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Sample records for genetically modified organismsgmos

  1. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly.

  2. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  3. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  4. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  5. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  6. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  7. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  8. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  9. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    PubMed

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  10. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  11. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  12. Genetically modified pig models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Nana; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-02-20

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies. Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases, some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology. Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy, physiology, and genome. Thus, pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases. This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic disorders. We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  13. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  14. [Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].

    PubMed

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene.

  15. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  16. Epigenetics: modifying the genetic blueprint.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint. While it is now possible to draw direct connections between specific DNA sequences and specific physical features and to predict disease risk, the effects of certain genes can be masked by a process called "epigenetics." Here, I summarize our current understanding of epigenetics and it affects gene expression, with impacts on health and aging.

  17. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  18. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  19. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  20. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies.

  1. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions.

  2. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  3. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  4. Genetically modified pigs to model human diseases.

    PubMed

    Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

    2014-02-01

    Genetically modified mice are powerful tools to investigate the molecular basis of many human diseases. Mice are, however, of limited value for preclinical studies, because they differ significantly from humans in size, general physiology, anatomy and lifespan. Considerable efforts are, thus, being made to develop alternative animal models for a range of human diseases. These promise powerful new resources that will aid the development of new diagnostics, medicines and medical procedures. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genetically modified porcine models described in the scientific literature: various cancers, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, autosomal polycystic kidney disease, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, haemophilia A, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Alzheimer’s disease, various forms of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods.

  6. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  7. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  8. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  9. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  10. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  12. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed.

  13. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  14. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L; Lassen, J; Kettlitz, B; Scholderer, J; Beekman, V; Berdal, K G

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists, and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased public participation has been promoted as a way of increasing trust in institutional practices associated with the biosciences, although questions still arise as to how to best utilise the outputs of such exercises in policy development. This issue will become more of a priority as decision-making systems become more transparent and open to public scrutiny. The results are discussed in the context of risk assessment and risk management, and recommendations for future research are made. In particular, it is recommended that new methods are developed in order to integrate public values more efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general.

  15. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  16. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering.

  17. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  18. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  19. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  20. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  1. Health risks of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Dona, Artemis; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2009-02-01

    As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.

  2. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  3. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-07-07

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.

  4. Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Anita

    2003-01-01

    Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins. However, there are concerns about the safety of genetically modified crops. The concerns are that they may contain allergenic substances due to introduction of new genes into crops. Another concern is that genetic engineering often involves the use of antibiotic-resistance genes as "selectable markers" and this could lead to production of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics. This would create a serious public health problem. The genetically modified crops might contain other toxic substances (such as enhanced amounts of heavy metals) and the crops might not be "substantially equivalent" in genome, proteome, and metabolome compared with unmodified crops. Another concern is that genetically modified crops may be less nutritious; for example, they might contain lower amounts of phytoestrogens, which protect against heart disease and cancer. The review of available literature indicates that the genetically modified crops available in the market that are intended for human consumption are generally safe; their consumption is not associated with serious health problems. However, because of potential for exposure of a large segment of human population to genetically modified foods, more research is needed to ensure that the genetically modified foods are safe for human consumption.

  5. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  6. [Hygienic characteristics of foodstuffs containing genetically modified components].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, E N; Ivanov, A A; Fokin, M V

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes the results of the investigations of raw foods, foodstuffs for genetically modified components, conducted by the state sanitary and epidemiological service of the Russian Federation during its current sanitary inspection. The presented materials cover 2003-2004. The findings suggest that there is a great deal of foods containing genetically modified sources on the market and show the priority groups of foodstuffs and the distribution of these foods on the territory of the Russian Federation.

  7. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  8. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  9. Genetic modifiers of obesity and bariatric surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Samantha; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable trait. While acute and chronic changes in body weight or obesity-related comorbidities are heavily influenced by environmental factors, there are still strong genomic modifiers that help account for inter-subject variability in baseline traits and in response to interventions. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of genetic influences on obesity, with emphasis on genetic modifiers of baseline traits and responses to intervention. We begin by reviewing how genetic variants can influence obesity. We then examine genetic modifiers of weight loss via different intervention strategies, focusing on known and potential modifiers of surgical weight loss outcomes. We will pay particular attention to the effects of patient age on outcomes, addressing the risks and benefits of adopting early intervention strategies. Finally, we will discuss how the field of bariatric surgery can leverage knowledge of genetic modifiers to adopt a personalized medicine approach for optimal outcomes across this widespread and diverse patient population.

  10. Allelopathic effect of methanolic extracts of genetically modified and non-genetically modified canola on soybean.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study on the effect of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola on soybean was carried out for physiological and biochemical biosafety assessment of GM canola. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) under sterilized conditions. The extracts applied were of 3, 5, and 10% concentrations. The results showed that methanolic extracts of both GM and non-GM canola improved the germination percentage. However, germination rate index was significantly decreased with concomitant increase in mean germination time of soybean. A significant rate of decrease was observed in root fresh weight while increase in shoot length took place; when treatment of GM canola extracts were applied, however, no effect was observed in shoot fresh weight. A significant increase in protein contents, as well as phenolic, carotenoids, proline, and chlorophyll a content, was observed when different GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean; however, a significant rate of reduction in chlorophyll b content was observed by the application of GM canola treatment. Similar results were observed for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities. A significant increase in the sugar content levels was observed when GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean.

  11. Genetically Modified T Cells to Target Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Simone; Rodríguez-Cruz, Tania G.; DeRenzo, Christopher; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical procedures, radiation, and chemotherapy the outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. While GBM cells express antigens that are potentially recognized by T cells, GBMs prevent the induction of GBM-specific immune responses by creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The advent of gene transfer has allowed the rapid generation of antigen-specific T cells as well as T cells with enhanced effector function. Here we review recent advances in the field of cell therapy with genetically modified T cells and how these advances might improve outcomes for patients with GBM in the future. PMID:24427741

  12. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  13. MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart.

  14. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  15. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents.

  16. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  17. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes.

    PubMed

    Bub, Achim; Möseneder, Jutta; Wenzel, Gerhard; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Briviba, Karlis

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However, zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether zeaxanthin from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes is bioavailable in humans. Three men participated in this randomized, controlled double-blinded, crossover pilot study. All subjects consumed 1,100 g of mashed potatoes, either genetically modified (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica GM47/18; 3 mg zeaxanthin) or wild-type control potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica; 0.14 mg zeaxanthin). A second treatment was followed after a 7-day wash-out period. The concentration of zeaxanthin was significantly increased in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified potatoes and 0.27 mg of the 3 mg zeaxanthin dose could be detected in chylomicrons. Consumption of control potatoes had no effect on concentrations of zeaxanthin in chylomicrons. After normalization of chylomicron zeaxanthin for plasma triacylglycerol, the time course of zeaxanthin concentrations peaked at 7 h after consumption of genetically modified potatoes. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other major potato carotenoids such as lutein and beta-carotene in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified and wild type control potatoes. Thus, consumption of zeaxanthin-rich potatoes significantly increases chylomicron zeaxanthin concentrations suggesting that potentially such potatoes could be used as an important dietary source of zeaxanthin.

  18. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated

  19. An algorithm for the identification of genetically modified animals.

    PubMed

    Forabosco, Flavio; Sundström, Fredrik L; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2013-05-01

    The diffusion of genetically modified (GM) animals has generated a demand for accurate and unique identification to assure compliance with relevant national and international legislation. Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities.

  20. Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-12-01

    Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components.

  1. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  2. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  3. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  4. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  5. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  6. Genetically modified foods: hazard identification and risk assessment. Session summary.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nobuyuki

    2002-07-01

    During a Joint Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP)/International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) International Symposium, held between June 24 and 28, 2001, in Orlando, FL, USA, there was a session entitled as "Genetically Modified Foods: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment". The purpose of this session was to present and discuss the current situations in the US, European Union and Japan for the public concerns, safety assessments and regulations on genetically modified (GM) products used as foods or food ingredients. Assuming the wide and fast growing of the usage of GM products, it is the duty for us as toxicologic pathologists, to supply reliable data on their safety and possible risks or hazards as a world-wide basis to not only governments or regulatory agencies but also general public of our countries.

  7. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  8. Application of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational research.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Hitomi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    Pigs are increasingly being recognized as good large-animal models for translational research, linking basic science to clinical applications in order to establish novel therapeutics. This article reviews the current status and future prospects of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational studies. It also highlights pigs specially designed as disease models, for xenotransplantation or to carry cell marker genes. Finally, use of porcine somatic stem and progenitor cells in preclinical studies of cell transplantation therapy is also discussed.

  9. How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Gene

    2004-03-01

    A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be more complex than indicated by the results from Lusk's study.

  10. Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, John P; Walsh, Ultan F; O'Donnell, Anne; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; O'Gara, Fergal

    2002-08-01

    The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors, biotechnology has the potential to make significant advances through the use of genetically modified (GM) microbial inoculants that can reduce agri-chemical usage or remediate polluted environments. Although many GM inoculants have been developed and tested under laboratory conditions, commercial exploitation has lagged behind. Here, we review scientific and regulatory requirements that must be satisfied as part of that exploitation process. Particular attention is paid to new European Union (EU) regulations (Directives) that govern the testing and release of genetically modified organisms and microbial plant protection inoculants in the EU. With regard to the release of GM inoculants, the impact of the inoculant and the fate of modified genes are important concerns. Long term monitoring of release sites is necessary to address these issues. Data are reported from the monitoring of a site 6 years after release of GM Sinorhizobium meliloti strains. It was found that despite the absence of a host plant, the GM strains persisted in the soil for at least 6 years. Horizontal transfer and microevolution of a GM plasmid between S. meliloti strains was also observed. These data illustrate the importance of assessing the long-term persistence of GM inoculants.

  11. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-04-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  12. Controversy over genetically modified organisms: the governing laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Keatley, K L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modified. There are other concerns from some of the scientific world and some government officials and organizations such as the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to qualify GMOs as safe for long-term use. Of particular concern are the allergenic properties, a GMO may impart, possible transfer effects of antibiotic resistance (given that antibiotic resistant marker genes are used for many GMOs), the expression of previously unexpressed traits, and the drift of pollen from genetically modified crops. It has also been noted that the laws and regulations governing the biotechnology world are outdated, are not comprehensive, and span too many agencies. The primary agencies currently regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  13. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

    2004-09-01

    Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

  15. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  16. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

    2015-02-05

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  17. The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kateřina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

  18. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient either because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard, because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds, or because they can be overcome by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code to confer metabolic dependence on nonstandard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically circumvent their biocontainment mechanisms using environmentally available compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape via mutagenesis and HGT. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

  19. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    DOE PAGES

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; ...

    2015-01-21

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. In this paper, we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass theirmore » biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. Finally, this work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.« less

  20. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-21

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. In this paper, we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. Finally, this work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  1. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  2. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  3. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  4. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-09-18

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China’s major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans. PMID:26380899

  7. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.

  8. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  9. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s...

  10. Unintended effects in genetically modified crops: revealed by metabolomics?

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2006-03-01

    In Europe the commercialization of food derived from genetically modified plants has been slow because of the complex regulatory process and the concerns of consumers. Risk assessment is focused on potential adverse effects on humans and the environment, which could result from unintended effects of genetic modifications: unintended effects are connected to changes in metabolite levels in the plants. One of the major challenges is how to analyze the overall metabolite composition of GM plants in comparison to conventional cultivars, and one possible solution is offered by metabolomics. The ultimate aim of metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all small molecules in an organism; however, a single method enabling complete metabolome analysis does not exist. Given a comprehensive extraction method, a hierarchical strategy--starting with global fingerprinting and followed by complementary profiling attempts--is the most logical and economic approach to detect unintended effects in GM crops.

  11. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells for improved islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Ye, Zhaoyang; Mahato, Ram I

    2011-10-03

    The use of adult stem cells for therapeutic purposes has met with great success in recent years. Among several types of adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) and other sources have gained popularity for basic research and clinical applications because of their therapeutic potential in treating a variety of diseases. Because of their tissue regeneration potential and immune modulation effect, MSCs were recently used as cell-based therapy to promote revascularization, increase pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and avoid allograft rejection in islet transplantation. Taking advantage of the recent progress in gene therapy, genetically modified MSCs can further enhance and expand the therapeutic benefit of primary MSCs while retaining their stem-cell-like properties. This review aims to gain a thorough understanding of the current obstacles to successful islet transplantation and discusses the potential role of primary MSCs before or after genetic modification in islet transplantation.

  12. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  13. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  14. [Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops.

  15. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed.

  16. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products.

  17. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  18. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  19. Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.

    PubMed

    Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

    2013-06-15

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted.

  20. Conservation biology, genetically modified organisms, and the biosafety protocol.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan; Sendashonga, Cyrie

    2006-12-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects on biological diversity of the use of living modified organisms (LMOs, which are commonly known by similar terms such as genetically modified organisms). At the international level these concerns are addressed in part by an agreement known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and include potential toxic effects of insect-resistant crops on nontarget organisms and potential ecological effects of gene flow from modified crops, fish, microorganisms, or insects to wild species or counterparts. We reviewed the protocol's main provisions, including those dealing with risk assessment and risk management, decision making on imports, documentation accompanying shipments, and liability resulting from damages caused by LMOs. A medium-term program of work has been adopted by the parties, which includes the potential contribution of conservation biologists to delivering capacity building, developing risk assessment guidance, evaluating mechanisms of potential ecological damages from LMOs, and other issues. Conservation biologists and other experts have opportunities to influence the negotiations and implementation of the protocol by providing inputs at meetings, offering expertise to governments and organizations, and participating in or developing relevant projects and initiatives. Involvement of conservation biologists in the implementation and further development of the protocol would contribute to its effectiveness.

  1. Molecular scissors and their application in genetically modified farm animals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-06-01

    Molecular scissors (MS), incl. Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN), Transcription-activator like endoncleases (TALENS) and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These molecular scissors mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, MS can increase the targeting rate 10,000-fold, and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair is stimulated at a similar frequency. The successful application of different MS has been shown in different organisms, including insects, amphibians, plants, nematodes, and mammals, including humans. Recently, another novel class of molecular scissors was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN, especially by its easy design. MS can be successfully employed for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, incl. creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on molecular scissors, their underlying mechanism and focuses on new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals.

  2. Identification of Associations Between Genetic Factors and Asthma that are Modified by Obesity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0010 Identification of Associations Between Genetic Factors and Asthma That Are Modified by Obesity Andrew T...Between Genetic Factors and Asthma That Are Modified by Obesity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-2-6371 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...3 3.4 SNP Genetic Analysis ...................................................................................................... 4 3.5

  3. Production and characterization of genetically modified human IL-11 variants.

    PubMed

    Sano, Emiko; Takei, Toshiaki; Ueda, Takuya; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been expected as a drug on severe thrombocytopenia caused by myelo-suppressive chemotherapy. Whereas, development of IL-11 inhibitor is also expected for a treatment against IL-11 related cancer progression. Here, we will demonstrate the creation of various kinds of genetically modified hIL-11s. Modified vectors were constructed by introducing N- or O-glycosylation site on the region of hIL-11 that does not belong to the core α-helical motif based on the predicted secondary structure. N-terminal (N: between 22 to 23 aa), the first loop (M1:70 to 71 aa), the second loop (M2:114-115 aa), the third loop (M3:160-161 aa) and C-terminal (C: 200- aa) were selected for modification. A large scale production system was established and the characteristics of modified hIL-11s were evaluated. The structure was analyzed by amino acid sequence and composition analysis and CD-spectra. Glycan was assessed by monosaccharide composition analysis. Growth promoting activity and biological stability were analyzed by proliferation of T1165 cells. N-terminal modified proteins were well glycosylated and produced. Growth activity of 3NN with NASNASNAS sequence on N-terminal was about tenfold higher than wild type (WT). Structural and biological stabilities of 3NN were also better than WT and residence time in mouse blood was longer than WT. M1 variants lacked growth activity though they are well glycosylated and secondary structure is very stable. Both of 3NN and OM1 with AAATPAPG on M1 associated with hIL-11R strongly. These results indicate N-terminal and M1 variants will be expected for practical use as potent agonists or antagonists of hIL-11.

  4. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  5. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed.

  6. Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Here we provide the first experimental evidence that public concerns about the use of animals in research are accentuated when genetically modified (GM) animals are used. Using an online survey, we probed participant views on two uses of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without GM. We surveyed 327 animal technicians, researchers, advocates, university students and others. In both scenarios and across demographics, support dropped off when the research required the use of GM pigs or GM corn. For example, 66% of participants supported using pigs to reduce phosphorus pollution, but this declined to 49% when the pigs were fed GM corn and to 20% when the research required the creation of a new GM line of pigs. Those involved in animal research were more consistently supportive compared to those who were not or those who were vegetarians.

  7. Genetically modified mosquito: the Malaysian public engagement experience.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, T S Saraswathy; Lee, Han Lim; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-11-01

    On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control.

  8. Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2006-12-01

    Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

  9. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.

  10. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods.

  11. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  12. Molecular characterization of genetically-modified crops: Challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Yan, Xiaofang; Biswas, Sukumar; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    Molecular characterization lays a foundation for safety assessment and subsequent monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops. Due to the target-specific nature, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods cannot comprehensively detect unintended gene insertions, let alone unknown GM events. As more and more new developed GM crops including new plant breeding technology (NPBT) generated crops are in the pipeline for commercialization, alternative -omics approaches, particularly next generation sequencing, have been developed for molecular characterization of authorized or unauthorized GM (UGM) crops. This review summarizes first those methods, addresses their challenges, and discusses possible strategies for molecular characterization of engineered crops generated by NPBT, highlighting needs for a global information-sharing database and cost-effective, accurate and comprehensive molecular characterization approaches.

  13. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  14. Acceptance of genetically modified foods: the relation between technology and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.

  15. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  16. Genetically modified foods, science, consumers and the media.

    PubMed

    Rowland, I R

    2002-02-01

    In contrast to the situation in the USA, where a wide range of genetically modified (GM) foods is available, in Europe very few GM products have been approved for marketing as foods, and there is widespread public concern about their safety and environmental impact. The marketing of a GM crop for food use in Europe falls under the EC novel foods regulations, and applications require the submission of an extensive dossier of information. The safety evaluation of GM foods presents considerable problems both in the conduct and interpretation of experimental studies, because conventional toxicity tests used in the evaluation of simple chemicals may not be appropriate for whole foods. To rationalise the safety evaluation process and to circumvent the difficulties in toxicological assessment of food materials, the concept of substantial equivalence has been developed. The concept is that if it can be demonstrated that the novel food is essentially similar to its conventional counterpart in terms of critical nutritional or anutritional components, then it is likely to be no more or less toxic than the latter. The possible introduction of unintended effects by the genetic modification process is particularly problematic for the safety evaluation process. The new genomic and post-genomic techniques are potentially valuable in the safety evaluation of GM foods, although they are as yet in their infancy.

  17. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research.

  18. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics.

  19. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.

  20. Environmental impacts of genetically modified plants: A review.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad; Kouretas, Demetrios; Balias, Georgios; Savolainen, Kai; Tutelyan, Victor A; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Lee, Jeong Dong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2017-03-27

    Powerful scientific techniques have caused dramatic expansion of genetically modified crops leading to altered agricultural practices posing direct and indirect environmental implications. Despite the enhanced yield potential, risks and biosafety concerns associated with such GM crops are the fundamental issues to be addressed. An increasing interest can be noted among the researchers and policy makers in exploring unintended effects of transgenes associated with gene flow, flow of naked DNA, weediness and chemical toxicity. The current state of knowledge reveals that GM crops impart damaging impacts on the environment such as modification in crop pervasiveness or invasiveness, the emergence of herbicide and insecticide tolerance, transgene stacking and disturbed biodiversity, but these impacts require a more in-depth view and critical research so as to unveil further facts. Most of the reviewed scientific resources provide similar conclusions and currently there is an insufficient amount of data available and up until today, the consumption of GM plant products are safe for consumption to a greater extent with few exceptions. This paper updates the undesirable impacts of GM crops and their products on target and non-target species and attempts to shed light on the emerging challenges and threats associated with it. Underpinning research also realizes the influence of GM crops on a disturbance in biodiversity, development of resistance and evolution slightly resembles with the effects of non-GM cultivation. Future prospects are also discussed.

  1. New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Kasama, Kikuko; Toyota, Akie; Nouno, Masanori; Saita, Ayako; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Kubo, Misao

    2004-09-01

    In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study.

  2. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  3. Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2005-01-01

    The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  4. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  5. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  6. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  7. Gene flow, invasiveness, and ecological impact of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Suzanne I; Beckie, Hugh J; Hall, Linda M

    2009-06-01

    The main environmental concerns about genetically modified (GM) crops are the potential weediness or invasiveness in the crop itself or in its wild or weedy relatives as a result of transgene movement. Here we briefly review evidence for pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from GM crops to non-GM or other GM crops and to wild relatives. The report focuses on the effect of abiotic and biotic stress-tolerance traits on plant fitness and their potential to increase weedy or invasive tendencies. An evaluation of weediness and invasive traits that contribute to the success of agricultural weeds and invasive plants was of limited value in predicting the effect of biotic and abiotic stress-tolerance GM traits, suggesting context-specific evaluation rather than generalizations. Fitness data on herbicide, insect, and disease resistance, as well as cold-, drought-, and salinity-tolerance traits, are reviewed. We describe useful ecological models predicting the effects of gene flow and altered fitness in GM crops and wild/weedy relatives, as well as suitable mitigation measures. A better understanding of factors controlling population size, dynamics, and range limits in weedy volunteer GM crop and related host or target weed populations is necessary before the effect of biotic and abiotic stress-tolerance GM traits can be fully assessed.

