genetic composition of livestock populations, the conservation of these genetic resources becomes more critical. Globally, awareness of the need to steward genetic resources has increased. A growing number of countries have embarked on large scale conservation efforts by using in situ, ex situ (gene banking), or both approaches. Gene banking efforts have substantially increased and data suggest that gene banks are successfully capturing genetic diversity for research or industry use. It is also noteworthy that both industry and the research community are utilizing gene bank holdings. As pressures grow to meet consumer demands and potential changes in production systems, the linkage between selection goals and genetic conservation will increase as a mechanism to facilitate continued livestock sector development.

  9. Genetic diversity of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) germplasm collections from Africa: implications for improvement and conservation of genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Hayati, A; Wickneswari, R; Maizura, I; Rajanaidu, N

    2004-05-01

    , whereas for conservation purposes, oil palm populations with high allelic diversity (A(e)), which include populations 22 and 29 from Cameroon, populations 39 and 45 from Nigeria, population 6 from Guinea, populations 5 and 13 from Sierra Leone and population 1 from Madagascar should be selected for capturing as much genetic variation as possible.

  10. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Uzzaman, Md. Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  11. Resource Management and Conservation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, David G.; Baumann, Duane D.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of conservation, the future of resource availability, the status of conservation education today are topics examined and suggestions are made on improving the content and emphasis of conservation courses. (Author)

  12. Genetic Resources of Pinus cembra L. Marginal Populations from the Tatra Mountains: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Celiński, Konrad; Chudzińska, Ewa; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Niemtur, Stanisław

    2015-04-01

    The levels of variation and genetic diversity of offspring of randomly selected old mother trees in four marginal populations of the Pinus cembra in the Tatra Mountains were analyzed. Twenty-four isozyme loci were analyzed (nine of them were monomorphic). The analyzed offspring of Swiss stone pine showed highly diverse polymorphism at the levels of both provenances and individual families (the offspring of one mother tree). The mean observed heterozygosity was low and very similar to that of other Carpathian populations. The genetic diversity (mean Fst = 11%) between the four provenances was higher than that observed for populations from the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. The genetic uniqueness (high genetic richness and diversity) of the analyzed Tatra populations of P. cembra as a whole and particular tree stands requires protection because of their valuable contribution to the species total genetic diversity (gene pool).

  13. Estimates of effective population size and inbreeding in South African indigenous chicken populations: implications for the conservation of unique genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, Bohani; Dzama, Kennedy; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Rhode, Clint

    2016-06-01

    Conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. Therefore, the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa initiated a conservation programme for four South African indigenous chicken breeds. The evaluation and monitoring of the genetic constitution of these conservation flocks is important for proper management of the conservation programme. Using molecular genetic analyses, the effective population sizes and relatedness of these conservation flocks were compared to village (field) chicken populations from which they were derived. Genetic diversity within and between these populations are further discussed within the context of population size. The conservation flocks for the respective breeds had relatively small effective population sizes (point estimate range 38.6-78.6) in comparison to the field populations (point estimate range 118.9-580.0). Furthermore, evidence supports a transient heterozygous excess, generally associated with the occurrence of a recent population bottleneck. Genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles, heterozygosity and information index, was also significantly reduced in the conservation flocks. The average relatedness amongst the conservation flocks was high, whilst it remained low for the field populations. There was also significant evidence for population differentiation between field and conservation populations. F st estimates for conservation flocks were moderate to high with a maximum reached between VD_C and VD_F (0.285). However, F st estimates for field population were excessively low between the NN_C and EC_F (0.007) and between EC_F and OV_F (0.009). The significant population differentiation of the conservation flocks from their geographically correlated field populations of origin is further supported by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with 10.51 % of genetic

  14. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  15. Genetic diversity, population structure, conservation and utilization of Theobroma cacao L., genetic resources in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic, which ranks 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. In an effort to identify propagation mistakes, and estimate genetic diversity and population structure in cacao germplasm accessions a...

  16. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  17. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  18. Community-based interventions for the use and conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of indigenous scavenger chicken production in Benin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis C; Herrero, Mario; Baltenweck, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Scavenging chicken production in Africa is important for the livelihood of the poor. In most countries, these low inputs, low output systems employ local breeds making use of the feeding resources available in the household. However, their replacement with introduced exotic breeds with higher productivities represents a risk for their conservation. Here, we present a simulation model to evaluate the impact of community-based interventions aiming to improve the profitability of local chicken breeds and promote their use and conservation. The results indicate that under the current conditions, farmers producing exotic chicken are able to sell more animals in a one year period; however the market price of local chicken makes their production more profitable. Vaccination campaigns significantly reduce the mortality rate of both breeds, having a positive effect on producers' income but its impact on animal off-take is larger for exotic breeds, and the availability of feeding resources is the limiting factor as the flock size increases. The results of the intervention are positive in terms of increasing farmers' income but do not clearly contribute to the conservation of indigenous breeds since after the vaccination campaign, the gap between the profitability of indigenous and exotic breeds is reduced. The simulation model indicates that under the current conditions, the conservation of indigenous chicken breeds in Benin is maintained by the existence of distinct niche markets with consumers able to pay higher prices for indigenous chicken. Policies for the conservation of chicken genetic resources in Benin are discussed.

  19. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  20. Molecular and pedigree analysis applied to conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of Brazilian Somali hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta

    2011-10-01

    The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation.

  1. The fewer and the better: prioritization of populations for conservation under limited resources, a genetic study with Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae) in the Pyrenean National Park.

    PubMed

    Segarra-Moragues, J G; Catalán, P

    2010-03-01

    Taxa considered under low International Union for the Conservation of Nature categories of extinction risk often represent cases of concern to conservation biology. Their high relative abundance precludes management of the entire range due to limited economical resources. Therefore, they require a cost-effective management plan. Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae), an endemic plant of the Central Pyrenees and pre-Pyrenees, reaches the French side of the Central Pyrenees on its narrow northernmost boundary at Gavarnie (Parc National des Pyrenées, PNP, France), where it is protected as Vulnerable and considered a priority species. We have used nuclear microsatellite population genetic data to design a management strategy for the 11 populations of B. pyrenaica present in this area and to identify Relevant Genetic Units for its Conservation. The 18 SSR loci analysed identified 56 alleles, 24 of which fulfilled the rarity criterion for this set of populations. Genetic structuring of populations and representativity values derived from regression analyses of probabilities of loss of rare alleles together support differentiation of the B. pyrenaica populations into different management units. Estimates derived from G(ST) values indicate that five populations would adequately represent the 99.9% of the variation relative to most common alleles whereas calculations based on representativity values indicated that these five populations should equate the proportion 2:2:1 from the three different phylogeographical subdivisions of Gavarnie (Western, Eastern-1 and Eastern-2 ranges). This scheme would allow the preservation of 98.21% of the total B. pyrenaica alleles present in Gavarnie, according to the post glacial history of its populations. This conservation genetic approach could be applied to other low-extinction risk categories of extremely rare and subalpine plants in need of regulatory plans in European National Parks and Natural Reserves.

  2. Comparative genetic diversity in a sample of pony breeds from the U.K. and North America: a case study in the conservation of global genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Clare L; Plante, Yves; Hind, Pamela; McMahon, Robert; Hegarty, Matthew J; McEwan, Neil R; Davies-Morel, Mina C G; Morgan, Charly M; Powell, Wayne; Nash, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Most species exist as subdivided ex situ daughter population(s) derived from a single original group of individuals. Such subdivision occurs for many reasons both natural and manmade. Traditional British and Irish pony breeds were introduced to North America (U.S.A. and Canada) within the last 150 years, and subsequently equivalent breed societies were established. We have analyzed selected U.K. and North American equivalent pony populations as a case study for understanding the relationship between putative source and derived subpopulations. Diversity was measured using mitochondrial DNA and a panel of microsatellite markers. Genetic signatures differed between the North American subpopulations according to historical management processes. Founder effect and stochastic drift was apparent, particularly pronounced in some breeds, with evidence of admixture of imported mares of different North American breeds. This demonstrates the importance of analysis of subpopulations to facilitate understanding the genetic effects of past management practices and to lead to informed future conservation strategies. PMID:26380682

  3. Maize Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  4. Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

    2011-03-01

    Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters.

  5. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  7. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  8. Simulating the selfing and migration of Luehea divaricata populations in the Pampa biome to investigate the conservation potential of their genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Serrote, C M L; Reiniger, L R S; Stefenon, V M; Curti, A R; Costa, L S; Paim, A F

    2016-08-29

    Computer simulations are an important tool for developing conservation strategies for forest species. This study used simulations to investigate the genetic, ecological, and reproductive patterns that contribute to the genetic structure of the tree Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. in five forest fragments in the Brazilian Pampa biome. Using the EASYPOP model, we determined the selfing and migration rates that would match the corresponding genetic structure of microsatellite marker data (based on observed and expected heterozygosity parameters). The simulated reproductive mode was mixed, with a high rate of outcrossing (rate = 0.7). This was consistent with a selfing-incompatible system in this species, which reduced, but did not prevent, selfing. The simulated migration rate was 0.02, which implied that the forest fragments were isolated by distance, and that the inbreeding coefficients were high. Based on Nei's gene diversity analysis, 94% of the genetic variability was distributed within the forest fragments, and only 6% of the genetic diversity was caused by differences between them. Furthermore, the minimum viable population and minimum viable area genetic conservation parameters (which determine conservation potential in the short and long term) suggested that only the Inhatinhum forest fragment had the short-term potential to maintain its genetic diversity. However, in the long term, none of the forest fragments proved to be sustainable, indicating that the populations will require intervention to prevent a decline in genetic variability. The creation of ecological corridors could be a useful solution to connect forest fragments and enhance gene flow between them.

  9. The "bringing into cultivation" phase of the plant domestication process and its contributions to in situ conservation of genetic resources in Benin.

    PubMed

    Vodouhè, R; Dansi, A

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  10. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Vodouhè, R.; Dansi, A.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees. PMID:22693431

  11. Bison conservation initiative: Bison conservation genetics workshop: report and recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Peter Dratch,

    2010-01-01

    One of the first outcomes of the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bison Conservation Initiative was the Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop held in Nebraska in September 2008. The workshop brought together scientists from government agencies and non-governmental organizations with professional population geneticists to develop guidance for the genetic management of the federal bison herds. The scientists agreed on the basic tenets of genetic management for the DOI herds and discussed different approaches to meeting those goals. First, the 12 DOI herds are an irreplaceable resource for the long-term conservation of North American plains bison. Most of the herds show low levels of cattle introgression dating from the time when they were saved from extirpation; those herds should not be mixed without careful consideration as to their origin. Herds that show no evidence of cattle ancestry by the current molecular methods are the highest priority for protection from genetic mixing with any other bison herds. Second, despite the fact that most of the herds now managed by the U.S. government were founded with very few bison and have been maintained for many generations at relatively low population sizes, they do not show obvious effects of inbreeding. They have retained significant amounts of genetic variation by the standard measures, heterozygosity and allelic diversity. This may be explained in part by the fact that most of these herds are not remnants of a single population. Third, to preserve genetic variation in federal bison herds over decades and centuries, herds should be managed at a population or metapopulation level of 1,000 animals or more, with a sex ratio that enables competition between breeding bulls. The parks and refuges that currently have bison herds, with the exception of Yellowstone National Park, do not have enough land to support a population of this size. In the short term, it will be important to develop satellite herds to attain population

  12. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Daniel; Macaya, Gabriel; Guarino, Luigi; Baudoin, Jean Pierre; Rocha, Oscar J

    2008-09-01

    Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1) populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized), 2) populations that did not experience local extinction (control), and 3) populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental). Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean F(st) = 0.2769), followed by control locations (mean F(st) = 0.0576) and experimental locations (mean F(st) = 0.0189). Similar findings were observed for Neis genetic distance between samples (d(ij) = 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively). Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed.

  13. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2016-12-07

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns.

  14. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  15. [Genetic risks in plant ex situ conservation].

    PubMed

    Kang, Ming; Ye, Qi-Gang; Huang, Hong-Wen

    2005-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity of rare and endangered species and their evolutionary potential is one of the long-term goals of ex-situ conservation. Some potential genetic risks in ex-situ conservation in botanical gardens are presented. The preserved species may lack genetic representativity because of poor sampling. Inappropriate plantations, inadequate records and unclear kinships jeopardize endangered species to genetic confusion, inbreeding depression or outbreeding depression. Artificial selection and habitat conversion also potentially result endangered plants in adapting to ex-situ conservation, which had been usually overlooked. All the genetic risks can decrease the success of reintroduction and recovery. Therefore, appropriate genetic management should be carried out in botanical gardens to decrease or avoid genetic risks in ex-situ conservation.

  16. Reproductive biotechnologies and management of animal genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global awareness has increased efforts to conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR). Ex-situ conservation and management of AnGR is exclusively dependent upon an array of reproductive and genetic biotechnologies. These technologies range from well established protocols, e.g., cryopreservation of sper...

  17. Genetic characterization and conservation priorities of chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Tadano, R; Nagasaka, N; Goto, N; Rikimaru, K; Tsudzuki, M

    2013-11-01

    Molecular markers are a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity of chicken genetic resources. Seven chicken lines derived from the Plymouth Rock breed were genotyped using 40 microsatellite markers to quantify genetic differentiation and assess conservation priorities for the lines. Genetic differentiation between pairs of the lines (pairwise FST) ranged from 0.201 to 0.422. A neighbor-joining tree of individuals, based on the proportion of shared alleles, formed clearly defined clusters corresponding to the origins of the lines. In Bayesian model-based clustering, most individuals were clearly assigned to single clusters according to line origin and showed no admixture. These results indicated that a substantial degree of genetic differentiation exists among the lines. To decide priorities for conservation, the contribution of each line to the genetic diversity was estimated. The result indicated that a loss of 4 of the 7 lines would lead to a loss from 1.14 to 3.44% of total genetic diversity. The most preferred line for conservation purposes was identified based on multilocus microsatellite analysis. Our results confirmed that characterization by means of molecular markers is helpful for establishing a plan for conservation of chicken genetic resources.

  18. Plant conservation genetics in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andrea T; Havens, Kayri

    2009-11-01

    Plant conservation genetics provides tools to guide conservation and restoration efforts, measure and monitor success, and ultimately minimize extinction risk by conserving species as dynamic entities capable of evolving in the face of changing conditions. We consider the application of these tools to rare and common species alike, as ongoing threats that increasingly limit their resilience, evolutionary potential and survival. Whereas neutral marker studies have contributed much to conservation genetics, we argue for a renewed focus on quantitative genetic studies to determine how, or if, species will adapt to changing conditions. Because restoration plays an increasingly vital role in conservation, we discuss additional genetic considerations and research questions that must be actively studied now to effectively inform future actions.

  19. Resource Conservation. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for resource conservation occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  20. Genomics and the future of conservation genetics.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Luikart, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    We will soon have complete genome sequences from thousands of species, as well as from many individuals within species. This coming explosion of information will transform our understanding of the amount, distribution and functional significance of genetic variation in natural populations. Now is a crucial time to explore the potential implications of this information revolution for conservation genetics and to recognize limitations in applying genomic tools to conservation issues. We identify and discuss those problems for which genomics will be most valuable for curbing the accelerating worldwide loss of biodiversity. We also provide guidance on which genomics tools and approaches will be most appropriate to use for different aspects of conservation.

  1. When does conservation genetics matter?

    PubMed

    Amos, W; Balmford, A

    2001-09-01

    Is this short review we explore the genetic threats facing declining populations, focusing in particular on empirical studies and the emerging questions they raise. At face value, the two primary threats are slow erosion of genetic variability by drift and short-term lowering of fitness owing to inbreeding depression, of which the latter appears the more potent force. However, the picture is not this simple. Populations that have passed through a severe bottleneck can show a markedly reduced ability to respond to change, particularly in the face of novel challenges. At the same time, several recent studies reveal subtle ways in which species are able to retain more useful genetic variability than they 'should', for example by enhanced reproductive success among the most outbred individuals in a population. Such findings call into question the validity of simple models based on random mating, and emphasize the need for more empirical data aimed at elucidating precisely what happens in natural populations.

  2. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  3. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning Daniel Golovin Caltech Pasadena, CA, USA Andreas Krause ETH Zürich Zurich, Switzerland Beth...to adaptive policies ( Golovin and Krause 2010). We omit details due to space limita- tions. 1335 using the independent cascade model of Goldenberg... Golovin and Krause [2010]. However, their approach is not known to provide competitiveness guarantees such as those of Theo- rem 2, where the set of

  4. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... GENERAL INFORMATION Conditions Screened by US Programs General Resources Genetics Birth Defects Hearing Screening FOR PROFESSIONALS ACT Sheets(ACMG) General Resources Newborn Screening Genetics Birth Defects FOR FAMILIES FAQs ...

  5. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  6. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  7. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  8. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 970.603... § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the requirement for the conservation of natural resources, encompassing due regard for the prevention of waste...

  9. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  10. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  12. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  13. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  14. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  15. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  16. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  17. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  18. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  19. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  20. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  1. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  2. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  3. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  4. 15 CFR 971.502 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 971.502... § 971.502 Conservation of resources. (a) If the Administrator establishes terms, conditions and restrictions relating to conservation of resources, he will employ a balancing process in the consideration...

  5. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  6. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  7. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  8. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  9. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  10. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  11. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  12. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  13. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  14. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  15. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 970.603... § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the requirement for the conservation of natural resources, encompassing due regard for the prevention of waste...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  17. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  18. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  19. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation of resources. 970.603... § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the requirement for the conservation of natural resources, encompassing due regard for the prevention of waste...

  20. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  1. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility....

  2. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  3. 22 CFR 145.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 145.16 Section 145.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  4. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  5. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  6. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law...

  7. 32 CFR 32.49 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 32.49 Section 32.49 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND....49 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  8. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 2543.16... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency or agency of...

  10. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  12. 34 CFR 74.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 74.16 Section 74.16 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND... Requirements § 74.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  13. 29 CFR 95.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 95.16 Section 95.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION... Requirements § 95.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  14. 7 CFR 3019.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 3019.16 Section 3019.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF... Requirements § 3019.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  15. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  16. 24 CFR 84.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 84.16 Section 84.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Pub. L....

  17. 20 CFR 435.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal funds must comply with section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law 94... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.16 Resource Conservation and...

  18. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  19. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; Blackburn, Harvey D

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellites are commonly used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison of genetic resources when samples were not evaluated in a single laboratory. Eleven microsatellites were included in the analysis of 13 US and 9 Brazilian sheep breeds (N = 706). A Bayesian approach was selected and evaluated with and without a shared set of samples analyzed by each country. All markers had a posterior probability of greater than 0.5, which was higher than predicted as reasonable by the software used. Sensitivity analysis indicated no difference between results with or without shared samples. Cluster analysis showed breeds to be partitioned by functional groups of hair, meat, or wool types (K = 7 and 12 of STRUCTURE). Cross-country comparison of hair breeds indicated substantial genetic distances and within breed variability. The selected approach can facilitate the merger and analysis of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison and extend the utility of previously collected molecular markers. In addition, the result of this type of analysis can be used in new and existing conservation programs.

  20. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  1. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ((RCRA) (Pub. L....

  3. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  4. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  5. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  6. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ((RCRA) (Pub. L....

  8. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  9. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ((RCRA) (Pub. L....

  10. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  11. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  12. 15 CFR 971.420 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 971.420 Section 971.420 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each permit issued under...

  13. 15 CFR 970.519 - Resource conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource conservation requirements. 970.519 Section 970.519 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... conservation requirements. For the purpose of conservation of natural resources, each license issued under...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ((RCRA) (Pub. L....

  15. 36 CFR 1210.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ((RCRA) (Pub. L....

  16. Why preserve and evaluate genetic resources in peanut?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are produced in more than 100 countries with a total global total production in 2010 of 37,953,949 metric tons (FAO statistics, 2010). Because peanut is an important crop, it is imperative that its germplasm be preserved in order to conserve the genetic diversity and provide a resource to i...

  17. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61... for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.61 Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (a... in § 2.20(b)(1), the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for...

  18. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61... for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.61 Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (a... in § 2.20(b)(1), the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for...

  19. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61... for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.61 Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (a... in § 2.20(b)(1), the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for...

  20. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61... for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.61 Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (a... in § 2.20(b)(1), the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for...

  1. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61... for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.61 Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (a... in § 2.20(b)(1), the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for...

  2. Organizing phenological data resources to inform natural resource conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Posthumus, Erin E.; Denny, Ellen G.; Guertin, Patricia; Marsh, Lee; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the timing of plant and animal life cycle events, in response to climate change, are already happening across the globe. The impacts of these changes may affect biodiversity via disruption to mutualisms, trophic mismatches, invasions and population declines. To understand the nature, causes and consequences of changed, varied or static phenologies, new data resources and tools are being developed across the globe. The USA National Phenology Network is developing a long-term, multi-taxa phenological database, together with a customizable infrastructure, to support conservation and management needs. We present current and potential applications of the infrastructure, across scales and user groups. The approaches described here are congruent with recent trends towards multi-agency, large-scale research and action.

  3. Molecular Genetic Equipment for Improved Inventory and Monitoring of Species of Conservation Concern on Department of Defense Lands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The Laboratory for Ecological , Evolutionary and Conservation Genetics in the College of Natural Resources at the...Monitoring of Species of Conservation Concern on Department of Defense Lands Report Title The Laboratory for Ecological , Evolutionary and Conservation...sympatric carnivores, Molecular Ecology Resources, (07 2015): 1. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12356 Susannah P. Woodruff, Jennifer R. Adams, Timothy R

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Federal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal facilities have responsibilities with hazardous waste under RCRA, including the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). .

  5. Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Camila M; Janke, Aline; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Pinheiro, Felipe G; Paggi, Gecele M; Soares, Luis E S; Goetze, Márcia; Büttow, Miriam V; Bered, Fernanda

    2012-12-01

    Bromeliaceae is a morphologically distinctive and ecologically diverse family originating in the New World. Three centers of diversity, 58 genera, and about 3,140 bromeliad species are currently recognized. We compiled all of the studies related to the reproductive biology, genetic diversity, and population structure of the Bromeliaceae, and discuss the evolution and conservation of this family. Bromeliads are preferentially pollinated by vertebrates and show marked variation in breeding systems, from predominant inbreeding to predominant outcrossing, as well as constancy in chromosome number (2n = 2x = 50). Autogamous or mixed mating system bromeliads have a high inbreeding coefficient (F(IS)), while outcrossing species show low F(IS). The degree of differentiation among populations (F(ST))of species ranges from 0.043 to 0.961, which can be influenced by pollen and seed dispersal effects, clonal growth, gene flow rates, and connectivity among populations. The evolutionary history of the Bromeliaceae is poorly known, although some studies have indicated that the family arose in the Guayana Shield roughly 100 Mya. We believe that genetic, cytogenetic, and reproductive data will be essential for diagnosing species status and for assisting conservation programs.