  8. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  9. Safety of foods derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John A

    2003-03-01

    Biopharmaceuticals have been available for clinical use for nearly three decades, but foods derived from agribiotechnology have been available for just under a decade. Controversy surrounding foods from genetically modified (GM) plants has focused primarily upon their allergenicity, with lesser concerns about antibiotic resistance genes. Concerns are related to possible environmental impacts on non-human species, including effects on non-target species (e.g., butterflies) and on the development of so-called "super weeds." Food allergies are no more prevalent in foods from GM plants than in conventional foods. Further, the use of antibiotics in the development of GM plants does not pose a significant risk to the human population. Foods from the current GM plant products have been shown not to pose any detrimental effects to humans, and, in fact, nutritionally enhanced products are being developed. GM foods are subjected globally to intense regulatory scrutiny, and extensive data have been provided consistently to regulatory agencies in the United States on a voluntary basis, with mandatory reporting of data soon to be in force. Existing environmental concerns appear to be unjustified on the basis of existing data and experience.

  10. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  11. Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats.

    PubMed

    Chrenková, Mária; Sommer, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana; Nitrayová, Sona; Prostredná, Miroslava

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15 g.kg-1 DM) and of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan (2.6 and 1.7 g.kg-1 DM, respectively) were observed. In the biological experiment carried out on rats the tested maize lines were the only dietary sources of nitrogen, thus, the experimental diets contained 9% CP in dietary dry matter. In the feeding experiment no significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed between groups receiving conventional or transgenic maize (1.51 and 1.41, respectively). Also almost equal results were obtained in the balance experiments. Both maize lines revealed a high nitrogen digestibility (84.9 and 84.5%, respectively) and the net protein utilization amounted to 63.5 and 63.2%, respectively. From these results can be concluded that regarding nutrient composition and utilisation, genetically modified (RR) maize is equivalent to isogenic maize.

  12. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  13. Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments.

    PubMed

    Schilter, Benoît; Constable, Anne

    2002-02-28

    The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context, regulatory control may develop in several directions. One response to the public concern is to strengthen the data requirements for the risk assessment process. Several avenues have been proposed. They include the application of technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics to assess unintended changes, and the development of predictive methods to evaluate allergenicity. Obligations for post-launch surveillance have appeared in regulations. Criteria are required to define when and why such approaches are necessary. Significant challenges including feasibility and validation of the methods, and safety relevance of the data generated will have to be addressed before any general application of these new approaches. Effective monitoring requires the ability to identify the presence of GM products and trace their origin. Traceability and labeling are therefore important developments in the GM food regulatory arena. Both require the development of reliable analytical detection tools.

  14. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended.

  15. Genetically modified crops: success, safety assessment, and public concern.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om V; Ghai, Shivani; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-08-01

    With the emergence of transgenic technologies, new ways to improve the agronomic performance of crops for food, feed, and processing applications have been devised. In addition, ability to express foreign genes using transgenic technologies has opened up options for producing large quantities of commercially important industrial or pharmaceutical products in plants. Despite this high adoption rate and future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the environment. Potential contamination of the environment and food chains has prompted detailed consideration of how such crops and the molecules that they produce can be effectively isolated and contained. One of the reasonable steps after creating a transgenic plant is to evaluate its potential benefits and risks to the environment and these should be compared to those generated by traditional agricultural practices. The precautionary approach in risk management of GM plants may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Effective risk assessment and monitoring mechanisms are the basic prerequisites of any legal framework to adequately address the risks and watch out for new risks. Several agencies in different countries monitor the release of GM organisms or frame guidelines for the appropriate application of recombinant organisms in agro-industries so as to assure the safe use of recombinant organisms and to achieve sound overall development. We feel that it is important to establish an internationally harmonized framework for the safe handling of recombinant DNA organisms within a few years.

  16. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods.

  17. Genetically modified crops for biomass increase. Genes and strategies.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Cristian Antonio; Hemerly, Adrianna Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been developed to accelerate the creation of new varieties with improved characteristics such as disease resistance, stress tolerance and higher quality composition. However, agriculture, without minimizing its role in food, feed and fiber source, has become important for the energy matrix of many countries. GMCs are also attractive systems that could fulfill the requirements for these new necessities. An increase of crop yields in an environmental friendly system is a new goal for plant biology research in the twenty-first century. In particular, biomass yield improvement is needed to render the use of biofuels economically feasible. In this context, research directed toward increasing biomass production has attracted much attention and a considerable effort is being made to reach new goals. Nonetheless, in some cases differentiated strategies are needed, as biomass improvement requires approaches other than those employed with traditional crops. This review summarizes the various approaches applied so far to modulate plant growth applying molecular biology-based strategies and increase biomass production, and it highlights several outstanding issues about the developmental constraints that must be addressed.

  18. Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Kleter, Gijs A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

  19. [Methods of identification and assessment of safety of genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A; Nesterenko, L N; Naroditskiĭ, B S

    2011-01-01

    Methods of identification of genetically modified microorganisms (GMM), used in manufacture food on control probes are presented. Results of microbiological and molecular and genetic analyses of food products and their components important in microbiological and genetic expert examination of GMM in foods are considered. Examination of biosafety of GMM are indicated.

  20. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  1. Genetic Modifiers of MeCP2 Function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cukier, Holly N.; Perez, Alma M.; Collins, Ann L.; Zhou, Zhaolan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Botas, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The levels of methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT) as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins) and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction) abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax), the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself. PMID:18773074

  2. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  3. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods.

  4. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  5. Transgene × Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology. PMID:20635001

  6. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-06-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

  7. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

  8. Risks and benefits of genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa: views from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Muula, Adamson S; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph M

    2003-02-01

    In 2001 and 2002, many countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have suffered from severe food shortages resulting in an estimated 14 million people facing starvation due to inadequate quantities of the staple maize. The international community's response has been the donation of foodstuffs, including genetically modified maize. Reactions of the recipient countries of Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi have been different. Zambia appealed to the donors not to send genetically modified maize, whereas Malawi accepted the maize donations. Malawi is currently facing many public health challenges because 10% of its 10-million population is HIV-positive, maternal mortality rate has almost doubled between 1992 and 2000, and there are also an estimated 1 million orphans due to HIV/AIDS. In the European Union, genetically modified maize falls under "Novel Foods" and its marketing and distribution are strictly regulated by law. This has never been the case in the southern African countries. In this article, we discuss the ethical challenges associated with genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa. Although genetically modified food offers a way to avoid many adverse effects of food shortages, we believe that some of the ethical questions of genetically modified food donations should be solved first, under the leadership of the donor countries and partnership of the developing countries. There are fears that consummation of genetically modified maize could have adverse health effects. These fears must be addressed if the confidence of developing countries in the donor community is to be maintained.

  9. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  10. Recent advances in genome editing and creation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Butler, James R; Ladowski, Joseph M; Martens, Gregory R; Tector, Matthew; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The field of xenotransplantation is benefiting greatly from recent advances in genetic engineering. The efficiency and pace with which new model animals are being created has dramatically sped progress towards clinical relevance. Endonuclease-driven genome editing now allows for the efficient generation of targeted genetic alterations. Herein we review the available methods of genetic engineering that have been successfully employed to create genetically modified pigs.

  11. Preventing the spread of malaria and dengue fever using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed.

  12. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents.

  13. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) website: genome-wide association analysis for genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H.; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. OBJECTIVE Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. METHODS In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. RESULTS Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. CONCLUSIONS Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/. PMID:26444025

  14. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  15. How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modified organisms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.

  16. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  17. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  18. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  19. Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

  20. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  1. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms.

  2. Chemical Genetic Screens for TDP-43 Modifiers and ALS Drug Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0573 TITLE: Chemical Genetic Screens for TDP-43...15 Sept. 2012 – 14 Sept. 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chemical Genetic Screens for TDP-43 Modifiers and ALS Drug Discovery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...phenotypes in three unique in vivo genetic models of ALS that we have recently generated. Our new, functionally validated models are worms (C

  3. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  4. Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barreto Bruno; Gomes, Almério de Castro; Natal, Delsio; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2009-10-01

    The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific promoter into immature females. Advantages of these approaches over other biological and chemical control strategies include: highly species-specific, environmentally safety, low production cost, and high efficacy. The use of this genetic modification technique will constitute an important tool for integrated vector management.

  5. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  6. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  7. Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

  8. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  9. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  10. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  11. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

  12. [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].

    PubMed

    Aris, A; Paris, K

    2010-12-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed.

  13. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.

  14. Amyloid heart disease: genetics translated into disease-modifying therapy.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Brett W; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-03-02

    Given increased awareness and improved non-invasive diagnostic tools, cardiac amyloidosis has become an increasingly recognised aetiology of increased ventricular wall thickness and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Once considered a rare disease with no treatment options, translational research has harnessed novel pathways and led the way to promising treatment options. Gene variants that contribute to amyloid heart disease provide unique opportunities to explore potential disease-modifying therapeutic strategies. Amyloidosis has become the model disease through which gene therapy using small interfering RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides has evolved.

  15. Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I

    2004-07-01

    The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process.

  16. ADAM12: a genetic modifier of preclinical peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingdan; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Farber, Charles R.; Hazarika, Surovi; Jones, W. Schuyler; Craig, Damian; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Lye, R. John; Shah, Svati H.; Annex, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    In prior studies from multiple groups, outcomes following experimental peripheral arterial disease (PAD) differed considerably across inbred mouse strains. Similarly, in humans with PAD, disease outcomes differ, even when there are similarities in risk factors, disease anatomy, arteriosclerotic burden, and hemodynamic measures. Previously, we identified a locus on mouse chromosome 7, limb salvage-associated quantitative trait locus 1 (LSq-1), which was sufficient to modify outcomes following experimental PAD. We compared expression of genes within LSq-1 in Balb/c mice, which normally show poor outcomes following experimental PAD, with that in C57Bl/6 mice, which normally show favorable outcomes, and found that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase gene 12 (ADAM12) had the most differential expression. Augmentation of ADAM12 expression in vivo improved outcomes following experimental PAD in Balb/c mice, whereas knockdown of ADAM12 made outcomes worse in C57Bl/6 mice. In vitro, ADAM12 expression modulates endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis in ischemia, and this appeared to be dependent on tyrosine kinase with Ig-like and EGF-like domain 2 (Tie2) activation. ADAM12 is sufficient to modify PAD severity in mice, and this likely occurs through regulation of Tie2. PMID:26163448

  17. ADAM12: a genetic modifier of preclinical peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Dokun, Ayotunde O; Chen, Lingdan; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Farber, Charles R; Hazarika, Surovi; Jones, W Schuyler; Craig, Damian; Marchuk, Douglas A; Lye, R John; Shah, Svati H; Annex, Brian H

    2015-09-01

    In prior studies from multiple groups, outcomes following experimental peripheral arterial disease (PAD) differed considerably across inbred mouse strains. Similarly, in humans with PAD, disease outcomes differ, even when there are similarities in risk factors, disease anatomy, arteriosclerotic burden, and hemodynamic measures. Previously, we identified a locus on mouse chromosome 7, limb salvage-associated quantitative trait locus 1 (LSq-1), which was sufficient to modify outcomes following experimental PAD. We compared expression of genes within LSq-1 in Balb/c mice, which normally show poor outcomes following experimental PAD, with that in C57Bl/6 mice, which normally show favorable outcomes, and found that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase gene 12 (ADAM12) had the most differential expression. Augmentation of ADAM12 expression in vivo improved outcomes following experimental PAD in Balb/c mice, whereas knockdown of ADAM12 made outcomes worse in C57Bl/6 mice. In vitro, ADAM12 expression modulates endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis in ischemia, and this appeared to be dependent on tyrosine kinase with Ig-like and EGF-like domain 2 (Tie2) activation. ADAM12 is sufficient to modify PAD severity in mice, and this likely occurs through regulation of Tie2.

  18. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis.

  19. Coherent spectroscopic methods for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moguilnaya, T.; Suminov, Y.; Botikov, A.; Ignatov, S.; Kononenko, A.; Agibalov, A.

    2016-12-01

    We developed the new automatic method that combines the method of forced luminescence and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This method is used for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution. We carried out the statistical spectral analysis of pathogens, genetically modified soy and nano-particles of silver in water from different regions in order to determine the statistical errors of the method. We studied spectral characteristics of these objects in water to perform the initial identification with 95% probability. These results were used for creation of the model of the device for monitor of pathogenic organisms and working model of the device to determine the genetically modified soy in meat.

  20. Genetically modified cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sheyn, Dima; Mizrahi, Olga; Benjamin, Shimon; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

    2010-06-15

    Regenerative medicine appears to take as its patron, the Titan Prometheus, whose liver was able to regenerate daily, as the field attempts to restore lost, damaged, or aging cells and tissues. The tremendous technological progress achieved during the last decade in gene transfer methods and imaging techniques, as well as recent increases in our knowledge of cell biology, have opened new horizons in the field of regenerative medicine. Genetically engineered cells are a tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, albeit a tool whose development is fraught with difficulties. Gene-and-cell therapy offers solutions to severe problems faced by modern medicine, but several impediments obstruct the path of such treatments as they move from the laboratory toward the clinical setting. In this review we provide an overview of recent advances in the gene-and-cell therapy approach and discuss the main hurdles and bottlenecks of this approach on its path to clinical trials and prospective clinical practice.

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibres enhanced with poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-02-01

    Genetically modified flax fibres, derived from transgenic flax with expression of three bacterial genes necessary for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have been analysed. These transgenic flaxes, enhanced with different amount of the PHB, have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes as well as the differences between the natural and genetically modified flax fibres. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibres.

  2. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    PubMed Central

    JIN, Li-Fang; LI, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  3. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY: Information on Prices of Genetically Modified Seeds in the United States and Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-29

    irrigation, and other factors. Roundup Ready soybean seeds were first marketed in the United States and Argentina in 1996. The Monsanto Company, which...While genetically modified seeds are available for many crops, Roundup Ready soybeans and Bt corn are the ones most widely grown. Roundup Ready...soybeans contain a gene that enables soybeans to withstand applications of Roundup -an herbicide effective on many kinds of weeds. Bt corn is genetically

  5. Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods.

    PubMed

    Novak, W K; Haslberger, A G

    2000-06-01

    For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and antinutrients. Analysed were documents of rape (glucosinolates, phytate), maize (phytate), tomato (tomatine, solanine, chaconine, lectins, oxalate), potato (solanine, chaconine, protease-inhibitors, phenols) and soybean (protease-inhibitors, lectins, isoflavones, phytate). In several documents used for notifications no declarations even on essential inherent plant toxins and antinutrients could be found, for instance data on phytate in modified maize were provided only in one of four documents. Significant variations in the contents of these compounds in parental and modified plants especially due to environmental influences were observed: drought stress, for example, was made responsible for significantly increased glucosinolate levels of up to 72.6micromol/g meal in modified and parental rape plants in field trials compared to recommended standard concentrations of less than 30micromol/g. Taking into account these wide natural variations generally the concentrations of inherent plant toxins and antinutrients in modified products were in the range of the concentrations in parental organisms. The results presented indicate that the concept of the substantial equivalence is useful for the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) used for novel foods but possible environmental influences on constituents of modified crops need more attention. Consistent guidelines, specifying data of relevant compounds which have to be provided for notification documents of specific organisms have to be established. Because of the importance of inherent plant

  6. Regulatory options for genetically modified crops in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Bhagirath; Gheysen, Godelieve; Buysse, Jeroen; van der Meer, Piet; Burssens, Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    The introduction of semi-dwarfing, high-yielding and nutrients-responsive crop varieties in the 1960s and 1970s alleviated the suffering of low crop yield, food shortages and epidemics of famine in India and other parts of the Asian continent. Two semi-dwarfing genes, Rht in wheat and Sd-1 in rice heralded the green revolution for which Dr. Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. In contrast, the revolutionary new genetics of crop improvement shamble over formidable obstacles of regulatory delays, political interferences and public misconceptions. India benefited immensely from the green revolution and is now grappling to deal with the nuances of GM crops. The development of GM mustard discontinued prematurely in 2001 and insect-resistant Bt cotton varieties were successfully approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 in an evolving nature of regulatory system. However, the moratorium on Bt brinjal by MOEF in 2010 meant a considerable detour from an objective, science-based, rigorous institutional process of regulatory approval to a more subjective, nonscience-driven, political decision-making process. This study examines what ails the regulatory system of GM crops in India and the steps that led to the regulatory logjam. Responding to the growing challenges and impediments of existing biosafety regulation, it suggests options that are critical for GM crops to take roots for a multiplier harvest.

  7. Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, F

    2001-08-01

    Genetic modification involves the insertion of genes from other organisms (within or between species) into host cells to select for desirable qualities. Potential benefits of GM foods include increased nutritional value; reduced allergenicity; pest and disease-resistance; and enhanced processing value. Possible detrimental outcomes include producing foods with novel toxins, allergens or reduced nutritional value, and development of antibiotic resistance or herbicide-resistant weeds. Benefits to individuals or populations need to be weighed against adverse health and environmental risks, and may differ between developing and Westernised countries. Whether testing and monitoring should exceed requirements for conventional foods is under debate. While not necessarily scientifically justifiable, consumer concerns have resulted in Australian and New Zealand requirements to label foods containing GM-produced proteins. Dissatisfied consumer advocacy groups are calling for all foods involving GM technology to be labelled, irrelevant of whether the final product contains novel protein. Goals to improve the quantity, quality and safety of foods are laudable; however, the primary aim of the bio-food industry is financial gain. GM foods may be as safe as conventional foods but public distrust runs high. It is important that discussion is informed by science and that claims of both benefits and risks are evidence-based, to ensure that the process is driven neither by the vested interest of the bio-technical multinational companies on the one hand, nor ill-informed public fears on the other.

  8. Genetically Modified Plants: What’s the Fuss? (402nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Ben

    2006-03-16

    Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice.

  9. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A.; Monteiro, G.

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  10. Identification of susceptibility genes and genetic modifiers of human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Kenneth; Kammerer, Stefan; Hoyal, Carolyn; Reneland, Rikard; Marnellos, George; Nelson, Matthew R.; Braun, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    The completion of the human genome sequence enables the discovery of genes involved in common human disorders. The successful identification of these genes is dependent on the availability of informative sample sets, validated marker panels, a high-throughput scoring technology, and a strategy for combining these resources. We have developed a universal platform technology based on mass spectrometry (MassARRAY) for analyzing nucleic acids with high precision and accuracy. To fuel this technology, we generated more than 100,000 validated assays for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering virtually all known and predicted human genes. We also established a large DNA sample bank comprised of more than 50,000 consented healthy and diseased individuals. This combination of reagents and technology allows the execution of large-scale genome-wide association studies. Taking advantage of MassARRAY"s capability for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids, allele frequencies are estimated in sample pools containing large numbers of individual DNAs. To compare pools as a first-pass "filtering" step is a tremendous advantage in throughput and cost over individual genotyping. We employed this approach in numerous genome-wide, hypothesis-free searches to identify genes associated with common complex diseases, such as breast cancer, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis, and genes involved in quantitative traits like high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and central fat. Access to additional well-characterized patient samples through collaborations allows us to conduct replication studies that validate true disease genes. These discoveries will expand our understanding of genetic disease predisposition, and our ability for early diagnosis and determination of specific disease subtype or progression stage.

  11. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  12. GENETIC MODIFIERS OF LIVER DISEASE IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jaclyn R.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Ling, Simon C.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Bell, Scott C.; Bourke, Billy; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Colombo, John L.; Debray, Dominique; Fernandez, Adriana; Lacaille, Florence; Macek, Milan; Rowland, Marion; Salvatore, Francesco; Taylor, Christopher J.; Wainwright, Claire; Wilschanski, Michael; Zemková, Dana; Hannah, William B.; Phillips, M. James; Corey, Mary; Zielenski, Julian; Dorfman, Ruslan; Wang, Yunfei; Zou, Fei; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Knowles, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Context A subset (~3–5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease (CFLD) with portal hypertension. Objective To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (SERPINA1, ACE, GSTP1, MBL2, and TGFB1) are associated with severe liver disease in CF patients. Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-stage design was used in this case–control study. CFLD subjects were enrolled from 63 U.S., 32 Canadian, and 18 CF centers outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) as the coordinating site. In the initial study, we studied 124 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/1999–12/2004) and 843 CF controls (patients without CFLD) by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously implicated as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/2005–2/2007) and 1088 CF controls. Main Outcome Measures We compared differences in distribution of genotypes in CF patients with severe liver disease versus CF patients without CFLD. Results The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 (also known as α1-antiprotease and α1-antitrypsin) Z allele (P value=3.3×10−6; odds ratio (OR) 4.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31–9.61), and with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFB1) codon 10 CC genotype (P=2.8×10−3; OR 1.53, CI 1.16–2.03). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.4×10−3; OR 3.42, CI 1.54–7.59), but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.5×10−8; OR 5.04, CI 2.88–8.83). Conclusion The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater odds (OR ~5) to develop severe liver disease with portal hypertension. PMID:19738092

  13. Opinion Building on a Socio-Scientific Issue: The Case of Genetically Modified Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekborg, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study with the following research questions: (a) are pupils' opinions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) influenced by biology teaching; and (b) what is important for the opinion pupils hold and how does knowledge work together with other parameters such as values? 64 pupils in an upper secondary school…

  14. The Importance of Source: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Taylor K.; Rumble, Joy N.; Gay, Keegan D.; Rodriguez, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Even though science says genetically modified (GM) foods are safe, many consumers remain skeptical of the technology. Additionally, the scientific community has trouble communicating to the public, causing consumers to make uninformed decisions. The Millennial Generation will have more buying power than any other generation before them, and more…

  15. Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

  16. Standardization in generating and reporting genetically modified rodent malaria parasites: the RMgmDB database.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid M; Kroeze, Hans; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Janse, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified Plasmodium parasites are central gene function reagents in malaria research. The Rodent Malaria genetically modified DataBase (RMgmDB) ( www.pberghei.eu ) is a manually curated Web - based repository that contains information on genetically modified rodent malaria parasites. It provides easy and rapid access to information on the genotype and phenotype of genetically modified mutant and reporter parasites. Here, we provide guidelines for generating and describing rodent malaria parasite mutants. Standardization in describing mutant genotypes and phenotypes is important not only to enhance publication quality but also to facilitate cross-linking and mining data from multiple sources, and should permit information derived from mutant parasites to be used in integrative system biology approaches. We also provide guidelines on how to submit information to RMgmDB on non-published mutants, mutants that do not exhibit a clear phenotype, as well as negative attempts to disrupt/mutate genes. Such information helps to prevent unnecessary duplication of experiments in different laboratories, and can provide indirect evidence that these genes are essential for blood-stage development.

  17. Assessing Website Quality in Context: Retrieving Information about Genetically Modified Food on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Claire R.; Bird, Nora J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET) is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of…

  18. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  20. Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

  1. TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

  2. Awareness and support of release of genetically modified "sterile" mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Kacey C; Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S; Walker, Kathleen; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H

    2015-02-01

    After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009-2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement.

  3. Effect of feeding cows genetically modified maize on the bacterial community in the bovine rumen.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, S; Gürtler, P; Albrecht, C

    2007-12-01

    Rumen-cannulated cows (n = 4) were fed successively silage made from either conventional or genetically modified (GM) maize. Results revealed no effects of GM maize on the dynamics of six ruminal bacterial strains (investigated by real-time PCR) compared to the conventional maize silage.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  5. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kleter, Gijs A; Noteborn, Hub P J M; Kok, Esther J

    2002-12-27

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism.

  6. Genetic modifiers of Velo- cardio- facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that Tbx1, a T- box containing transcription factor present on the deleted region, is likely responsible for the etiology of the syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in TBX1 have been found in rare non-deleted patients. Despite having the same sized deletion, most VCFS/DGS patients exhibit significant clinical variability. Stochastic, environmental and genetic factors likely modify the phenotype of patients with the disorder. Here, we review mouse genetics studies which may help identify genetic modifiers for VCFS/DGS. PMID:18636633

  7. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits.

  8. Genetic modifiers of the physical malformations in velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vimla S; Morrow, Bernice E

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that Tbx1, a T-box containing transcription factor present on the deleted region, is likely responsible for the etiology of the syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in TBX1 have been found in rare non-deleted patients. Despite having the same sized deletion, most VCFS/DGS patients exhibit significant clinical variability. Stochastic, environmental and genetic factors likely modify the phenotype of patients with the disorder. Here, we review mouse genetics studies, which may help identify possible genetic modifiers for the physical malformations in VCFS/DGS.

  9. Operant-based instrumental learning for analysis of genetically modified models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Trueman, R C; Dunnett, S B; Brooks, S P

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease is the result of an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that codes for the protein huntingtin and results in a progressive sequelae of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The development of genetically modified rodent models of Huntington's disease has led to the need for sensitive behavioural phenotyping. Operant tests for rodents have been developed that can determine the functional deficits in these genetically modified models, from motor, cognitive and emotional domains. The current review discusses tests that employ operant equipment, an automated and highly flexible method for testing rodents. Different operant paradigms are examined in relation to their relevance to Huntington's disease symptomology, as well as summarising research to date on genetic models with these tests.

  10. Safety assessment of a modified acetolactate synthase protein (GM-HRA) used as a selectable marker in genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mathesius, C A; Barnett, J F; Cressman, R F; Ding, J; Carpenter, C; Ladics, G S; Schmidt, J; Layton, R J; Zhang, J X Q; Appenzeller, L M; Carlson, G; Ballou, S; Delaney, B

    2009-12-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to herbicidal active ingredients and can be used as a selectable transformation marker. The safety assessment of the GM-HRA protein is discussed. Bioinformatics comparison of the amino acid sequence did not identify similarities to known allergenic or toxic proteins. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid degradation in simulated gastric fluid (<30s) and intestinal fluid (<1min). The enzymatic activity was completely inactivated at 50 degrees C for 15 min demonstrating heat lability. The protein expressed in planta is not glycosylated and genetically modified soybeans expressing the GM-HRA protein produced similar protein/allergen profiles as its non-transgenic parental isoline. No adverse effects were observed in mice following acute oral exposure at a dose of at least 436 mg/kg of body weight or in a 28-day repeated dose dietary toxicity study at doses up to 1247 mg/kg of body weight/day. The results demonstrate GM-HRA protein safety when used in agricultural biotechnology.

  11. Generation of Genetically Modified Mice using the CRISPR-Cas9 Genome-Editing System

    PubMed Central

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified mice are extremely valuable tools for studying gene function and human diseases. Although the generation of mice with specific genetic modifications through traditional methods using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) has been invaluable in the last two decades, it is an extremely costly, time-consuming and in some cases uncertain technology. The recently described CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology significantly reduces the time and the cost that are required to generate genetically engineered mice, allowing scientist to test more precise and bold hypothesis in vivo. Using this revolutionary methodology we have generated more than one hundred novel genetically engineered mouse strains. In the current protocol, we describe in detail the optimal conditions to generate mice carrying point mutations, chromosomal deletions, conditional alleles, fusion tags or endogenous reporters. PMID:26832688

  12. Generation of Genetically Modified Mice Using the CRISPR-Cas9 Genome-Editing System.

    PubMed

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Williams, Adam; Rongvaux, Anthony; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Genetically modified mice are extremely valuable tools for studying gene function and human diseases. Although the generation of mice with specific genetic modifications through traditional methods using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells has been invaluable in the last two decades, it is an extremely costly, time-consuming, and, in some cases, uncertain technology. The recently described CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology significantly reduces the time and the cost that are required to generate genetically engineered mice, allowing scientists to test more precise and bold hypotheses in vivo. Using this revolutionary methodology we have generated more than 100 novel genetically engineered mouse strains. In the current protocol, we describe in detail the optimal conditions to generate mice carrying point mutations, chromosomal deletions, conditional alleles, fusion tags, or endogenous reporters.

  13. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

  14. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds.

  15. Aquaculture: Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Hallerman, E.M.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outocme of risk assessment and risk management processes resulting from differences among the receiving ecosystems and sets of human values at issue. A number of countries and international institutions have begun development of policies for oversight of genetically modified aquatic organisms. In the United States, a working group commissioned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture incorporated risk assessment and risk management principles into draft performance standards for safely conducting research with genetically modified finfish and shellfish. The performance standards address research with a broad range of aquatic GMO`s and compliance is intended to be voluntary. In contrast, the Canadian policy mandates adherence to specified guidelines for experiments with transgenic aquatic organisms; establishment as national policy is expended soon.

  16. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi.

  17. The legislation of CIS countries on the issue of genetically modified products.

    PubMed

    Mammadov, Vugar; Mustafayeva, Aytan

    2011-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a fast-moving research field that produces many achievements, including genetically modified organisms, which are used during the production of food products. Recent decades have shown that scientists, policy makers and the general public cannot reach a consensus about the benefits and hazards of genetically modified food products. Opinions are so different, and both sides are so well-grounded, that it is not easy to reach a conclusion about this scientific achievement. Nevertheless, food security is one of the main objectives of the state, which is responsible for providing safe food products to its own citizens in the marketplace. This is why states are interested in reviewing these scientific achievements, in terms of the state's national interests and the security of its citizens. This article sets forth: (1) the main advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified products; (2) the role of national legislation in the control of food security; and (3) the attitude toward genetically modified products in the national legislatures of CIS countries. Taking these points into account, the authors come to the conclusion that actual Azerbaijan law is not responding to the changes, which have taken place in recent decades, in development of the world market and technological conditions in the production of food products. This provides the basis to conclude that, in actual conditions, the rights ofAzerbaijan citizens to the safety of food products are not well protected. At the end of this article, the authors make recommendations about the necessity of amendments to the legislation in their own country, towards the goal of greater control over such products in Azerbaijan.

  18. Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrp(rd6) identified by quantitative trait locus analysis.

    PubMed

    Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R; Philip, Vivek M; Stearns, Timothy M; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K; Krebs, Mark P; Nishina, Patsy M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrp(rd6)/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrp(rd6) retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrp(rd6)-associated photoreceptor loss.

  19. Britain's genetically modified crop controversies: the Agriculture and Environment Biotechnology Commission and the negotiation of 'uncertainty'.

    PubMed

    Grove-White, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The genetically modified crop controversies in Britain between 1997 and 2004 involved tensions surrounding the role of science in policy. The author of the paper was a member of the Agriculture and Environment Biotechnology Commission, a novel government advisory body created in 2000, which played a central role in negotiating new policy frameworks. The commission was also a key influence in the creation and execution of the three-pronged official 'GM dialogue' in 2002 and 2003. New understandings of 'uncertainty', both scientific and social, emerged as a result. The outcomes have relevance for the future political handling of other technological fields, including human genetics.

  20. Genetic modifiers of chromatin acetylation antagonize the reprogramming of epi-polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anne-Laure; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Bottin, Hélène; Steinmetz, Lars M; Yvert, Gaël

    2012-09-01

    Natural populations are known to differ not only in DNA but also in their chromatin-associated epigenetic marks. When such inter-individual epigenomic differences (or "epi-polymorphisms") are observed, their stability is usually not known: they may or may not be reprogrammed over time or upon environmental changes. In addition, their origin may be purely epigenetic, or they may result from regulatory variation encoded in the DNA. Studying epi-polymorphisms requires, therefore, an assessment of their nature and stability. Here we estimate the stability of yeast epi-polymorphisms of chromatin acetylation, and we provide a genome-by-epigenome map of their genetic control. A transient epi-drug treatment was able to reprogram acetylation variation at more than one thousand nucleosomes, whereas a similar amount of variation persisted, distinguishing "labile" from "persistent" epi-polymorphisms. Hundreds of genetic loci underlied acetylation variation at 2,418 nucleosomes either locally (in cis) or distantly (in trans), and this genetic control overlapped only partially with the genetic control of gene expression. Trans-acting regulators were not necessarily associated with genes coding for chromatin modifying enzymes. Strikingly, "labile" and "persistent" epi-polymorphisms were associated with poor and strong genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results estimate the amount of natural epigenomic variation that can be lost after transient environmental exposures, and they reveal the complex genetic architecture of the DNA-encoded determinism of chromatin epi-polymorphisms. Our observations provide a basis for the development of population epigenetics.

  1. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-11-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined Cf for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  3. Identification of genetically modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars using event specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marie-José; Meldrum, Allison J; Raymond, Philippe; Dollard, Cheryl

    2005-08-24

    Several genetically modified (GM) cultivars are registered in Canada although they are not currently in commercial production. The GM cultivars can be distinguished from the non-GM and other GM cultivars by analyzing the DNA nucleotide sequence at the insertion site of the transgene corresponding to a single transformation event in the plant genome. Techniques based on modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies were used to generate sequence information from the plant genome flanking the insertion site of transgenic DNA for specific GM potato events. The plant genome sequence adjacent to the transgenic insertion was used to design PCR primers, which could be used in combination with a primer annealing to one of the nearby inserted genetic elements to amplify an event specific DNA fragment. The event specific PCR fragments generated were sequenced to confirm the specificity of the method.

  4. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs.

  5. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-06-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field.

  6. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  7. [Labeling of food containing genetically modified organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation].

    PubMed

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-08-01

    The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.

  8. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing a single Bt gene. On the basis of bioassay data available for Bt toxins alone or in combination, we argue that the current knowledge of Bt protein interactions is of limited relevance in environmental risk assessment (ERA).

  9. Bringing policy relevance and scientific discipline to environmental risk assessment for genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Layton, Raymond; Raybould, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Although public opinion is important in deciding what is valued by society, governments have determined that scientific expertise is required to evaluate potential environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. We suggest how to evaluate rigorously the environmental effects of GM crops in the context of a scientific investigation. Following a disciplined scientific approach to environmental risk assessment (ERA) for GM crops should help resolve controversy in identifying and addressing risk.

  10. Consumer protection from an EU regulation on the mandatory labelling of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    On the 7. November 2003 a new regulation was enforced in the states of the EU to govern the authorisation and labelling of genetically modified food in standardized and legally binding form. Raw materials from GM crops now have to feature in the list of ingredients of the end products. The consumer is free to choose whether or not he accepts gene technology in his food purchases.

  11. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control.

  12. N-methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles as adsorbents for solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Deng, Manchen; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Li

    2013-04-10

    N-Methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles (MIm-MPs) were prepared and applied in the solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from genetically modified soybeans. The adsorption of MIm-MPs for DNA mainly resulted from the strong electrostatic interaction between the positively charged MPs and the negatively charged DNA. The elution of DNA from MPs-DNA conjugates using phosphate buffer resulted from the stronger electrostatic interaction of phosphate ions with MPs than DNA. In the extraction procedure, no harmful reagents (e.g. phenol, chloroform and isopropanol, etc.) used, high yield (10.4 μg DNA per 30 mg sample) and high quality (A260/A280=1.82) of DNA can be realized. The as-prepared DNA was used as template for duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were analyzed by a sieving capillary electrophoresis method. Quick and high quality extraction of DNA template, and fast and high resolution detection of duplex PCR products can be realized using the developed method. No toxic reagents are used throughout the method.

  13. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  14. Managing major data of genetically modified mice: from scientific demands to legal obligations.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Michael; Trauth, Jürgen; Hindi, Iris El; Galuschka, Claudia; Sitek, Dagmar; Schenkel, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    The number of genetically modified mice is increasing rapidly. Several limitations when working with these animals are to be considered: small colonies, the continued danger of loss, often a limited breeding-success, the need to keep those mutants in stock, difficult and costly import-procedures, and also a major (scientific) value of those mutants often available only with major restrictions. To gather relevant information about all active and archived genetically modified mouse lines available in-house (>1.500) and to deal with a unique resource for several, quite different purposes, a data base was developed enabling optimum knowledge management and easy access. The data base covers also legal restraints and is being linked with the institutional publication repository. To identify the lines available detailed information is provided for each line, as the international designation, a short name, the characterization/description, and the genetic modification including the technique used therefore. The origin of the mutation (gene-ID# and donor organism), the origin of regulatory elements and their donors are listed as well as the genetic background, back-cross generation, phenotype, possible publications, keywords, and some in-house information. Also aspects of animal welfare, obligations to record genetically modified organisms, and technology transfer are displayed; the latter to make licenses possible (if legally permitted). Material transfer agreements, patents, or legal restrictions are listed. This data base helps to avoid double-imports, saves animals and costs since a redundant generation or import can be omitted. However, this is a contribution to the 3R principles developed by Russell and Burch.

  15. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: the mediating role of trust.

    PubMed

    Frewer, Lynn J; Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-12-01

    Recent research suggests that public attitudes toward emerging technologies are mainly driven by trust in the institutions promoting and regulating these technologies. Alternative views maintain that trust should be seen as a consequence rather than a cause of such attitudes. To test its actual role, direct as well as mediating effects of trust were tested in an attitude change experiment involving 1,405 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. After prior attitudes to genetic modification in food production had been assessed, participants received different information materials (either product-specific information or balanced/general information about genetic modification in food production) and were asked to evaluate different types of genetically modified foods (either beer or yoghurt). The information materials were attributed to different information sources (either an industry association, a consumer organization, or a government source). After completion, perceived risk and perceived benefit were assessed, and participants indicated their trust in the information sources to which the materials had been attributed. Direct and trust-mediated attitude change effects were estimated in a multi-sample structural equation model. The results showed that information provision had little effect on people's attitudes toward genetically modified foods, and that perceptions of information source characteristics contributed very little to attitude change. Furthermore, the type of information strategy adopted had almost no impact on postexperimental attitudes. The extent to which people trusted the information sources appeared to be driven by people's attitudes to genetically modified foods, rather than trust influencing the way that people reacted to the information. Trust was not driving risk perception-rather, attitudes were informing perceptions of the motivation of the source providing the information.

  16. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  17. Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2005-12-10

    Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability.

  18. Three-generation reproduction toxicity study of genetically modified rice with insect resistant genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yichun; Zhuo, Qin; Gong, Zhaolong; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the three generation reproductive toxicity of the genetically modified rice with insectresistant cry1Ac and sck genes. 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups which were fed with genetically modified rice diet (GM group), parental control rice diet (PR group) and AIN-93 control diet (both used as negative control) respectively. Bodyweight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry, relative organ weights and histopathology for each generation were examined respectively. All the hematology and serum chemistry parameters, organ/body weight indicators were within the normal range or no change to the adverse direction was observed, although several differences in hematology and serum chemistry parameters (WBC, BUN, LDH of male rat, PLT, PCT, MPV of female rats), reproductive data (rate of morphologically abnormal sperm) were observed between GM rice group and two control groups. No macroscopic or histological adverse effects were found or considered as treatment-related, either. Overall, the three generation study of genetically modified rice with cry1Ac and sck genes at a high level showed no unintended adverse effects on rats's reproductive system.

  19. A case study for assessment of microbial community dynamics in genetically modified Bt cotton crop fields.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Manisha; Bhatia, Ranjana; Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2010-08-01

    Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used for growing Bt cotton is postulated to be considerably low as compared to their non-Bt counterparts. Alternatively, it is also speculated that application of a genetically modified crop may alter the bio-geochemical balance of the agriculture field(s). Microbial community composition and dynamics is an important descriptor for assessment of such alterations. In the present study, we have assessed the culturable and non-culturable microbial diversities in Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton soils to determine the ecological consequences of application of Bt cotton. The analyses of microbial community structures indicated that cropping of Bt cotton did not adversely affect the diversity of the microbial communities.

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.

  1. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  2. Approaches for the Identification of Genetic Modifiers of Nutrient Dependent Phenotypes: Examples from Folate

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, John W. R.; MacFarlane, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    By combining the sciences of nutrition, bioinformatics, genomics, population genetics, and epidemiology, nutrigenomics is improving our understanding of how diet and nutrient intake can interact with or modify gene expression and disease risk. In this review, we explore various approaches to examine gene–nutrient interactions and the modifying role of nutrient consumption, as they relate to nutrient status and disease risk in human populations. Two common approaches include the use of SNPs in candidate genes to identify their association with nutritional status or disease outcomes, or genome-wide association studies to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with a given phenotype. Here, we examine the results of various gene–nutrient interaction studies, the association of genetic polymorphisms with disease expression, and the identification of nutritional factors that modify gene-dependent disease phenotypes. We have focused on specific examples from investigations of the interactions of folate, B-vitamin consumption, and polymorphisms in the genes of B-vitamin dependent enzymes and their association with disease risk, followed by an examination of the strengths and limitations of the methods employed. We also present suggestions for future studies, including an approach from an on-going large scale study, to examine the interaction of nutrient intake and genotypic variation and their impact on nutritional status. PMID:25988111

  3. Constrained simulations and excursion sets: understanding the risks and benefits of `genetically modified' haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porciani, Cristiano

    2016-12-01

    Constrained realizations of Gaussian random fields are used in cosmology to design special initial conditions for numerical simulations. We review this approach and its application to density peaks providing several worked-out examples. We then critically discuss the recent proposal to use constrained realizations to modify the linear density field within and around the Lagrangian patches that form dark-matter haloes. The ambitious concept is to forge `genetically modified' haloes with some desired properties after the non-linear evolution. We demonstrate that the original implementation of this method is not exact but approximate because it tacitly assumes that protohaloes sample a set of random points with a fixed mean overdensity. We show that carrying out a full genetic modification is a formidable and daunting task requiring a mathematical understanding of what determines the biased locations of protohaloes in the linear density field. We discuss approximate solutions based on educated guesses regarding the nature of protohaloes. We illustrate how the excursion-set method can be adapted to predict the non-linear evolution of the modified patches and thus fine tune the constraints that are necessary to obtain pre-selected halo properties. This technique allows us to explore the freedom around the original algorithm for genetic modification. We find that the quantity which is most sensitive to changes is the halo mass-accretion rate at the mass scale on which the constraints are set. Finally, we discuss constraints based on the protohalo angular momenta.

  4. Growth promotion of genetically modified hematopoietic progenitors using an antibody/c-Mpl chimera.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Masahiro; Chen, Jianhong; Sogo, Takahiro; Teng, Jinying; Otsu, Makoto; Onodera, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2011-09-01

    Thrombopoietin is a potent cytokine that exerts proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through its cognate receptor, c-Mpl. Therefore, mimicry of c-Mpl signaling by a receptor recognizing an artificial ligand would be attractive to attain specific expansion of genetically modified HSCs. Here we propose a system enabling selective expansion of genetically modified cells using an antibody/receptor chimera that can be activated by a specific antigen. We constructed an antibody/c-Mpl chimera, in which single-chain Fv (ScFv) of an anti-fluorescein antibody was tethered to the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of c-Mpl. When the chimera was expressed in interleukin (IL)-3-dependent pro-B cell line Ba/F3, genetically modified cells were selectively expanded in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a specific antigen. Furthermore, highly purified mouse HSCs transduced with the retrovirus carrying antibody/c-Mpl chimera gene proliferated in vitro in response to BSA-FL, and the cells retained in vivo long-term repopulating abilities. These results demonstrate that the antibody/c-Mpl chimera is capable of signal transduction that mimics wild-type c-Mpl signaling.

  5. [Application of DNA extraction kit, 'GM quicker' for detection of genetically modified soybeans].

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans.