  6. Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Camila M.; Janke, Aline; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Pinheiro, Felipe G.; Paggi, Gecele M.; Soares, Luis E.S.; Goetze, Márcia; Büttow, Miriam V.; Bered, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is a morphologically distinctive and ecologically diverse family originating in the New World. Three centers of diversity, 58 genera, and about 3,140 bromeliad species are currently recognized. We compiled all of the studies related to the reproductive biology, genetic diversity, and population structure of the Bromeliaceae, and discuss the evolution and conservation of this family. Bromeliads are preferentially pollinated by vertebrates and show marked variation in breeding systems, from predominant inbreeding to predominant outcrossing, as well as constancy in chromosome number (2n = 2x = 50). Autogamous or mixed mating system bromeliads have a high inbreeding coefficient (FIS), while outcrossing species show low FIS. The degree of differentiation among populations (FST)of species ranges from 0.043 to 0.961, which can be influenced by pollen and seed dispersal effects, clonal growth, gene flow rates, and connectivity among populations. The evolutionary history of the Bromeliaceae is poorly known, although some studies have indicated that the family arose in the Guayana Shield roughly 100 Mya. We believe that genetic, cytogenetic, and reproductive data will be essential for diagnosing species status and for assisting conservation programs. PMID:23412953

  7. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  8. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  9. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  10. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  11. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  12. 2 CFR 215.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 215.16 Section 215.16 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act....

  13. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  14. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  15. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  16. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  17. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  18. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  19. 22 CFR 226.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 226.16 Section 226.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.16 Resource Conservation...

  20. 2 CFR 215.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 215.16 Section 215.16 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act....

  1. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  2. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  3. 2 CFR 215.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 215.16 Section 215.16 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE....16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any State agency or agency of a...

  4. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  5. 22 CFR 518.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 518.16 Section 518.16 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  6. 2 CFR 215.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 215.16 Section 215.16 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act....

  7. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    PubMed

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  8. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    PubMed Central

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  9. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golovin, D.; Krause, A.; Gardner, B.; Converse, S.J.; Morey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consider the problem of protecting endangered species by selecting patches of land to be used for conservation purposes. Typically, the availability of patches changes over time, and recommendations must be made dynamically. This is a challenging prototypical example of a sequential optimization problem under uncertainty in computational sustainability. Existing techniques do not scale to problems of realistic size. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for adaptively making recommendations for dynamic conservation planning, and prove that it obtains near-optimal performance. We further evaluate our approach on a detailed reserve design case study of conservation planning for three rare species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Copyright ?? 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

  10. Botanic garden genetics: comparison of two cyacad conservation collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic data can guide the management of plant conservation collections. Direct assay of an ex situ collection’s genetic diversity, measured against wild plant populations, offers insight for conservation efforts. Here we present a carefully chosen case study, Zamia lucayana, selected for its contra...

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Orientation Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual provides introductory information on the solid and hazardous waste management programs under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Designed for EPA and state staff, members of the regulated community, and the general public.

  12. Abbreviated Version Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Statutory Checklist

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The RCRA Statutory Checklist is provided to aid attorneys and others in reviewing and documenting statutory provisions required for authorization under Section 3006(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended.

  13. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  14. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  15. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  16. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  17. 10 CFR 600.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 600.116 Section 600.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act (Pub. L. 94-580 codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any State agency...

  18. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Grouse Conservation Subcommittee and Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... sage grouse conservation subcommittee and the full Resource Advisory Council will meet as follows... Resource Management Plans to incorporate regulatory mechanisms for conservation of sage grouse habitat....

  19. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the... provisions only as the Administrator deems necessary. (b) NOAA views license phase mining system tests as...

  20. 15 CFR 970.603 - Conservation of resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.603 Conservation of resources. (a) With respect to the exploration phase of seabed mining, the... provisions only as the Administrator deems necessary. (b) NOAA views license phase mining system tests as...

  1. Resource Conservation and a Sustainable Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piechota, Thomas C.

    2014-05-15

    This research project developed educational, research, and outreach activities that addressed the challenges of Las Vegas as related to a secure energy supply through conservation, clean and adequate water supply, economic growth and diversification, air quality, and the best use of land, and usable public places. This was part of the UNLV Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI) that responded to a community and state need where a unifying vision of sustainability was developed in a cost-effective manner that promoted formal working partnerships between government, community groups, and industry.

  2. Conservation genetics of the Philippine tarsier: cryptic genetic variation restructures conservation priorities for an island archipelago primate.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Weghorst, Jennifer A; Olson, Karen V; Duya, Mariano R M; Barley, Anthony J; Duya, Melizar V; Shekelle, Myron; Neri-Arboleda, Irene; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Ong, Perry S; Moritz, Gillian L; Luczon, Adrian; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C; Siler, Cameron D

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier.

  3. Conservation Genetics of the Philippine Tarsier: Cryptic Genetic Variation Restructures Conservation Priorities for an Island Archipelago Primate

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; Olson, Karen V.; Duya, Mariano R. M.; Barley, Anthony J.; Duya, Melizar V.; Shekelle, Myron; Neri-Arboleda, Irene; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Ong, Perry S.; Moritz, Gillian L.; Luczon, Adrian; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Siler, Cameron D.

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier. PMID:25136854

  4. Managing nut genetic resources under disease threat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) Corvallis, Oregon, is assigned to preserve genetic resources of hazelnuts (Corylus L.) and butternuts (Juglans cinerea L.). Both crops are threatened by fungal diseases. Hazelnuts are challenged by Eastern filbert blight (EFB) [caused by Anis...

  5. Grain legume genetic resources for allele mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing capacities for higher throughput at significantly lower costs have enabled larger scale genotyping of plant genetic resources. One challenge to sequencing the USDA grain legume collections of pea, chickpea and lentil core accessions is the amount of heterogeneity in the landrace accessio...

  6. Conservation genetics of managed ungulate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.

    1993-01-01

    Natural populations of many species are increasingly impacted by human activities. Perturbations are particularly pronunced for large ungulates due in part to sport and commercial harvest, to reductions and fragmentation of native habitat, and as the result of reintroductions. These perturbations affect population size, sex and age composition, and population breeding structure, and as a consequence affect the levels and partitioning of genetic variation. Three case histories highlighting long-term ecological genetic research on mule deer Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), white-tailed deer O. virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780), and Alpine ibex Capra i. ibex Linnaeus, 1758 are presented. Joint examinations of population ecological and genetic data from several populations of each species reveal: (1) that populations are not in genetic equilibrium, but that allele frequencies and heterozygosity change dramatically over time and among cohorts produced in successive years, (2) populations are genetically structured over short and large geographic distances reflecting local breeding structure and patterns of gene flow, respectively; however, this structure is quite dynamic over time, due in part to population exploitation, and (3) restocking programs are often undertaken with small numbers of founding individuals resulting in dramatic declines in levels of genetic variability and increasing levels of genetic differentiation among populations due to genetic drift. Genetic characteristics have and will continue to provide valuable indirect sources of information relating enviromental and human perturbations to changes in population processes.

  7. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  8. Cryobanking of farm animal gametes and embryos as a means of conserving livestock genetics.

    PubMed

    Mara, L; Casu, Sara; Carta, A; Dattena, M

    2013-04-01

    In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. But, since the removal of single species can affect the functioning of global ecosystems, it is in the interest of international community to conserve the livestock genetics and to maintain biodiversity. Increasing awareness on the reduction of breed diversity has prompted global efforts for conservation of farm animal breeds. The goals of conservation are to keep genetic variation as gene combinations in a reversible form and to keep specific genes of interest. For this purpose two types of strategies are usually proposed: in situ and ex situ conservation. In situ conservation is the breed maintaining within the livestock production system, in its environment through the enhancement of its production characteristics. Ex situ in vivo conservation is the safeguard of live animals in zoos, wildlife parks, experimental farms or other specialized centres. Ex situ in vitro conservation is the preservation of genetic material in haploid form (semen and oocytes), diploid (embryos) or DNA sequences. In the last few years, ex situ in vitro conservation programs of livestock genetic resources have focused interest on cryopreservation of gametes, embryos and somatic cells as well as testis and ovarian tissues, effectively lengthening the genetic lifespan of individuals in a breeding program even after the death. However, although significant progress has been made in semen, oocytes and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, a standardized procedure has not been established yet. The aim of the present review is to describe the cryobanking purposes, the collection goals, the type of genetic material to store and the reproductive biotechnologies utilized for the cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos.

  9. Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  10. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  11. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally) with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT) research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR) theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to understanding the role of

  12. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  13. Conservation of living resources in a changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teer, James G.

    1996-11-01

    Conservation of living resources is no longer parochial in scope; it is a global challenge. Ecological, social, political, and business interests operate in a network that reaches across seas, continents, and nations. Industries, including the electric utility industry, are diversifying in products and expanding into international markets. They soon discover that, while all nations have common goals for their peoples, conservation and environmental issues in less-developed nations have different dimensions and norms than are encountered in Western, affluent societies. In developing countries, survival is more of an issue than quality of life, and burgeoning human numbers have put tremendous pressures on resources including wildlife and its habitats. Human population, urbanization of society, changes in single-species to ecosystem and landscape levels of management, and protectionists and animal rights philosophies are influences with which conservation of resources and the environment must contend. The human condition and conservation efforts are inextricably linked. Examples to demonstrate this fact are given for Project Tiger in India, the jaguar in Latin America, and the Serengeti ecosystem in Kenya and Tanzania.

  14. Dynamics of a wellness program: a conservation of resources perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Doo; Hollensbe, Elaine C; Schwoerer, Catherine E; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-01-01

    We leverage conservation of resources theory to explain possible dynamics through which a holistic wellness program results in positive longer-term outcomes. Specifically, we hypothesize that wellness self-efficacy at the end of a wellness program will create a positive resource gain spiral, increasing psychological availability (a sense of having cognitive, physical, and emotional resources to engage oneself) 6 months later, and career satisfaction, 1 year later. To test these hypotheses, using a time-lagged with control group design, we gathered questionnaire data from 160 Episcopal priests who participated in a 10-day off-site wellness program. We developed a scale measuring self-efficacy in the 4 wellness areas the program was designed to improve: physical, spiritual, financial, and vocational. Our findings provide evidence from a field setting of a relatively untested tenet of conservation of resources theory, resource gain spirals. The wellness program that we studied served as an opportunity for participants to gain new resources in the form of wellness self-efficacy, which in turn helped participants experience positive outcomes over time. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

  15. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  16. Conservation genetics and genomics of amphibians and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Gidiş, Müge; McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Neal, Kevin M; Oyamaguchi, Hilton M; Tellez, Marisa; Toffelmier, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles as a group are often secretive, reach their greatest diversity often in remote tropical regions, and contain some of the most endangered groups of organisms on earth. Particularly in the past decade, genetics and genomics have been instrumental in the conservation biology of these cryptic vertebrates, enabling work ranging from the identification of populations subject to trade and exploitation, to the identification of cryptic lineages harboring critical genetic variation, to the analysis of genes controlling key life history traits. In this review, we highlight some of the most important ways that genetic analyses have brought new insights to the conservation of amphibians and reptiles. Although genomics has only recently emerged as part of this conservation tool kit, several large-scale data sources, including full genomes, expressed sequence tags, and transcriptomes, are providing new opportunities to identify key genes, quantify landscape effects, and manage captive breeding stocks of at-risk species.

  17. Conserving the zoological resources of Bangladesh under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Das, Bidhan C

    2009-06-01

    It is now well recognized that Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries to climate change and sea level rise. Low levels of natural resources and a high occurrence of natural disasters further add to the challenges faced by the country. The impacts of climate change are anticipated to exacerbate these existing stresses and constitute a serious impediment to poverty reduction and economic development. Ecosystems and biodiversity are important key sectors of the economy and natural resources of the country are selected as the most vulnerable to climate change. It is for these reasons that Bangladesh should prepare to conserve its natural resources under changed climatic conditions. Unfortunately, the development of specific strategies and policies to address the effects of climate change on the ecosystem and on biodiversity has not commenced in Bangladesh. Here, I present a detailed review of animal resources of Bangladesh, an outline of the major areas in zoological research to be integrated to adapt to climate change, and identified few components for each of the aforesaid areas in relation to the natural resource conservation and management in the country.

  18. 40 CFR 256.31 - Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... implementing resource conservation and recovery programs. 256.31 Section 256.31 Protection of Environment... SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Programs § 256.31 Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs. (a) In order...

  19. 40 CFR 256.31 - Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... implementing resource conservation and recovery programs. 256.31 Section 256.31 Protection of Environment... SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Programs § 256.31 Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs. (a) In order...

  20. 40 CFR 256.31 - Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... implementing resource conservation and recovery programs. 256.31 Section 256.31 Protection of Environment... SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Programs § 256.31 Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs. (a) In order...

  1. Genetics and the conservation of natural populations: allozymes to genomes.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W

    2017-01-01

    I consider how the study of genetic variation has influenced efforts to conserve natural populations over the last 50 years. Studies with allozymes in the 1970s provided the first estimates of the amount of genetic variation within and between natural populations at multiple loci. These early studies played an important role in developing plans to conserve species. The description of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA in the early 1980s laid the foundation for the field of phylogeography, which provided a deeper look in time of the relationships and connectivity among populations. The development of microsatellites in the 1990s provided much more powerful means to describe genetic variation at nuclear loci, including the ability to detect past bottlenecks and estimate current effective population size with a single temporal sample. In the 2000s, single nucleotide polymorphisms presented a cornucopia of loci that has greatly improved power to estimate genetic and population demographic parameters important for conservation. Today, population genomics presents the ability to detect regions of the genome that are affected by natural selection (e.g. local adaptation or inbreeding depression). In addition, the ability to genotype historical samples has provided power to understand how climate change and other anthropogenic phenomena have affected populations. Modern molecular techniques provide unprecedented power to understand genetic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, application of this information requires sound understanding of population genetics theory. I believe that current training in conservation genetics focuses too much on the latest techniques and too little on understanding the conceptual basis which is needed to interpret these data and ask good questions.

  2. NCBI genetic resources supporting immunogenetic research.

    PubMed

    Feolo, M; Helmberg, W; Sherry, S; Maglott, D R

    2000-01-01

    The NCBI creates and maintains a set of integrated bibliographic, sequence, map, structure and other database resources to promote the efficient retrieval of information and the discovery of novel relationships. The connections made between elements of these resources permit researchers to start a search from a wide spectrum of entry points. These multiple dimensions of data can be roughly categorized by primary content as text or bibliographic (PubMed, PubMedCentral, OMIM, LocusLink), sequence (GenBank, Reference Sequence Project (RefSeq), dbSNP, MMDB), protein structure (MMDB) or map position (MapView). They can also becategorized by level of expert curation, which may range from validation of submissions from external groups (GenBank, PubMed, PubMedCentral,), to automatic computation (HomoloGene, UniGene), and to highly reviewed and corrected (LocusLink, MMDB, OMIM, RefSeq). Searches can be made by words (in an article title, key words, sequence annotation, database value, author) by sequence (BLAST or e-PCR against multiple sequence databases), or by map coordinates. By computing or curating bi-directional links between related objects, NCBI can represent content on the genetics, molecular biology, and clinical considerations of interest to immunogeneticists. There is also an emerging resource developed by the NCBI in collaboration with the IHWG devoted to the presentation of MHC data (dbMHC). How dbMHC will augment existing resources at the NCBI is described.

  3. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.

  4. Relevance of genetics for conservation policies: the case of Minorcan cork oaks

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Zaida; Burgarella, Concetta; de Heredia, Unai López; Lumaret, Roselyne; Petit, Rémy J.; Soto, Álvaro; Gil, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Marginal populations of widely distributed species can be of high conservation interest when they hold a significant or unique portion of the genetic diversity of the species. However, such genetic information is frequently lacking. Here the relevance of genetic surveys to develop efficient conservation strategies for such populations is illustrated using cork oak (Quercus suber) from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) as a case study. Cork oak is highly endangered on the island, where no more than 67 individuals live in small, isolated stands in siliceous sites. As a consequence, it was recently granted protected status. Methods Two Bayesian clustering approaches were used to analyse the genetic structure of the Minorcan population, on the basis of nuclear microsatellite data. The different groups within the island were also compared with additional island and continental populations surrounding Minorca. Key Results Very high genetic diversity was found, with values comparable with those observed in continental parts of the species' range. Furthermore, the Minorcan oak stands were highly differentiated from one another and were genetically related to different continental populations of France and Spain. Conclusions The high levels of genetic diversity and inter-stands differentiation make Minorcan cork oak eligible for specific conservation efforts. The relationship of Minorcan stands to different continental populations in France and Spain probably reflects multiple colonization events. However, discrepancy between chloroplast DNA- and nuclear DNA-based groups does not support a simple scenario of recent introduction. Gene exchanges between neighbouring cork oak stands and with holm oak have created specific and exceptional genetic combinations. They also constitute a wide range of potential genetic resources for research on adaptation to new environmental conditions. Conservation guidelines that take into account these findings are provided

  5. Neutral Genetic Markers and Conservation Genetics: Simulated Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Bataillon, T. M.; David, J. L.; Schoen, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the use of neutral genetic markers to guide sampling from a large germplasm collection with the objective of establishing from it a smaller, but genetically representative sample. We simulated evolutionary change and germplasm sampling in a subdivided population of a diploid hermaphrodite annual plant to create an initially large collection. Several strategies of sampling from this collection were then compared. Our results show that a strategy based on information obtained from marker genes led to retention of the maximum number of neutral and nonneutral alleles in the smaller sample. This occurred when demes were composed of self-fertilizing individuals or when no migration occurred among demes, but not when demes of an outcrossing population were connected by high levels of migration. PMID:8878704

  6. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species. PMID:7912434

  7. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-06-21

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Aquilaria malaccensis revealed potential for future conservation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pradeep; Nag, Akshay; Parmar, Rajni; Ghosh, Sneha; Bhau, Brijmohan Singh; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The endangered Aquilaria malaccensis,is an important plant with high economic values. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure is receiving tremendous attention for effective conservation of genetic resources. Considering important repositories of biological diversity, the genetic relationships of 127 A. malaccensis accessions from 10 home gardens of three states of northeast India were assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Of the 1153 fragments amplified with four AFLP primer combinations, 916 (79.4%) were found to be polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) of each primer combination correlate significantly with the number of genotypes resolved. Overall, a high genetic diversity (avg. 71.85%) was recorded. Further, high gene flow (Nm: 3.37), low genetic differentiation (FST: 0.069) and high within population genetic variation (93%) suggests that most of the genetic diversity is restricted within population. Neighbour joining (NJ), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian-based STRUCTURE grouped all the accessions in two clusters with significant intermixing between populations, therefore, revealed that two genetically distinct gene pools are operating in the A. malaccensis populations cultivated in home gardens. Based on the various diversity inferences, five diverse populations (JOH, FN, HLF, DHM and ITN) were identified, which can be potentially exploited to develop conservation strategies for A. malaccensis.

  9. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future brood stock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting brood stock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  10. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future broodstock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting broodstock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  11. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  12. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  13. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  14. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  15. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  16. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  17. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  18. 41 CFR 105-72.206 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 105-72.206 Section 105-72.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-72.206 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  19. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580...

  20. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  1. 32 CFR 32.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as described at § 32.49....

  2. Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; Gephard, Stephen R; Limburg, Karin E; Post, David M; Schultz, Thomas F; Willis, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in conservation biology is the need to broadly prioritize conservation efforts when demographic data are limited. One method to address this challenge is to use population genetic data to define groups of populations linked by migration and then use demographic information from monitored populations to draw inferences about the status of unmonitored populations within those groups. We applied this method to anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), species for which long-term demographic data are limited. Recent decades have seen dramatic declines in these species, which are an important ecological component of coastal ecosystems and once represented an important fishery resource. Results show that most populations comprise genetically distinguishable units, which are nested geographically within genetically distinct clusters or stocks. We identified three distinct stocks in alewife and four stocks in blueback herring. Analysis of available time series data for spawning adult abundance and body size indicate declines across the US ranges of both species, with the most severe declines having occurred for populations belonging to the Southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic Stocks. While all alewife and blueback herring populations deserve conservation attention, those belonging to these genetic stocks warrant the highest conservation prioritization. PMID:24567743

  3. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  4. Resource conservation program in terms of Vostokgazprom environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Nadyumov, S. V.; Adam, A. M.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article examines a number of key areas of environmental policy of Vostokgazprom. The Associated Petroleum Gas program is an important step within the resource conservation and environmental protection framework. In addition, the company undertakes the extensive work on emergency response programs, and carries out continuous protection of the subsurface and control over environmental safety in all production sites. Vostokgazprom continuously modernizes the basic industrial facilities and invests money in new projects. The study analyzes the steps being taken by the company within the energy saving policy that leads to significant costs cut.

  5. Rocky Mountain Center for Conservation Genetics and Systematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quinn, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of molecular genetic tools has become increasingly important in addressing conservation issues pertaining to plants and animals. Genetic information can be used to augment studies of population dynamics and population viability, investigate systematic, refine taxonomic definitions, investigate population structure and gene flow, and document genetic diversity in a variety of plant and animal species. Further, genetic techniques are being used to investigate mating systems through paternity analysis, and analyze ancient DNA samples from museum specimens, and estimate population size and survival rates using DNA as a unique marker. Such information is essential for the sound management of small, isolated populations of concern and is currently being used by universities, zoos, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and numerous state fish and wildlife agencies.