  6. Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perelló, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress. PMID:23882175

  7. A Novel Method for Optimum Global Positioning System Satellite Selection Based on a Modified Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancai; Xue, Guixiang; Kang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for selecting a navigation satellite subset for a global positioning system (GPS) based on a genetic algorithm is presented. This approach is based on minimizing the factors in the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) with an elite conservation strategy, adaptive selection, adaptive mutation, and a hybrid genetic algorithm that can select a subset of the satellites represented by specific numbers in the interval (4 ∼ n) while maintaining position accuracy. A comprehensive simulation demonstrates that the MGA-based satellite selection method effectively selects the correct number of optimal satellite subsets using receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) or fault detection and exclusion (FDE). This method is more adaptable and flexible for GPS receivers, particularly for those used in handset equipment and mobile phones. PMID:26943638

  8. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-04

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  9. A Novel Method for Optimum Global Positioning System Satellite Selection Based on a Modified Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancai; Xue, Guixiang; Kang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for selecting a navigation satellite subset for a global positioning system (GPS) based on a genetic algorithm is presented. This approach is based on minimizing the factors in the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) with an elite conservation strategy, adaptive selection, adaptive mutation, and a hybrid genetic algorithm that can select a subset of the satellites represented by specific numbers in the interval (4 ∼ n) while maintaining position accuracy. A comprehensive simulation demonstrates that the MGA-based satellite selection method effectively selects the correct number of optimal satellite subsets using receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) or fault detection and exclusion (FDE). This method is more adaptable and flexible for GPS receivers, particularly for those used in handset equipment and mobile phones.

  10. Genetically modified enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines induce mucosal immune responses without inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Alexandra; Randall, Roger; Darsley, Michael; Choudhry, Naheed; Thomas, Nicola; Sanderson, Ian R; Croft, Nick M; Kelly, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of acute diarrhoea in children in the developing world, in travellers and in the military. Safe, effective vaccines could reduce morbidity and mortality. As immunity to ETEC is strain specific, the ability to create vaccines in vitro which express multiple antigens would be desirable. It was hypothesised that three genetically attenuated ETEC strains, one with a genetic addition, would be immunogenic and safe, and they were evaluated in the first licensed UK release of genetically modified oral vaccines. Methods Phase 1 studies of safety and immunogenicity were carried out at a Teaching Hospital in London. Varying oral doses of any of three oral vaccines, or placebo, were administered to volunteers of both sexes (n = 98). Peripheral blood responses were measured as serum antibodies (IgG or IgA) by ELISA, antibody‐secreting cell (ASC) responses by enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT), and antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) by ELISA. Mucosal antibody secretion was measured by ELISA for specific IgG and IgA in whole gut lavage fluids (WGLFs). Results Significant mucosal IgA responses were obtained to colonisation factors CFA/I, CS1, CS2 and CS3, both when naturally expressed and when genetically inserted. Dose–response relationships were most clearly evident in the mucosal IgA in WGLF. Vaccines were well tolerated and did not elicit interleukin (IL) 8 or IL6 secretion in WGLF. Conclusions Genetically modified ETEC vaccines are safe and induce significant mucosal IgA responses to important colonisation factors. Mucosal IgA responses were clearly seen in WGLF, which is useful for evaluating oral vaccines. PMID:17566016

  11. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    PubMed

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  12. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health.

  13. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  14. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. I: Conceptual development.

    PubMed

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated a risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived GM foods. The results of this research are presented in three papers. This paper describes the conceptual development of the proposed RBCS that focuses on two categories of adverse health effects: (1) toxic and antinutritional effects, and (2) allergenic effects. The factors that may affect the level of potential health risks of GM foods are identified. For each factor identified, criteria for differentiating health risk potential are developed. The extent to which a GM food satisfies applicable criteria for each factor is rated separately. A concern level for each category of health effects is then determined by aggregating the ratings for the factors using predetermined aggregation rules. An overview of the proposed scheme is presented, as well as the application of the scheme to a hypothetical GM food.

  15. a Modified Genetic Algorithm for Finding Fuzzy Shortest Paths in Uncertain Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A. A.; Delavar, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    In realistic network analysis, there are several uncertainties in the measurements and computation of the arcs and vertices. These uncertainties should also be considered in realizing the shortest path problem (SPP) due to the inherent fuzziness in the body of expert's knowledge. In this paper, we investigated the SPP under uncertainty to evaluate our modified genetic strategy. We improved the performance of genetic algorithm (GA) to investigate a class of shortest path problems on networks with vague arc weights. The solutions of the uncertain SPP with considering fuzzy path lengths are examined and compared in detail. As a robust metaheuristic, GA algorithm is modified and evaluated to tackle the fuzzy SPP (FSPP) with uncertain arcs. For this purpose, first, a dynamic operation is implemented to enrich the exploration/exploitation patterns of the conventional procedure and mitigate the premature convergence of GA technique. Then, the modified GA (MGA) strategy is used to resolve the FSPP. The attained results of the proposed strategy are compared to those of GA with regard to the cost, quality of paths and CPU times. Numerical instances are provided to demonstrate the success of the proposed MGA-FSPP strategy in comparison with GA. The simulations affirm that not only the proposed technique can outperform GA, but also the qualities of the paths are effectively improved. The results clarify that the competence of the proposed GA is preferred in view of quality quantities. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently be utilized to handle FSPP in uncertain networks.

  16. Assessment of tolerance to multistresses and in vitro cell adhesion in genetically modified Lactobacillus plantarum 590.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Tian, Hongtao; Wang, Hongxin; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) is a lactic acid bacterium that has many excellent traits that meet the needs of industrial production. Genetically modified (GM) Lp590 was obtained from Lp that was modified by the insertion of the gene nisI, which can confer resistance to nisin and play a role as a bio-preservative. Here, explorations were made to assess the safety of GM Lp590 and establish an in vitro evaluation model. The ability of Lp590 to tolerate both environmental stresses (such as temperatures ranging from 52 to 4 °C, or exposure to ethanol, oxygen, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit was assessed. Lp590 showed a tolerance to 4 °C and ethanol (20%) within a period of 240 min that was similar to Lp. Notably, Lp590 can tolerate higher temperature (52 °C) and higher levels of H(2)O(2) (2%) and NaCl (4.0 M) than Lp. In contrast, Lp590 has the same gastrointestinal transit tolerance as Lp. In addition, Lp590 can adhere to Caco-2 cells, and it has no adverse effect on the cell membrane in vitro. These results indicate that GM Lp590 has many desirable biological characteristics and has good prospects for industrial applications. A useful and comprehensive exploration has been undertaken to establish a new in vitro evaluation model for genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs).

  17. A Novel Lung Disease Phenotype Adjusted for Mortality Attrition for Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Modifier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Chelsea; Commander, Clayton W.; Collaco, Joseph M.; Strug, Lisa J.; Li, Weili; Wright, Fred A.; Webel, Aaron D.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Stonebraker, Jaclyn R.; Naughton, Kathleen; Dorfman, Ruslan; Sandford, Andrew; Blackman, Scott M.; Berthiaume, Yves; Paré, Peter; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Zielenski, Julian; Durie, Peter; Cutting, Garry R.; Knowles, Michael R.; Corey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic studies of lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis are hampered by the lack of a severity measure that accounts for chronic disease progression and mortality attrition. Further, combining analyses across studies requires common phenotypes that are robust to study design and patient ascertainment. Using data from the North American Cystic Fibrosis Modifier Consortium (Canadian Consortium for CF Genetic Studies, Johns Hopkins University CF Twin and Sibling Study, and University of North Carolina/Case Western Reserve University Gene Modifier Study), the authors calculated age-specific CF percentile values of FEV1 which were adjusted for CF age-specific mortality data. The phenotype was computed for 2061 patients representing the Canadian CF population, 1137 extreme phenotype patients in the UNC/Case Western study, and 1323 patients from multiple CF sib families in the CF Twin and Sibling Study. Despite differences in ascertainment and median age, our phenotype score was distributed in all three samples in a manner consistent with ascertainment differences, reflecting the lung disease severity of each individual in the underlying population. The new phenotype score was highly correlated with the previously recommended complex phenotype, but the new phenotype is more robust for shorter follow-up and for extreme ages. A disease progression and mortality adjusted phenotype reduces the need for stratification or additional covariates, increasing statistical power and avoiding possible distortions. This approach will facilitate large scale genetic and environmental epidemiological studies which will provide targeted therapeutic pathways for the clinical benefit of patients with CF. PMID:21462361

  18. Hlf is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nicole A; Kearney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel genes cause several types of human epilepsies. Often, individuals with the same sodium channel mutation exhibit diverse phenotypes. This suggests that factors beyond the primary mutation influence disease severity, including genetic modifiers. Mouse epilepsy models with voltage-gated sodium channel mutations exhibit strain-dependent phenotype variability, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn2a(Q54) (Q54) mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Q54 mice on the C57BL/6J (B6) strain exhibit delayed seizure onset and improved survival compared to [B6xSJL/J]F1.Q54 mice. We previously mapped two dominant modifier loci that influence Q54 seizure susceptibility and identified Hlf (hepatic leukemia factor) as a candidate modifier gene at one locus. Hlf and other PAR bZIP transcription factors had previously been associated with spontaneous seizures in mice thought to be caused by down-regulation of the pyridoxine pathway. An Hlf targeted knockout mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of Hlf deletion on Q54 phenotype severity. Hlf(KO/KO);Q54 double mutant mice exhibited elevated frequency and reduced survival compared to Q54 controls. To determine if direct modulation of the pyridoxine pathway could alter the Q54 phenotype, mice were maintained on a pyridoxine-deficient diet for 6 weeks. Dietary pyridoxine deficiency resulted in elevated seizure frequency and decreased survival in Q54 mice compared to control diet. To determine if Hlf could modify other epilepsies, Hlf(KO/+) mice were crossed with the Scn1a(KO/+) Dravet syndrome mouse model to examine the effect on premature lethality. Hlf(KO/+);Scn1a(KO/+) offspring exhibited decreased survival compared to Scn1a(KO/+) controls. Together these results demonstrate that Hlf is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations and that modulation of the pyridoxine pathway can also influence phenotype

  19. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits.

  20. PGC-1alpha downstream transcription factors NRF-1 and TFAM are genetic modifiers of Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin HTT (HD) gene. The primary genetic determinant of the age at onset (AO) is the length of the HTT CAG repeat; however, the remaining genetic contribution to the AO of HD has largely not been elucidated. Recent studies showed that impaired functioning of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1a (PGC-1alpha) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and appears to play an important role in HD pathogenesis. Further genetic evidence for involvement of PGC-1alpha in HD pathogenesis was generated by the findings that sequence variations in the PPARGC1A gene encoding PGC-1alpha exert modifying effects on the AO in HD. In this study, we hypothesised that polymorphisms in PGC-1alpha downstream targets might also contribute to the variation in the AO. Results In over 400 German HD patients, polymorphisms in the nuclear respiratory factor 1 gene, NRF-1, and the mitochondrial transcription factor A, encoded by TFAM showed nominally significant association with AO of HD. When combining these results with the previously described modifiers rs7665116 in PPARGC1A and C7028T in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1, mt haplogroup H) in a multivariable model, a substantial proportion of the variation in AO can be explained by the joint effect of significant modifiers and their interactions, respectively. Conclusions These results underscore that impairment of mitochondrial function plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HD and that upstream transcriptional activators of PGC-1alpha may be useful targets in the treatment of HD. PMID:21595933

  1. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F

    2004-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition from feeding rations that contained different sources of genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multiparous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk at the beginning of the experiments. Treatments in Experiment 1 were: Bollgard cotton containing the cry1Ac gene, Bollgard II cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes, Roundup Ready cotton containing the cp4 epsps gene, and a control nongenetically modified but genetically similar cottonseed. In Experiment 2, two commercial sources, a parental control line, and the transgenic cotton containing both cry1Ac and cp4 epsps genes were used as treatments. All cows received the same total mixed ration but with different whole cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide 2.50 kg per cow daily (dry matter [DM] basis) or about 10% of the total diet DM. The ingredient composition of the total mixed ration was 32% alfalfa hay, 28% corn silage, 22% corn grain, 17% soybean meal, and 2% minerals and vitamins. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from a subset of milk samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot hybridization for small fragments of the cry1Ac transgene and an endogenous cotton gene, acp1. No sample was positive for transgenic or plant DNA fragments at the limits of detection for the assays following detailed data evaluation criteria. The DMI, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score did not differ among treatments. Cottonseed from genetically modified varieties used in these studies yielded similar performance in lactating dairy cows when compared to non-transgenic control and reference cottonseed.

  2. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

  3. Ethical, social, and cultural considerations for site selection for research with genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lavery, James V; Harrington, Laura C; Scott, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in technology have made strategies for disease control using genetically modified (GM) vectors more plausible. Selecting an appropriate field site for research with GM mosquitoes may be one of the most complex and significant aspects of the research process. Among the key considerations of the process is the need to address ethical, legal, and cultural (ESC) issues. No guidelines have been developed to date for this complicated and sensitive process. In this paper, we describe a site selection process and a set of preliminary considerations for addressing the ESC aspects of a research program involving genetic strategies for the control of mosquitoes as vectors for dengue viruses. These considerations reflect some of the key ESC issues for site selection decisions for research with GM vectors.

  4. Ecological risk analysis and genetically modified salmon: management in the face of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Darek T R

    2014-02-01

    The commercialization of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon for aquaculture has become a controversial public policy issue. Concerns exist over the potential ecological effects of this biotechnology should animals escape captivity. From within an ecological risk-analysis framework, science has been sought to provide decision makers with evidence upon which to base regulatory decisions pertaining to genetically modified salmon. Here I review the available empirical information on the potential ecological and genetic effects of transgenic salmon and discuss the underlying eco-evolutionary science behind the topic. I conclude that data gaps and irreducible epistemic uncertainties limit the role of scientific inference in support of ecological risk management for transgenic salmon. I argue that predictive uncertainties are pervasive in complex eco-evolutionary systems and that it behooves those involved in the risk-analysis process to accept and communicate these limitations in the interest of timely, clear, and cautious risk-management options.

  5. The mechanisms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Artrish; Cadet, Valerie E; Hielscher, Abigail

    2015-09-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses for the treatment of cancer is an emerging field of cancer research and therapy. Oncolytic viruses are designed to induce tumor specific immunity while replicating selectively within cancer cells to cause lysis of the tumor cells. While there are several forms of oncolytic viruses, the use of vaccinia viruses for oncolysis may be more beneficial than other forms of oncolytic viruses. For example, vaccinia viruses have been shown to exert their anti-tumor effects through genetic engineering strategies which enhance their therapeutic efficacy. This paper will address some of the most common forms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses and will explore the mechanisms whereby they selectively target, enter and destroy cancer cells. Furthermore, this review will highlight how vaccinia viruses activate host immune responses against cancer cells and will address clinical trials evaluating the tumor-directed and killing efficacy of these viruses against solid tumors.

  6. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate-or more abundant and more nutritional-biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds-somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants-as well as the future potential of these techniques.

  7. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate—or more abundant and more nutritional—biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds—somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants—as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  8. Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?

    PubMed

    Kok, Esther J; Pedersen, Jan; Onori, Roberta; Sowa, Slawomir; Schauzu, Marianna; De Schrijver, Adinda; Teeri, Teemu H

    2014-02-01

    The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One of these differences relates to the so-called 'stacked GM events', that is, GMOs, plants so far, where new traits are combined by conventional crossing of different GM plants. This paper advocates rethinking the current food/feed safety assessment of stacked GM events in Europe based on an analysis of different aspects that currently form the rationale for the safety assessment of stacked GM events.

  9. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization.

  10. [Detection of recombinant-DNA in foods from stacked genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Sorokina, E Iu; Chernyshova, O N

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction method was applied to the detection and quantification of MON863 and MON810 in stacked genetically modified maize MON 810xMON 863. The limit of detection was approximately 0,1%. The accuracy of the quantification, measured as bias from the accepted value and the relative repeatability standard deviation, which measures the intra-laboratory variability, were within 25% at each GM-level. A method verification has demonstrated that the MON 863 and the MON810 methods can be equally applied in quantification of the respective events in stacked MON810xMON 863.

  11. What do consumer surveys and experiments reveal and conceal about consumer preferences for genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Assessing consumer perceptions and willingness to pay for genetically modified (GM) foods has been one of the most active areas of empirical research in agricultural economics. Researchers over the past 15 years have delivered well over 100 estimates of consumers' willingness to pay for GM foods using surveys and experimental methods. In this review, we explore a number of unresolved issues related to three questions that are critical when considering the sum of the individual contributions that constitute the evidence on consumer preferences for GM foods.

  12. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-01-01

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

  13. Discrete-time models with mosquitoes carrying genetically-modified bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia

    2012-11-01

    We formulate a homogeneous model and a stage-structured model for the interactive wild mosquitoes and mosquitoes carrying genetically-modified bacteria. We establish conditions for the existence and stability of fixed points for both models. We show that a unique positive fixed point exists and is asymptotically stable if the two boundary fixed points are both unstable. The unique positive fixed point exists and is unstable if the two boundary fixed points are both locally asymptotically stable. Using numerical examples, we demonstrate the models undergoing a period-doubling bifurcation.

  14. A Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus that can Produce Gold Nanoparticles from a Metal Salt Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Love, Andrew J.; Makarov, Valentine V.; Sinitsyna, Olga V.; Shaw, Jane; Yaminsky, Igor V.; Kalinina, Natalia O.; Taliansky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    We genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to surface display a characterized peptide with potent metal ion binding and reducing capacity (MBP TMV), and demonstrate that unlike wild type TMV, this construct can lead to the formation of discrete 10–40 nm gold nanoparticles when mixed with 3 mM potassium tetrachloroaurate. Using a variety of analytical physicochemical approaches it was found that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and stable. Given that the MBP TMV can produce metal nanomaterials in the absence of chemical reductants, it may have utility in the green production of metal nanomaterials. PMID:26617624

  15. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-10-04

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome "fingerprinting" to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars.

  16. Recent patents on biosafety strategies of selectable marker genes in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiming; Hu, Xiaoning; Huang, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been planted world wide since 1990s, but the potential insecurity of selectable marker genes raises the questions about GMC safety. Therefore, several researches have been conducted on marker gene safety issues and recently several patents have been issued on this subject. There are two main approaches to achieve this goal: seeking the biosafety selectable marker and eliminating these insecure marker genes after transformation. Results show that these two systems are quite effective. Recent patents on the two ways are discussed in this review.

  17. Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M

    2013-01-01

    Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types.

  18. A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Rita H

    2013-09-04

    Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars.

  19. Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-10-08

    The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on

  20. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.

  1. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  2. Real-time PCR array as a universal platform for the detection of genetically modified crops and its application in identifying unapproved genetically modified crops in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Shigemitsu, Natsuki; Futo, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-01-14

    We developed a novel type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array with TaqMan chemistry as a platform for the comprehensive and semiquantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) crops. Thirty primer-probe sets for the specific detection of GM lines, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, endogenous reference genes, and donor organisms were synthesized, and a 96-well PCR plate was prepared with a different primer-probe in each well as the real-time PCR array. The specificity and sensitivity of the array were evaluated. A comparative analysis with the data and publicly available information on GM crops approved in Japan allowed us to assume the possibility of unapproved GM crop contamination. Furthermore, we designed a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application, Unapproved GMO Checker version 2.01, which helps process all the data of real-time PCR arrays for the easy assumption of unapproved GM crop contamination. The spreadsheet is available free of charge at http://cse.naro.affrc.go.jp/jmano/index.html .

  3. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Feijó, Tatiana Silveira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n=10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically modified soy group (GG), and a control group (CG). All animals received water and diet ad libitum for 455 days. At the end of this period, the weight of the GG group was the same as that of the OG, and both were higher than CG. Protein intake was similar for the OG and GG, which were significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the CG. The growth rate (GR) of the rats, albumin levels, and total levels of serum protein were comparable for all groups. Hematocrit (p<0.04) and hemoglobin (p<0.03) for the OG and GG were less than the CG. Although the OG and GG demonstrated reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin, both types of soy were utilized in a way similar to casein. This result suggests that the protein quality of soy is parallel to the standard protein casein in terms of growth promotion but not hematological indicators.

  4. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  5. Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Xing, Da; Zhang, Chunsun

    2009-02-01

    The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the copper. On this device, the P35S and Tnos sequences were successfully amplified within 9min, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was estimated to be 0.005 ng microl(-1). Furthermore, a duplex continuous-flow PCR was also reported for the detection of the P35S and Tnos sequences in GMOs simultaneously. This method was coupled with the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Using this method, temperature differences were identified by the specific melting temperature values of two sequences, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was assessed to be 0.01 ng microl(-1). Therefore, our results demonstrated that the continuous-flow PCR assay could discriminate the GMOs in a cost-saving and less time-consuming way.

  6. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.

  7. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-10-27

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use.

  8. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

  9. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    PubMed

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  10. Potential allergenicity research of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Dai, Yunqing; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-07-01

    With the development of genetically modified crops, there has been a growing interest in available approaches to assess the potential allergenicity of novel gene products. We were not sure whether Cry1C could induce allergy. We examined the protein with three other proteins to determine the potential allergenicity of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice. Female Brown Norway (BN) rats received 0.1 mg peanut agglutinin (PNA), 1mg potato acid phosphatase (PAP), 1mg ovalbumin (OVA) or 5 mg purified Cry1C protein dissolved in 1 mL water by daily gavage for 42 days to test potential allergenicity. Ten days after the last gavage, rats were orally challenged with antigens, and physiologic and immunologic responses were studied. In contrast to sensitization with PNA, PAP and OVA Cry1C protein did not induce antigen-specific IgG2a in BN rats. Cytokine expression, serum IgE and histamine levels and the number of eosinophils and mast cells in the blood of Cry1C group rats were comparable to the control group rats, which were treated with water alone. As Cry1C did not show any allergenicity, we make the following conclusion that the protein could be safety used in rice or other plants.