  6. Contribution of conservation genetics in assessing neotropical freshwater fish biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Piorski, N M; Sanches, A; Carvalho-Costa, L F; Hatanaka, T; Carrillo-Avila, M; Freitas, P D; Galetti, P M

    2008-11-01

    Human activities have a considerable impact on hydrographic systems and fish fauna. The present review on conservation genetics of neotropical freshwater fish reveals that DNA analyses have been promoting increased knowledge on the genetic structure of fish species and their response to environmental changes. This knowledge is fundamental to the management of wild fish populations and the establishment of Evolutionary Significant Units capable of conserving genetic integrity. While population structuring can occur even in long-distance migratory fish, isolated populations can show reduced genetic variation and be at greater risk of extinction. Phylogeography and phylogeny have been powerful tools in understanding the evolution of fish populations, species and communities in distinct neotropic environments. Captive fish can be used to introduce new individuals and genes into the wild and their benefits and disadvantages can be monitored through genetic analysis. Understanding how fish biodiversity in neotropical freshwaters is generated and maintained is highly important, as these habitats are transformed by human development and fish communities are increasingly exploited as food sources to sustain a growing human population.

  7. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    PubMed

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  8. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Matthew T.; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J.; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis. PMID:27524992

  9. Preservation of plant genetic resources in the biotechnology era.

    PubMed

    Börner, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    Thousands of years ago humans began domesticating crops as a food source. Among the wild germplasm available, they selected those that were best adapted for cultivation and utilization. Although wild ancestors have continued to persist in regions where domestication took place, there is a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices. Recognizing this danger, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide, more than 6 million accessions have been accumulated including the German ex situ genebank in Gatersleben, one of the four largest global collections, housing 150,000 accessions belonging to 890 genera and 3032 species. This review summarizes the ex situ plant genetic resources conservation behavior with a special emphasis on German activities. Strategies for maintenance and management of germplasm collections are reviewed, considering modern biotechnologies (in vitro and cryo preservation). General aspects on genetic diversity and integrity are discussed.

  10. Systematic review on the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? Materials and Methods We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications. We analyzed the annual trend of publications in this field of research, including the number of authors, levels of collaboration among authors, year of publication, publishing journal and the countries from where genetic samples were collected. Additionally, we identified main research clusters, authors, and institutional collaborations, based on co-citation and co-occurrence networks. Results We found that during the study period there was a positive trend in the number of publications and a reduction in the number of authors per paper. Twenty-five countries contributed, with the majority of publications authored by researchers in the USA, Kenya and South Africa. The majority of samples were collected in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Research outputs are associated with the existence of long-term conservation/research projects and research potential as measured by the literacy rate and the number of higher education institutions in a country. Five research clusters were identified, focusing on the origin and evolution of the species, methodological issues and the relatedness among elephant species. Conclusions Research in

  11. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.246 Section 250.246 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the...

  12. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California

    PubMed Central

    Calil, Juliano; Beck, Michael W.; Gleason, Mary; Merrifield, Matthew; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Newkirk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S. history. Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as “repetitive loss.” During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds. PMID:26200353

  13. Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Uphyrkina, O; Miquelle, D; Quigley, H; Driscoll, C; O'Brien, S J

    2002-01-01

    The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed.

  14. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  15. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  16. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  17. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  18. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 30.16 Section 30.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580...

  19. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  20. 40 CFR 40.145-1 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Conservation and Recovery Act, shall be the subject of public participation consistent with part 249 of...

  1. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580 codified... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 30.16 Section 30.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  2. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580 codified... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 30.16 Section 30.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  3. 40 CFR 30.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Public Law 94-580 codified... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 30.16 Section 30.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  4. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  5. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  6. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  7. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  8. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  9. Genetic approaches refine ex situ lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) conservation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Lalonde, Danielle R; Quse, Viviana; Shoemaker, Alan; Russello, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Ex situ conservation management remains an important tool in the face of continued habitat loss and global environmental change. Here, we use microsatellite marker variation to evaluate conventional assumptions of pedigree-based ex situ population management and directly inform a captive lowland tapir breeding program within a range country. We found relatively high levels of genetic variation (N(total) = 41; mean H(E) = 0.67 across 10 variable loci) and little evidence for relatedness among founder individuals (N(founders) = 10; mean relatedness = -0.05). Seven of 29 putative parent-offspring relationships were excluded by parentage analysis based on allele sharing, and we identified 2 individuals of high genetic value to the population (mk genetic markers were used to inform kinship. We discuss our results within the context of recent studies that have assessed the utility of neutral molecular markers for ex situ conservation.

  10. Human Genetics: Educational Resources for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greendale, Karen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Potential sources of information and assistance on human genetics are identified, including a brief description of the National Clearinghouse for Human Genetic Diseases, genetic service centers, voluntary groups, state programs, commercial procedures, workshops, speakers, curriculum development aids, and general references. (DC)

  11. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Yearbook, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    This yearbook covers the period from January 1975 to May 1976. It reviews the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' (IUCN) conservation strategy for the coming years, important international conservation treaties, IUCN organizational reforms, and the financial report for 1975. Conservation discussions include…

  12. 75 FR 79392 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby... Natural Resources (``IDNR'') against Old GM under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA... Agreement. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural...

  13. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  14. Prioritizing Tiger Conservation through Landscape Genetics and Habitat Linkages

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E.; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status to

  15. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  16. Genetic Structure and Selection of a Core Collection for Long Term Conservation of Avocado in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Luis F.; Machida-Hirano, Ryoko; Borrayo, Ernesto; Cortés-Cruz, Moisés; Espíndola-Barquera, María del Carmen; Heredia García, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Mexico, as the center of origin of avocado (Persea americama Mill.), harbors a wide genetic diversity of this species, whose identification may provide the grounds to not only understand its unique population structure and domestication history, but also inform the efforts aimed at its conservation. Although molecular characterization of cultivated avocado germplasm has been studied by several research groups, this had not been the case in Mexico. In order to elucidate the genetic structure of avocado in Mexico and the sustainable use of its genetic resources, 318 avocado accessions conserved in the germplasm collection in the National Avocado Genebank were analyzed using 28 markers [9 expressed sequence tag-Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and 19 genomic SSRs]. Deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and high inter-locus linkage disequilibrium were observed especially in drymifolia, and guatemalensis. Total averages of the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.59 and 0.75, respectively. Although clear genetic differentiation was not observed among 3 botanical races: americana, drymifolia, and guatemalensis, the analyzed Mexican population can be classified into two groups that correspond to two different ecological regions. We developed a core-collection by K-means clustering method. The selected 36 individuals as core-collection successfully represented more than 80% of total alleles and showed heterozygosity values equal to or higher than those of the original collection, despite its constituting slightly more than 10% of the latter. Accessions selected as members of the core collection have now become candidates to be introduced in cryopreservation implying a minimum loss of genetic diversity and a back-up for existing field collections of such important genetic resources. PMID:28286510

  17. Integration of georeferencing, habitat, sampling, and genetic data for documentation of wild plant genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant genetic resource collections provide novel materials to the breeding and research communities. Availability of detailed documentation of passport, phenotypic, and genetic data increases the value of the genebank accessions. Inclusion of georeferenced sources, habitats, and sampling data in co...

  18. EURISCO: The European search catalogue for plant genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Stephan; Oppermann, Markus; Maggioni, Lorenzo; van Hintum, Theo; Knüpffer, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources, EURISCO, provides information about 1.8 million crop plant accessions preserved by almost 400 institutes in Europe and beyond. EURISCO is being maintained on behalf of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. It is based on a network of National Inventories of 43 member countries and represents an important effort for the preservation of world's agrobiological diversity by providing information about the large genetic diversity kept by the collaborating collections. Moreover, EURISCO also assists its member countries in fulfilling legal obligations and commitments, e.g. with respect to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, the Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, or the Convention on Biological Diversity. EURISCO is accessible at http://eurisco.ecpgr.org. PMID:27580718

  19. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  20. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: Facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for conserving animal genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites have been used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsa...

  1. Conservation biology, genetically modified organisms, and the biosafety protocol.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan; Sendashonga, Cyrie

    2006-12-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects on biological diversity of the use of living modified organisms (LMOs, which are commonly known by similar terms such as genetically modified organisms). At the international level these concerns are addressed in part by an agreement known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and include potential toxic effects of insect-resistant crops on nontarget organisms and potential ecological effects of gene flow from modified crops, fish, microorganisms, or insects to wild species or counterparts. We reviewed the protocol's main provisions, including those dealing with risk assessment and risk management, decision making on imports, documentation accompanying shipments, and liability resulting from damages caused by LMOs. A medium-term program of work has been adopted by the parties, which includes the potential contribution of conservation biologists to delivering capacity building, developing risk assessment guidance, evaluating mechanisms of potential ecological damages from LMOs, and other issues. Conservation biologists and other experts have opportunities to influence the negotiations and implementation of the protocol by providing inputs at meetings, offering expertise to governments and organizations, and participating in or developing relevant projects and initiatives. Involvement of conservation biologists in the implementation and further development of the protocol would contribute to its effectiveness.

  2. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  3. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic-spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most tributary basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and in response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage.

  4. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S.; Gido, Keith B.; Turner, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits, and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model, and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage. PMID:25327780

  5. Conservation genetics as applied evolution: from genetic pattern to evolutionary process

    PubMed Central

    Latta, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Conservation genetics can be seen as the effort to influence the evolutionary process in ways that enhance the persistence of populations. Much published research in the field applies genetic sampling techniques to infer population parameters from the patterns of variation in threatened populations. The limited resolution of these inferences seems to yield limited confidence which results in conservative policy recommendations. As an alternative, I suggest that conservation genetics focus on the relationships between those variables conservationists can control, and the probability of desirable evolutionary outcomes. This research would involve three phases – a greater use of existing evolutionary theory; testing management options using experimental evolution; and ‘field trials’ under an adaptive management framework. It would take a probabilistic approach that recognizes the stochasticity inherent in evolutionary change. This would allow a more nuanced approach to conservation policy than rule of thumb guidelines. Moreover, it would capitalize on the fact that evolution is a unifying theory in biology and draw on the substantial body of evolutionary knowledge that has been built up over the last half a century. PMID:25567493

  6. Intensification: A Resource for Amplifying Population-Genetic Signals with Protein Repeats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieming; Wang, Bo; Regan, Lynne; Gerstein, Mark

    2017-02-03

    Large-scale genome sequencing holds great promise for the interpretation of protein structures through the discovery of many, rare functional variants in the human population. However, because protein-coding regions are under high selective constraints, these variants occur at low frequencies, such that there is often insufficient statistics for downstream calculations. To address this problem, we develop the Intensification approach, which uses the modular structure of repeat protein domains to amplify signals of selection from population genetics and traditional interspecies conservation. In particular, we are able to aggregate variants at the codon level to identify important positions in repeat domains that show strong conservation signals. This allows us to compare conservation over different evolutionary timescales. It also enables us to visualize population-genetic measures on protein structures. We make available the Intensification results as an online resource (http://intensification.gersteinlab.org) and illustrate the approach through a case study on the tetratricopeptide repeat.

  7. Cryopreservation of strawberry genetic resources in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National German Strawberry Genebank includes 369 cultivars and the active field collection in Dresden-Pillnitz also contains 318 Fragaria wild species accessions. Conservation of clonal crops requires safety duplication. An earlier calculation of the effort required to establish and maintain a s...

  8. Cryopreservation of Mammalian oocyte for conservation of animal genetics.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Jennifer R; Anzar, Muhammad

    2010-09-21

    The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

  9. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  10. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  12. 14 CFR § 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). § 1260.116 Section § 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  14. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  15. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  16. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  17. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  18. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  19. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  20. 75 FR 29584 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ..., inter alia, to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') for its...] [FR Doc No: 2010-12584] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby given that on May 19, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree...

  1. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149... Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.149 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  2. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  3. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149... Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.149 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  5. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  6. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.116 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 1260.116 Section 1260.116 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS... Requirements § 1260.116 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580...

  8. 40 CFR 23.4 - Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 23.4 Section 23.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  9. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  10. 15 CFR 14.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 14.16 Section 14.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.16 Resource Conservation and...

  11. 28 CFR 0.69c - Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (a) The authority to receive complaints served upon the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Litigation involving the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 0.69c Section 0.69c Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  12. A Selected List of Filmstrips on the Conservation of Natural Resources, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean Larson; Michaud, Howard H.

    This pamphlet describes 115 conservation filmstrips as to content, sources, suggested grade level(s), curriculum area(s), and notes of interest to the user. The filmstrips are divided into the following areas: (1) general conservation, (2) ecology and resource interrelationships, (3) forest trees and other plants, (4) forest conservation, (5)…

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. Results We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Conclusions Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been

  14. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, George M.; Thompson, Lorraine M.; Ussery, David W.; Paskin, Norman; Baker, Dwight; Desmeth, Philippe; Schindel, D.E.; Ong, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The principles underlying fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of genetic resources are set out in Article 15 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which stipulate that access to genetic resources is subject to the prior informed consent of the country where such resources are located and to mutually agreed terms regarding the sharing of benefits that could be derived from such access. One issue of particular concern for provider countries is how to monitor and track genetic resources once they have left the provider country and enter into use in a variety of forms. This report was commissioned to provide a detailed review of advances in DNA sequencing technologies, as those methods apply to identification of genetic resources, and the use of globally unique persistent identifiers for persistently linking to data and other forms of digital documentation that is linked to individual genetic resources. While the report was written for an audience with a mixture of technical, legal, and policy backgrounds it is relevant to the genomics community as it is an example of downstream application of genomics information. PMID:21304641

  15. Sunflower genetic, genomic, and ecological resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long a major focus of genetic research and breeding, sunflowers (Helianthus) are emerging as an increasingly important experimental system for ecological and evolutionary studies. Here we review the various attributes of wild and domesticated sunflowers that make them valuable for ecological experim...

  16. Partitioning of resources: the evolutionary genetics of sexual conflict over resource acquisition and allocation.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, F; Connallon, T

    2017-04-01

    Fitness depends on both the resources that individuals acquire and the allocation of those resources to traits that influence survival and reproduction. Optimal resource allocation differs between females and males as a consequence of their fundamentally different reproductive strategies. However, because most traits have a common genetic basis between the sexes, conflicting selection between the sexes over resource allocation can constrain the evolution of optimal allocation within each sex, and generate trade-offs for fitness between them (i.e. 'sexual antagonism' or 'intralocus sexual conflict'). The theory of resource acquisition and allocation provides an influential framework for linking genetic variation in acquisition and allocation to empirical evidence of trade-offs between distinct life-history traits. However, these models have not considered the emergence of trade-offs within the context of sexual dimorphism, where they are expected to be particularly common. Here, we extend acquisition-allocation theory and develop a quantitative genetic framework for predicting genetically based trade-offs between life-history traits within sexes and between female and male fitness. Our models demonstrate that empirically measurable evidence of sexually antagonistic fitness variation should depend upon three interacting factors that may vary between populations: (1) the genetic variances and between-sex covariances for resource acquisition and allocation traits, (2) condition-dependent expression of resource allocation traits and (3) sex differences in selection on the allocation of resource to different fitness components.

  17. Rangeland CEAP: An assessment of natural resources conservation service practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NRCS uses science-based technology to provide conservation planning and assistance to land owners and land operators to maintain productive lands and healthy ecosystems. Evaluating science-based literature on effectiveness of rangeland conservation practices is an important first step as it pro...

  18. A Classroom Teaching and Resource Guide in Conservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, William M.

    In this teaching guide the natural and social sciences are integrated with an emphasis on conservation and ecology. The guide contains ten teaching units dealing with various physical and biological aspects of the environment. Unit one deals with the question of what is conservation. Unit two is concerned with the question of what is a natural…

  19. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  20. Fungal genetic resource centres and the genomic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew J; Smith, David

    2004-12-01

    Fungal research and education has for many years been supported by public service genetic resource centres, whose roles have been to maintain, preserve and supply living cultures to the research community. In the genomic era, genetic resource centres are perhaps more important than ever before. The cultures held, many of which are described and validated by expert biosystematists, are valuable resources for the future. There is a need to supply genomic and proteomic research programmes with fully characterised organisms, as usage of organisms from unreliable sources can prove disastrous, not least in economical terms. However, mycologists often require more than just the organisms, for example, their associated information is vital for bioinformatic applications and some researchers may only require genomic DNA from the organism rather than the organism per se. Genetic resource centres are continually adapting to meet the needs of their users and the wider mycological research community, this associated with OECD international initiatives should ensure they exist to support research for many years to come. This review considers the impact of such initiatives, the current roles of fungal genetic resource centres, the mechanisms used to preserve organisms in a stable manner and the range of resources that are offered for genomic research.

  1. Estimating conservation needs for rangelands using USDA National Resources Inventory Assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has used resource inventories for over 65 years to assess the Nation’s natural resources on non-Federal lands. Since 1995, an interagency group composed of the NRCS, Agricultural Research Service, and Geological Survey have worked together to de...

  2. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby given... addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed... Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P...

  3. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  4. The conservation genetics juggling act: integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Haig, Susan M; Miller, Mark P; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M; Mercer, Dacey M; Mullins, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980s following the development of polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our laboratory has 'grown up' with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multidisciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal laboratory, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list, or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions.

  5. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  6. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species.

  7. The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit maintains the second largest peanut germplasm collection in the world consisting of both cultivated and wild germplasm with a total of 9,924 Arachis accessions. A cultivated core (831 accessions) and mini core (112 accessions) collections were esta...

  8. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  9. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  10. Development of a global conservation strategy for citrus genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is an economically important world tree fruit crop with production in more than 146 countries. The center of origin for citrus is considered to be Southeastern Asia including southern China, northeastern India, and Malaysia, with secondary centers in surrounding areas. Novel and commercially ...

  11. Notification: EPA Oversight of Delegated State Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0033, September 19, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's oversight of authorized state hazardous waste programs that fall under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  12. 77 FR 60677 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic... Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Convention) established the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic... Convention and a member of CCAMLR and its Scientific Committee. The Antarctic Marine Living...

  13. A Toolbox for Corrective Action: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facilities Investigation Remedy Selection Track

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this toolbox is to help EPA Regional staff and their partners to take advantage of the efficiency and quality gains from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facilities Investigation Remedy Selection Track (FIRST) approach.

  14. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  15. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  16. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  17. Resource Competition Shapes the Response of Genetic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yili; Huang, Hsin-Ho; Jiménez, José I; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2017-04-03

    A common approach to design genetic circuits is to compose gene expression cassettes together. While appealing, this modular approach is challenged by the fact that expression of each gene depends on the availability of transcriptional/translational resources, which is in turn determined by the presence of other genes in the circuit. This raises the question of how competition for resources by different genes affects a circuit's behavior. Here, we create a library of genetic activation cascades in E. coli bacteria, where we explicitly tune the resource demand by each gene. We develop a general Hill-function-based model that incorporates resource competition effects through resource demand coefficients. These coefficients lead to nonregulatory interactions among genes that reshape the circuit's behavior. For the activation cascade, such interactions result in surprising biphasic or monotonically decreasing responses. Finally, we use resource demand coefficients to guide the choice of ribosome binding site and DNA copy number to restore the cascade's intended monotonically increasing response. Our results demonstrate how unintended circuit's behavior arises from resource competition and provide a model-guided methodology to minimize the resulting effects.

  18. Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

  19. International efforts to protect the global cotton genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic resources of cotton are classified into five tetraploid species in the primary gene pool, 20 diploid species in the secondary gene pool, and 25 diploid species in the tertiary gene pool. Unlike several globally important grain crops, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural R...

  20. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  1. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under the RCRA (Pub. L. 94-580, codified at 42 U.S.C. 6962), any...

  2. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149 Section 600.149 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  3. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149 Section 600.149 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  4. 10 CFR 600.149 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 600.149 Section 600.149 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Recipients' procurements shall comply with applicable requirements...

  5. Snakes. A Conservation Education Program of the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Kelly; Theiss, Nancy S.

    The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources is charged with the responsibility to preserve, protect, and perpetuate the fish and wildlife in Kentucky. Involved in this broad program are a number of services, including the Wildlife Conservation Education Program. During the months of September through April, Conservation Club leaders…

  6. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  7. Capturing neutral and adaptive genetic diversity for conservation in a highly structured tree species.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Santos-Del-Blanco, Luis; Serra-Varela, María Jesús; Koskela, Jarkko; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Alía, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Preserving intraspecific genetic diversity is essential for long-term forest sustainability in a climate change scenario. Despite that, genetic information is largely neglected in conservation planning, and how conservation units should be defined is still heatedly debated. Here, we use maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an outcrossing long-lived tree with a highly fragmented distribution in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, to prove the importance of accounting for genetic variation, of both neutral molecular markers and quantitative traits, to define useful conservation units. Six gene pools associated to distinct evolutionary histories were identified within the species using 12 microsatellites and 266 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, height and survival standing variation, their genetic control, and plasticity were assessed in a multisite clonal common garden experiment (16 544 trees). We found high levels of quantitative genetic differentiation within previously defined neutral gene pools. Subsequent cluster analysis and post hoc trait distribution comparisons allowed us to define 10 genetically homogeneous population groups with high evolutionary potential. They constitute the minimum number of units to be represented in a maritime pine dynamic conservation program. Our results uphold that the identification of conservation units below the species level should account for key neutral and adaptive components of genetic diversity, especially in species with strong population structure and complex evolutionary histories. The environmental zonation approach currently used by the pan-European genetic conservation strategy for forest trees would be largely improved by gradually integrating molecular and quantitative trait information, as data become available.

  8. Conservation and population genetic diversity of Curcuma wenyujin (Zingiberaceae), a multifunctional medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W H; Zhuo, Y; Liang, L; Ding, W Y; Liang, L Y; Wang, X F

    2015-09-08

    Curcuma wenyujin is an important multifunctional medicinal herb in China. Currently, populations of C. wenyujin are decreasing, and wild individuals have almost disappeared from their natural habitats. Moreover, little is known regarding the molecular characteristics of this plant. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and variation of five populations of C. wenyujin, using ran-dom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We found that the percentages of polymorphic loci (PPL) at the species level (98.25% by RAPD and 100% by ISSR) were significantly higher than those at the population level (66.32% by RAPD and 67.14% by ISSR). The highest values of PPL, expected heterozygosity, and Shannon's information index were in Pop1, while the lowest values were in Pop2. Both DNA markers revealed a short genetic distance between Pop1 and Pop2 (0.1424 by RAPD and 0.1904 by ISSR). Phylogenetic trees produced similar results, with Pop1, Pop2, and Pop5 in one group and Pop3 and Pop4 in another. There were no significant correlations between their genetic distances and their geographical distances. The highest genetic diversity was in Pop1 and the lowest was in Pop2, and genetic diversity at the species level was relatively low, but much higher than that at the population level. We recommended the establishment of a germplasm bank, in situ con-servation, and propagation of wild individuals. The present study will improve the evaluation, protection, and utilization of the population resources of C. wenyujin.