  11. The media and genetically modified foods: evidence in support of social amplification of risk.

    PubMed

    Frewer, Lynn J; Miles, Susan; Marsh, Roy

    2002-08-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with increases and/or decreases in social or media discussion of the risks associated with a particular risk event. However, the collection of attitude data before, during, and after the increased reporting of the risks of genetically modified food in the United Kingdom (spring 1999) has demonstrated that people's risk perceptions do increase and decrease in line with what might be expected upon examination of the amplification and attenuation mechanisms integral to the framework. Perceptions of benefit, however, appeared to be permanently depressed by negative reporting about genetically modified food. Trust in regulatory institutions with responsibility for protecting the public was not affected. It was concluded that the social amplification of risk framework is a useful framework for beginning to explain the potential impact on risk perceptions of a risk event, particularly if that risk event is presented to the public as a new hazard occurring in a crisis context.

  12. Pharmacological profiling of zebrafish behavior using chemical and genetic classification of sleep-wake modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-wake states are impaired in various neurological disorders. Impairment of sleep-wake states can be an early condition that exacerbates these disorders. Therefore, treating sleep-wake dysfunction may prevent or slow the development of these diseases. Although many gene products are likely to be involved in the sleep-wake disturbance, hypnotics and psychostimulants clinically used are limited in terms of their mode of action and are not without side effects. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing new hypnotics and psychostimulants with high efficacy and few side effects. Toward this end, animal models are indispensable for use in genetic and chemical screens to identify sleep-wake modifiers. As a proof-of-concept study, we performed behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with chemical and genetic sleep-wake modifiers. We were able to demonstrate that behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with hypnotics or psychostimulants from 9 to 10 days post-fertilization was sufficient to identify drugs with specific modes of action. We were also able to identify behavioral endpoints distinguishing GABA-A modulators and hypocretin (hcrt) receptor antagonists and between sympathomimetic and non-sympathomimetic psychostimulants. This behavioral profiling can serve to identify genes related to sleep-wake disturbance associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases and novel therapeutic compounds for insomnia and excessive daytime sleep with fewer adverse side effects. PMID:26578964

  13. A practicable detection system for genetically modified rice by SERS-barcoded nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Han, Heyou; Luo, Zhihui; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiuping

    2012-04-15

    Since the global cultivation of genetically modified crops constantly expands, it remains a high demand to establish different ways to sort food and feed that consist or contain genetically modified organisms. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is a flexible tool for biological analysis due to its excellent properties for detecting wide varieties of target biomolecules including nucleic acids. In the present study, a SERS-barcoded nanosensor was developed to detect Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene-transformed rice expressing insecticidal proteins. The barcoded sensor was designed by encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with silica and conjugation of oligonucleotide strands for targeting DNA strands. The transition between the cry1A(b) and cry1A(c) fusion gene sequence was used to construct a specific SERS-based detection method with a detection limit of 0.1 pg/mL. In order to build the determination models to screen transgene, a series mixture of Bt rice and normal rice were prepared for SERS assay, and the limit of detection was 0.1% (w/w) transgenic Bt rice relative to normal rice. The sensitivity and accuracy of the SERS-based assay was comparable with real-time PCR. The SERS-barcoded analytical method would provide precise detection of transgenic rice varieties but also informative supplement to avoid false positive outcomes.

  14. Endpoint visual detection of three genetically modified rice events by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaofu; Jin, Nuo; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Sainan; Miao, Qingmei; Zhu, Qing; Xu, Junfeng

    2012-11-07

    Genetically modified (GM) rice KMD1, TT51-1, and KF6 are three of the most well known transgenic Bt rice lines in China. A rapid and sensitive molecular assay for risk assessment of GM rice is needed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), currently the most common method for detecting genetically modified organisms, requires temperature cycling and relatively complex procedures. Here we developed a visual and rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify three GM rice event-specific junction sequences. Target DNA was amplified and visualized by two indicators (SYBR green or hydroxy naphthol blue [HNB]) within 60 min at an isothermal temperature of 63 °C. Different kinds of plants were selected to ensure the specificity of detection and the results of the non-target samples were negative, indicating that the primer sets for the three GM rice varieties had good levels of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP, with detection limits at low concentration levels (0.01%−0.005% GM), was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. Additionally, the LAMP assay coupled with an indicator (SYBR green or HNB) facilitated analysis. These findings revealed that the rapid detection method was suitable as a simple field-based test to determine the status of GM crops.

  15. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use. PMID:26507568

  16. Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Miyako; Redestig, Henning; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-02-16

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms.

  17. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  18. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  19. Growth control of genetically modified cells using an antibody/c-Kit chimera.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Etsuji; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2012-05-01

    Gene therapy has been regarded as an innovative potential treatment against serious congenital diseases. However, applications of gene therapy remain limited, partly because its clinical success depends on therapeutic gene-transduced cells acquiring a proliferative advantage. To address this problem, we have developed the antigen-mediated genetically modified cell amplification (AMEGA) system, which uses chimeric receptors to enable the selective proliferation of gene-transduced cells. In this report, we describe mimicry of c-Kit signaling and its application to the AMEGA system. We created an antibody/c-Kit chimera in which the extracellular domain of c-Kit is replaced with an anti-fluorescein single-chain Fv antibody fragment and the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor. A genetically modified mouse pro-B cell line carrying this chimera showed selective expansion in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a growth inducer. By further engineering the transmembrane domain of the chimera to reduce interchain interaction we attained stricter ligand-dependency. Since c-Kit is an important molecule in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), this antibody/c-Kit chimera could be a promising tool for gene therapy targeting HSCs.

  20. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  1. Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?

    PubMed

    Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades.

  2. Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.

    PubMed

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance.

  3. Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, K J; Rather, P N; Hare, R S; Miller, G H

    1993-01-01

    The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. Dissemination of these genes is aided by a variety of genetic elements including integrons, transposons, and broad-host-range plasmids. As knowledge of the molecular structure of these enzymes increases, progress can be made in our understanding of how resistance to new aminoglycosides emerges. Images PMID:8385262

  4. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

  6. Utility of genetically modified mice for understanding the neurobiology of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christie D; Kenny, Paul J

    2012-06-01

    Advances in our ability to modify the mouse genome have enhanced our understanding of the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms contributing to addiction-related behaviors underlying substance use and abuse. These experimentally induced manipulations permit greater spatial and temporal specificity for modification of gene expression within specific cellular populations and during select developmental time periods. In this review, we consider the current mouse genetic model systems that have been employed to understand aspects of addiction and highlight significant conceptual advances achieved related to substance use and abuse. The mouse models reviewed herein include conventional knock-out and knock-in, conditional knockout, transgenic, inducible transgenic, mice suitable for optogenetic control of discrete neuronal populations, and phenotype-selected mice. By establishing a reciprocal investigatory relationship between genetic findings in humans and genomic manipulations in mice, a far better understanding of the discrete neuromechanisms underlying addiction can be achieved, which is likely to provide a strong foundation for developing and validating novel therapeutics for the treatment of substance abuse disorders.

  7. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-11-15

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  8. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  9. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.

  10. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Katherine A; Tabuloc, Christine A; Cervantes, Kevin R; Chiu, Joanna C

    2016-03-02

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest.

  11. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Katherine A.; Tabuloc, Christine A.; Cervantes, Kevin R.; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest. PMID:26931800

  12. Development of an innovative immunoassay for CP4EPSPS and Cry1AB genetically modified protein detection and quantification.

    PubMed

    Ermolli, M; Prospero, A; Balla, B; Querci, M; Mazzeo, A; Van Den Eede, G

    2006-09-01

    An innovative immunoassay, called enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) Reverse, based on a new conformation of the solid phase, was developed. The solid support was expressly designed to be immersed directly in liquid samples to detect the presence of protein targets. Its application is proposed in those cases where a large number of samples have to be screened simultaneously or when the simultaneous detection of different proteins is required. As a first application, a quantitative immunoassay for Cry1AB protein in genetically modified maize was optimized. The method was tested using genetically modified organism concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were determined as 0.0056 and 0.0168 (expressed as the percentage of genetically modified organisms content), respectively. A qualitative multiplex assay to assess the presence of two genetically modified proteins simultaneously was also established for the case of the Cry1AB and the CP4EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in genetically modified maize and soy, respectively.

  13. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola.

  14. The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their first commercialization, the diversity of taxa and the genetic composition of transgene sequences in genetically modified plants (GMOs) are constantly increasing. To date, the detection of GMOs and derived products is commonly performed by PCR-based methods targeting specific DNA sequences introduced into the host genome. Information available regarding the GMOs’ molecular characterization is dispersed and not appropriately organized. For this reason, GMO testing is very challenging and requires more complex screening strategies and decision making schemes, demanding in return the use of efficient bioinformatics tools relying on reliable information. Description The GMOseek matrix was built as a comprehensive, online open-access tabulated database which provides a reliable, comprehensive and user-friendly overview of 328 GMO events and 247 different genetic elements (status: 18/07/2013). The GMOseek matrix is aiming to facilitate GMO detection from plant origin at different phases of the analysis. It assists in selecting the targets for a screening analysis, interpreting the screening results, checking the occurrence of a screening element in a group of selected GMOs, identifying gaps in the available pool of GMO detection methods, and designing a decision tree. The GMOseek matrix is an independent database with effective functionalities in a format facilitating transferability to other platforms. Data were collected from all available sources and experimentally tested where detection methods and certified reference materials (CRMs) were available. Conclusions The GMOseek matrix is currently a unique and very valuable tool with reliable information on GMOs from plant origin and their present genetic elements that enables further development of appropriate strategies for GMO detection. It is flexible enough to be further updated with new information and integrated in different applications and platforms. PMID:23965170

  15. The potential role of genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to have regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and immunodulatory effects. There are extensive indications that pig MSCs function satisfactorily across species barriers. Pig MSCs might have considerable therapeutic potential, particularly in xenotransplantation, where they have several potential advantages. (i) pMSCs can be obtained from the specific organ- or cell-source donor pig or from an identical (cloned) pig. (ii) They are easy to obtain in large numbers, negating the need for prolonged ex vivo expansion. (iii) They can be obtained from genetically-engineered pigs, and the genetic modification can be related to the therapeutic goal of the MSCs. We have reviewed our own studies on MSCs from genetically-engineered pigs, and summarize them here. We have successfully harvested and cultured MSCs from wild-type and genetically-engineered pig bone marrow and adipose tissue. We have identified several pig (p)MSC surface markers (positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD166, and negative for CD31, CD45), have demonstrated their proliferation and differentiation (into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts), and evaluated their antigenicity and immune suppressive effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+)T cells. They have identical or very similar characteristics to MSCs from other mammals. Genetically-modified pMSCs are significantly less immunogenic than wild-type pMSCs, and downregulate the human T cell response to pig antigens as efficiently as do human MSCs. We hypothesized that pMSCs can immunomodulate human T cells through induction of apoptosis or anergy, or cause T cell phenotype switching with induction of regulatory T cells, but we could find no evidence for these mechanisms. However, pMSCs upregulated the expression of CD69 on human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the relevance of which is currently under investigation. We conclude that MSCs from genetically-engineered pigs should continue to be

  16. Oxidative Stress-Related Genetic Variants May Modify Associations of Phthalate Exposures with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I-Jen; Karmaus, Wilfried J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phthalate exposure may increase the risk of asthma. Little is known about whether oxidative-stress related genes may alter this association. First, this motivated us to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of the oxidative-stress related genes glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and EPHX1 in children are associated with phthalate urine concentrations. Second, we addressed the question whether these genes may affect the influence of phthalates on asthma. Methods: In a case-control study composed of 126 asthmatic children and 327 controls, urine phthalate metabolites (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP) were measured by UPLC-MS/MS at age 3. Genetic variants were analyzed by TaqMan assay. Information on asthma and environmental exposures was also collected. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were performed. Results: Urine MEHHP levels were associated with asthma (adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI (1.11–1.60). Children with the GSTP1 (rs1695) AA and SOD2 (rs5746136) TT genotypes had higher MEHHP levels as compared to GG and CC types, respectively. Since only SOD2 TT genotype was significantly associated with asthma (adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.78 (1.54–5.02)), we estimated whether SOD2 variants modify the association of MEHHP levels and asthma. As MEHHP concentrations were dependent on GSTP1 and SOD2, but the assessment of interaction requires independent variables, we estimated MEHHP residuals and assessed their interaction, showing that the OR for SOD2 TT was further elevated to 3.32 (1.75–6.32) when the residuals of MEHHP were high. Conclusions: Urine phthalate metabolite concentrations are associated with oxidative-stress related genetic variants. Genetic variants of SOD2, considered to be reflect oxidative stress metabolisms, might

  17. Development of a qualitative real-time PCR method to detect 19 targets for identification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaofu; Wei, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops. Furthermore, most assays showed a very sensitive detection, reaching the limit of ten copies. The 19 assays are the most frequently used genetic elements present in GM crops and theoretically enable the screening of the known GMO described in Chinese markets. Easy to use, fast and cost efficient, this method approach fits the purpose of GMO testing laboratories.

  18. Detection of HbsAg and hATIII genetically modified goats (Caprahircus) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chenyu; Zhang, Qingde; Zhai, Shanli; Liu, Bang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, sensitive and rapid detection systems were designed using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the genetically modified goats. A set of 4 primers were designed for each exogenous nucleic acids HBsAg and hATIII. The DNA samples were first amplified with the outer and inner primers and released a single-stranded DNA,of which both ends were stem-loop structure. Then one inner primer hybridized with the loop, and initiated displacement synthesis in less than 1 h. The result could be visualized by both agarose gel electrophoresis and unaided eyes directly after adding SYBR GREEN 1. The detection limit of LAMP was ten copies of target molecules, indicating that LAMP was tenfold more sensitive than the classical PCR. Furthermore, all the samples of genetically modified goats were tested positively by LAMP, and the results demonstrated that the LAMP was a rapid and sensitive method for detecting the genetically modified organism.

  19. Application of whole genome shotgun sequencing for detection and characterization of genetically modified organisms and derived products.

    PubMed

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Arulandhu, Alfred J; Kok, Esther; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of high-throughput, massive or next-generation sequencing technologies has created a completely new foundation for molecular analyses. Various selective enrichment processes are commonly applied to facilitate detection of predefined (known) targets. Such approaches, however, inevitably introduce a bias and are prone to miss unknown targets. Here we review the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and the preparation of fit-for-purpose whole genome shotgun sequencing libraries for the detection and characterization of genetically modified and derived products. The potential impact of these new sequencing technologies for the characterization, breeding selection, risk assessment, and traceability of genetically modified organisms and genetically modified products is yet to be fully acknowledged. The published literature is reviewed, and the prospects for future developments and use of the new sequencing technologies for these purposes are discussed.

  20. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community. PMID:27829008

  1. DTREEv2, a computer-based support system for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Pertry, Ine; Nothegger, Clemens; Sweet, Jeremy; Kuiper, Harry; Davies, Howard; Iserentant, Dirk; Hull, Roger; Mezzetti, Bruno; Messens, Kathy; De Loose, Marc; de Oliveira, Dulce; Burssens, Sylvia; Gheysen, Godelieve; Tzotzos, George

    2014-03-25

    Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems that can facilitate the risk assessment process. In this paper we describe DTREEv2, a computer-based decision support system for the identification of hazards related to the introduction of GM-crops into the environment. DTREEv2 structures hazard identification and evaluation by means of an Event-Tree type of analysis. The system produces an output flagging identified hazards and potential risks. It is intended to be used for the preparation and evaluation of biosafety dossiers and, as such, its usefulness extends to researchers, risk assessors and regulators in government and industry.

  2. A Modified Decision Tree Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm for Mobile User Classification Problem

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity. PMID:24688389

  3. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common.

  4. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  5. A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit.

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Alan M; May, Mike J; Woiwod, Ian P; Haylock, Lisa A; Champion, Gillian T; Garner, Beulah H; Sands, Richard J N; Qi, Aiming; Pidgeon, John D

    2003-01-01

    The proposed introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops, with claims of improved weed control, has prompted fears about possible environmental impacts of their widespread adoption, particularly on arable weeds, insects and associated farmland birds. In response to this, we have developed a novel weed-management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered by the broad-spectrum partner herbicides. Here, we show the results from two series of field experiments which, taken together, demonstrate that, by using this system, crops can be managed for enhanced weed and insect biomass without compromising yield, thus potentially offering food and shelter to farmland birds and other wildlife. These results could be applicable widely to other row crops, and indicate that creative use of GMHT technology could be a powerful tool for developing more sustainable farming systems in the future. PMID:12639311

  6. Sensitive dependencies and separation distances for genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Joe N

    2002-01-01

    The amount of land available for the coexistent growing of both organic and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops depends on the separation distance between the two types of crop. The form of the decline in the proportion of land available for growing one of these crop types due to increasing separation distance is linear on a suitable scale, but with a slope and intercept that are sensitively dependent on the proportion of the other crop already present. Spatially explicit simulations from realistic scenarios indicate that a major increase in separation distances, currently under review by the UK government, may have serious implications for the future coexistence of organic and GMHT crops in the UK. PMID:12061962

  7. Pregnancy-associated homeostasis and dysregulation: lessons from genetically modified animal models.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Junji; Matsuoka, Toshiki; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Inaba, Saki; Kunita, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Physiological alterations occur in many organ systems during pregnancy. These changes are necessary for the adaptation to pregnancy-specific physiological processes in mother and fetus, and the placenta plays a critical role in the maintenance of homeostasis in pregnancy. Dysregulation of these functional feto-maternal interactions leads to severe complications. There have been many attempts to create animal models that mimic the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, especially pre-eclampsia. In this review, we summarize the physiology of pregnancy and placental function, and discuss the placental gene expression in normal pregnancy. In addition, we assess a number of established animal models focusing on a specific pathogenic mechanism of pre-eclampsia, including genetically modified mouse models involving the renin-angiotensin system. Validation of these animal models would contribute significantly to understanding the basic principles of pregnancy-associated homeostasis and the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  8. Biosynthetic preparation of selectively deuterated phosphatidylcholine in genetically modified Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Selma; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Schiller, Jürgen; Marek, Magdalena; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Arleth, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes and one of the most commonly used phospholipids for reconstitution of membrane proteins into carrier systems such as lipid vesicles, micelles and nanodiscs. Selectively deuterated versions of this lipid have many applications, especially in structural studies using techniques such as NMR, neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering. Here we present a comprehensive study of selective deuteration of phosphatidylcholine through biosynthesis in a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli. By carefully tuning the deuteration level in E. coli growth media and varying the deuteration of supplemented carbon sources, we show that it is possible to achieve a controlled deuteration for three distinct parts of the PC lipid molecule, namely the (a) lipid head group, (b) glycerol backbone and (c) fatty acyl tail. This biosynthetic approach paves the way for the synthesis of specifically deuterated, physiologically relevant phospholipid species which remain difficult to obtain through standard chemical synthesis. PMID:25301578

  9. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights.

  10. Statistical framework for detection of genetically modified organisms based on Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Sander; Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Deforce, Dieter; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; De Loose, Marc; Ruttink, Tom; Herman, Philippe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Roosens, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Because the number and diversity of genetically modified (GM) crops has significantly increased, their analysis based on real-time PCR (qPCR) methods is becoming increasingly complex and laborious. While several pioneers already investigated Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as an alternative to qPCR, its practical use has not been assessed for routine analysis. In this study a statistical framework was developed to predict the number of NGS reads needed to detect transgene sequences, to prove their integration into the host genome and to identify the specific transgene event in a sample with known composition. This framework was validated by applying it to experimental data from food matrices composed of pure GM rice, processed GM rice (noodles) or a 10% GM/non-GM rice mixture, revealing some influential factors. Finally, feasibility of NGS for routine analysis of GM crops was investigated by applying the framework to samples commonly encountered in routine analysis of GM crops.

  11. Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).

    PubMed

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola.

  12. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  13. Evaluating the 2008 consensus conference on genetically modified foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Genetically modified foods have become one of the most popular topics for deliberative exercises involving ordinary citizens worldwide. This paper examines the Taiwanese consensus conference on GM foods held in June 2008, and the implications and limitations of the public deliberations. The consensus conference facilitated multiparty dialogues and enhanced citizens' knowledge, and affected their attitudes. This study demonstrates the ways contextual factors have influenced the outcome of the citizens' deliberative practices, including the government's conventional technocratic decision-making style, the strong influence of the U.S. government, the political and technological culture, the government's framing of economic development concerns, and a lack of pressure from civil society to compel the government to formally respond to their concerns. The consensus conference had a limited effect on policy decision-making, and seemed to serve as a socio-political experiment.

  14. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.

  15. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety.

  16. Recommendations from a meeting on health implications of genetically modified organism (GMO).

    PubMed

    Amofah, George

    2014-06-01

    The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs.

  17. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    PubMed

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security.

  18. An electrochemiluminescence non-PCR method for the detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin

    2006-09-01

    An electrochemiluminescence non-PCR method has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops. Genomic DNA of GMOs was digested with two restriction endonucleases (FOK I and BsrD I), and hybridized with three Ru(bpy) 3 2+ (TBR)-labeled and one biotinylated probes. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL non-PCR method will provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  19. Safety assessment and public concerns for genetically modified food products: the Japanese experience.

    PubMed

    Hino, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    The recombinant DNA (rDNA) technique is expected to bring about great progress in the improvement of breeding technology and the development of new plant varieties showing high quality and high yield, such as those with excellent pest and disease resistance, those with environmental stress tolerance, and so forth. In the United States and Canada, many genetically modified (GM) crop plants were commercialized as early as 1994. In Japan, 35 transgenic crop plants, such as herbicide tolerant soybean, cotton, and canola, and insect-resistant corn, cotton, and potatos, were authorized and considered marketable until April 2001. The general public, however, is not familiar with rDNA technology, and some people seem to feel uncomfortable with biotechnology, frequently because of the difficulty of the technology and lacking of sufficient information. New labeling systems were initiated in April 2001 in Japan to provide information regarding the use of GM crops as raw material.

  20. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  1. Purification and physico-chemical characterisation of genetically modified phytases expressed in Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Martin, Judith A; Murphy, Richard A; Power, Ronan F G

    2006-09-01

    Two heterologous phytases from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from submerged cultures of genetically modified fungal strains in addition to two commercially available phytase preparations (Allzyme and Natuphos phytases) were purified to homogeneity using a combination of ultrafiltration, gel filtration and ion exchange. The purified preparations were used in subsequent characterisation studies, in which Western Immunoblot analysis, pH and temperature optima, thermal stability and substrate specificity were assessed. A. fumigatus phyA phytase expressed in A. awamori exhibited activity over a broad pH range together with an increased temperature optimum, and slightly enhanced thermal stability compared to the other phytases tested, and is thus a promising candidate for animal feed applications. This particular phytase retains activity over a wide range of pH values characteristic of the digestive tract and could conceivably be more suited to the increasingly higher feed processing temperatures being utilised today, than the corresponding phytases from Aspergillus niger.

  2. Applying the Good Laboratory Practice regulations to studies involving genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Holden, D E

    1995-12-01

    How can the Environmental Protection Agency's Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, originally written primarily for mammalian toxicology studies, be applied to regulatory studies conducted for genetically modified plants? Do they fit? Can they be applied and still make sense? How is a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) to interpret the requirements in this new area of biotechnology? The answers to these questions are discussed in this brief presentation of how one team within the Monsanto QAU, along with the researchers, developed am effective and comprehensive compliance program by applying the "traditional approach" to the GLP regulations to a new and important scientific field in regulatory compliance. Topics discussed will address the differences in the approach between traditional toxicity testing and the newer technology and how the differences were resolved, new and innovative definitions of particular phases and other aspects of regulatory studies, and how the draft regulations for pesticidal plants will help this area of technology in the future.

  3. Detection and identification of multiple genetically modified events using DNA insert fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Philippe; Gendron, Louis; Khalf, Moustafa; Paul, Sylvianne; Dibley, Kim L; Bhat, Somanath; Xie, Vicki R D; Partis, Lina; Moreau, Marie-Eve; Dollard, Cheryl; Coté, Marie-José; Laberge, Serge; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-03-01

    Current screening and event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection and identification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in samples of unknown composition or for the detection of non-regulated GMOs have limitations, and alternative approaches are required. A transgenic DNA fingerprinting methodology using restriction enzyme digestion, adaptor ligation, and nested PCR was developed where individual GMOs are distinguished by the characteristic fingerprint pattern of the fragments generated. The inter-laboratory reproducibility of the amplified fragment sizes using different capillary electrophoresis platforms was compared, and reproducible patterns were obtained with an average difference in fragment size of 2.4 bp. DNA insert fingerprints for 12 different maize events, including two maize hybrids and one soy event, were generated that reflected the composition of the transgenic DNA constructs. Once produced, the fingerprint profiles were added to a database which can be readily exchanged and shared between laboratories. This approach should facilitate the process of GMO identification and characterization.

  4. A quantitative immunopolymerase chain reaction method for detection of vegetative insecticidal protein in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-10-12

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) is being employed for transgenic expression in selected crops such as cotton, brinjal, and corn. For regulatory compliance, there is a need for a sensitive and reliable detection method, which can distinguish between approved and nonapproved genetically modified (GM) events and quantify GM contents as well. A quantitative immunopolymerase chain reaction (IPCR) method has been developed for the detection and quantification of Vip protein in GM crops. The developed assay displayed a detection limit of 1 ng/mL (1 ppb) and linear quantification range between 10 and 1000 ng/mL of Vip-S protein. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be 10 times higher than an analogous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Vip-S protein. The results suggest that IPCR has the potential to become a standard method to quantify GM proteins.

  5. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn bt11: a clinico-biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nobuaki; Murata, Hideo; Mikami, Osamu; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2006-10-01

    Genetically modified corn Bt11 is insect-resistant and expresses Cry1Ab toxin, an insecticidal protein, in kernels. Although Bt11 corn is considered safe based on animal performance, there are no reports available on the clinico-biochemical effects of feeding it to cattle. In this study, we evaluated the effects of feeding Bt11 to calves, using blood and ruminal clinico-biochemical parameters. Our three-month-long feeding experiment demonstrated that calves (n=6), fed with a ration containing 43.3% of Bt11 corn kernels as dry matter, did not develop any discernible clinical, hematological, biochemical, or ruminal abnormalities as compared with control calves (n=6) fed non-Bt11 corn. The results suggest that the transgenic Bt11 has no negative clinico-biochemical effects on calves.

  6. Safety assessment and public concern for genetically modified food products: the European view.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Bevan E B

    2002-01-01

    The safety assessment for marketing purposes of genetically modified (GM) foods in the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) is based on the Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulation adopted in May 1997. Before a GM food can be approved under the Regulation, it must satisfy three criteria: Gm food must be safe, it must not mislead the consumer and it must be nutritionally adequate. The EU Scientific Committee on Food has published a set of guidelines describing the type of information expected from a company in support of an application for approval of a GM food or food ingredient. Despite this rigorous procedure and there being no evidence of harm resulting from the consumption of GM foods worldwide, there is essentially no market in the EU for such products at present. Possible reasons for this are discussed and the view put forward that the market for GM foods will change only when there are more clearly perceived consumer benefits.

  7. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  8. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  9. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized.

  10. Blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis: lessons from genetically-modified mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Zheng, Wei; Yin, Shi; Wang, Zheng; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is found between adjacent Sertoli cells in the testis where it creates a unique microenvironment for the development and maturation of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in seminiferous tubes. It is a compound proteinous structure, composed of several types of cell junctions including tight junctions (TJs), adhesion junctions and gap junctions (GJs). Some of the junctional proteins function as structural proteins of BTB and some have regulatory roles. The deletion or functional silencing of genes encoding these proteins may disrupt the BTB, which may cause immunological or other damages to meiotic and postmeiotic cells and ultimately lead to spermatogenic arrest and infertility. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the BTB structure and function from genetically-modified mouse models and discuss the future perspectives. PMID:24713828

  11. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities.

  12. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  13. A modified decision tree algorithm based on genetic algorithm for mobile user classification problem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity.

  14. Genetically modified crops for the bioeconomy: meeting public and regulatory expectations.

    PubMed

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Wolt, Jeffrey D

    2007-12-01

    As the United States moves toward a plant-based bioeconomy, a large research and development effort is focused on creating new feedstocks to meet biomass demand for biofuels, bioenergy, and specialized bioproducts, such as industrial compounds and biomaterial precursors. Most bioeconomy projections assume the widespread deployment of novel feedstocks developed through the use of modern molecular breeding techniques, but rarely consider the challenges involved with the use of genetically modified crops, which can include hurdles due to regulatory approvals, market adoption, and public acceptance. In this paper we consider the implications of various transgenic crops and traits under development for the bioeconomy that highlight these challenges. We believe that an awareness of the issues in crop and trait selection will allow developers to design crops with maximum stakeholder appeal and with the greatest potential for widespread adoption, while avoiding applications unlikely to meet regulatory approval or gain market and public acceptance.

  15. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  16. Modifying the Mechanical Properties of Silk Fiber by Genetically Disrupting the Ionic Environment for Silk Formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Ping; Li, Yi; Yi, Qiying; Ma, Sanyuan; Xie, Kang; Chen, Huifang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-10-12

    Silks are widely used biomaterials, but there are still weaknesses in their mechanical properties. Here we report a method for improving the silk fiber mechanical properties by genetic disruption of the ionic environment for silk fiber formation. An anterior silk gland (ASG) specific promoter was identified and used for overexpressing ion-transporting protein in the ASG of silkworm. After isolation of the transgenic silkworms, we found that the metal ion content, conformation and mechanical properties of transgenic silk fibers changed accordingly. Notably, overexpressing endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in ASG decreased the calcium content of silks. As a consequence, silk fibers had more α-helix and β-sheet conformations, and their tenacity and extension increased significantly. These findings represent the in vivo demonstration of a correlation between metal ion content in the spinning duct and the mechanical properties of silk fibers, thus providing a novel method for modifying silk fiber properties.

  17. Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa; Hallerman, Eric M; Wu, Kongming

    2014-04-01

    As a developing country with relatively limited arable land, China is making great efforts for development and use of genetically modified (GM) crops to boost agricultural productivity. Many GM crop varieties have been developed in China in recent years; in particular, China is playing a leading role in development of insect-resistant GM rice lines. To ensure the safe use of GM crops, biosafety risk assessments are required as an important part of the regulatory oversight of such products. With over 20 years of nationwide promotion of agricultural biotechnology, a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of GM plants has been developed that establishes a firm basis for safe use of GM crops. So far, a total of seven GM crops involving ten events have been approved for commercial planting, and 5 GM crops with a total of 37 events have been approved for import as processing material in China. However, currently only insect-resistant Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have been commercially planted on a large scale. The planting of Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have provided efficient protection against cotton bollworms and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), respectively. As a consequence, chemical application to these crops has been significantly reduced, enhancing farm income while reducing human and non-target organism exposure to toxic chemicals. This article provides useful information for the colleagues, in particular for them whose mother tongue is not Chinese, to clearly understand the biosafety regulation and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

  18. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    PubMed

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  19. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/ PMID:26424080

  20. Ultrasensitive detection of genetically modified plants by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfeng; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng; Liu, Jinfeng

    2006-09-01

    In this study, a novel method for the direct detection of GMP without amplified by the general method of PCR is firstly presented and proved by experiments. In our method, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, cleaving nucleic acid by restriction endonuclease and two nucleic acid probe hybridization techniques are combined to distinguish the caulifiower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and determine whether samples contain genetically modified components. The detection principle is as follows: firstly two restriction endonucleases FOKI and BsrDlare used to cleave the genomic DNA and the 169bp fragments of CaMV 35S promoter are retrieved; secondly, two nucleic acid probes labeled by Rhodamine Green and y5 dyes respectively hybridize with cleaved 169bp fragments of CaMV 35S promoter; thirdly, the hybridization products simultaneously with two dye-labeled probes are detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and GMP is distinguished. As the detection and analysis by FCS can be performed at the level of single molecule, there is no need for any type of amplification. Genetically modified tobaccos are measured by this method. The results indicate this method can detect CaMV 35S promoter of GMP exactly and the sensitivity can be down to 3.47X10 -10M. Because no any type of amplification is involved, this method can avoid the non-specffic amplification and false-positive problems of PCR, Due to its high-sensitivity, simplicity, reliability and little need for sample amounts, this method promises to be a highly effective detection method for GMP.

  1. Ethical issues in field trials of genetically modified disease-resistant mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  2. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/.

  3. Neurotransplantation of stem cells genetically modified to express human dopamine transporter reduces alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Regulated neurotransmitter actions in the mammalian central nervous system determine brain function and control peripheral organs and behavior. Although drug-seeking behaviors, including alcohol consumption, depend on central neurotransmission, modification of neurotransmitter actions in specific brain nuclei remains challenging. Herein, we report a novel approach for neurotransmission modification in vivo by transplantation of stem cells engineered to take up the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) efficiently through the action of the human dopamine transporter (hDAT). As a functional test in mice, we used voluntary alcohol consumption, which is known to release DA in nucleus accumbens (NAC), an event hypothesized to help maintain drug-seeking behavior. We reasoned that reducing extracellular DA levels, by engrafting into NAC DA-sequestering stem cells expressing hDAT, would alter alcohol intake. Methods We have generated a neural stem cell line stably expressing the hDAT. Uptake kinetics of DA were determined to select a clone for transplantation. These genetically modified stem cells (or cells transfected with a construct lacking the hDAT sequence) were transplanted bilaterally into the NAC of wild-type mice trained to consume 10% alcohol in a two-bottle free-choice test for alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake was then ascertained for 1 week after transplantation, and brain sections through the NAC were examined for surviving grafted cells. Results Modified stem cells expressed hDAT and uptaken DA selectively via hDAT. Mice accustomed to drinking 10% ethanol by free choice reduced their alcohol consumption after being transplanted with hDAT-expressing stem cells. By contrast, control stem cells lacked that effect. Histologic examination revealed surviving stem cells in the NAC of all engrafted brains. Conclusions Our findings represent proof of principle suggesting that genetically engineered stem cells can be useful for exploring the role of

  4. ETHICAL ISSUES IN FIELD TRIALS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED DISEASE-RESISTANT MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23279283

  5. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    PubMed

    König, A; Cockburn, A; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Grafstroem, R; Hammerling, U; Kimber, I; Knudsen, I; Kuiper, H A; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Penninks, A H; Poulsen, M; Schauzu, M; Wal, J M

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative.

  6. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    This article is referred to research article entitled "Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method" (Nakamura et al., 2016) [1]. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method) was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976). Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  7. Migration and proliferation of intact and genetically modified primordial germ cells and the generation of a transgenic chicken.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Nam; Park, Tae Sub; Park, Sang Hyun; Park, Kyung Je; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Seul Ki; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated gonadal migration and postmigratory proliferation of intact and genetically modified chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with the gonadal population of PGCs and transgenic chicken production as major parameters. PGCs (0, 90, 900, 1800, or 3000 cells) were transferred into 53-h-old embryos. The percentage of PGCs migrating on Day 6 of development was highest (35.8%) following the transfer of 900 PGCs and did not change with increases in transferred PGCs. The number of migrating PGCs gradually increased (P = 0.0001) as the number of transferred PGCs was increased. Gonadal migration was detected after the transfer of intact and genetically modified PGCs, but prominent decreases in PGC migration (from 21.9% to 0.38%) and chimera ratio (from 0.4 to 0.007) occurred with genetically modified PGCs. However, subsequent vigorous proliferation of the modified PGCs (3.67-fold increase from transferred number) led to the derivation of a germline chimera and produced a transgenic hatchling. In conclusion, the number of migrating PGCs increased as the number of transferred cells increased. Vigorous proliferation after transfer compensated for the decreased migration capacity of genetically modified PGCs and resulted in the production of a transgenic chicken.

  8. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  9. The impact of non- and genetically modified soybean diets in aorta wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio B; Chagas, Mauricío A; Vellarde, Guillermo C; Ramos, Cristiane F; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nongenetically modified soybean (non-GMS) and genetically modified soybean (GMS) meal on growth and cardiometabolic parameters in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n= 10): non-GMS, GMS, and control group (CG). All animals received water and an isocaloric diet ad libitum for 455 d. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture, and serum was separated for subsequent biochemical analyses (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin, glucose, and testosterone). The aorta was quickly harvested and fixed; the body fat mass was removed and weighed. Non-GMS and GMS had a growth index (GI) similar to CG but with a lower body weight (P < 0.05) and a lower amount of body fat mass (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose concentrations, and aortic tunics were reduced (P < 0.05) in non-GMS and GMS compared to CG. Non-GMS and GMS are able to reduced serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose, and aortic remodeling in aged rats. No differences were observed between non-GMS and GMS in all parameters.

  10. Genetically modified haloes: towards controlled experiments in ΛCDM galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nina; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to generate `genetically modified' (GM) initial conditions for high-resolution simulations of galaxy formation in a cosmological context. Building on the Hoffman-Ribak algorithm, we start from a reference simulation with fully random initial conditions, then make controlled changes to specific properties of a single halo (such as its mass and merger history). The algorithm demonstrably makes minimal changes to other properties of the halo and its environment, allowing us to isolate the impact of a given modification. As a significant improvement over previous work, we are able to calculate the abundance of the resulting objects relative to the reference simulation. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of cosmic structures and epochs; here we study two problems as a proof of concept. First, we investigate the change in density profile and concentration as the collapse times of three individual haloes are varied at fixed final mass, showing good agreement with previous statistical studies using large simulation suites. Secondly, we modify the z = 0 mass of haloes to show that our theoretical abundance calculations correctly recover the halo mass function. The results demonstrate that the technique is robust, opening the way to controlled experiments in galaxy formation using hydrodynamic zoom simulations.

  11. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    PubMed

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  12. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    PubMed

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop.

  13. Rare genetic variation in UNC13A may modify survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaastra, Benjamin; Shatunov, Aleksey; Pulit, Sara; Jones, Ashley R.; Sproviero, William; Gillett, Alexandra; Chen, Zhongbo; Kirby, Janine; Fogh, Isabella; Powell, John F.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Morrison, Karen E.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Shaw, Christopher E.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Veldink, Jan H.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA Bank and all samples available underwent whole genome sequencing. A replication set from the Netherlands was used for validation. Sequences of candidate survival genes were extracted and variants passing quality control with a minor allele frequency ≤0.05 were selected for association testing. Analysis was by burden testing using SKAT. Candidate survival genes UNC13A, KIFAP3, and EPHA4 were tested for association in a UK sample comprising 25 short survivors and 25 long survivors. Results showed that only SNVs in UNC13A were associated with survival (p = 6.57 × 10−3). SNV rs10419420:G > A was found exclusively in long survivors (3/25) and rs4808092:G > A exclusively in short survivors (4/25). These findings were not replicated in a Dutch sample. In conclusion, population specific rare variants of UNC13A may modulate survival in ALS. PMID:27584932

  14. Presenilin-Based Genetic Screens in Drosophila melanogaster Identify Novel Notch Pathway Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Matt B.; Parks, Annette L.; Ruddy, David A.; Tiong, Stanley Y. K.; Esengil, Hanife; Phan, Alexander C.; Philandrinos, Panos; Winter, Christopher G.; Chatterjee, Runa; Huppert, Kari; Fisher, William W.; L'Archeveque, Lynn; Mapa, Felipa A.; Woo, Wendy; Ellis, Michael C.; Curtis, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Presenilin is the enzymatic component of γ-secretase, a multisubunit intramembrane protease that processes several transmembrane receptors, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mutations in human Presenilins lead to altered APP cleavage and early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins also play an essential role in Notch receptor cleavage and signaling. The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that functions during the development of multicellular organisms, including vertebrates, Drosophila, and C. elegans. Recent studies have shown that Notch signaling is sensitive to perturbations in subcellular trafficking, although the specific mechanisms are largely unknown. To identify genes that regulate Notch pathway function, we have performed two genetic screens in Drosophila for modifiers of Presenilin-dependent Notch phenotypes. We describe here the cloning and identification of 19 modifiers, including nicastrin and several genes with previously undescribed involvement in Notch biology. The predicted functions of these newly identified genes are consistent with extracellular matrix and vesicular trafficking mechanisms in Presenilin and Notch pathway regulation and suggest a novel role for γ-tubulin in the pathway. PMID:16415372

  15. Presenilin-based genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster identify novel notch pathway modifiers.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Matt B; Parks, Annette L; Ruddy, David A; Tiong, Stanley Y K; Esengil, Hanife; Phan, Alexander C; Philandrinos, Panos; Winter, Christopher G; Chatterjee, Runa; Huppert, Kari; Fisher, William W; L'Archeveque, Lynn; Mapa, Felipa A; Woo, Wendy; Ellis, Michael C; Curtis, Daniel

    2006-04-01

    Presenilin is the enzymatic component of gamma-secretase, a multisubunit intramembrane protease that processes several transmembrane receptors, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mutations in human Presenilins lead to altered APP cleavage and early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins also play an essential role in Notch receptor cleavage and signaling. The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that functions during the development of multicellular organisms, including vertebrates, Drosophila, and C. elegans. Recent studies have shown that Notch signaling is sensitive to perturbations in subcellular trafficking, although the specific mechanisms are largely unknown. To identify genes that regulate Notch pathway function, we have performed two genetic screens in Drosophila for modifiers of Presenilin-dependent Notch phenotypes. We describe here the cloning and identification of 19 modifiers, including nicastrin and several genes with previously undescribed involvement in Notch biology. The predicted functions of these newly identified genes are consistent with extracellular matrix and vesicular trafficking mechanisms in Presenilin and Notch pathway regulation and suggest a novel role for gamma-tubulin in the pathway.

  16. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote axonal regeneration and prevent hypersensitivity after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Gentaro; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Toh, Satoshi; McNiece, Ian; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2013-10-01

    Neurotrophins and the transplantation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs) are both candidate therapies targeting spinal cord injury (SCI). While some studies have suggested the ability of MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural cells, other SCI studies have proposed anti-inflammatory and other mechanisms underlying established beneficial effects. We grafted rat MSCs genetically modified to express MNTS1, a multineurotrophin that binds TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and p75(NTR) receptors or MSC-MNTS1/p75(-) that binds mainly to the Trk receptors. Seven days after contusive SCI, PBS-only, GFP-MSC, MSC-MNTS1/GFP or MSC-MNTS1/p75(-)/GFP were delivered into the injury epicenter. All transplanted groups showed reduced inflammation and cystic cavity size compared to control SCI rats. Interestingly, transplantation of the MSC-MNTS1 and MSC-MNTS1/p75(-), but not the naïve MSCs, enhanced axonal growth and significantly prevented cutaneous hypersensitivity after SCI. Moreover, transplantation of MSC-MNTS1/p75(-) promoted angiogenesis and modified glial scar formation. These findings suggest that MSCs transduced with a multineurotrophin are effective in promoting cell growth and improving sensory function after SCI. These novel data also provide insight into the neurotrophin-receptor dependent mechanisms through which cellular transplantation leads to functional improvement after experimental SCI.

  17. Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here.

  18. 20 Years of hypertension research using genetically modified animals: no clinically promising approaches in sight.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Lavinia; Völkel, Manfred; Lindl, Toni

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of essential or primary hypertension is increasing, especially in the northern hemisphere, but although the disease displays clear symptoms, its aetiology appears very complex, and thus no causal treatment is available yet. In the 1990's, genetically modified animals (GMO) were considered to be the key to solving this problem of high complexity. However, until now, although a few approaches have shown that old, well-known drugs have a positive effect (decrease of blood pressure) on such animal models of hypertension, no approach has appeared in the literature of this area of research which might indicate a direct connection between GMO and a therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent this type of hypertension in humans. Instead, criticism of the GMO approach has accumulated in the last years, arguing that it is misleading as this disease does not have a monogenic cause and so complementary regulatory mechanisms could prevent the true identification of the function of the modified genes. Furthermore, the technology is best developed in mice, whose physiology of blood pressure is different from that of humans. Because of species specificity, it is not easy to extrapolate the results from animal models of hypertension to human hypertension. Also, in the years 2000 to 2004 a reorientation of the technology and the aims of this kind of research took place. Therefore, although these approaches are without exception deemed "very promising" in the literature, it cannot be expected that research on GMO will make any contribution to a new therapeutic strategy in the near future.