  9. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  10. 50 CFR 622.29 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protected resources. (a) Gulf reef fish commercial vessels and charter vessels/headboats—(1) Sea turtle... Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii) Such owner...

  11. 50 CFR 622.29 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protected resources. (a) Gulf reef fish commercial vessels and charter vessels/headboats—(1) Sea turtle... Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii) Such owner...

  12. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  13. Guide to Environmental Education: Conservation of Natural Resources, Kindergarten-Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide was designed to serve as a tool which elementary teachers may use to incorporate basic princples concerning the conservation of all natural resources into their instruction. From the suggestions offered, teachers are encouraged to develop concepts in six major areas: soil, water, minerals, wildlife, plants, and resources--recreational,…

  14. Preparing for a National Emergency: The Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources, 1939-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In March 1940 the U.S. National Resources Planning Board established the Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources to plan for the protection of federal cultural institutions during national emergencies. The committee provided a mechanism to bring officials together to consider protective measures for and evacuation of valuable books,…

  15. 30 CFR 550.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and...

  16. 30 CFR 550.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and...

  17. 30 CFR 550.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and...

  18. 76 FR 76763 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Doc No: 2011-31448] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby given that on December 1, 2011, a proposed consent decree in... sought civil penalties and injunctive relief to address alleged violations of the Resource...

  19. Applied conservation genetics and the need for quality control and reporting of genetic data used in fisheries and wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Morin, Phillip A; Martien, Karen K; Archer, Frederick I; Cipriano, Frank; Steel, Debbie; Jackson, Jennifer; Taylor, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    Genetic data are often critical for defining populations for management purposes (e.g., identifying geographic boundaries or diagnostic characters for genetically discrete subunits) but can be called into question by both scientific and legal review. This can result in reversed or delayed implementation of management actions. We discuss methods for data quality control and quality analysis and describe examples of steps applied to 2 of the most common types of genetic data, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and microsatellite genotypes. These steps can serve both as guides to conservation geneticists and as an initial protocol for managers to determine whether genetic data will hold up against legal and scientific challenges. In addition, we suggest types of data and quality measures that should be reported as supplementary materials to published reports. These supplementary data serve to reduce the occurrence of legal and conservation controversies and improve reproducibility over time in population genetics studies where genetic monitoring is likely to play an increasing role.

  20. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Frankham, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious impacts. Genetic adaptation to captivity is primarily due to rare alleles that in the wild were deleterious and partially recessive. The extent of adaptation to captivity depends upon selection intensity, genetic diversity, effective population size and number of generation in captivity, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory. Minimizing generations in captivity provides a highly effective means for minimizing genetic adaptation to captivity, but is not a practical option for most animal species. Population fragmentation and crossing replicate captive populations provide practical means for minimizing the deleterious effects of genetic adaptation to captivity upon populations reintroduced into the wild. Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations. Genetic adaptation to captivity is expected to have major effects on reintroduction success for species that have spent many generations in captivity. This issue deserves a much higher priority than it is currently receiving.

  1. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  2. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gizaw, Solomon; Komen, Hans; Windig, Jack J; Hanotte, Olivier; van Arendonk, Johan AM

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers) and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits). Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04) as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83). We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan. PMID:18558075

  3. Population genetic structure and conservation genetics of threatened Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, James D.; Jelks, Howard L.; Tate, Bill; Johnson, Aria R.; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Imperiled Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small, benthic fish limited to six streams that flow into three bayous of Choctawhatchee Bay in northwest Florida, USA. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci for 255 and 273 Okaloosa darters, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses and AMOVA reflect congruent population genetic structure in both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. This structure reveals historical isolation of Okaloosa darter streams nested within bayous. Most of the six streams appear to have exchanged migrants though they remain genetically distinct. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently reclassified Okaloosa darters from endangered to threatened status. Our genetic data support the reclassification of Okaloosa darter Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) in the larger Tom's, Turkey, and Rocky creeks from endangered to threatened status. However, the three smaller drainages (Mill, Swift, and Turkey Bolton creeks) remain at risk due to their small population sizes and anthropogenic pressures on remaining habitat. Natural resource managers now have the evolutionary information to guide recovery actions within and among drainages throughout the range of the Okaloosa darter.

  4. The Natural Resources Conservation Service land resource hierarchy and ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource areas of the NRCS have long been important to soil geography. At both regional and landscape scales, resource areas are used to stratify programs and practices based on geographical areas where resource concerns, problems, or treatment needs are similar. However, the inability to quantifiab...

  5. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  6. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  7. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  9. DNA barcoding as a complementary tool for conservation and valorisation of forest resources

    PubMed Central

    Laiou, Angeliki; Mandolini, Luca Aconiti; Piredda, Roberta; Bellarosa, Rosanna; Simeone, Marco Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since the pre-historic era, humans have been using forests as a food, drugs and handcraft reservoir. Today, the use of botanical raw material to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In recent years, DNA barcoding has been suggested as a useful molecular technique to complement traditional taxonomic expertise for fast species identification and biodiversity inventories. In this study, in situ application of DNA barcodes was tested on a selected group of forest tree species with the aim of contributing to the identification, conservation and trade control of these valuable plant resources. The “core barcode” for land plants (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) was tested on 68 tree specimens (24 taxa). Universality of the method, ease of data retrieval and correct species assignment using sequence character states, presence of DNA barcoding gaps and GenBank discrimination assessment were evaluated. The markers showed different prospects of reliable applicability. RbcL and trnH-psbA displayed 100% amplification and sequencing success, while matK did not amplify in some plant groups. The majority of species had a single haplotype. The trnH-psbA region showed the highest genetic variability, but in most cases the high intraspecific sequence divergence revealed the absence of a clear DNA barcoding gap. We also faced an important limitation because the taxonomic coverage of the public reference database is incomplete. Overall, species identification success was 66.7%. This work illustrates current limitations in the applicability of DNA barcoding to taxonomic forest surveys. These difficulties urge for an improvement of technical protocols and an increase of the number of sequences and taxa in public databases. PMID:24453558

  10. Using the Eastern Hellbender Salamander in a High School Genetics & Ecological Conservation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudyk, Sarah; McMillan, Amy; Lange, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article contains an original 5E lesson plan developed from conservation genetics research on the giant North American hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. The lesson plan provides background information on the hellbender, reviews basic genetics, and exposes students to the scientific process that is used during…

  11. Report of the Public's Comments on the RCA Draft Documents, January-March 1980. [Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 1977 (RCA) directed the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to assess the country's nonfederal soil and water resources and to develop a program to conserve these and related natural resources. During this process, the USDA prepared and circulated for public comment a draft appraisal,…

  12. 78 FR 24778 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On April 16.... Environmental Protection Agency administrative order issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and should refer to United States v. Government...

  13. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Emergency... day that the Consent Decree was lodged with the Court, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery... Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to...

  14. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is... generation, storage, and transport provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to...

  15. 77 FR 24740 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act and the Emergency... August 12, 2011, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), 42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq..., Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to...

  16. 78 FR 77493 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') On... disposal of hazardous wastes in violation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), which... the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division and should refer to...

  17. 77 FR 18266 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Clean Air Act... compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') and the Clean Air Act (``CAA''). The... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  18. 75 FR 41239 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA... Bus Authority of Puerto Rico's (``MBA'') violations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed...

  19. 78 FR 27430 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On April 26... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), 42 U.S.C. 6934(a). The proposed consent decree requires... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  20. Implications of spatial genetic patterns for conserving African leopards.

    PubMed

    Ropiquet, Anne; Knight, Andrew T; Born, Céline; Martins, Quinton; Balme, Guy; Kirkendall, Lawrence; Hunter, Luke; Senekal, Charl; Matthee, Conrad A

    2015-11-01

    The leopard (Panthera pardus) is heavily persecuted in areas where it predates livestock and threatens human well-being. Attempts to resolve human-leopard conflict typically involve translocating problem animals; however, these interventions are rarely informed by genetic studies and can unintentionally compromise the natural spatial genetic structure and diversity, and possibly the long-term persistence, of the species. No significant genetic discontinuities were definable within the southern African leopard population. Analysis of fine-scale genetic data derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed that the primary natural process shaping the spatial genetic structure of the species is isolation-by-distance (IBD). The effective gene dispersal (σ) index can inform leopard translocations and is estimated to be 82 km for some South African leopards. The importance of adopting an evidence-based strategy is discussed for supporting the integration of genetic data, spatial planning and social learning institutions so as to promote collaboration between land managers, government agency staff and researchers.

  1. Implications for management and conservation of the population genetic structure of the wedge clam Donax trunculus across two biogeographic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Amandine D.; Lejeusne, Christophe; Karapatsiou, Evgenia; Cuesta, José A.; Drake, Pilar; Macpherson, Enrique; Bernatchez, Louis; Rico, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D. trunculus. A total of 514 samples from seven different localities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, from the Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz) to the north-western Mediterranean were genotyped. The analysis of the population genetic structure displayed a clear distinction along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition with different clusters in the Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean. Consequently, we recommend that these three areas should be considered as different management units. We showed that all populations seem to be at high long-term risk of extinction with the exception of the protected Doñana National Park population which still seems to have evolutionary potential. Therefore, our results emphasized the necessity of protection of this economic resource and the validity of molecular tools to evaluate the population dynamics. PMID:27991535

  2. Implications for management and conservation of the population genetic structure of the wedge clam Donax trunculus across two biogeographic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Marie, Amandine D; Lejeusne, Christophe; Karapatsiou, Evgenia; Cuesta, José A; Drake, Pilar; Macpherson, Enrique; Bernatchez, Louis; Rico, Ciro

    2016-12-19

    In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D. trunculus. A total of 514 samples from seven different localities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, from the Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz) to the north-western Mediterranean were genotyped. The analysis of the population genetic structure displayed a clear distinction along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition with different clusters in the Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean. Consequently, we recommend that these three areas should be considered as different management units. We showed that all populations seem to be at high long-term risk of extinction with the exception of the protected Doñana National Park population which still seems to have evolutionary potential. Therefore, our results emphasized the necessity of protection of this economic resource and the validity of molecular tools to evaluate the population dynamics.

  3. Implications for management and conservation of the population genetic structure of the wedge clam Donax trunculus across two biogeographic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Amandine D.; Lejeusne, Christophe; Karapatsiou, Evgenia; Cuesta, José A.; Drake, Pilar; MacPherson, Enrique; Bernatchez, Louis; Rico, Ciro

    2016-12-01

    In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D. trunculus. A total of 514 samples from seven different localities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, from the Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz) to the north-western Mediterranean were genotyped. The analysis of the population genetic structure displayed a clear distinction along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition with different clusters in the Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean. Consequently, we recommend that these three areas should be considered as different management units. We showed that all populations seem to be at high long-term risk of extinction with the exception of the protected Doñana National Park population which still seems to have evolutionary potential. Therefore, our results emphasized the necessity of protection of this economic resource and the validity of molecular tools to evaluate the population dynamics.

  4. 76 FR 28209 - Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council... Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The USDA intends to reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory... collections, maintenance, and utilization of genetic resources; to make recommendations for coordination...

  5. Building strong relationships between conservation genetics and primary industry leads to mutually beneficial genomic advances.

    PubMed

    Galla, Stephanie J; Buckley, Thomas R; Elshire, Rob; Hale, Marie L; Knapp, Michael; McCallum, John; Moraga, Roger; Santure, Anna W; Wilcox, Phillip; Steeves, Tammy E

    2016-11-01

    Several reviews in the past decade have heralded the benefits of embracing high-throughput sequencing technologies to inform conservation policy and the management of threatened species, but few have offered practical advice on how to expedite the transition from conservation genetics to conservation genomics. Here, we argue that an effective and efficient way to navigate this transition is to capitalize on emerging synergies between conservation genetics and primary industry (e.g., agriculture, fisheries, forestry and horticulture). Here, we demonstrate how building strong relationships between conservation geneticists and primary industry scientists is leading to mutually-beneficial outcomes for both disciplines. Based on our collective experience as collaborative New Zealand-based scientists, we also provide insight for forging these cross-sector relationships.

  6. Genetic diversity and the conservation priority of Glycine soja populations from Northern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y L; Guo, W Y; Bai, L R; Zhao, J C

    2015-12-11

    Knowledge of the spatial patterns of genetic variation in wild populations has significant implications for in situ conservation and the determination of conservation order. To study the levels of genetic diversity, spatial genetic structures, and genetic distances in Glycine soja, 11 natural populations in northern China were analyzed by estimating genetic coefficients using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprints via mixed sampling strategies. Sixteen ISSR primers generated 98 reproducible polymorphic amplification banding patterns of 172 scored, accounting for 56.98% of the polymorphisms among the populations. The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance showed that distinct genetic differentiation occurred in G. soja. The Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean cluster analysis indicated two broad groups, and one contained all of the populations except three from Chengde, which formed the smaller second group. The spatial genetic structure evident in the wild soybean populations may be attributed to restricted seed dispersal and the dominant breeding system of this species. The detection of genetic structures in wild soybean populations could be a significant index for the effective conservation of many wild populations, and it could be exploited by soybean breeding programs to increase production.

  7. Conservation genetics of the endangered Isle Royale gray wolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayne, R.K.; Lehman, N.; Girman, D.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Gilbert, D.A.; Hansen, K.; Peterson, R.O.; Seal, U.S.; Eisenhawer, A.; Mech, L.D.; Krumenaker, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The small group of wolves on Isle Royale has been studied for over three decades as a model of the relationship between large carnivores and their prey. During the last ten years the population declined from 50 individuals to as few as 12 individuals. The causes of this decline may be food shortages, disease, or reduced genetic variability. We address the issues of genetic variability and relationships of Isle Royale wolves using allozyme electrophoresis, mtDNA restriction-site analysis, and multilocus hypervariable minisatellite DNA analysis (genetic fingerprinting). Our results indicate that approximately 50% of the allozyme heterozygosity has been lost in the island population, a decline similar to that expected if no immigration had occurred from the mainland. The genetic fingerprinting data indicate that the seven sampled Isle Royale wolves are as similar as captive populations of siblings. Surprisingly, the Isle Royale wolves have an mtDNA genotype that is very rare on the mainland, being found in only one of 144 mainland wolves. This suggests that the remaining Isle Royale wolves are probably derived from a single female founder.

  8. Formative Life Experiences and the Recruitment of Natural Resource Conservation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting young people to serve as future leaders is a major concern for many organizations involved in natural resource conservation. One of the primary reasons for this concern is that youth are becoming less connected to the natural world because of the synergistic effects of urbanization, electronic media, and reduced opportunities to explore…

  9. Preservation and Conservation of Information Resources in the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    Preservation and conservation of library materials is an important aspect of library and information management. Their importance and necessity are more paramount in countries where resources are limited and libraries need to balance them with the needs of an ever increasing number of students hoping to use them. This article reports on the…

  10. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  11. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  12. RESOURCES CONSERVATIONS COMPANY - B.E.S.T. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Resources Conservation Company (RCC) Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) solvent extraction technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils, sediments, and sludges contaminated with organics. B...

  13. Rainforests: Conservation and resource management. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conservation of rainforest ecology and management of natural resources. Topics include plant community structure and development, nutrient dynamics, rainfall characteristics and water budgets, and forest dynamics. Studies performed in specific forest areas are included. Effects of human activities are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Energy Conservation in Construction Trades. Special Packages: Instructional Resources for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers and administrators, this resource package on energy conservation in construction trades contains three sections of information. Section I provides an instructional module (developed by the Wisconsin Vocational Studies Center) on solar energy; the module is organized into seven units:…

  15. Conserving Limited Resources. Secondary Learning Guide 14. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on conserving limited resources is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems; establish…

  16. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  17. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  18. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  19. 38 CFR 49.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 49.16 Section 49.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.16...

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  1. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  2. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources: from biodiversity to human genetics.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Doris; Lasén-Díaz, Carolina

    2006-12-01

    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as to enable research subjects to claim a share of the benefits to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis. Our conclusion on this question is: 'No, the CBD should not be expanded to include human genetic resources.' There are essential differences between human and non-human genetic resources, and, in the context of research on humans, an essentially fair exchange model is already available between the health care industry and research subjects. Those who contribute to research should receive benefits in the form of accessible new health care products and services, suitable for local health needs and linked to economic prosperity (e.g. jobs). When this exchange model does not apply, as is often the case in developing countries, individually negotiated benefit sharing agreements between researchers and research subjects should not be used as 'window dressing'. Instead, national governments should focus their finances on the best economic investment they could make; the investment in population health and health research as outlined by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health; whilst international barriers to such spending need to be removed.

  3. Promoting utilization of Saccharum spp. genetic resources through genetic diversity analysis and core collection construction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Spurthi N; Song, Jian; Villa, Andrea; Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C; Kuhn, David N; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A; Comstock, Jack C; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance.

  4. Promoting Utilization of Saccharum spp. Genetic Resources through Genetic Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C.; Kuhn, David N.; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A.; Comstock, Jack C.; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance. PMID:25333358

  5. Population genetic structure and conservation of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Piatt, J.F.; Golightly, R.T.; Newman, S.H.; Hebert, P.N.; Congdon, B.C.; Gissing, G.

    2005-01-01

    Marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) are coastal seabirds that nest from California to the Aleutian Islands. They are declining and considered threatened in several regions. We compared variation in the mitochondrial control region, four nuclear introns and three microsatellite loci among 194 murrelets from throughout their range except Washington and Oregon. Significant population genetic structure was found: nine private control region haplotypes and three private intron alleles occurred at high frequency in the Aleutians and California; global estimates of FST or ??ST and most pairwise estimates involving the Aleutians and/or California were significant; and marked isolation-by-distance was found. Given the available samples, murrelets appear to comprise five genetic management units: (1) western Aleutian Islands, (2) central Aleutian Islands, (3) mainland Alaska and British Columbia, (4) northern California, and (5) central California.

  6. Genetic characterization of Neotropical Jabiru Storks: Insights for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, I.F.; Haig, S.M.; Lama, S.N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Jabiru Stork (Jabiru mycteria is listed under Appendix I of CITES and considered threatened in Central America. The first population genetic analysis of Jabiru Storks was carried out using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences (520 bp) and five heterologous microsatellite loci. Samples were collected from the field (N = 49) and museum skins (N = 22) in Central (mainly Belize, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil). A decline of mtDNA diversity was observed in comparisons between past (N = 20) and present (N = 40) samples collected in Central America and northern South America. Similar levels of microsatellite loci diversity were observed among contemporary samples. Lower levels of mtDNA variability were observed in samples from Central America and northern South America when compared to the Brazilian Pantanal region. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were found between contemporary locations sampled, whereas non-significant results were observed for historic samples. The non-geographic association of haplotypes observed at the cladograms and the recent divergence times estimated between locations are indicative of an evolutionary history of a large population size with limited population structure. Reconnection of populations via increased gene flow, particularly in Central America, is recommended if genetic structure and status are to be restored.

  7. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  8. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  9. Promoting the Use of Common Oat Genetic Resources through Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction.

    PubMed

    Boczkowska, Maja; Łapiński, Bogusław; Kordulasińska, Izabela; Dostatny, Denise F; Czembor, Jerzy H

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of diversity and population structure and construction of a core collection is beneficial for the efficient use and management of germplasm. A unique collection of common oat landraces, cultivated in the temperate climate of central Europe until the end of the twentieth century, is preserved in the Polish gene bank. It consists of 91 accessions that have never been used in breeding programs. In order to optimise the use of this genetic resource, we aimed to: (1) determine genetic and agro-morphological diversity, (2) identify internal genetic variation of the tested accessions, (3) form a core collection and (4) recognise the accessions useful for breeding programs or re-release for cultivation. The collection was screened using ISSR markers (1520 loci) and eight agro-morphological traits. Uniquely, we performed molecular studies based on 24 individuals of every accession instead of bulk samples. Therefore, assessment of the degree of diversity within each population and the identification of overlapping gene pools were possible. The observed internal diversity (Nei unbiased coefficient) was in the range of 0.17-0.31. Based on combined genetic and agro-morphological data, we established the core collection composed of 21 landraces. Due to valuable compositions of important traits, some accessions were also identified as useful for breeding programs. The population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed two major clusters. Based on the previous results, the accessions classified within the smaller one were identified as obsolete varieties instead of landraces. Our results show that the oat landraces are, in general, resistant to local races of diseases, well adapted to local conditions and, in some cases, yielding at the level of modern varieties. Therefore, in situ conservation of the landraces in the near future may be satisfactory for both farmers and researchers in terms of the genetic resources preservation.

  10. Promoting the Use of Common Oat Genetic Resources through Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction

    PubMed Central

    Łapiński, Bogusław; Kordulasińska, Izabela; Dostatny, Denise F.; Czembor, Jerzy H.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of diversity and population structure and construction of a core collection is beneficial for the efficient use and management of germplasm. A unique collection of common oat landraces, cultivated in the temperate climate of central Europe until the end of the twentieth century, is preserved in the Polish gene bank. It consists of 91 accessions that have never been used in breeding programs. In order to optimise the use of this genetic resource, we aimed to: (1) determine genetic and agro-morphological diversity, (2) identify internal genetic variation of the tested accessions, (3) form a core collection and (4) recognise the accessions useful for breeding programs or re-release for cultivation. The collection was screened using ISSR markers (1520 loci) and eight agro-morphological traits. Uniquely, we performed molecular studies based on 24 individuals of every accession instead of bulk samples. Therefore, assessment of the degree of diversity within each population and the identification of overlapping gene pools were possible. The observed internal diversity (Nei unbiased coefficient) was in the range of 0.17–0.31. Based on combined genetic and agro-morphological data, we established the core collection composed of 21 landraces. Due to valuable compositions of important traits, some accessions were also identified as useful for breeding programs. The population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed two major clusters. Based on the previous results, the accessions classified within the smaller one were identified as obsolete varieties instead of landraces. Our results show that the oat landraces are, in general, resistant to local races of diseases, well adapted to local conditions and, in some cases, yielding at the level of modern varieties. Therefore, in situ conservation of the landraces in the near future may be satisfactory for both farmers and researchers in terms of the genetic resources preservation. PMID:27959891

  11. Transcriptome resources for the frogs Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, emphasizing antimicrobial peptides and conserved loci for phylogenetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; Cornman, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed genetic resources for two North American frogs, Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, widespread native amphibians that are potential indicator species of environmental health. For both species, mRNA from multiple tissues was sequenced using 454 technology. De novo assemblies with Mira3 resulted in 50 238 contigs (N50 = 687 bp) and 48 213 contigs (N50 = 686 bp) for L. clamitans and P. regilla, respectively, after clustering with CD-Hit-EST and purging contigs below 200 bp. We performed BLASTX similarity searches against the Xenopus tropicalis proteome and, for predicted ORFs, HMMER similarity searches against the Pfam-A database. Because there is broad interest in amphibian immune factors, we manually annotated putative antimicrobial peptides. To identify conserved regions suitable for amplicon resequencing across a broad taxonomic range, we performed an additional assembly of public short-read transcriptome data derived from two species of the genus Rana and identified reciprocal best TBLASTX matches among all assemblies. Although P. regilla, a hylid frog, is substantially more diverged from the ranid species, we identified 56 genes that were sufficiently conserved to allow nondegenerate primer design with Primer3. In addition to providing a foundation for comparative genomics and quantitative gene expression analysis, our results enable quick development of nuclear sequence-based markers for phylogenetics or population genetics.