  19. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Gress, Steeve; Defarge, Nicolas; Malatesta, Manuela; Hennequin, Didier; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2012-11-01

    The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2-3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5-5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3-2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences.

  20. Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Paula S; Chambers, Philip A; Heritage, John; Michael Forbes, J

    2003-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to investigate the fate of a transgene in the rumen of sheep fed silage and maize grains from an insect-resistant maize line. A 1914-bp DNA fragment containing the entire coding region of the synthetic cryIA(b) gene was still amplifiable from rumen fluid sampled 5 h after feeding maize grains. The same target sequence, however, could not be amplified from rumen fluid sampled from sheep fed silage prepared from the genetically modified maize line. PCR amplification of a shorter (211-bp), yet still highly specific, target sequence was possible with rumen fluid sampled up to 3 and 24 h after feeding silage and maize grains, respectively. These findings indicate that intact transgenes from silage are unlikely to survive significantly in the rumen since a DNA sequence 211-bp long is very unlikely to transmit genetic information. By contrast, DNA in maize grains persists for a significant time and may, therefore, provide a source of transforming DNA in the rumen. In addition, we have examined the biological activity of plasmid DNA that had previously been exposed to the ovine oral cavity. Plasmid extracted from saliva sampled after incubation for 8 min was still capable of transforming competent Escherichia coli to kanamycin resistance, implying that DNA released from the diet within the mouth may retain sufficient biological activity for the transformation of competent oral bacteria.

  1. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  2. Determination of Mycotoxin Production of Fusarium Species in Genetically Modified Maize Varieties by Quantitative Flow Immunocytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bánáti, Hajnalka; Darvas, Béla; Fehér-Tóth, Szilvia; Czéh, Árpád; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Levels of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in genetically modified (GM) and near-isogenic maize, were determined using multi-analyte, microbead-based flow immunocytometry with fluorescence detection, for the parallel quantitative determination of fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, ochratoxin A, and aflatoxin B1. Maize varieties included the genetic events MON 810 and DAS-59122-7, and their isogenic counterparts. Cobs were artificially infested by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum conidia, and contained F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides natural infestation. The production of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol was substantially affected in GM maize lines: F. verticillioides, with the addition of F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced significantly lower levels of fumonisin B1 (~300 mg·kg−1) in DAS-59122-7 than in its isogenic line (~580 mg·kg−1), while F. proliferatum, in addition to F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced significantly higher levels of deoxynivalenol (~18 mg·kg−1) in MON 810 than in its isogenic line (~5 mg·kg−1). Fusarium verticillioides, with F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced lower amounts of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone than F. proliferatum, with F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides. T-2 toxin production remained unchanged when considering the maize variety. The results demonstrate the utility of the Fungi-Plex™ quantitative flow immunocytometry method, applied for the high throughput parallel determination of the target mycotoxins. PMID:28241411

  3. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Benevenuto, Rafael Fonseca; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Vilperte, Vinicius; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; van Rensburg, Peet Jansen; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2017-01-01

    Some genetically modified (GM) plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA) analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses.

  4. Allergenicity assessment of genetically-modified tobacco expressing salt tolerance cbl gene.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Tuteja, Narendra; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-09-01

    It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there was no significant sequence homology with known allergens. Also, no difference between the protein digestibility profiles of GM and WT tobacco was found. Rapid digestion of CBL protein (Mol Wt 35 kDa) by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated reduced chances of this protein to induce allergenicity. In addition, BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of WT and GM tobacco protein showed comparable levels of clinical score, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine level, similar effect on different organs as well as IgE binding proteins. These findings indicate that insertion of cbl gene in tobacco did not cause any additional allergic risk to consumer and the GM and native tobacco proteins behave similarly in both in vitro and in vivo situations even after genetic modification.

  5. A model for the control of malaria using genetically modified vectors.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H; Ramirez, A A; Olarte, A; Clavijo, C

    2011-05-07

    Recent works have considered the problem of using transgenic mosquitoes to control a malaria epidemic. These insects have been genetically engineered to reduce their capacity to infect humans with malaria parasites. We analyze a model of the mosquito population dynamics when genetically modified individuals are introduced into a wild type population so that the effect of their introduction can be assessed. The model describes the dynamics of gene selection under sexual reproduction in a closed vector population. Our results show that the fitness of the resulting heterozygous population is the key parameter for the success of the invasion, independently of the fitness of homozygous vectors. The vector population dynamics model is then combined with an epidemiological model to study the feasibility of controlling a malaria epidemic. Basic reproductive numbers are calculated for both models, and conditions are obtained for preventing reappearance of the epidemic. Simulations on this model show that it may be possible to reduce or even eradicate the epidemic only if the heterozygous population is better adapted than the wild type. They also show that this can be achieved without completely eliminating the wild type mosquitoes.

  6. Shaping melons: agronomic and genetic characterization of QTLs that modify melon fruit morphology.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Moreno, Eduard; Essafi, Ali; Fergany, Mohamed; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Martín-Hernandez, Ana Montserrat; Alvarez, Jose María; Monforte, Antonio J

    2010-09-01

    The consistency of quantitative trait locus (QTL) effects among genetic backgrounds is a key factor for introgressing QTLs from initial mapping experiments into applied breeding programs. We have selected four QTLs (fs6.4, fw4.3, fw4.4 and fw8.1) involved in melon fruit morphology that had previously been detected in a collection of introgression lines derived from the cross between a Spanish cultivar, "Piel de Sapo," and the Korean accession PI161375 (Songwan Charmi). Introgression lines harboring these QTLs were crossed with an array of melon inbred lines representative of the most important cultivar types. Hybrids of the introgression and inbred lines, with the appropriate controls, were evaluated in replicated agronomic trials. The effects of the QTLs were consistent among the different genetic backgrounds, demonstrating the utility of these QTLs for applied breeding programs in modifying melon fruit morphology. Three QTLs, fw4.4, fs6.4 and fs12.1 were subjected to further study in order to map them more accurately by substitution mapping using a new set of introgression lines with recombination events within the QTL chromosome region. The position of the QTLs was narrowed down to 36-5 cM, depending on the QTL. The results presented in the current study set the basis for the use of these QTLs in applied breeding programs and for the molecular characterization of the genes underlying them.

  7. Psychological determinants of willingness to taste and purchase genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ellen; Campbell, Scott

    2004-10-01

    Decreasing acceptance of biotechnologies over time has been reported in Europe. Studies claim that attitudes are negative, even hostile, and that people are very worried about genetic engineering in food and medicine. However, such studies are mostly based on surveys and these have significant methodological problems, such as low response rates, which may indicate that only those with strong views respond, thus biasing the sample. Here an alternative method, involving "topic-blind" recruitment of participants and a behavioral measure (food tasting), was used. We show that in a topic-blind sample of 100 individuals, 93% willingly tasted and ate what they believed to be genetically modified (GM) food in an experimental setting, and 48% said they would buy GM food in the future, results that are surprising in the context of other reports about attitudes and intentions toward GM food. Purchasers and nonpurchasers differed in their attitudes toward GM food on key risk-related scales (particularly on a dread-not dread scale--a measure of integral affect--and an ethical-unethical scale). Despite these differences, however, and despite their negative attitude, most nonpurchasers (85.7%) still tasted the GM apple. Incidental affect (state stress and trait worry) was not found to influence risk-related judgments about GM food. Integral affect (dread of GM plants and animals used for food) and concerns about the future risks of GM animals in food were found to be key predictors of willingness to purchase GM food.

  8. Gene Transfection toward Spheroid Cells on Micropatterned Culture Plates for Genetically-modified Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Itaka, Keiji; Uchida, Satoshi; Matsui, Akitsugu; Yanagihara, Kayoko; Ikegami, Masaru; Endo, Taisuke; Ishii, Takehiko; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-07-31

    To improve the therapeutic effectiveness of cell transplantation, a transplantation system of genetically modified, injectable spheroids was developed. The cell spheroids are prepared in a culture system on micropatterned plates coated with a thermosensitive polymer. A number of spheroids are formed on the plates, corresponding to the cell adhesion areas of 100 µm diameter that are regularly arrayed in a two-dimensional manner, surrounded by non-adhesive areas that are coated by a polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix. The spheroids can be easily recovered as a liquid suspension by lowering the temperature of the plates, and their structure is well maintained by passing them through injection needles with a sufficiently large caliber (over 27 G). Genetic modification is achieved by gene transfection using the original non-viral gene carrier, polyplex nanomicelle, which is capable of introducing genes into cells without disrupting the spheroid structure. For primary hepatocyte spheroids transfected with a luciferase-expressing gene, the luciferase is sustainably obtained in transplanted animals, along with preserved hepatocyte function, as indicated by albumin expression. This system can be applied to a variety of cell types including mesenchymal stem cells.

  9. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Benevenuto, Rafael Fonseca; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Vilperte, Vinicius; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; van Rensburg, Peet Jansen; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2017-01-01

    Some genetically modified (GM) plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA) analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses. PMID:28245233

  10. A Genetically Modified Protein-Based Hydrogel for 3D Culture of AD293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiao; Wang, Jingyu; Diao, Wentao; Wang, Ling; Long, Jiafu; Zhou, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels have strong application prospects for drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell therapy because of their excellent biocompatibility and abundant availability as scaffolds for drugs and cells. In this study, we created hybrid hydrogels based on a genetically modified tax interactive protein-1 (TIP1) by introducing two or four cysteine residues in the primary structure of TIP1. The introduced cysteine residues were crosslinked with a four-armed poly (ethylene glycol) having their arm ends capped with maleimide residues (4-armed-PEG-Mal) to form hydrogels. In one form of the genetically modification, we incorporated a peptide sequence ‘GRGDSP’ to introduce bioactivity to the protein, and the resultant hydrogel could provide an excellent environment for a three dimensional cell culture of AD293 cells. The AD293 cells continued to divide and displayed a polyhedron or spindle-shape during the 3-day culture period. Besides, AD293 cells could be easily separated from the cell-gel constructs for future large-scale culture after being cultured for 3 days and treating hydrogel with trypsinase. This work significantly expands the toolbox of recombinant proteins for hydrogel formation, and we believe that our hydrogel will be of considerable interest to those working in cell therapy and controlled drug delivery. PMID:25233088

  11. Risk assessment of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria using the concept of substantial equivalence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Sesma, Fernando; de Giori, Graciela Savoy

    2010-12-01

    The use of food-grade microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most promising methods for delivering health promoting compounds. Since it is not always possible to obtain strains that have the ability to produce specific compounds naturally or that produce them in sufficient quantities to obtain physiological responses, genetic modifications can be performed to improve their output. The objective of this study was to evaluate if previously studied genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB), with proven in vivo beneficial effects, are just as safe as the progenitor strain from which they were derived. Mice received an elevated concentration of different GM-LAB or the native parental strain from which they were derived during a prolonged period of time, and different health parameters were evaluated. Similar growth rates, hematological values, and other physiological parameters were obtained in the animals that received the GM-LAB compared to those that were fed with the native strain. These results demonstrate that the GM-LAB used in this study are just as safe as the native strains from which they were derived and thus merit further studies to include them into the food chain.

  12. Genetic variant in the telomerase gene modifies cancer risk in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Fernando; Guinó, Elisabet; Jagmohan-Changur, Shantie; Seguí, Nuria; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Lázaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Vasen, Hans F A; Moreno, Victor; Capellá, Gabriel; Wijnen, Juul T; Valle, Laura

    2013-05-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited cancer-predisposing disorder caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The high variability in individual cancer risk observed among LS patients suggests the existence of modifying factors. Identifying genetic modifiers of risk could help implement personalized surveillance programs based on predicted cancer risks. Here we evaluate the role of the telomerase (hTERT) rs2075786 SNP as a cancer-risk modifier in LS, studying 255 and 675 MMR gene mutation carriers from Spain and the Netherlands, respectively. The study of the Spanish sample revealed that the minor allele (A) confers increased cancer risk at an early age. The analysis of the Dutch sample confirmed the association of the A allele, especially in homozygosity, with increased cancer risk in mutation carriers under the age of 45 (relative riskLSca<45_AA=2.90; 95% confidence interval=1.02-8.26). Rs2075786 is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk neither in the general population nor in non-Lynch CRC families. In silico studies predicted that the SNP causes the disruption of a transcription binding site for a retinoid receptor, retinoid X receptor alpha, probably causing early telomerase activation and therefore accelerated carcinogenesis. Notably, cancer-affected LS patients with the AA genotype have shorter telomeres than those with GG. In conclusion, MMR gene mutation carriers with hTERT rs2075786 are at high risk to develop a LS-related tumor at an early age. Cancer-preventive measures and stricter cancer surveillance at early ages might help prevent or early detect cancer in these mutation carriers.

  13. Mapping genetic modifiers of survival in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison R.; Hawkins, Nicole A.; McCollom, Clint E.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for several monogenic epilepsy syndromes. More than 800 mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A have been reported in patients with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and Dravet syndrome. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A result in Dravet syndrome, a severe infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by intractable seizures, developmental delays and increased mortality. A common feature of monogenic epilepsies is variable expressivity among individuals with the same mutation, suggesting that genetic modifiers may influence clinical severity. Mice with heterozygous deletion of Scn1a (Scn1a+/−) model a number of Dravet syndrome features, including spontaneous seizures and premature lethality. Phenotype severity in Scn1a+/− mice is strongly dependent on strain background. On the 129S6/SvEvTac strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit no overt phenotype, while on the (C57BL/6J × 129S6/SvEvTac)F1 strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit spontaneous seizures and early lethality. To systematically identify loci that influence premature lethality in Scn1a+/− mice, we performed genome scans on reciprocal backcrosses. QTL mapping revealed modifier loci on mouse chromosomes 5, 7, 8 and 11. RNA-seq analysis of strain-dependent gene expression, regulation and coding sequence variation provided a list of potential functional candidate genes at each locus. Identification of modifier genes that influence survival in Scn1a+/− mice will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of human patients. PMID:24152123

  14. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176.

  15. [Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ana M; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    Genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been the center of debate worldwide, as has occurred historically with the advent of new technologies. Questions are derived from the potential impact of GMCs to the environment and the safety of the products to the consumers. In relation to the first inquiry, practice has been oriented to a case-by-case-study, according to the own characteristics of the GMC, in order to minimize its impact in the environment. Scientific studies in diverse latitudes of the world have demonstrated that GMCs in the market showed no adverse effects related to this issue. In relation to food derived from the GMCs, rigorous evaluation protocols have been developed and approved by FAO and WHO to guarantee the innocuousness of these products. Up to the moment, no contraindications for human health have been pointed out for the products that are available today in the market. In the particular case of Costa Rica, the country has established since the 90s a regulatory biosafety framework for the management of the GMCs, safeguarding the biodiversity of the country and the health of consumers. At the same time the country has made significant public and private investments in the field that allowed the country to obtain a leading position in biosafety in the region and genetic engineering research at national research centers. Any attempt to restrict or prohibit these activities in the country, will put in risk the previously described investment, will affect the generation of new knowledge for decision making and the leadership in the field, preventing the benefits derived from this promising technology.

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Modify the Neurobehavioral Effects of Mercury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James S.; Heyer, Nicholas J.; Russo, Joan E.; Martin, Michael D.; Pillai, Pradeep B.; Bammler, Theodor K.; Farin, Federico M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8–12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene–Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure. PMID:24593143

  17. High-Throughput Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Candidate Genetic Modifiers of Vulnerability to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garic, Ana; Berres, Mark E.; Smith, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction FASD is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Genetic factors can modify vulnerability to FASD, but these elements are poorly characterized. Methods We performed high-throughput transcriptional profiling to identify gene candidates that could potentially modify vulnerability to ethanol’s neurotoxicity. We interrogated a unique genetic resource, neuroprogenitor cells from two closely-related Gallus gallus lines having well-characterized robust or attenuated ethanol responses with respect to intracellular calcium mobilization and CaMKII / β-catenin-dependent apoptosis. Samples were not exposed to ethanol prior to analysis. Results We identified 363 differentially expressed genes in neuroprogenitors from these two lines. KEGG analysis revealed several gene clusters having significantly differential enrichment in gene expression. The largest and most significant cluster comprised ribosomal proteins (38 genes, p = 1.85 × 10−47). Other significantly enriched gene clusters included metabolism (25 genes, p = 0.0098), oxidative phosphorylation (18 genes, p = 1.10 × 10−11), spliceosome (13 genes, p = 7.02 × 10−8) and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (9 genes, p = 0.0011). Inspection of GO-terms identified 24 genes involved in the calcium/β-catenin signals that mediate ethanol's neurotoxicity in this model, including β-catenin itself and both calmodulin isoforms. Conclusions Four of the identified pathways with altered transcript abundance mediate the flow of cellular information from RNA to protein. Importantly, ribosome biogenesis also senses nucleolar stress and regulates p53-mediated apoptosis in neural crest. Human ribosomopathies produce craniofacial malformations and eleven known ribosomopathy genes were differentially expressed in this model of neural crest apoptosis. Rapid changes in ribosome expression are consistently observed in ethanol-treated mouse embryo neural folds, a model that is developmentally similar

  18. Estimating Modifying Effect of Age on Genetic and Environmental Variance Components in Twin Models

    PubMed Central

    He, Liang; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies have been adopted for decades to disentangle the relative genetic and environmental contributions for a wide range of traits. However, heritability estimation based on the classical twin models does not take into account dynamic behavior of the variance components over age. Varying variance of the genetic component over age can imply the existence of gene–environment (G × E) interactions that general genome-wide association studies (GWAS) fail to capture, which may lead to the inconsistency of heritability estimates between twin design and GWAS. Existing parametric G × E interaction models for twin studies are limited by assuming a linear or quadratic form of the variance curves with respect to a moderator that can, however, be overly restricted in reality. Here we propose spline-based approaches to explore the variance curves of the genetic and environmental components. We choose the additive genetic, common, and unique environmental variance components (ACE) model as the starting point. We treat the component variances as variance functions with respect to age modeled by B-splines or P-splines. We develop an empirical Bayes method to estimate the variance curves together with their confidence bands and provide an R package for public use. Our simulations demonstrate that the proposed methods accurately capture dynamic behavior of the component variances in terms of mean square errors with a data set of >10,000 twin pairs. Using the proposed methods as an alternative and major extension to the classical twin models, our analyses with a large-scale Finnish twin data set (19,510 MZ twins and 27,312 DZ same-sex twins) discover that the variances of the A, C, and E components for body mass index (BMI) change substantially across life span in different patterns and the heritability of BMI drops to ∼50% after middle age. The results further indicate that the decline of heritability is due to increasing unique environmental variance, which provides

  19. Genetic modifiers of sickle cell anemia in the BABY HUG cohort: influence on laboratory and clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Vivien A; Luo, Zhaoyu; Flanagan, Jonathan M; Howard, Thad A; Thompson, Bruce W; Wang, Winfred C; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ware, Russell E

    2013-07-01

    The recently completed BABY HUG trial investigated the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in infants with sickle cell anemia (SCA). To investigate the effects of known genetic modifiers, genomic DNA on 190 randomized subjects were analyzed for alpha thalassemia, beta-globin haplotype, polymorphisms affecting endogenous fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (XmnI, BCL11A, and HBS1L-MYB), UGT1A1 promoter polymorphisms, and the common G6PD A(-) mutation. At study entry, infants with alpha thalassemia trait had significantly lower mean corpuscular volume, total bilirubin, and absolute reticulocyte count. Beta-globin haplotypes associated with milder disease had significantly higher hemoglobin and %HbF. BCL11A and XmnI polymorphisms had significant effects on baseline HbF, while UGT1A1 promoter polymorphisms significantly influenced baseline serum bilirubin. At study exit, subjects randomized to placebo still exhibited laboratory effects of alpha thalassemia and other modifiers, while those assigned hydroxyurea had treatment effects that exceeded most genetic influences. The pain phenotype was influenced by HbF modifiers in both treatment groups. These data document that genetic polymorphisms do modify laboratory and clinical phenotypes even in very young patients with SCA. The hydroxyurea effects are more potent, however, indicating that treatment criteria should not be limited to certain genetic subsets, and supporting the use of hydroxyurea for all young patients with SCA.

  20. METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE QUESTIONS:

    -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants?

    -How can it be measured?

    -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities?



    RESEARCH:

    The objectives ...