  12. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  13. Molecular genetics research in ADHD: ethical considerations concerning patients' benefit and resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Lillian Geza

    2012-12-01

    Immense resource allocations have led to great data output in genetic research. Concerning ADHD resources spent on genetic research are less than those spent on clinical research. But there are successful efforts made to increase support for molecular genetics research in ADHD. Concerning genetics no evidence based conclusive results have significant impact on prevention, diagnosis or treatment yet. With regard to ethical aspects like the patients' benefit and limited resources the question arises if it is indicated to think about a new balance of resource allocation between molecular genetics and non-genetics research in ADHD. An ethical reflection was performed focusing on recent genetic studies and reviews based on a selective literature search. There are plausible reasons why genetic research results in ADHD are somehow disappointing for clinical practice so far. Researchers try to overcome these gaps systematically, without knowing what the potential future benefits for the patients might be. Non-genetic diagnostic/therapeutic research may lead to clinically relevant findings within a shorter period of time. On the other hand, non-genetic research in ADHD may be nurtured by genetic approaches. But, with the latter there exist significant risks of harm like stigmatization and concerns regarding data protection. Isolated speeding up resources of genetic research in ADHD seems questionable from an ethical point of view. There is a need to find a new balance of resource allocation between genetic and non-genetic research in ADHD, probably by integrating genetics more systematically into clinical research. A transdisciplinary debate is recommended.

  14. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    PubMed

    Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Nageswara Rao, M; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R

    2007-04-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas--national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves--serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  15. Population Genetic Patterns of Threatened European Mudminnow (Umbra krameri Walbaum, 1792) in a Fragmented Landscape: Implications for Conservation Management.

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Sály, Péter; Vitál, Zoltán; Ferincz, Árpád; Molnár, Tamás; Szabolcsi, Zoltán; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The European mudminnow (Umbra krameri) is a Middle Danubian endemic fish species, which is characterised by isolated populations living mainly in artificial habitats in the centre of its range, in the Carpathian Basin. For their long term preservation, reliable information is needed about the structure of stocks and the level of isolation. The recent distribution pattern, and the population genetic structure within and among regions were investigated to designate the Evolutionary Significant, Conservation and Management Units (ESUs, CUs, MUs) and to explore the conservation biological value of the shrinking populations. In total, eight microsatellite loci were studied in 404 specimens originating from eight regions. The results revealed a pronounced population structure, where strictly limited gene flow was detected among regions, as well as various strengths of connections within regions. Following the results of hierarchical structure analyses, two ESUs were supposed in the Carpathian Basin, corresponding to the Danube and Tisza catchments. Our results recommend designating the borders of CUs in an 80-90km range and 16 clusters should be set up as MUs for the 33 investigated populations. How these genetic findings can be used to better allocate conservation resources for the long term maintenance of the metapopulation structure of this threathened endemic fish is discussed.

  16. Population Genetic Patterns of Threatened European Mudminnow (Umbra krameri Walbaum, 1792) in a Fragmented Landscape: Implications for Conservation Management

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Sály, Péter; Vitál, Zoltán; Ferincz, Árpád; Molnár, Tamás; Szabolcsi, Zoltán; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The European mudminnow (Umbra krameri) is a Middle Danubian endemic fish species, which is characterised by isolated populations living mainly in artificial habitats in the centre of its range, in the Carpathian Basin. For their long term preservation, reliable information is needed about the structure of stocks and the level of isolation. The recent distribution pattern, and the population genetic structure within and among regions were investigated to designate the Evolutionary Significant, Conservation and Management Units (ESUs, CUs, MUs) and to explore the conservation biological value of the shrinking populations. In total, eight microsatellite loci were studied in 404 specimens originating from eight regions. The results revealed a pronounced population structure, where strictly limited gene flow was detected among regions, as well as various strengths of connections within regions. Following the results of hierarchical structure analyses, two ESUs were supposed in the Carpathian Basin, corresponding to the Danube and Tisza catchments. Our results recommend designating the borders of CUs in an 80–90km range and 16 clusters should be set up as MUs for the 33 investigated populations. How these genetic findings can be used to better allocate conservation resources for the long term maintenance of the metapopulation structure of this threathened endemic fish is discussed. PMID:26393510

  17. Combining genetic and demographic data for prioritizing conservation actions: insights from a threatened fish species

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Vinas, Ivan; Comte, Lise; Chevalier, Mathieu; Dubut, Vincent; Veyssiere, Charlotte; Grenouillet, Gaël; Loot, Geraldine; Blanchet, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prioritizing and making efficient conservation plans for threatened populations requires information at both evolutionary and ecological timescales. Nevertheless, few studies integrate multidisciplinary approaches, mainly because of the difficulty for conservationists to assess simultaneously the evolutionary and ecological status of populations. Here, we sought to demonstrate how combining genetic and demographic analyses allows prioritizing and initiating conservation plans. To do so, we combined snapshot microsatellite data and a 30-year-long demographic survey on a threatened freshwater fish species (Parachondrostoma toxostoma) at the river basin scale. Our results revealed low levels of genetic diversity and weak effective population sizes (<63 individuals) in all populations. We further detected severe bottlenecks dating back to the last centuries (200–800 years ago), which may explain the differentiation of certain populations. The demographic survey revealed a general decrease in the spatial distribution and abundance of P. toxostoma over the last three decades. We conclude that demo-genetic approaches are essential for (1) identifying populations for which both evolutionary and ecological extinction risks are high; and (2) proposing conservation plans targeted toward these at risk populations, and accounting for the evolutionary history of populations. We suggest that demo-genetic approaches should be the norm in conservation practices. We combined genetic and demographic data from a threatened freshwater fish species (Parachondrostoma toxostoma) at the river basin scale for conservation purposes. Genetic diversity and effective population sizes are very low, probably due to the strong genetic bottlenecks detected in this study. The species spatial distribution and abundance also decreased during the last decades. PMID:24567833

  18. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  19. Conservation genetics of the endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah, Plethodontidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, D.W.; Jung, R.E.; Sites, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah) is restricted to three isolated talus outcrops in Shenandoah National Park, VA, USA and has one of the smallest ranges of any tetrapod vertebrate. This species was listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act in 1989 over concern that direct competition with the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), successional habitat changes, and human impacts may cause its decline and possible extinction. We address two issues herein: (1) whether extensive introgression (through long-term hybridization) is present between the two species and threatens the survival of P. shenandoah, and (2) the level of population structure within P. shenandoah. We provide evidence from mtDNA haplotypes that shows no genetic differentiation among the three isolates of P. shenandoah, suggesting that their fragmentation is a geologically recent event, and/or that the isolates are still connected by occasional gene flow. There is also no evidence for extensive introgression of alleles in either direction between P. cinereus and P. shenandoah, which suggests that P. shenandoah may not be in danger of being genetically swamped out through hybridization with P. cinereus.

  20. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae) in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae), an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit. PMID:21205287

  1. Genetic diversity and conservation implications of four Cupressus species in China as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xu; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Zhonghu; Shang, Huiying; Adams, Robert P; Mao, Kangshan

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the extent and distribution of genetic diversity is crucial for the conservation and management of endangered species. Cupressus chengiana, C. duclouxiana, C. gigantea, and C. funebris are four ecologically and economically important species in China. We investigated their genetic diversity, population structure, and extant effective population size (35 populations, 484 individuals) employing six pairs of nuclear microsatellite markers (selected from 53). Their genetic diversity is moderate among conifers, and genetic differentiation among populations is much lower in C. gigantea than in the other three species; the estimated effective population size was largest for C. chengiana, at 1.70, 2.91, and 3.91 times the estimates for C. duclouxiana, C. funebris, and C. gigantea, respectively. According to Bayesian clustering analysis, the most plausible population subdivision scheme within species is two groups in C. chengiana, three groups in C. duclouxiana, and a single group for both C. funebris and C. gigantea. We propose a conservation strategy for these cypress species.

  2. Expanding maize genetic resources with predomestication alleles: maize-teosinte introgression populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) has greater genetic diversity than maize inbreds and landraces (Z. mays ssp. mays). There are, however, limited genetic resources to efficiently evaluate and tap this diversity. To broaden resources for genetic diversity studies in maize, we developed and evaluat...

  3. 76 FR 45617 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Notice is hereby... States Court for the District of Puerto Rico. The proposed Consent Decree resolves CHEVRON's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Puerto Rico Underground Storage Tank Regulations...

  4. 77 FR 518 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Clean Water... for the Western District of New York. The proposed Consent Decree resolves Erie's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') violations stemming from its failure to meet cathodic...

  5. 77 FR 75447 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Judgment Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Judgment Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Clean.... The complaint seeks civil penalties and injunctive relief for KTN's violations of (a) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations, (b) federally enforceable New York State hazardous waste...

  6. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef.

    PubMed

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas (Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  7. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas ( Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure sumamry for the Uranium Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This closure summary has been prepared for the Uranium Treatment Unit (UTU) located at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The actions required to achieve closure of the UTU area are outlined in the Closure Plan, submitted to and approved by the Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation staff, respectively. The UTU was used to store and treat waste materials that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This closure summary details all steps that were performed to close the UTU in accordance with the approved plan.

  9. Genetic guidelines for the conservation of the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of species of conservation concern requires designing strategies that should include genetic information as small population size and restricted geographic range can reduce genetic variation. We used AFLPs to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the endangered narrow endemic Centaurea borjae, and found no evidence for genetic impoverishment despite its <40 km range and potential for vegetative propagation. Genetic variation was comparable to other plants with similar life history (88 % occurring within populations) and potential clone mates were less frequent than expected. Nonetheless, populations separated by few hundred meters showed signs of significant genetic differentiation suggesting low gene flow between them. Our results suggested that the three geographically closer populations located at the center of the range might be treated as a single management unit, while the remaining ones could be considered independent units. We found evidence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure up to 80 m indicating that the collection of germplasm for ex-situ conservation should focus on individuals separated >80 m to maximize genetic variation.

  10. Combining genetic and demographic data for the conservation of a Mediterranean marine habitat-forming species.

    PubMed

    Arizmendi-Mejía, Rosana; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim; Antunes, Agostinho; Ballesteros, Enric; Cebrian, Emma; Díaz, David; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    The integration of ecological and evolutionary data is highly valuable for conservation planning. However, it has been rarely used in the marine realm, where the adequate design of marine protected areas (MPAs) is urgently needed. Here, we examined the interacting processes underlying the patterns of genetic structure and demographic strucuture of a highly vulnerable Mediterranean habitat-forming species (i.e. Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826)), with particular emphasis on the processes of contemporary dispersal, genetic drift, and colonization of a new population. Isolation by distance and genetic discontinuities were found, and three genetic clusters were detected; each submitted to variations in the relative impact of drift and gene flow. No founder effect was found in the new population. The interplay of ecology and evolution revealed that drift is strongly impacting the smallest, most isolated populations, where partial mortality of individuals was highest. Moreover, the eco-evolutionary analyses entailed important conservation implications for P. clavata. Our study supports the inclusion of habitat-forming organisms in the design of MPAs and highlights the need to account for genetic drift in the development of MPAs. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of integrating genetic and demographic data in marine conservation.

  11. Combining Genetic and Demographic Data for the Conservation of a Mediterranean Marine Habitat-Forming Species

    PubMed Central

    Arizmendi-Mejía, Rosana; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim; Antunes, Agostinho; Ballesteros, Enric; Cebrian, Emma; Díaz, David; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    The integration of ecological and evolutionary data is highly valuable for conservation planning. However, it has been rarely used in the marine realm, where the adequate design of marine protected areas (MPAs) is urgently needed. Here, we examined the interacting processes underlying the patterns of genetic structure and demographic strucuture of a highly vulnerable Mediterranean habitat-forming species (i.e. Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826)), with particular emphasis on the processes of contemporary dispersal, genetic drift, and colonization of a new population. Isolation by distance and genetic discontinuities were found, and three genetic clusters were detected; each submitted to variations in the relative impact of drift and gene flow. No founder effect was found in the new population. The interplay of ecology and evolution revealed that drift is strongly impacting the smallest, most isolated populations, where partial mortality of individuals was highest. Moreover, the eco-evolutionary analyses entailed important conservation implications for P. clavata. Our study supports the inclusion of habitat-forming organisms in the design of MPAs and highlights the need to account for genetic drift in the development of MPAs. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of integrating genetic and demographic data in marine conservation. PMID:25774522

  12. Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Calle, R

    1996-04-01

    The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which

  13. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  14. Molecular characterization and population structure study of cambuci: strategy for conservation and genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Santos, D N; Nunes, C F; Setotaw, T A; Pio, R; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A

    2016-12-19

    Cambuci (Campomanesia phaea) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and is native to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. It has ecological and social appeal but is exposed to problems associated with environmental degradation and expansion of agricultural activities in the region. Comprehensive studies on this species are rare, making its conservation and genetic improvement difficult. Thus, it is important to develop research activities to understand the current situation of the species as well as to make recommendations for its conservation and use. This study was performed to characterize the cambuci accessions found in the germplasm bank of Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica Integral using inter-simple sequence repeat markers, with the goal of understanding the plant's population structure. The results showed the existence of some level of genetic diversity among the cambuci accessions that could be exploited for the genetic improvement of the species. Principal coordinate analysis and discriminant analysis clustered the 80 accessions into three groups, whereas Bayesian model-based clustering analysis clustered them into two groups. The formation of two cluster groups and the high membership coefficients within the groups pointed out the importance of further collection to cover more areas and more genetic variability within the species. The study also showed the lack of conservation activities; therefore, more attention from the appropriate organizations is needed to plan and implement natural and ex situ conservation activities.

  15. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  16. Regulation and conservation of petroleum resources in Louisiana, 1901-1940. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Banta, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation examines the State of Louisiana's policies and programs for the conservation and regulation of petroleum resources during the period 1901 to 1940. Where possible, it explores the relationship between Louisiana's regulatory policies and those of other petroleum-producing states, but it offers no comparative judgments regarding the effectiveness and success of these policies. Furthermore, the study considers contemporary federal policies and programs only when they had a direct influence on actions taken or decisions made by state officials in Louisiana. Within the limitations set forth above, this study explores the development, implementation, and effectiveness of Louisiana's petroleum-conservation programs; the administrative bureaucracy established to oversee their application and enforcement; the taxation of petroleum-resource production; and the leasing of state-owned property for petroleum exploration. In each of these categories it presents the statutory and legal development of the state's authority; discusses the political controversies that accompanied the delegation and implementation of this authority; and describes the abuses and scandals involving the administration, enforcement, and misapplication of the policies and programs for the conservation and regulation of petroleum resources by Louisiana officials.

  17. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  18. A roadmap for knowledge exchange and mobilization research in conservation and natural resource management.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Young, Nathan; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-10-21

    Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean the best knowledge possible is needed to inform decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. Although the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KM) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies. This presents a challenge for learning cumulative lessons from KE and KM research and thus effectively using knowledge in conservation and natural resources management. Although continued research on the gap between knowledge and action is valuable, overarching conceptual frameworks are now needed to enable summaries and comparisons across diverse KE-KM research. We propose a knowledge-action framework that provides a conceptual roadmap for future research and practice in KE/KM with the aim of synthesizing lessons learned from contextual case studies and guiding the development and testing of hypotheses in this domain. Our knowledge-action framework has 3 elements that occur at multiple levels and scales: knowledge production (e.g., academia and government), knowledge mediation (e.g., knowledge networks, actors, relational dimension, and contextual dimension), and knowledge-based action (e.g., instrumental, symbolic, and conceptual). The framework integrates concepts from the sociology of science in particular, and serves as a guide to further comprehensive understanding of knowledge exchange and mobilization in conservation and sustainable natural resource management.

  19. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province.

  20. Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M; Dalton, Desiré L; Kotzé, Antoinette; Muya, Shadrack; Haubensak, Patricia; Bálint, Boglárka; Munimanda, Gopi K; Deimel, Caroline; Setzer, Andrea; Dicks, Kara; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Siegismund, Hans R; Robovský, Jan; O'Donoghue, Paul; Bruford, Michael W

    2017-02-08

    The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species' once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled. Using both mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, we described a staggering loss of 69% of the species' mitochondrial genetic variation, including the most ancestral lineages that are now absent from modern populations. Genetically unique populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive in the Masai Mara. We also identify conservation units that will help maintain evolutionary potential. Our results suggest a complete re-evaluation of current conservation management paradigms for the black rhinoceros.

  1. Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Dalton, Desiré L.; Kotzé, Antoinette; Muya, Shadrack; Haubensak, Patricia; Bálint, Boglárka; Munimanda, Gopi K.; Deimel, Caroline; Setzer, Andrea; Dicks, Kara; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Kalthoff, Daniela C.; Siegismund, Hans R.; Robovský, Jan; O’Donoghue, Paul; Bruford, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species’ once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled. Using both mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, we described a staggering loss of 69% of the species’ mitochondrial genetic variation, including the most ancestral lineages that are now absent from modern populations. Genetically unique populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive in the Masai Mara. We also identify conservation units that will help maintain evolutionary potential. Our results suggest a complete re-evaluation of current conservation management paradigms for the black rhinoceros. PMID:28176810

  2. Conservation genetics of the rare Pyreneo-Cantabrian endemic Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Escaravage, Nathalie; Cambecèdes, Jocelyne; Largier, Gérard; Pornon, André

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae) is an endangered species, endemic to the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountain ranges (Spain). For its long-term persistence, this taxon needs an appropriate conservation strategy to be implemented. In this context, we studied the genetic structure over the entire geographical range of the species and then inferred the genetic relationships between populations. Methodology Molecular diversity was analysed for 290 individuals from 12 populations in the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Bayesian-based analysis was applied to examine population structure. Principal results Analysis of genetic similarity and diversity, based on 87 polymorphic ISSR markers, suggests that despite being small and isolated, populations have an intermediate genetic diversity level (P % = 52.8 %, HE = 0.21 ± 0.01, genetic similarity between individuals = 49.6 %). Genetic variation was mainly found within populations (80–84 %), independently of mountain ranges, whereas 16–18 % was found between populations and <5 % between mountain ranges. Analyses of molecular variance indicated that population differentiation was highly significant. However, no significant correlation was found between the genetic and geographical distances among populations (Rs = 0.359, P = 0.140). Geographical structure based on assignment tests identified five different gene pools that were independent of any particular structure in the landscape. Conclusions The results suggest that population isolation is probably relatively recent, and that the outbreeding behaviour of the species maintains a high within-population genetic diversity. We assume that some long-distance dispersal, even among topographically remote populations, may be determinant for the pattern of genetic variation found in populations. Based on these findings, strategies are proposed for genetic conservation and management of the species. PMID:22476499

  3. Integrating geo-referenced multiscale and multidisciplinary data for the management of biodiversity in livestock genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Joost, S; Colli, L; Baret, P V; Garcia, J F; Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    In livestock genetic resource conservation, decision making about conservation priorities is based on the simultaneous analysis of several different criteria that may contribute to long-term sustainable breeding conditions, such as genetic and demographic characteristics, environmental conditions, and role of the breed in the local or regional economy. Here we address methods to integrate different data sets and highlight problems related to interdisciplinary comparisons. Data integration is based on the use of geographic coordinates and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In addition to technical problems related to projection systems, GIS have to face the challenging issue of the non homogeneous scale of their data sets. We give examples of the successful use of GIS for data integration and examine the risk of obtaining biased results when integrating datasets that have been captured at different scales.

  4. 76 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Modification to Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Modification to Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery..., Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to... Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING...

  5. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  6. Identifying resource manager information needs for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Liedtke, Theresa; Jenni, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife and cultural resources in North America. LLCs were established by the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) in recognition that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes and resource management challenges extend beyond national wildlife refuges, Bureau of Land Management lands, national parks, and even international boundaries. Therefore, DOI agencies must work with other Federal, State, Tribal (U.S. indigenous peoples), First Nation (Canadian indigenous peoples), and local governments, as well as private landowners, to develop landscape-level strategies for understanding and responding to climate change.

  7. [Fish resources and their conservation strategies in Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xu, Xinrong; Lai, Chunmiao; Ning, Yun; Luo, Jinfu

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was made on the fish resources and fish habitats of Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters from June 2003 to May 2004. The local fish markets were surveyed, and fishermen and fishmongers were interviewed to get fishery information. A total of 57 fish species belonging to 41 families and 14 orders were recorded, among which, 55 were bony fish, and 2 were elasmobranch. There were 41 fish species belonging to warm-water fish, and 37 fish species belonging to benthonic fish. The faunal characteristic was mainly of Northern Pacific and Indo-Pacific fauna. Devastating fishing and environmental pollution were the most serious threats to the local fishery resources, and some countermeasures were proposed for conservation and management of the resources.

  8. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Silvio; Falk, Wolfgang; Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Bozzano, Michele; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C

    2014-05-01

    A transnational network of genetic conservation units for forest trees was recently documented in Europe aiming at the conservation of evolutionary processes and the adaptive potential of natural or man-made tree populations. In this study, we quantified the vulnerability of individual conservation units and the whole network to climate change using climate favourability models and the estimated velocity of climate change. Compared to the overall climate niche of the analysed target species populations at the warm and dry end of the species niche are underrepresented in the network. However, by 2100, target species in 33-65 % of conservation units, mostly located in southern Europe, will be at the limit or outside the species' current climatic niche as demonstrated by favourabilities below required model sensitivities of 95%. The highest average decrease in favourabilities throughout the network can be expected for coniferous trees although they are mainly occurring within units in mountainous landscapes for which we estimated lower velocities of change. Generally, the species-specific estimates of favourabilities showed only low correlations to the velocity of climate change in individual units, indicating that both vulnerability measures should be considered for climate risk analysis. The variation in favourabilities among target species within the same conservation units is expected to increase with climate change and will likely require a prioritization among co-occurring species. The present results suggest that there is a strong need to intensify monitoring efforts and to develop additional conservation measures for populations in the most vulnerable units. Also, our results call for continued transnational actions for genetic conservation of European forest trees, including the establishment of dynamic conservation populations outside the current species distribution ranges within European assisted migration schemes.

  9. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mariel; Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-12-01

    Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management-relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs should be

  10. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner‐Gulland, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management‐relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs

  11. Genetic Differentiation and Relationships of Populations in the Cycas balansae Complex (Cycadaceae) and its Conservation Implications

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, LONG-QIAN; GONG, XUN

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The Cycas balansae complex is arguably a controversial group with regard to species delineation. Some taxonomists recognize a single polymorphic species while others distinguish five narrowly defined ones. The unresolved taxonomy has the potential to bring about significant problems for species conservation. Thus, an investigation to examine the genetic diversity and differentiation in the C. balansae complex was performed to determine the relationship of populations and to test whether the morphologically defined segregations represent genetically distinct units. • Methods Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic diversity in the C. balansae complex with a sample of 158 individuals from all extant populations in China. • Key Results ISSR markers revealed low genetic diversity in all populations studied (HE and HO averaged 0·0639 and 0·0798 at the population level, respectively). Phenetic analysis showed that the C. balansae complex grouped into five clusters closely corresponding to the narrowly defined C. balansae, C. parvula, C. shiwandashanica, C. tanqingii and C. simplicipinna. • Conclusions ISSR data suggest that the C. balansae complex has evolved into five genetically distinct units. These might be derived from a relatively widespread common ancestor through multiple vicariant events including geographical isolation resulting from the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate and from Pleistocene glaciations. In conservation, attention should be paid to each genetic unit. PMID:16517547

  12. Conservation genetics of American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, populations in Pacific Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauger, Laurie A.; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brien, Matthew L.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Spotila, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is crucial for the survival and management of threatened and endangered species. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure at neutral loci in American crocodiles, Crocodylus acutus, from several areas (Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Rio Tarcoles, and Osa Conservation Area) in Pacific Costa Rica. We genotyped 184 individuals at nine microsatellite loci to describe the genetic diversity and conservation genetics between and among populations. No population was at Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) over all loci tested and a small to moderate amount of inbreeding was present. Populations along the Pacific coast had an average heterozygosity of 0.572 across all loci. All populations were significantly differentiated from each other with both FST and RST measures of population differentiation with a greater degree of molecular variance (81%) found within populations. Our results suggest C. acutus populations in Pacific Costa Rica were not panmictic with moderate levels of genetic diversity. An effective management plan that maintains the connectivity between clusters is critical to the success of C. acutus in Pacific Costa Rica.

  13. Psychological distress in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an evaluation within the conservation of resources theory.

    PubMed

    Dirik, Gulay; Karanci, Ayse Nuray

    2010-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease, which can lead to considerable psychological distress. The present study evaluated anxiety and depression symptoms for this chronic and painful illness within the framework of the conservation of resources (COR) theory. Coping strategies, coping self-efficacy, religiousness and social support are very important personal resources, which have been found to protect individuals from psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to examine the predictive values of socio-demographic and illness-related variables, perceived social support, ways of coping, religiousness, arthritis self-efficacy and resource loss for psychological distress in a sample of 117 RA patients from Turkey, a secular, Islamic, non-western developing country. The results revealed that RA patients experience considerable anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results of the regression analysis showed that gender, helplessness coping and resource loss are significant predictors of anxiety, whereas arthritis self-efficacy and resource loss are significant predictors of depression. Resource loss appeared as an important predictor for both anxiety and depression. This finding was consistent with the COR theory. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Genetic structure, conservation genetics and evidence of speciation by range expansion in shy and white-capped albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Cathryn L; Double, Michael C

    2003-11-01

    Six variable microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic structuring in the closely related shy albatross (Thalassarche cauta) and white-capped albatross (T. steadi). First, levels of genetic differentiation between the species, and among three populations within each species, were analysed using amova, FST and RST. We found high levels of genetic structuring and detected many unshared alleles between the species, which provide strong evidence against any contemporary gene flow between them. Within each species, shy albatross populations were found to be genetically distinct whereas white-capped albatross populations were undifferentiated, which implies that dispersal events are much rarer in the former than in the latter. These results formed the basis for the recommendation that the three white-capped albatross populations (as a whole) and each shy albatross population be treated as separate units for conservation. Second, levels of genetic diversity and allelic patterns in shy and white-capped albatrosses were assessed for whether they support earlier mtDNA results suggesting that shy albatrosses arose through range expansion of white-capped albatrosses. All measures indicated lower genetic diversity within shy albatrosses than within white-capped albatrosses and upheld the hypothesis that shy albatrosses were founded by white-capped albatrosses.

  15. Conservation of intron and intein insertion sites: implications for life histories of parasitic genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Inteins and introns are genetic elements that are removed from proteins and RNA after translation or transcription, respectively. Previous studies have suggested that these genetic elements are found in conserved parts of the host protein. To our knowledge this type of analysis has not been done for group II introns residing within a gene. Here we provide quantitative statistical support from an analyses of proteins that host inteins, group I introns, group II introns and spliceosomal introns across all three domains of life. Results To determine whether or not inteins, group I, group II, and spliceosomal introns are found preferentially in conserved regions of their respective host protein, conservation profiles were generated and intein and intron positions were mapped to the profiles. Fisher's combined probability test was used to determine the significance of the distribution of insertion sites across the conservation profile for each protein. For a subset of studied proteins, the conservation profile and insertion positions were mapped to protein structures to determine if the insertion sites correlate to regions of functional activity. All inteins and most group I introns were found to be preferentially located within conserved regions; in contrast, a bacterial intein-like protein, group II and spliceosomal introns did not show a preference for conserved sites. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that inteins and group I introns are found preferentially in conserved regions of their respective host proteins. Homing endonucleases are often located within inteins and group I introns and these may facilitate mobility to conserved regions. Insertion at these conserved positions decreases the chance of elimination, and slows deletion of the elements, since removal of the elements has to be precise as not to disrupt the function of the protein. Furthermore, functional constrains on the targeted site make it more difficult for hosts to evolve immunity

  16. Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations.

    PubMed

    Schlottfeldt, S; Walter, M E M T; Carvalho, A C P L F; Soares, T N; Telles, M P C; Loyola, R D; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2015-06-18

    Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis.

  17. Genetic Distinctiveness of Rye In situ Accessions from Portugal Unveils a New Hotspot of Unexplored Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patrícia; Barros, André B.; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Hugo R.; Viegas, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of “Petkus” pool in most modern rye varieties as well as “Petkus” × “Carsten” heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil “on farm” diversity, which is largely undervalued. Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye's genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ, and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources (PGR). PMID:27630658

  18. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Results Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Conclusions Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival) among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness. PMID:21284886

  19. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  20. Demographic loss, genetic structure and the conservation implications for Indian tigers.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Samrat; Bruford, Michael W; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-07-07

    India is home to approximately 60 per cent of the world's remaining wild tigers, a species that has declined in the last few centuries to occupy less than 7 per cent of its former geographical range. While Indian tiger numbers have somewhat stabilized in recent years, they remain low and populations are highly fragmented. Therefore, the application of evidence-based demographic and genetic management to enhance the remaining populations is a priority. In this context, and using genetic data from historical and modern tigers, we investigated anthropogenic impacts on genetic variation in Indian tigers using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. We found a very high number of historical mitochondrial DNA variants, 93 per cent of which are not detected in modern populations. Population differentiation was higher in modern tigers. Simulations incorporating historical data support population decline, and suggest high population structure in extant populations. Decreased connectivity and habitat loss as a result of ongoing fragmentation in the Indian subcontinent has therefore resulted in a loss of genetic variants and increased genetic differentiation among tiger populations. These results highlight that anthropogenic fragmentation and species-specific demographic processes can interact to alter the partitioning of genetic variation over very short time scales. We conclude that ongoing strategies to maximize the size of some tiger populations, at the expense of losing others, is an inadequate conservation strategy, as it could result in a loss of genetic diversity that may be of adaptive significance for this emblematic species.

  1. Developing educational resources for population genetics in R: An open and collaborative approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The R computing and statistical language community has developed a myriad of resources for conducting populations genetic analyses. However, resources for learning how to carry out population genetic analyses in R are scattered and often incomplete, which can make acquiring this skill unnecessarily ...

  2. Valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services: a useful way to manage and conserve marine resources?

    PubMed Central

    Broszeit, Stefanie; Pilling, Graham M.; Grant, Susie M.; Austen, Melanie C.

    2016-01-01

    Valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) is widely recognized as a useful, though often controversial, approach to conservation and management. However, its use in the marine environment, hence evidence of its efficacy, lags behind that in terrestrial ecosystems. This largely reflects key challenges to marine conservation and management such as the practical difficulties in studying the ocean, complex governance issues and the historically-rooted separation of biodiversity conservation and resource management. Given these challenges together with the accelerating loss of marine biodiversity (and threats to the ES that this biodiversity supports), we ask whether valuation efforts for marine ecosystems are appropriate and effective. We compare three contrasting systems: the tropical Pacific, Southern Ocean and UK coastal seas. In doing so, we reveal a diversity in valuation approaches with different rates of progress and success. We also find a tendency to focus on specific ES (often the harvested species) rather than biodiversity. In light of our findings, we present a new conceptual view of valuation that should ideally be considered in decision-making. Accounting for the critical relationships between biodiversity and ES, together with an understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning, will enable the wider implications of marine conservation and management decisions to be evaluated. We recommend embedding valuation within existing management structures, rather than treating it as an alternative or additional mechanism. However, we caution that its uptake and efficacy will be compromised without the ability to develop and share best practice across regions. PMID:27928037

  3. Valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services: a useful way to manage and conserve marine resources?

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Rachel D; Broszeit, Stefanie; Pilling, Graham M; Grant, Susie M; Murphy, Eugene J; Austen, Melanie C

    2016-12-14

    Valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) is widely recognized as a useful, though often controversial, approach to conservation and management. However, its use in the marine environment, hence evidence of its efficacy, lags behind that in terrestrial ecosystems. This largely reflects key challenges to marine conservation and management such as the practical difficulties in studying the ocean, complex governance issues and the historically-rooted separation of biodiversity conservation and resource management. Given these challenges together with the accelerating loss of marine biodiversity (and threats to the ES that this biodiversity supports), we ask whether valuation efforts for marine ecosystems are appropriate and effective. We compare three contrasting systems: the tropical Pacific, Southern Ocean and UK coastal seas. In doing so, we reveal a diversity in valuation approaches with different rates of progress and success. We also find a tendency to focus on specific ES (often the harvested species) rather than biodiversity. In light of our findings, we present a new conceptual view of valuation that should ideally be considered in decision-making. Accounting for the critical relationships between biodiversity and ES, together with an understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning, will enable the wider implications of marine conservation and management decisions to be evaluated. We recommend embedding valuation within existing management structures, rather than treating it as an alternative or additional mechanism. However, we caution that its uptake and efficacy will be compromised without the ability to develop and share best practice across regions.

  4. Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Abdallah

    2015-04-01

    Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach Abdallah Bari, Kenneth Street, Eddy De Pauw, Jalal Eddin Omari, and Chandra M. Biradar International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat Institutes, Rabat, Morocco Phenology is an important plant trait not only for assessing and forecasting food production but also for searching in genebanks for adaptive traits. Among the phenological parameters we have been considering to search for such adaptive and rare traits are the onset (sowing period) and the seasonality (growing period). Currently an application is being developed as part of the focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) approach to use climatic data in order to identify crop growing seasons and characterize them in terms of onset and duration. These approximations of growing period characteristics can then be used to estimate flowering and maturity dates for dryland crops, such as wheat, barley, faba bean, lentils and chickpea, and assess, among others, phenology-related traits such as days to heading [dhe] and grain filling period [gfp]. The approach followed here is based on first calculating long term average daily temperatures by fitting a curve to the monthly data over days from beginning of the year. Prior to the identification of these phenological stages the onset is extracted first from onset integer raster GIS layers developed based on a model of the growing period that considers both moisture and temperature limitations. The paper presents some examples of real applications of the approach to search for rare and adaptive traits.

  5. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics.

  6. Regional Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables Influence our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding regional differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 regions of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 regions but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North region and the other 2 regions indicating isolation by environment. Within regions, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-region gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among regions. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP region to promote an increased adaptive capacity.

  7. Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Pamponét, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corrêa, R X; Gaiotto, F A

    2013-10-10

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (ФST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ФST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora.

  8. Conservation genetics of an endangered lady's slipper orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xin; Li, Quan-Jian; Liu, Fen; Gong, Mao-Jiang; Wang, Cai-Xia; Tian, Min

    2014-06-30

    Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) = 11.19%, Nei's gene diversity (H) = 0.0416 and Shannon's information index (I) = 0.0613) and species level (PPL = 38.53%, H = 0.1273 and I = 0.1928) and a significantly higher degree of differentiation among populations (the proportion of the total variance among populations (Φpt) = 0.698) than those typical of ISSR-based studies in other orchid species. Furthermore, the Nei's genetic distances between populations were independent of the corresponding geographical distances. Two main clusters are shown in an arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram, which is in agreement with the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and the STRUCTURE program. In addition, individuals within a population were more similar to each other than to those in other populations. Based on the genetic data and our field survey, the development of conservation management for this threatened orchid should include habitat protection, artificial gene flow and ex situ measures.

  9. Conservation Genetics of an Endangered Lady’s Slipper Orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xin; Li, Quan-Jian; Liu, Fen; Gong, Mao-Jiang; Wang, Cai-Xia; Tian, Min

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) = 11.19%, Nei’s gene diversity (H) = 0.0416 and Shannon’s information index (I) = 0.0613) and species level (PPL = 38.53%, H = 0.1273 and I = 0.1928) and a significantly higher degree of differentiation among populations (the proportion of the total variance among populations (Φpt) = 0.698) than those typical of ISSR-based studies in other orchid species. Furthermore, the Nei’s genetic distances between populations were independent of the corresponding geographical distances. Two main clusters are shown in an arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram, which is in agreement with the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and the STRUCTURE program. In addition, individuals within a population were more similar to each other than to those in other populations. Based on the genetic data and our field survey, the development of conservation management for this threatened orchid should include habitat protection, artificial gene flow and ex situ measures. PMID:24983476

  10. Genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Mussmann, S. M.; Douglas, M. R.; Anthonysamy, W. J. B.; Davis, M. A.; Simpson, S. A.; Louis, W.

    2017-01-01

    A central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (= Anthropocene). Common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain duration. A textbook example is the greater prairie chicken (GRPC: Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus), where translocations (1992–1998) seemingly rescued genetically depauperate Illinois populations. We re-evaluated this situation after two decades by genotyping 21 microsatellite loci from 1831 shed feathers across six leks in two counties over 4 years (2010–2013). Low migration rates (less than 1%) established each county as demographically independent, but with declining-population estimates (4 year average N = 79). Leks were genetically similar and significantly bottlenecked, with low effective population sizes (average Ne = 13.1; 4 year Ne/N = 0.166). Genetic structure was defined by 12 significantly different family groups, with relatedness r = 0.31 > half-sib r = 0.25. Average heterozygosity, indicating short-term survival, did not differ among contemporary, pre- and post-translocated populations, whereas allelic diversity did. Our results, the natural history of GRPC (i.e. few leks, male dominance hierarchies) and its controlled immigration suggest demographic expansion rather than genetic rescue. Legal protection under the endangered species act (ESA) may enhance recovery, but could exacerbate political–economic concerns on how best to manage ‘conservation-reliant’ species, for which GRPC is now an exemplar. PMID:28386428

  11. Genetic and demographic criteria for defining population units for conservation: The value of clear messages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper on Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) interannual site fidelity (Iverson et al. 2004), we concluded that wintering populations were demographically structured at a finer geographic scale than that at which genetic differentiation was observed and that conservation efforts should recognize this degree of demographic independence. In a critique of our study, Pearce and Talbot (2006) contend that our measures of fidelity were not robust and imply that in the face of "mixed messages" we failed to appreciate the role of genetic data in defining population units. We recognize, as we did in our original paper, that our methods for quantifying site fidelity have some limitations; however, the patterns in our data are consistent with a considerable body of literature indicating high winter site fidelity in Harlequin Ducks. Moreover, we do not consider differences in the scales at which genetic and demographic structure are expressed to be "mixed messages," given the different spatial and temporal scales at which genetic and contemporary demographic processes operate. We emphasize that a lack of genetic differentiation does not necessarily preclude the existence of contemporary demographic structure with relevance for conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  12. Predominance of genetic monogamy by females in a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna tiburo: implications for shark conservation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Demian D; Prodöhl, Paulo A; Gelsleichter, James; Manire, Charles A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in the mating systems of sharks and their relatives (Class Chondrichthyes) because these ancient fishes occupy a key position in vertebrate phylogeny and are increasingly in need of conservation due to widespread overexploitation. Based on precious few genetic and field observational studies, current speculation is that polyandrous mating strategies and multiple paternity may be common in sharks as they are in most other vertebrates. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining the genetic mating system of the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, using microsatellite DNA profiling of 22 litters (22 mothers, 188 embryos genotyped at four polymorphic loci) obtained from multiple locations along the west coast of Florida. Contrary to expectations based on the ability of female S. tiburo to store sperm, the social nature of this species and the 100% multiple paternity observed in two other coastal shark species, over 81% of sampled bonnethead females produced litters sired by a single male (i.e. genetic monogamy). When multiple paternity occurred in S. tiburo, there was an indication of increased incidence in larger mothers with bigger litters. Our data suggest that sharks may exhibit complex genetic mating systems with a high degree of interspecific variability, and as a result some species may be more susceptible to loss of genetic variation in the face of escalating fishing pressure. Based on these findings, we suggest that knowledge of elasmobranch mating systems should be an important component of conservation and management programmes for these heavily exploited species.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Organic Air Emission Standards for Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities and Generators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) organic air emission standards contained in 40 CFR parts 264/265, subpart CC for hazardous waste treatment

  14. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  15. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  16. Mating System and Genetic Composition of the Macaw Palm (Acrocomia aculeata): Implications for Breeding and Genetic Conservation Programs.

    PubMed

    Lanes, Éder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Resende, Marcos D V; Caixeta, Eveline T

    2016-11-01

    Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), a palm endemic to South and Central America, is a potential oil crop. Knowledge of the mating system of this species is limited to its reproductive biology and to studies using molecular markers. The present study analyzed genetic diversity between its developmental stages and determined its prevailing mating system in order to support genetic conservation and breeding programs. We tested 9 microsatellite markers in 27 mother trees (adult plants) and 157 offspring (juvenile plants) from the southeastern region of Brazil. Heterozygosity levels differed between the 2 studied life stages, as indicated by the fixation index of adult and juvenile trees, suggesting that selection against homozygotes occurs during the plant life cycle. The mating system parameters analyzed indicate that A. aculeata is predominantly outcrossing (allogamous). However, its low levels of selfing suggest that there is individual variation with regard to self-incompatibility, which can be a survival strategy in isolated or fragmented habitats. Deviations in variance effective size were detected because of high mating rates among relatives and correlated matings. These findings indicate that the main source of inbreeding results from biparental inbreeding in the population and that the progenies are predominantly composed of full-sibs. The information provided by this study on the ecology and reproduction dynamics of A. aculeata should be useful to both breeding and genetic conservation programs, allowing the development of more precise mathematical models and the estimation of the appropriate number of mother trees for seed collection.

  17. Range-wide phylogeography and conservation genetics of a narrowly endemic stream salamander, Pachyhynobius shangchengensis (Caudata, Hynobiidae): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Pan, T; Wang, H; Hu, C-C; Shi, W-B; Zhao, K; Huang, X; Zhang, B-W

    2014-02-13

    The Shangcheng stout salamander (Pachyhynobius shangchengensis) is an endangered amphibian endemic to the Dabie Mountains, southeast China, and is currently threatened by habitat loss and illegal poaching. Here we used the mitochondrial DNA control region sequence (768 bp) to conduct a comprehensive investigation of genetic diversity, phylogeographic pattern, and demographic history of the species across its geographic distribution to assist its conservation. We concluded that the levels of genetic variation are relatively low in all four populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that the most likely phylogeographic pattern is [JGT] [KHJ] [TM, BYM]. Two distinct clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree of 28 haplotypes, corresponding to the two southern populations (TM, BYM) and two northern populations (JGT, KHJ). Significant population differentiation (FST) was detected among all populations. Among the four populations, historical demographic analyses (e.g., the g parameter, the Tajima D test, and the Fu Fs test) did not reveal definite information on population expansion except for the BYM population, which had undergone a strong population expansion event. Based on the analysis of a Bayesian skyline plot, the total population underwent a significant population fluctuation around 20 kya. This may have been triggered by the end of the last glacial maximum. In conclusion, the existence of three evolutionarily significant units (BMY-TM, KHJ, and JGT) and four management units (BMY, TM, KHJ, and JGT) is supported by our study.

  18. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  19. From working collections to the World Germplasm Project: agricultural modernization and genetic conservation at the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Helen Anne

    2017-06-01

    This paper charts the history of the Rockefeller Foundation's participation in the collection and long-term preservation of genetic diversity in crop plants from the 1940s through the 1970s. In the decades following the launch of its agricultural program in Mexico in 1943, the Rockefeller Foundation figured prominently in the creation of world collections of key economic crops. Through the efforts of its administrators and staff, the foundation subsequently parlayed this experience into a leadership role in international efforts to conserve so-called plant genetic resources. Previous accounts of the Rockefeller Foundation's interventions in international agricultural development have focused on the outcomes prioritized by foundation staff and administrators as they launched assistance programs and especially their characterization of the peoples and "problems" they encountered abroad. This paper highlights instead how foundation administrators and staff responded to a newly emergent international agricultural concern-the loss of crop genetic diversity. Charting the foundation's responses to this concern, which developed only after agricultural modernization had begun and was understood to be produced by the successes of the foundation's own agricultural assistance programs, allows for greater interrogation of how the foundation understood and projected its central position in international agricultural research activities by the 1970s.

  20. Social impact evaluation of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppitti, James; Dietz, Thomas

    1983-11-01

    Debate over environmental policy often focuses on social impacts of those policies, but few empirical studies examine the impacts of environmental regulations once they are implemented. A quasi-experimental design based on survey data is used to assess the social impacts of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the West Virginia chemical industry. Changes in employment, manufacturing process, product line, and manufacturing costs are evaluated. RCRA seems to have produced changes in manufacturing processes, but we find no statistically significant impacts on.jobs, product line, or manufacturing costs.

  1. GeneEd—A Genetics Educational Resource | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of ... GeneEd website as part of her lessons on genetics. A recently developed educational website about genetics— GeneEd. ...

  2. Wild gazelles of the southern Levant: genetic profiling defines new conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Lia; Hermon, Dalia; Boldo, Amizor; Arieli, Gal; Gafny, Ron; King, Roni; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2015-01-01

    The mountain gazelle (Gazella gazelle), Dorcas gazelle (Gazella Dorcas) and acacia gazelle (Gazella arabica acacia) were historically abundant in the southern Levant, and more specifically in Israel. Anthropogenic and natural changes have caused a rapid decline in gazelle populations, raising concerns about their conservation status and future survival. The genetic profile of 111 wild gazelles from Israel was determined based on three regions of mitochondrial DNA (control region, Cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA) and nine nuclear microsatellite markers. Genetic analysis of the mountain gazelle population, the largest known population of this rare species, revealed adequate diversity levels and gene flow between subpopulations. Nevertheless, ongoing habitat degradation and other human effects, such as poaching, suggest the need for drastic measures to prevent species extinction. Dorcas gazelles in Israel displayed inbreeding within subpopulations while still maintaining considerable genetic diversity overall. This stable population, represented by a distinctive genetic profile, is fragmented and isolated from its relatives in neighboring localities. Based on the genetic profile of a newly sampled subpopulation in Israel, we provide an alternative hypothesis for the historic dispersal of Dorcas gazelle, from the Southern Levant to northern Africa. The small acacia gazelle population was closest to gazelles from the Farasan Islands of Saudi Arabia, based on mitochondrial markers. The two populations did not share haplotypes, suggesting that these two populations may be the last remnant wild gazelles of this species worldwide. Only a dozen acacia gazelles survive in Israel, and urgent steps are needed to ensure the survival of this genetically distinctive lineage. The genetic assessments of our study recognize new conservation priorities for each gazelle species in the Southern Levant.

  3. Wild Gazelles of the Southern Levant: Genetic Profiling Defines New Conservation Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Hadas, Lia; Hermon, Dalia; Boldo, Amizor; Arieli, Gal; Gafny, Ron; King, Roni; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2015-01-01

    The mountain gazelle (Gazella gazelle), Dorcas gazelle (Gazella Dorcas) and acacia gazelle (Gazella arabica acacia) were historically abundant in the southern Levant, and more specifically in Israel. Anthropogenic and natural changes have caused a rapid decline in gazelle populations, raising concerns about their conservation status and future survival. The genetic profile of 111 wild gazelles from Israel was determined based on three regions of mitochondrial DNA (control region, Cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA) and nine nuclear microsatellite markers. Genetic analysis of the mountain gazelle population, the largest known population of this rare species, revealed adequate diversity levels and gene flow between subpopulations. Nevertheless, ongoing habitat degradation and other human effects, such as poaching, suggest the need for drastic measures to prevent species extinction. Dorcas gazelles in Israel displayed inbreeding within subpopulations while still maintaining considerable genetic diversity overall. This stable population, represented by a distinctive genetic profile, is fragmented and isolated from its relatives in neighboring localities. Based on the genetic profile of a newly sampled subpopulation in Israel, we provide an alternative hypothesis for the historic dispersal of Dorcas gazelle, from the Southern Levant to northern Africa. The small acacia gazelle population was closest to gazelles from the Farasan Islands of Saudi Arabia, based on mitochondrial markers. The two populations did not share haplotypes, suggesting that these two populations may be the last remnant wild gazelles of this species worldwide. Only a dozen acacia gazelles survive in Israel, and urgent steps are needed to ensure the survival of this genetically distinctive lineage. The genetic assessments of our study recognize new conservation priorities for each gazelle species in the Southern Levant. PMID:25760948

  4. The Three Domains of Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Hawaiian Waters.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The scientific field of conservation biology is dominated by 3 specialties: phylogenetics, ecology, and evolution. Under this triad, phylogenetics is oriented towards the past history of biodiversity, conserving the divergent branches in the tree of life. The ecological component is rooted in the present, maintaining the contemporary life support systems for biodiversity. Evolutionary conservation (as defined here) is concerned with preserving the raw materials for generating future biodiversity. All 3 domains can be documented with genetic case histories in the waters of the Hawaiian Archipelago, an isolated chain of volcanic islands with 2 types of biodiversity: colonists, and new species that arose from colonists. This review demonstrates that 1) phylogenetic studies have identified previously unknown branches in the tree of life that are endemic to Hawaiian waters; 2) population genetic surveys define isolated marine ecosystems as management units, and 3) phylogeographic analyses illustrate the pathways of colonization that can enhance future biodiversity. Conventional molecular markers have advanced all 3 domains in conservation biology over the last 3 decades, and recent advances in genomics are especially valuable for understanding the foundations of future evolutionary diversity.

  5. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP): a national scale natural resources and conservation needs assessment and decision support tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.-V. V.; Norfleet, M. L.; Atwood, J. D.; Behrman, K. D.; Kiniry, J. R.; Arnold, J. G.; White, M. J.; Williams, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated to quantify the impacts of agricultural conservation practices at the watershed, regional, and national scales across the United States. Representative cropland acres in all major U.S. watersheds were surveyed in 2003-2006 as part of the seminal CEAP Cropland National Assessment. Two process-based models, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender(APEX) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to the survey data to provide a quantitative assessment of current conservation practice impacts, establish a benchmark against which future conservation trends and efforts could be measured, and identify outstanding conservation concerns. The flexibility of these models and the unprecedented amount of data on current conservation practices across the country enabled Cropland CEAP to meet its Congressional mandate of quantifying the value of current conservation practices. It also enabled scientifically grounded exploration of a variety of conservation scenarios, empowering CEAP to not only inform on past successes and additional needs, but to also provide a decision support tool to help guide future policy development and conservation practice decision making. The CEAP effort will repeat the national survey in 2015-2016, enabling CEAP to provide analyses of emergent conservation trends, outstanding needs, and potential costs and benefits of pursuing various treatment scenarios for all agricultural watersheds across the United States.

  6. Lessons for resource conservation from two contrasting small-scale fisheries.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Hampus; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Purcell, Steven W; Olsson, Per

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale fisheries present challenges to management due to fishers' dependency on resources and the adaptability of management systems. We compared social-ecological processes in the sea cucumber fisheries of Zanzibar and Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean, to better understand the reasons for resource conservation or collapse. Commercial value of wild stocks was at least 30 times higher in Mayotte than in Zanzibar owing to lower fishing pressure. Zanzibar fishers were financially reliant on the fishery and increased fishing effort as stocks declined. This behavioral response occurred without adaptive management and reinforced an unsustainable fishery. In contrast, resource managers in Mayotte adapted to changing fishing effort and stock abundance by implementing a precautionary fishery closure before crossing critical thresholds. Fishery closure may be a necessary measure in small-scale fisheries to preserve vulnerable resources until reliable management systems are devised. Our comparison highlighted four poignant lessons for managing small-scale fisheries: (1) diagnose the fishery regularly, (2) enable an adaptive management system, (3) constrain exploitation within ecological limits, and (4) share management responsibility.

  7. Water resource management and biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes, Northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanda, P. Z.; Madulu, N. F.

    The Eastern Rift Valley Lakes of East Africa and their watersheds have gone through significant anthropogenic changes over years. Several land use pressures and overexploitations of natural resources have eroded the biological and physical systems that support those resources. The principal objective of this study was to undertake a comprehensive water resource management problem analysis in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes so as to highlight the current state of knowledge on key environmental and biodiversity problems, institutional capacities and needs to conserve biodiversity and water resources in the respective lakes. Two stages were be involved in data collection. The first stage involved literature search in libraries and documentation centres held in various institutions. Second stage involved the main fieldwork, which aimed at collecting secondary information from regional and districts offices situated within the basins in question. Findings from this study show that trends in the growth of human population, expansion of cropland and increase in livestock population in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes zone indicate rapid increase over the next few decades. The pressure of this rapidly increasing population on the available resources will be too great to sustain desirable livelihood in the area. Even at the current rate of population increase, water resource utilisation in and around most Rift Valley Lakes is not sustainable. The intensification of agriculture through the application of fertilisers and pesticides will lead to the soil and water pollution, as is already happening in Mang’ola and Mto wa Mbu where irrigated farming is practised. Although a number of studies have been conducted in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes and Wetlands in the Northern Tanzania, there are still a lot of issues which have not studied adequately.

  8. Random amplified polymorphic markers as indicator for genetic conservation program in Iranian pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Elyasi Zarringhabaie, Ghorban; Javanmard, Arash; Pirahary, Ommolbanin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study was identification of genetic similarity between wild Iran and captive Azerbaijan Pheasant using PCR-RAPD markers. For this purpose, in overall, 28 birds were taken for DNA extraction and subsequently 15 arbitrary primers were applied for PCR-RAPD technique. After electrophoresis, five primers exhibited sufficient variability which yielded overall 65 distinct bands, 59 polymorphic bands, for detalis, range of number of bands per primer was 10 to 14, and produced size varied between 200 to 1500 bp. Highest and lowest polymorphic primers were OPC5, OPC16 (100%) and OPC15 (81%), respectively. Result of genetic variation between two groups was accounted as nonsignificant (8.12%) of the overall variation. According to our expectation the wild Iranian birds showed higher genetic diversity value than the Azerbaijan captive birds. As general conclusion, two pheasant populations have almost same genetic origin and probably are subpopulations of one population. The data reported herein could open the opportunity to search for suitable conservation strategy to improve richness of Iran biodiversity and present study here was the first report that might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation program of Iranian pheasant gene pool. Analyses using more regions, more birds, and more DNA markers will be useful to confirm or to reject these findings.

  9. Impacts of early viability selection on management of inbreeding and genetic diversity in conservation.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Hogg, Carolyn J; Ivy, Jamie A; Belov, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial goal of intensive management of threatened species, particularly for those populations that act as sources for translocation or re-introduction programmes. Most captive genetic management is based on pedigrees and a neutral theory of inheritance, an assumption that may be violated by selective forces operating in captivity. Here, we explore the conservation consequences of early viability selection: differential offspring survival that occurs prior to management or research observations, such as embryo deaths in utero. If early viability selection produces genotypic deviations from Mendelian predictions, it may undermine management strategies intended to minimize inbreeding and maintain genetic diversity. We use empirical examples to demonstrate that straightforward approaches, such as comparing litter sizes of inbred vs. noninbred breeding pairs, can be used to test whether early viability selection likely impacts estimates of inbreeding depression. We also show that comparing multilocus genotype data to pedigree predictions can reveal whether early viability selection drives systematic biases in genetic diversity, patterns that would not be detected using pedigree-based statistics alone. More sophisticated analysis combining genomewide molecular data with pedigree information will enable conservation scientists to test whether early viability selection drives deviations from neutrality across wide stretches of the genome, revealing whether this form of selection biases the pedigree-based statistics and inference upon which intensive management is based.

  10. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    PubMed

    Ort, Brian S; Cohen, C Sarah; Boyer, Katharyn E; Reynolds, Laura K; Tam, Sheh May; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  11. Clinal patterns in genetic variation for northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): Conservation status and population histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockwell, Craig A.; Fisher, Justin D.L.; McLean, Kyle I.

    2016-01-01

    The security of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) varies spatially with populations east and west of North Dakota considered as secure and at risk, respectively. We used genetic markers to characterize the conservation status of northern leopard frog populations across North Dakota. We used multiple regression analyses and model selection to evaluate correlations of expected heterozygosity (HE) with the direct and additive effects of: i) geographic location,ii) wetland density and iii) average annual precipitation. There was lower genetic diversity in the western portion of the state due to lower levels of diversity for populations southwest of the Missouri River. This may reflect a refugial/colonization signature for the only non-glaciated area of North Dakota. Genetic diversity was also positively associated with wetland densities which is consistent with the reliance of this species on a mosaic of wetlands. Our findings suggest that populations in the southwestern part of North Dakota are of higher conservation concern, a finding consistent with the higher risk noted for northern leopard frog populations in most states west of North Dakota. Our findings also pose the hypothesis that climate change induced changes in wetland densities will reduce genetic diversity of northern leopard frog populations.

  12. Genetic diversity and the genetic structure of natural populations of Chamaecyparis obtusa: implications for management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Y; Matsumoto, A; Tani, N; Ujino-Ihara, T; Kado, T; Iwata, H; Uchida, K

    2007-08-01

    We investigated 25 natural populations of Chamaecyparis obtusa using 51 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers, which were developed using information on sequence-tagged sites (STS) in Cryptomeria japonica. Most CAPS markers have codominant expression patterns, and are suitable for population studies because of their robustness and convenience. We estimated various genetic diversity parameters, including average heterozygosity (H(e)) and allelic richness and found that the more peripheral populations tended to have lower genetic diversity than central populations, in agreement with a previous theoretical study. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low, but statistically significant (G(ST)=0.039), and similar to the level reported in a previous allozyme study. We attempted to detect non-neutral loci associated with local adaptation to clarify the relationship between the fixation index (F(ST)) and H(e) values for each locus and found seven candidates non-neutral loci. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the populations and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a pattern of gradually increasing isolation of populations with increasing geographical distance. Three populations had a high degree of linkage disequilibrium, which we attribute to severe bottlenecks due to human disturbance or competition with other species during their migration from refugia after the most recent glaciation. We concluded that the small populations in western Japan and in Kanto district are more important, from a conservation perspective, than the populations in central Japan, due to their genetic divergence, relatively small sizes and restricted areas.

  13. Conservation implications of the genetic diversity of Gymnospermium microrrhynchum in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Yeon, M H; Shim, J K

    2016-10-24

    Gymnospermium microrrhynchum (Berberidaceae) is an ephemeral perennial herb with a limited distributional range in the Baekdudaegan mountain areas of the Korean Peninsula, and is designated a rare plant by the Korean Forest Service. Information about its genetic variation and structure is important for developing successful conservation strategies. To investigate the genetic variation within and among seven G. microrrhynchum populations, random amplified polymorphic DNA data were obtained for 207 individuals. The populations exhibited relatively low genetic diversity: the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranged from 32.1 to 66.7% (mean = 51.4%) and Nei's gene diversity (HE) ranged from 0.116 to 0.248 (mean = 0.188). However, genetic diversity at the species level was relatively high (PPB = 98.7%, HE = 0.349). An analysis of molecular variance revealed high differentiation among populations (ΦST = 0.6818), but the low gene flow value (Nm = 0.117) suggests a low level of gene exchange occurs among populations. Principal coordinates analysis revealed that individuals were separated according to population. The high level of genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among G. microrrhynchum populations, which resulted from their isolation in alpine areas after the Ice Age, indicates that it is essential to protect and manage all populations, rather than focus on specific populations, in order to maintain the genetic diversity of this species.

  14. Genetic and demographic implications of aquaculture in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a genetic individual-based model of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations in a river to examine the genetic and demographic trade-offs associated with operating a conservation hatchery. Simulation experiments evaluated three management practices: (i) setting quotas to equalize family contributions in an effort to prevent genetic swamping, (ii) an adaptive management scheme that interrupts stocking when introgression exceeds a specified threshold, and (iii) alternative broodstock selection strategies that influence domestication. The first set of simulations, designed to evaluate equalizing the genetic contribution of families, did not show the genetic benefits expected. The second set of simulations showed that simulated adaptive management was not successful in controlling introgression over the long term, especially with uncertain feedback. The third set of simulations compared the effects of three alternative broodstock selection strategies on domestication for hypothetical traits controlling early density-dependent survival. Simulated aquaculture selected for a density-tolerant phenotype when broodstock were taken from a genetically connected population. Using broodstock from an isolated population (i.e., above an upstream barrier or in a different watershed) was more effective at preventing domestication than using wild broodstock from a connected population.

  15. Increasing conservation management action by involving local people in natural resource monitoring.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Finn; Mendoza, Marlynn M; Tagtag, Anson; Alviola, Phillip A; Balete, Danilo S; Jensen, Arne E; Enghoff, Martin; Poulsen, Michael K

    2007-11-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the status of the environment. At the same time, concerns have been raised regarding alienation of the local populace from environmental decisions. One proposed solution is participatory environmental monitoring. When evaluating the usefulness of environmental monitoring, the focus may be on accuracy, as is usually done by scientists, or on efficiency in terms of conservation impact. To test whether investment in participatory biodiversity monitoring makes economic sense for obtaining data for management decisions, we compared the cost efficiency of participatory and conventional biodiversity monitoring methods in Philippine parks. We found that, from a government perspective, investment in monitoring that combines scientific with participatory methods is strikingly more effective than a similar level of investment in conventional scientific methods alone in generating conservation management interventions. Moreover, the local populace seemed to benefit from more secure de facto user rights over land and other resources. Participatory biodiversity monitoring not only represents a cost-effective alternative when conventional monitoring is impossible, but it is also an unexpectedly powerful complementary approach, capable of generating a much higher level of conservation management intervention, where conventional monitoring already takes place.

  16. Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jizhong; Wang, Chunjing; Yu, Jinghua; Nie, Siming; Han, Shijie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Changmei; Yuan, Shusheng; Wang, Qinggui

    2014-07-01

    Climate change affects both habitat suitability and the genetic diversity of wild plants. Therefore, predicting and establishing the most effective and coherent conservation areas is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity in response to climate change. This is because genetic variance is a product not only of habitat suitability in conservation areas but also of efficient protection and management. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a tree species (family Rutaceae) that is endangered due to excessive and illegal harvesting for use in Chinese medicine. Here, we test a general computational method for the prediction of priority conservation areas (PCAs) by measuring the genetic diversity of P. amurense across the entirety of northeast China using a single strand repeat analysis of twenty microsatellite markers. Using computational modeling, we evaluated the geographical distribution of the species, both now and in different future climate change scenarios. Different populations were analyzed according to genetic diversity, and PCAs were identified using a spatial conservation prioritization framework. These conservation areas were optimized to account for the geographical distribution of P. amurense both now and in the future, to effectively promote gene flow, and to have a long period of validity. In situ and ex situ conservation, strategies for vulnerable populations were proposed. Three populations with low genetic diversity are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change, making conservation of genetic diversity challenging due to decreasing habitat suitability. Habitat suitability was important for the assessment of genetic variability in existing nature reserves, which were found to be much smaller than the proposed PCAs. Finally, a simple set of conservation measures was established through modeling. This combined molecular and computational ecology approach provides a framework for planning the protection of species endangered by climate

  17. Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr due to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jizhong; Wang, Chunjing; Yu, Jinghua; Nie, Siming; Han, Shijie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Changmei; Yuan, Shusheng; Wang, Qinggui

    2014-01-01

    Climate change affects both habitat suitability and the genetic diversity of wild plants. Therefore, predicting and establishing the most effective and coherent conservation areas is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity in response to climate change. This is because genetic variance is a product not only of habitat suitability in conservation areas but also of efficient protection and management. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a tree species (family Rutaceae) that is endangered due to excessive and illegal harvesting for use in Chinese medicine. Here, we test a general computational method for the prediction of priority conservation areas (PCAs) by measuring the genetic diversity of P. amurense across the entirety of northeast China using a single strand repeat analysis of twenty microsatellite markers. Using computational modeling, we evaluated the geographical distribution of the species, both now and in different future climate change scenarios. Different populations were analyzed according to genetic diversity, and PCAs were identified using a spatial conservation prioritization framework. These conservation areas were optimized to account for the geographical distribution of P. amurense both now and in the future, to effectively promote gene flow, and to have a long period of validity. In situ and ex situ conservation, strategies for vulnerable populations were proposed. Three populations with low genetic diversity are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change, making conservation of genetic diversity challenging due to decreasing habitat suitability. Habitat suitability was important for the assessment of genetic variability in existing nature reserves, which were found to be much smaller than the proposed PCAs. Finally, a simple set of conservation measures was established through modeling. This combined molecular and computational ecology approach provides a framework for planning the protection of species endangered by climate

  18. Plant genetic resources: What can they contribute toward increased crop productivity?

    PubMed Central

    Hoisington, David; Khairallah, Mireille; Reeves, Timothy; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Skovmand, Bent; Taba, Suketoshi; Warburton, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    To feed a world population growing by up to 160 people per minute, with >90% of them in developing countries, will require an astonishing increase in food production. Forecasts call for wheat to become the most important cereal in the world, with maize close behind; together, these crops will account for ≈80% of developing countries’ cereal import requirements. Access to a range of genetic diversity is critical to the success of breeding programs. The global effort to assemble, document, and utilize these resources is enormous, and the genetic diversity in the collections is critical to the world’s fight against hunger. The introgression of genes that reduced plant height and increased disease and viral resistance in wheat provided the foundation for the “Green Revolution” and demonstrated the tremendous impact that genetic resources can have on production. Wheat hybrids and synthetics may provide the yield increases needed in the future. A wild relative of maize, Tripsacum, represents an untapped genetic resource for abiotic and biotic stress resistance and for apomixis, a trait that could provide developing world farmers access to hybrid technology. Ownership of genetic resources and genes must be resolved to ensure global access to these critical resources. The application of molecular and genetic engineering technologies enhances the use of genetic resources. The effective and complementary use of all of our technological tools and resources will be required for meeting the challenge posed by the world’s expanding demand for food. PMID:10339521

  19. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  20. Evolutionary conservation and modulation of a juvenile growth-regulating genetic program

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Angela; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Rezvani, Geoffrey; Chen, Weiping; Forcinito, Patricia; Cheung, Crystal S.F.; Baron, Jeffrey; Lui, Julian C.K.

    2014-01-01

    Body size varies enormously among mammalian species. In small mammals, body growth is typically suppressed rapidly, within weeks, whereas in large mammals, growth is suppressed slowly, over years, allowing for a greater adult size. We recently reported evidence that body growth suppression in rodents is caused in part by a juvenile genetic program that occurs in multiple tissues simultaneously and involves the downregulation of a large set of growth-promoting genes. We hypothesized that this genetic program is conserved in large mammals but that its time course is evolutionarily modulated such that it plays out more slowly, allowing for more prolonged growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, using expression microarray analysis, we identified a set of genes that are downregulated with age in both juvenile sheep kidney and lung. This overlapping gene set was enriched for genes involved in cell proliferation and growth and showed striking similarity to a set of genes downregulated with age in multiple organs of the juvenile mouse and rat, indicating that the multiorgan juvenile genetic program previously described in rodents has been conserved in the 80 million years since sheep and rodents diverged in evolution. Using microarray and real-time PCR, we found that the pace of this program was most rapid in mice, more gradual in rats, and most gradual in sheep. The findings support the hypothesis that a growth-regulating genetic program is conserved among mammalian species but that its pace is modulated to allow more prolonged growth and therefore greater adult body size in larger mammals. PMID:24776848

  1. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  2. High Risks of Losing Genetic Diversity in an Endemic Mauritian Gecko: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C.; Groombridge, Jim J.; Küpper, Clemens; Burke, Terry; Dawson, Deborah A.; Gallagher, Laura E.; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Genetic structure can be a consequence of recent population fragmentation and isolation, or a remnant of historical localised adaptation. This poses a challenge for conservationists since misinterpreting patterns of genetic structure may lead to inappropriate management. Of 17 species of reptile originally found in Mauritius, only five survive on the main island. One of these, Phelsuma guimbeaui (lowland forest day gecko), is now restricted to 30 small isolated subpopulations following severe forest fragmentation and isolation due to human colonisation. We used 20 microsatellites in ten subpopulations and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers in 13 subpopulations to: (i) assess genetic diversity, population structure and genetic differentiation of subpopulations; (ii) estimate effective population sizes and migration rates of subpopulations; and (iii) examine the phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes found in different subpopulations. Microsatellite data revealed significant population structure with high levels of genetic diversity and isolation by distance, substantial genetic differentiation and no migration between most subpopulations. MtDNA, however, showed no evidence of population structure, indicating that there was once a genetically panmictic population. Effective population sizes of ten subpopulations, based on microsatellite markers, were small, ranging from 44 to 167. Simulations suggested that the chance of survival and allelic diversity of some subpopulations will decrease dramatically over the next 50 years if no migration occurs. Our DNA-based evidence reveals an urgent need for a management plan for the conservation of P. guimbeaui. We identified 18 threatened and 12 viable subpopulations and discuss a range of management options that include translocation of threatened subpopulations to retain maximum allelic diversity, and habitat restoration and assisted migration to decrease genetic erosion and inbreeding for the viable subpopulations. PMID

  3. Hawksbill turtle terra incognita: conservation genetics of eastern Pacific rookeries.

    PubMed

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Liles, Michael J; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Henríquez, Ana V; Torres, Perla; Urteaga, José; Vallejo, Felipe; Baquero, Andres; LeMarie, Carolina; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chaves, Jaime A; Hart, Catherine E; Peña de Niz, Alejandro; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Otterstrom, Sarah; Yañez, Ingrid L; LaCasella, Erin L; Frey, Amy; Jensen, Michael P; Dutton, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Prior to 2008 and the discovery of several important hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting colonies in the EP (Eastern Pacific), the species was considered virtually absent from the region. Research since that time has yielded new insights into EP hawksbills, salient among them being the use of mangrove estuaries for nesting. These recent revelations have raised interest in the genetic characterization of hawksbills in the EP, studies of which have remained lacking to date. Between 2008 and 2014, we collected tissue samples from 269 nesting hawksbills at nine rookeries across the EP and used mitochondrial DNA sequences (766 bp) to generate the first genetic characterization of rookeries in the region. Our results inform genetic diversity, population differentiation, and phylogeography of the species. Hawksbills in the EP demonstrate low genetic diversity: We identified a total of only seven haplotypes across the region, including five new and two previously identified nesting haplotypes (pooled frequencies of 58.4% and 41.6%, respectively), the former only evident in Central American rookeries. Despite low genetic diversity, we found strong stock structure between the four principal rookeries, suggesting the existence of multiple populations and warranting their recognition as distinct management units. Furthermore, haplotypes EiIP106 and EiIP108 are unique to hawksbills that nest in mangrove estuaries, a behavior found only in hawksbills along Pacific Central America. The detected genetic differentiation supports the existence of a novel mangrove estuary "reproductive ecotype" that may warrant additional conservation attention. From a phylogeographic perspective, our research indicates hawksbills colonized the EP via the Indo-Pacific, and do not represent relict populations isolated from the Atlantic by the rising of the Panama Isthmus. Low overall genetic diversity in the EP is likely the combined result of few rookeries, extremely small

  4. Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land-conservation areas.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-11-09

    In managed natural resource systems, such as fisheries and rangelands, there is a recognized trade-off between managing for short-term benefits and managing for longer term resilience. Management actions that stabilize ecological attributes or processes can improve productivity in the supply of ecosystem goods and services in the short term but erode system resilience at longer time scales. For example, fire suppression in rangelands can increase grass biomass initially but ultimately result in an undesirable, shrub-dominated system. Analyses of this phenomenon have focused largely on how management actions influence slow-changing biophysical system attributes (such as vegetation composition). Data on the frequency of management actions that reduce natural ecological variation on 66 private land-conservation areas (PLCAs) in South Africa were used to investigate how management actions are influenced by manager decision-making approaches, a largely ignored part of the problem. The pathology of natural resource management was evident on some PLCAs: increased focus on revenue-generation in decision making resulted in an increased frequency of actions to stabilize short-term variation in large mammal populations, which led to increased revenues from ecotourism or hunting. On many PLCAs, these management actions corresponded with a reduced focus on ecological monitoring and an increase in overstocking of game (i.e., ungulate species) and stocking of extralimitals (i.e., game species outside their historical range). Positives in natural resource management also existed. Some managers monitored slower changing ecological attributes, which resulted in less-intensive management, fewer extralimital species, and lower stocking rates. Our unique, empirical investigation of monitoring-management relationships illustrates that management decisions informed by revenue monitoring versus ecological monitoring can have opposing consequences for natural resource productivity and

  5. Genetic status and conservation of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Powell, John D.; Amish, Stephen J.; Luikart, Gordon; Kovach, Ryan; Boyer, Matthew; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is one of the greatest threats to the persistence of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi. Large protected areas, where nonhybridized populations are interconnected and express historical life history and genetic diversity, provide some of the last ecological and evolutionary strongholds for conserving this species. Here, we describe the genetic status and distribution of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout Glacier National Park, Montana. Admixture between Westslope Cutthroat Trout and introduced Rainbow Trout O. mykiss and Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii bouvieri was estimated by genotyping 1,622 fish collected at 115 sites distributed throughout the Columbia, Missouri, and South Saskatchewan River drainages. Currently, Westslope Cutthroat Trout occupy an estimated 1,465 km of stream habitat and 45 lakes (9,218 ha) in Glacier National Park. There was no evidence of introgression in samples from 32 sites along 587 km of stream length (40% of the stream kilometers currently occupied) and 17 lakes (2,555 ha; 46% of the lake area currently occupied). However, nearly all (97%) of the streams and lakes that were occupied by nonhybridized populations occurred in the Columbia River basin. Based on genetic status (nonnative genetic admixture ≤ 10%), 36 Westslope Cutthroat Trout populations occupying 821 km of stream and 5,482 ha of lakes were identified as “conservation populations.” Most of the conservation populations (N = 27; 736 km of stream habitat) occurred in the Columbia River basin, whereas only a few geographically restricted populations were found in the South Saskatchewan River (N = 7; 55 km) and Missouri River (N = 2; 30 km) basins. Westslope Cutthroat Trout appear to be at imminent risk of genomic extinction in the South Saskatchewan and Missouri River basins, whereas populations in the Columbia River basin are widely distributed and conservation efforts are actively addressing threats from

  6. Quantifying multivariate plasticity: genetic variation in resource acquisition drives plasticity in resource allocation to components of life history.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Beckerman, Andrew P

    2013-03-01

    Acquisition and allocation of resources are central to life-history theory. However, empirical work typically focuses only on allocation despite the fact that relationships between fitness components may be governed by differences in the ability of individuals to acquire resources across environments. Here, we outline a statistical framework to partition the genetic basis of multivariate plasticity into independent axes of genetic variation, and quantify for the first time, the extent to which specific traits drive multitrait genotype-environment interactions. Our framework generalises to analyses of plasticity, growth and ageing. We apply this approach to a unique, large-scale, multivariate study of acquisition, allocation and plasticity in the life history of the cricket, Gryllus firmus. We demonstrate that resource acquisition and allocation are genetically correlated, and that plasticity in trade-offs between allocation to components of fitness is 90% dependent on genetic variance for total resource acquisition. These results suggest that genotype-environment effects for resource acquisition can maintain variation in life-history components that are typically observed in the wild.

  7. Conservation genetics and evolution in an endangered species: research in Sonoran topminnows.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Hurt, Carla R

    2012-12-01

    Conservation genetics of endangered species has primarily focused on using neutral markers to determine units of conservation and estimating evolutionary parameters. Because the endangered Sonoran topminnow can be bred in the laboratory and has a relatively short generation length, experiments to examine both detrimental and adaptive variations are also possible. Here, we discuss over two decades of empirical and experimental observations in the Sonoran topminnow. Results from this research have been used to determine species and evolutionary significant units using neutral markers, document inbreeding and outbreeding depression and genetic load using experimental crosses, and measure adaptive differences in fitness-related traits and variation in pathogen resistance among populations and major histocompatibility complex genotypes. In addition, both premating and postmating reproductive isolation between Gila and Yaqui topminnows have been experimentally determined, and the predicted and observed ancestry of these two species in experimental crosses has been examined over time. Although some have suggested that endangered species are unsuitable for experimentation because of both practical and ethical considerations, these results demonstrate that in this case an endangered species can be employed to examine fundamental questions in conservation and evolution.

  8. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variability and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys: implications for breeding and conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Erbano, Marianna; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell E; Santos, Élide Pereira Dos

    2015-04-08

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02) with a 0.79 average Simpson's index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%). A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48) was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and of arithmetic average (UPGMA) were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  10. Myrciaria dubia, an Amazonian fruit: population structure and its implications for germplasm conservation and genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Nunes, C F; Setotaw, T A; Pasqual, M; Chagas, E A; Santos, E G; Santos, D N; Lima, C G B; Cançado, G M A

    2017-03-22

    Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) is an Amazon tree that produces a tart fruit with high vitamin C content. It is probably the fruit with the highest vitamin C content among all Brazilian fruit crops and it can be used to supplement daily vitamin C dose. This property has attracted the attention of consumers and, consequently, encouraged fruit farmers to produce it. In order to identify and select potential accessions for commercial exploitation and breeding programs, M. dubia has received considerable research attention. The identification and characterization of genetic diversity, as well as identification of the population structure of accessions preserved in germplasm banks are fundamental for the success of any breeding program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of 10 M. dubia populations obtained from the shores of Reis Lake, located in the municipality of Caracaraí, Roraima, Brazil. Fourteen polymorphic inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to study the population genetic diversity, which resulted in 108 identified alleles. Among the 14 primers, GCV, UBC810, and UBC827 produced the highest number of alleles. The study illustrated the suitability and efficiency of ISSR markers to study the genetic diversity of M. dubia accessions. We also revealed the existence of high genetic variability among both accessions and populations that can be exploited in future breeding programs and conservation activities of this species.

  11. Putting the Pieces Together: Clinically Relevant Genetic and Genomic Resources for Hospitalists and Neonatologists.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rebecca; Khromykh, Alina; Babcock, Holly; Jenevein, Callie; Solomon, Benjamin D

    2017-02-01

    Genetic conditions are individually rare but are common in aggregate, and they often present in the neonatal and early pediatric periods. These conditions are often severe, can be difficult to diagnose and manage, and may heavily affect patients, families, health care systems, and society. Because of recent technological advances, the availability and uptake of genetic and genomic testing are increasing rapidly. However, there is a dearth of trained geneticists and genetic counselors to help guide and explain these conditions and relevant tests. To help hospitalists, neonatologists, and related practitioners navigate this complex and evolving field, we have compiled a list of free (mostly Web-based) resources relevant to the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions and related disorders. These resources, which we describe individually, can be useful for nongeneticist clinicians, and some also include material that can be used to explain concepts and conditions to patients or families. The resources presented are divided into the following categories (which overlap): general information, databases of genetic conditions, resources that can help generate differential diagnoses, databases of genetic testing laboratories (to help with logistics of ordering tests), information on newborn screening, and other resources. We also include a separate list of helpful textbooks and manuals. We conclude with 2 examples describing how some of these resources would be used by a pediatric hospitalist or neonatologist during the inpatient management of a child with a suspected genetic condition.

  12. Conservation genetics of Amorpha georgiana (Fabaceae), an endangered legume of the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J

    2009-11-01

    Amorpha georgiana (Fabaceae) is an endangered legume species found in longleaf pine savannas in the Southeastern United States. Approximately 900 individuals and 14 populations remain, most of which are concentrated in North Carolina. Eleven microsatellite loci were used to explore genetic diversity, population structure and recent population bottlenecks using genotypic data from 132 individuals collected at ten different localities. Although A. georgiana is quite rare, it exhibited high levels of genetic diversity (17.7 alleles/locus; H(o) = 0.65, H(E) = 0.75). Most of the genetic variation was found within rather than between populations of this species. The single remaining Georgia population was well differentiated from populations of the Carolinas (F(ST) > 0.1), which had weaker structure among them (F(ST) < 0.1). Only a geographically disjunct population showed strong evidence of a recent population bottleneck, perhaps due to a recent founder event. Hybridization with A. herbacea was also detected. For conservation management plans, A. georgiana populations in each geographic region (North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia) plus a disjunct population in North Carolina (Holly Shelter) should be treated as separate management units for which in situ conservation, including habitat restoration and use of prescribed burns, should ensure persistence of this species and preservation of its evolutionary potential.

  13. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species.

  14. Genetic evaluation of the efficacy of in situ and ex situ conservation of Parashorea chinensis (Dipterocarpaceae) in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoming; He, Tianhua; Xu, Zaifu

    2005-08-01

    The majority of research in genetic diversity yields recommendations rather than actual conservation achievements. We assessed the efficacy of actual in situ and ex situ efforts to conserve Parashorea chinensis (Dipterocarpaceae) against the background of the geographic pattern of genetic variation of this species. Samples from seven natural populations, including three in a nature reserve, and one ex situ conservation population were studied. Across the natural populations, 47.8% of RAPD loci were polymorphic; only 20.8% on average varied at the population level. Mean population genetic diversity was 0.787 within natural populations and 1.410 for the whole species. Significant genetic differentiation among regions and isolation by distance were present on larger scales (among regions). AMOVA revealed that the majority of the among-population variation occurred among regions rather than among populations within regions. Regression analysis, Mantel test, principal coordinates analysis, and cluster analysis consistently demonstrated increasing genetic isolation with increasing geographic distance. Genetic differentiation within the region was quite low compared to that among regions. Multilocus spatial autocorrelation analysis of these three populations revealed random distribution of genetic variation in two populations, but genetic clustering was detected in the third population. The ex situ conserved population contained a medium level of genetic variation compared with the seven natural populations; it contained 77.1% of the total genetic variation of this species and 91% of the moderate to high frequency RAPD fragments (f > 0.05). Exclusive bands were detected in natural populations, but none were found in the ex situ conserved population. The populations protected in the nature reserve contained most of the genetic variation of the whole species, with 81.4% of the total genetic variation and 95.7% of the fragments with moderate to high frequency (f > 0.05) of

  15. A conserved genetic pathway determines inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Teo, Zhi Wei Norman; Bi, Yang; Song, Shiyong; Xi, Wanyan; Yang, Xiaobei; Yin, Zhongchao; Yu, Hao

    2013-03-25

    The spatiotemporal architecture of inflorescences that bear flowers determines plant reproductive success by affecting fruit set and plant interaction with pollinators. The inflorescence architecture that displays great diversity across flowering plants depends on developmental decisions at inflorescence meristems. Here we report a key conserved genetic pathway determining inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). In Arabidopsis, four MADS-box genes, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, AGAMOUS-LIKE 24, and SEPALLATA 4 act redundantly and directly to suppress TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) in emerging floral meristems. This is indispensable for the well-known function of APETALA1 in specifying floral meristems and is coupled with a conformational change in chromosome looping at the TFL1 locus. Similarly, we demonstrate that the orthologs of these MADS-box genes in rice determine panicle branching by regulating TFL1-like genes. Our findings reveal a conserved regulatory pathway that determines inflorescence architecture in flowering plants.

  16. Northwest Climate Science Center: Integrating Regional Research, Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, P.; Bisbal, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010, among the first three of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium (Oregon State University, University of Idaho, and the University of Washington), which has the capacity to generate and coordinate decision-relevant science related to climate, thus serving stakeholders across the Pacific Northwest region. The NW CSC has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. Collaboration between the NW CSC and these three LCCs addresses the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Early in 2012, the NW CSC released its first Strategic Plan for the period 2012-2015. The plan offers a practical blueprint for operation and describes five core services that the NW CSC provides to the Northwest community. These core services emphasize (a) bringing together the regional resource management and science communities to calibrate priorities and ensure efficient integration of climate science resources and tools when addressing practical issues of regional significance; (b) developing and implementing a stakeholder-driven science agenda which highlights the NW CSC's regional leadership in generating scenarios of the future environment of the NW; (c) supporting and training graduate students at the three consortium universities, including through an annual 'Climate science boot camp'; (d) providing a platform for effective climate-change-related communication among scientists, resource managers, and the general public; and (e) national leadership in data management and climate scenario development.

  17. MOLECULAR GENETIC TOOLS FOR ASSESSING THE STATUS AND VULNERABILITY OF AQUATIC RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of ecological indicators that efficiently capture the present condition and project future vulnerabilities of biological resources is critical to sound environmental management. For this reason, the ORD's Ecological Research Program is developing genetic methodologies...

  18. Metapopulation effective size and conservation genetic goals for the Fennoscandian wolf (Canis lupus) population

    PubMed Central

    Laikre, L; Olsson, F; Jansson, E; Hössjer, O; Ryman, N

    2016-01-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population descends from only five individuals, is isolated, highly inbred and exhibits inbreeding depression. To meet international conservation goals, suggestions include managing subdivided wolf populations over Fennoscandia as a metapopulation; a genetically effective population size of Ne⩾500, in line with the widely accepted long-term genetic viability target, might be attainable with gene flow among subpopulations of Scandinavia, Finland and Russian parts of Fennoscandia. Analytical means for modeling Ne of subdivided populations under such non-idealized situations have been missing, but we recently developed new mathematical methods for exploring inbreeding dynamics and effective population size of complex metapopulations. We apply this theory to the Fennoscandian wolves using empirical estimates of demographic parameters. We suggest that the long-term conservation genetic target for metapopulations should imply that inbreeding rates in the total system and in the separate subpopulations should not exceed Δf=0.001. This implies a meta-Ne of NeMeta⩾500 and a realized effective size of each subpopulation of NeRx⩾500. With current local effective population sizes and one migrant per generation, as recommended by management guidelines, the meta-Ne that can be reached is ~250. Unidirectional gene flow from Finland to Scandinavia reduces meta-Ne to ~130. Our results indicate that both local subpopulation effective sizes and migration among subpopulations must increase substantially from current levels to meet the conservation target. Alternatively, immigration from a large (Ne⩾500) population in northwestern Russia could support the Fennoscandian metapopulation, but immigration must be substantial (5–10 effective immigrants per generation) and migration among Fennoscandian subpopulations must nevertheless increase. PMID:27328654

  19. Metapopulation effective size and conservation genetic goals for the Fennoscandian wolf (Canis lupus) population.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L; Olsson, F; Jansson, E; Hössjer, O; Ryman, N

    2016-10-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population descends from only five individuals, is isolated, highly inbred and exhibits inbreeding depression. To meet international conservation goals, suggestions include managing subdivided wolf populations over Fennoscandia as a metapopulation; a genetically effective population size of Ne⩾500, in line with the widely accepted long-term genetic viability target, might be attainable with gene flow among subpopulations of Scandinavia, Finland and Russian parts of Fennoscandia. Analytical means for modeling Ne of subdivided populations under such non-idealized situations have been missing, but we recently developed new mathematical methods for exploring inbreeding dynamics and effective population size of complex metapopulations. We apply this theory to the Fennoscandian wolves using empirical estimates of demographic parameters. We suggest that the long-term conservation genetic target for metapopulations should imply that inbreeding rates in the total system and in the separate subpopulations should not exceed Δf=0.001. This implies a meta-Ne of NeMeta⩾500 and a realized effective size of each subpopulation of NeRx⩾500. With current local effective population sizes and one migrant per generation, as recommended by management guidelines, the meta-Ne that can be reached is ~250. Unidirectional gene flow from Finland to Scandinavia reduces meta-Ne to ~130. Our results indicate that both local subpopulation effective sizes and migration among subpopulations must increase substantially from current levels to meet the conservation target. Alternatively, immigration from a large (Ne⩾500) population in northwestern Russia could support the Fennoscandian metapopulation, but immigration must be substantial (5-10 effective immigrants per generation) and migration among Fennoscandian subpopulations must nevertheless increase.

  20. Establishing a regulatory framework for a RCRA (Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act) corrective action program

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, the environmental community has become keenly aware of problems associated with integration of the demanding regulations that apply to environmental restoration activities. One can not attend an EPA-sponsored conference on Superfund without distracting questions concerning the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the applicability of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) to sites that do not qualify for the National Priorities List (NPL). In particular, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been greatly criticized for its inability to define a comprehensive approach for cleaning up its hazardous waste sites. This article presents two decision flowcharts designed to resolve some of this confusion for DOE. The RCRA/CERCLA Integration Diagram can help the environmental manager determine which law applies and under what conditions, and the RCRA Corrective Action Decision Flowchart can guide the manager in determining which specific sections of RCRA apply to a RCRA-lead environmental restoration program. 13 refs.