  1. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  2. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  3. The use of genetically modified mice in cancer risk assessment: Challenges and limitations*

    PubMed Central

    Eastmond, David A.; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V.; French, John E.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) mice to assess carcinogenicity is playing an increasingly important role in the safety evaluation of chemicals. While progress has been made in developing and evaluating mouse models such as the Trp53+/−, Tg.AC and the rasH2, the suitability of these models as replacements for the conventional rodent cancer bioassay and for assessing human health risks remains uncertain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of accelerated cancer bioassays with GM mice for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic agents. We compared the published results from the GM bioassays to those obtained in the National Toxicology Program’s conventional chronic mouse bioassay for their potential use in risk assessment. Our analysis indicates that the GM models are less efficient in detecting carcinogenic agents but more consistent in identifying non-carcinogenic agents. We identified several issues of concern related to the design of the accelerated bioassays (e.g., sample size, study duration, genetic stability and reproducibility) as well as pathway-dependency of effects, and different carcinogenic mechanisms operable in GM and non-GM mice. The use of the GM models for dose-response assessment is particularly problematic as these models are, at times, much more or less sensitive than the conventional rodent cancer bioassays. Thus, the existing GM mouse models may be useful for hazard identification, but will be of limited use for dose-response assessment. Hence, caution should be exercised when using GM mouse models to assess the carcinogenic risks of chemicals. PMID:23985072

  4. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    PubMed Central

    Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Acciarri, Nazareno; Sabatini, Emidio; Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Maestrelli, Andrea; Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Scalzo, Jessica; Mezzetti, Bruno; Spena, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM) fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM). Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82) transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH) nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC), when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment. PMID:16371162

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on BMI from late childhood to adolescence are modified by parental education.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-03-01

    To investigate how parental education modifies genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI during adolescence, self-reported BMI at 11-12, 14, and 17 years of age was collected from a population sample of 2,432 complete Finnish twin pairs born in 1983-1987. Based on parental report, twins were divided to those with high (both parents high school graduates), mixed level (one parent a graduate, the other not), and limited (neither parent a graduate) parental education. Genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI in different education classes were modeled using twin analysis. Heritability of BMI among 11-12-year-olds with high parental education was 85-87% whereas it was 61-68% if parental education was limited or mixed level. Common environmental effect, i.e., effect of environmental factors shared by family members, was found (17-22%) if parental education was limited or mixed level but not if it was high. With increasing parental education, common environmental variance in BMI decreased at age 14 among boys (from 22 to 3%) and girls (from 17 to 10%); heritability increased among boys from 63 to 78%, but did not change among girls. The common environmental component disappeared and heritability of BMI was larger at the age of 17 in all parental education classes. To conclude, common environment did not affect variation of adolescent BMI in high-educated families but did so in families with limited parental education. This suggests that intervention and prevention campaigns could effectively target families identified by limited parental education.

  6. Clinical and Genetic Modifiers of Long-term Survival in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cresci, Sharon; Kelly, Reagan J; Cappola, Thomas P; ScM; Diwan, Abhinav; Dries, Daniel; Kardia, Sharon LR; Dorn, Gerald W

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify genetic modifiers of β-blocker (BB) response and long-term survival in heart failure (HF). Background Differences in BB treatment effect between Caucasians and African Americans with HF have been reported. Methods Prospective cohort study of 2,460 patients (711 African American; 1,749 Caucasian) enrolled between 1999 and 2007. 2039 (81.7%) were treated with BB. Each was genotyped for β1-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) Arg389>Gly and G-protein receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) Gln41>Leu polymorphisms, which are more prevalent among African Americans than Caucasians. Primary endpoint was survival time from HF onset. Results There were 765 deaths during follow up (median 46 months). BB treatment increased survival in Caucasians (Log Rank P=0.00038) but not African Americans (Log Rank P=0.327). Among patients not taking BB, ADRB1 Gly389 was associated with decreased survival in Caucasians (HR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.1 − 3.7, P = 0.03) while GRK5 Leu41 was associated with improved survival in African Americans (HR = 0.325, CI = 0.133 − 0.796, P = 0.01). ADRB1 Gly389 GRK5 Gln41Gln African Americans derived similar survival benefit from BB therapy (HR = 0.385 95% CI = 0.182 − 0.813, P = 0.012) as ADRB1 Gly389 GRK5 Gln41Gln Caucasians (HR = 0.529, 95% CI = 0.326 − 0.858, P=0.0098). Conclusions These data demonstrate that differences caused by β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway gene polymorphisms, rather than race, are the major factors contributing to apparent differences in BB treatment effect between Caucasians and African Americans; proper evaluation of treatment response should account for genetic variance. PMID:19628119

  7. Genetic variants of eNOS gene may modify the susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Shuo-Ran; A, Zhou-Cun

    2013-08-01

    In testis, eNOS is responsible for synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) which is an essential gas message regulator in spermatogenesis, suggesting that eNOS gene plays a role in normal spermatogenesis and the genetic variants of eNOS gene may be potential genetic risk factors of spermatogenesis impairment. In this study, the polymorphic distributions of three common polymorphism loci including T-786C, 4A4B and G894T in eNOS gene were investigated in 355 Chinese infertile patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and 246 healthy fertile men and a meta-analysis was carried in order to explore the possible relationship between the three loci of eNOS gene and male infertility with spermatogenesis impairment. As a result, allele -786C of T-786C (11.4% versus 6.5%, p = 0.004) and 4A of 4A4B (11.0% versus 6.3%, p = 0.005) as well as genotype TC of T-786C (22.8% versus 13.0%, p = 0.002) and AB of 4A4B (18% versus 11%, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility. The haplotypes T-4A-G (7.4% versus 4.1%, p = 0.015) and C-4B-G (7.6% versus 4.4%, p = 0.028) could increase the susceptibility to male infertility, whereas haplotype T-4B-G (67.0% versus 75.2%, p = 0.002) might be a protective factor for male infertility. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the polymorphism of T-786C was associated with male infertility. These findings suggested that the variants of eNOS gene may modify the susceptibility to male infertility with impaired spermatogenesis.

  8. Perceptions and recommendations by scientists for a potential release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases has been proposed in malaria-endemic countries, such as Nigeria, which has the largest burden in Africa. Scientists are major stakeholders whose opinions and perceptions can adversely affect the success of the trials of GMMs if they are not involved early. Unfortunately, information on the awareness of Nigerians scientists and their overall perception of the GMMs is practically non-existent in the literature. Therefore, this study aimed at understanding how receptive Nigerian scientists are to a potential release of GMMs for the control of malaria. Methods The sample consisted of 164 scientists selected from academic and research institutions in Nigeria. Data were collected from participants using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Questions were asked about the cause and prevention of malaria, genetic modification and biotechnology. Specific questions on perception and acceptable conditions for the potential release of GM mosquitoes in Nigeria were also covered. Results All participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria and used various methods for household control of mosquitoes. The main concerns expressed by the scientists were that GMMs can spread in an uncontrolled way beyond their release sites (89%) and will mate with other mosquito species to produce hybrids with unknown consequences (94.5%). Most participants (92.7%) agreed that it was important that before approving the release of GMMs in Nigeria, there had to be evidence of contingency measures available to remove the GMMs should a hazard become evident during the course of the release. In general, a majority (83.5%) of scientists who participated in this study were sceptical about a potential release in Nigeria, while 16.5% of the participants were in support. Conclusions Although a majority of the participants are sceptical about GMMs generally

  9. Cellular bases of behavioral plasticity: establishing and modifying synaptic circuits in the Drosophila genetic system.

    PubMed

    Rohrbough, Jeffrey; O'Dowd, Diane K; Baines, Richard A; Broadie, Kendal

    2003-01-01

    Genetic malleability and amenability to behavioral assays make Drosophila an attractive model for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of complex behaviors, such as learning and memory. At a cellular level, Drosophila has contributed a wealth of information on the mechanisms regulating membrane excitability and synapse formation, function, and plasticity. Until recently, however, these studies have relied almost exclusively on analyses of the peripheral neuromuscular junction, with a smaller body of work on neurons grown in primary culture. These experimental systems are, by themselves, clearly inadequate for assessing neuronal function at the many levels necessary for an understanding of behavioral regulation. The pressing need is for access to physiologically relevant neuronal circuits as they develop and are modified throughout life. In the past few years, progress has been made in developing experimental approaches to examine functional properties of identified populations of Drosophila central neurons, both in cell culture and in vivo. This review focuses on these exciting developments, which promise to rapidly expand the frontiers of functional cellular neurobiology studies in Drosophila. We discuss here the technical advances that have begun to reveal the excitability and synaptic transmission properties of central neurons in flies, and discuss how these studies promise to substantially increase our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity.

  10. Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescent detection for highly sensitive assay of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Yang, Huanghao; Qiu, Bin; Xiao, Xueyang; Xue, Linlin; Kim, Donghwan; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    A capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescent detection system (CE-ECL) was developed for the detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons. The ECL luminophore, tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(phen)(3)(2+)), was labeled to the PCR primers before amplification. Ru(phen)(3)(2+) was then introduced to PCR amplicons by PCR amplification. Eventually, the PCR amplicons were separated and detected by the homemade CE-ECL system. The detection of a typical genetically modified organism (GMO), Roundup Ready Soy (RRS), was shown as an example to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed approach. Four pairs of primers were amplified by multiple PCR (MPCR) simultaneously, three of which were targeted on the specific sequence of exogenous genes of RRS, and another was targeted on the endogenous reference gene of soybean. Both the conditions for PCR amplification and CE-ECL separation and detection were investigated in detail. Results showed that, under the optimal conditions, the proposed method can accurately identifying RRS. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was below 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles.

  11. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    PubMed

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  12. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  13. Ex-post assessment of genetically modified, low level presence in Canadian flax.

    PubMed

    Booker, Helen M; Lamb, Eric G; Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-03-17

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of flaxseed. In 2009, DNA from deregistered genetically modified (GM) CDC Triffid was detected in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe, causing a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada and a major shift in export markets. The flax industry in Canada undertook major changes to ensure the removal of transgenic flax from the supply chain. To demonstrate compliance, Canada adopted a protocol involving testing grain samples (post-harvest) using an RT-PCR test for the construct found in CDC Triffid. Efforts to remove the presence of GM flax from the value chain included reconstituting major flax varieties from GM-free plants. The reconstituted varieties represented the majority of planting seed in 2014. This study re-evaluates GM flax presence in Canadian grain stocks for an updated dataset (2009-2015) using a previously described simulation model to estimate low-level GM presence. Additionally, losses to the Canadian economy resulting from the reduction in flax production and export opportunities, costs associated with reconstituting major flax varieties, and testing for the presence of GM flax along the flax value chain are estimated.

  14. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops.

    PubMed

    Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Cagáň, Ľudovít; Sehnal, František

    2017-03-29

    Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined) should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn.

  15. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  16. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology.

  17. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  18. [Identification of genetically modified vegetable sources in food and feed using hydrogel oligonucleotide microchip].

    PubMed

    Griadunov, D A; Getman, I A; Chizhova, S I; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S; Romanov, G A

    2011-01-01

    A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by the hybridization on a hydrogel oligonucleotide biochip was developed for simultaneous identification of ten different transgenic elements of plant DNA in feed and food products. The biochip contained 22 immobilized probes intended for (i) detection of plant DNA; (ii) plant species determination (soybean, maize, potato, rice); (iii) identification of transgenic elements, including 35S CaMV, 35S FMV, rice actine gene promoters, nos, 35S CaMV, ocs, pea rbcS1 gene terminators, and bar, gus, nptII marker genes. The limit of detection was 0.5% of genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize in analyzed samples. Identification of transgenic DNA in food and feed products using either the developed approach or real-time PCR led to virtually identical results. The assay can be used for selection of GM samples by screening food and feed products for subsequent quantitative determination of the GM component based on the identified transgene.

  19. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  20. Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing.

    PubMed

    Song, Shangxin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Liangyan; Dai, Sifa; Xu, Xinglian; Xiao, Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of DNA by alkaline lysis method were higher than by CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. For sweet rice wine, CAMV35S (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter and NOS (nopaline synthase) terminator were degraded by the third day, whereas the exogenous gene Bar (bialaphos resistance) remained unaffected. For rice crackers, boiling, drying and microwaving contributed to the initial degradations of DNA. Baking resulted in further degradations, and frying led to the most severe changes. These results indicated that the stability of DNA in GM rice was different under different processing conditions. For sweet rice wine, Bar was most stable, followed by NOS, CAMV35S, and SPS. For rice crackers, CAMV35S was most stable, followed by SPS, NOS, and Bar.

  1. Hybridization between genetically modified Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout reveals novel ecological interactions

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Krista B.; Westley, Peter A. H.; Moreau, Darek T. R.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a route for transgenes from genetically modified (GM) animals to invade wild populations, yet the ecological effects and potential risks that may emerge from such hybridization are unknown. Through experimental crosses, we demonstrate transmission of a growth hormone transgene via hybridization between a candidate for commercial aquaculture production, GM Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and closely related wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). Transgenic hybrids were viable and grew more rapidly than transgenic salmon and other non-transgenic crosses in hatchery-like conditions. In stream mesocosms designed to more closely emulate natural conditions, transgenic hybrids appeared to express competitive dominance and suppressed the growth of transgenic and non-transgenic (wild-type) salmon by 82 and 54 per cent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of environmental impacts of hybridization between a GM animal and a closely related species. These results provide empirical evidence of the first steps towards introgression of foreign transgenes into the genomes of new species and contribute to the growing evidence that transgenic animals have complex and context-specific interactions with wild populations. We suggest that interspecific hybridization be explicitly considered when assessing the environmental consequences should transgenic animals escape to nature. PMID:23720549

  2. Toxic secondary metabolite production in genetically modified potatoes in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Derek; Jones, Huw; Gans, Paul; Coates, Steven; Smith, Lydia M J

    2005-10-05

    Potatoes produce a number of toxic secondary metabolites, which are divided into two groups: the sesquiterpenes and the glycoalkaloids (PGAs): whereas PGAs are largely preformed and present in toxic quantities in both the foliage and "green" potatoes, it is well documented that the levels of PGAs and sesquiterpenes are effected by many biotic an abiotic stresses. The development of genetically modified potato varieties has made it prudent to ascertain whether there may be changes in the amounts or types of these secondary metabolites either as a direct effect of the transgene or due to its interactions with environmental variables. Transgenic potato lines were exposed, along with nontransgenic lines, to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses and a range of environmental conditions in the field and store. Following stressing, a comparison was made of levels of potato glycoalkaloid and sesquiterpene levels between the two groups. Significant differences were observed in the levels of both glycoalkaloid and sesquiterpene levels between transgenic and control material and between infected and noninfected material.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative PCR methods for detection of three lines of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jae Kyun; Lee, Theresa; Jung, Soon-Il; Kim, Tae-San; Park, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mi

    2004-06-02

    Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been developed for the detection of genetically modified (GM) potatoes. The combination of specific primers for amplification of the promoter region of Cry3A gene, potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and potato virus Y coat protein gene allows to identify each line of NewLeaf, NewLeaf Y, and NewLeaf Plus GM potatoes. Multiplex PCR method was also established for the simple and rapid detection of the three lines of GM potato in a mixture sample. For further quantitative detection, the realtime PCR method has been developed. This method features the use of a standard plasmid as a reference molecule. Standard plasmid contains both a specific region of the transgene Cry3A and an endogenous UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene of the potato. The test samples containing 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% GM potatoes were quantified by this method. At the 3.0% level of each line of GM potato, the relative standard deviations ranged from 6.0 to 19.6%. This result shows that the above PCR methods are applicable to detect GM potatoes quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  4. Microbead-assisted PDA sensor for the detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Min-Cheol; Shin, Yeo-Jae; Jeon, Tae-Joon; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Young-Rok

    2011-05-01

    A simple and sensitive approach for the detection of marker protein, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, from genetically modified crops was developed based on the colorimetric transition of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles in combination with silica microbeads. PDAs have attracted a great deal of interests as a transducing material due to their special features that allow colorimetric response to sensory signals, as well as their inherent simplicity. However, most PDA-based biosensors require additional analytical equipment such as a fluorescence microscope or UV-Vis spectrometer. In this study, we report a new approach to increase the degree of color transition by coupling antibody-conjugated PDA vesicles with silica microbeads in an effort to monitor the results with the unaided eye or simple RGB analysis. By immobilizing PDA vesicles on silica microbeads, we were able to overcome the disadvantages of colloidal PDA-based sensors and increase the degree of colorimetric changes in response to target molecules to a concentration as low as 20 nM. The additional stresses were given to PDA vesicles by antigen-antibody bridging of PDA vesicles coupled with microbeads, resulting in enhanced blue-red color transition. All the results showed that PDA vesicles in conjunction with silica microbeads will be a promising transducing material for the detection of target proteins in diagnostic and biosensing applications.

  5. Designing multilayered nanoplatforms for SERS-based detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluok, Saadet; Guven, Burcu; Eksi, Haslet; Ustundag, Zafer; Tamer, Ugur; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the multilayered surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platforms were developed for the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). For this purpose, two molecules [11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 2-mercaptoethylamine (2-MEA)] were attached with Aurod and Auspherical nanoparticles to form multilayered constructions on the gold (Au)slide surface. The best multilayered platform structure was chosen depending on SERS enhancement, and this surface was characterised with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the optimum multilayered SERS platform and nanoparticle interaction was identified, the oligonucleotides on the Aurod nanoparticles and Auslide were combined to determine target concentrations from the 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) signals using SERS. The correlation between the SERS intensities for DTNB and target concentrations was found to be linear within a range of 10 pM to 1 µM, and with a detection limit of 34 fM. The selectivity and specificity of the developed sandwich assay were tested using negative and positive controls, and nonsense and real sample studies. The obtained results showed that the multilayered SERS sandwich method allows for sensitive, selective, and specific detection of oligonucleotide sequences.

  6. Genetically modified endothelial progenitor cells in the therapy of cardiovascular disease and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jessie R; Stewart, Duncan J

    2012-05-01

    Since their initial discovery, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have held tremendous promise for cell therapy for a variety of cardiovascular diseases including pulmonary hypertension. The clinical experience to date suggests that circulating or bone marrow mononuclear cells and EPCs can induce neovascularization, and enhance cardiac repair after myocardial function, as well as improvements in the hemodynamic and functional status of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although these results are promising, the overall magnitude of the clinical benefits seen in these trials appear to be rather modest. Indeed, strong experimental evidence points towards a reduction in mobilization and impairment in function of EPCs in preclinical models and patients with cardiac disease or with cardiovascular risk factors such as advanced age, type I and II diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, as well as other conditions such as pulmonary hypertension. Genetic engineering of EPCs ex vivo, prior to transplantation, is a promising cell-enhancement strategy for restoring the angiogenic potential of autologous, patient-derived cells. This review provides an update of the experimental studies that have used gene-modified EPC therapy to treat ischemic cardiovascular disease and pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Genetically modified α-amylase inhibitor peas are not specifically allergenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E; Higgins, T J V; Epstein, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice.

  8. A built-in strategy to mitigate transgene spreading from genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement.

  9. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies.

  10. Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M; Kitterlin, Miranda; Jahangiry, Sheida; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Van Passel, Steven; Azadi, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled the use of this practice on a large scale in many areas, including Iran. It stands to reason that a greater understanding of this practice could be formed after a review of the existing expert opinions surrounding GM crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the predictors that influence agricultural experts' attitudes toward the development of and policies related to GM crops. Using a descriptive correlational research method, questionnaire data was collected from 65 experts from the Agricultural Organization in the Gotvand district in Southwest Iran. Results indicated that agricultural experts were aware of the environmental benefits and possible risks associated with GM crops. The majority of participants agreed that GM crops could improve food security and accelerate rural development, and were proponents of labeling practices for GM crops. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the perception of benefits and attitudes towards GM crops.

  11. A novel reference plasmid for the qualitative detection of genetically modified rice in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS), the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S), the ubiquitin gene (Ubi), the bar gene, and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (Hpt), that are commonly present in GM rice. Therefore, we constructed a novel plasmid (pBJGMM001) that contains fragments of these elements and two endogenous reference genes (the sucrose phosphate synthase gene, SPS, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene, PEPC). pBJGMM001 can serve as a standard for detecting 96% of GM rice lines in China. The primers, amplicons, reaction mixture, and PCR program were developed based on Chinese National Standards. The protocol was validated and determined to be suitable for practical use in monitoring and identifying GM rice.

  12. Genetically Modified Foods: A Brief Overview of the Risk Assessment Process.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Paige E

    2016-02-18

    Billions of people worldwide are unable to meet their daily micro nutritional needs. Genetically modified (GM) foods, while initially developed to tolerate herbicides and resist disease and insects, have the potential to help alleviate this issue that is currently posing a serious public health concern. However, there is a negative public perception surrounding GM foods, calling for more research regarding the risks that GM foods could pose to the public, specifically on the topics of allergenicity and gene transfer. The risk assessments of GM foods should be performed on a case-by-case basis, by a process outlined by the WHO. The goal of determining food safety is to obtain reasonable certainty that under normal levels of consumption, there will be no harm to people. Current research has shown that GM foods do not cause increased allergenicity or have a meaningful risk of gene transfer to people. GM foods should become publicly accepted products that can bring significant benefit to people at risk of under nutrition.

  13. Cas9 in Genetically Modified Food Is Unlikely to Cause Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kondo, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing has undergone rapid development during the last three years. It is anticipated that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food purposes will be widely produced using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR)/Cas9 system in the near future. However, the Cas9 gene may then enter the genomes of GMOs for food if the breeding process is not strictly managed, which could lead to the Cas9 protein or associated peptides being produced within these organisms. A variety of peptides could theoretically be produced from the Cas9 gene by using open reading frames different from that of Cas9 in the GMOs. In this study, Cas9 and the peptides potentially encoded by Cas9 genes were studied regarding their immunogenicity, in terms of the digestibility of Cas9 and the homology of the peptides to food allergens. First, the digestibility and thermal stability of Cas9 were studied. Digestibility was tested with natural or heat-denatured Cas9 in simulated gastric fluid in vitro. The two types of Cas9 were digested rapidly. Cas9 was also gradually degraded during heat treatment. Second, the peptides potentially encoded by Cas9 genes were examined for their homology to food allergens. Specifically, an 8-mer exact match search and a sliding 80-mer window search were performed using allergen databases. One of the peptides was found to have homology with a food allergen.

  14. Assessment of endogenous allergenicity of genetically modified plants exemplified by soybean - Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Selb, R; Wal, J M; Moreno, F J; Lovik, M; Mills, C; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Fernandez, A

    2017-03-01

    According to EU regulation, genetically modified (GM) plants considered to be allergenic have to be assessed concerning their endogenous allergens before placement on the EU market, in line with the international standards described in Codex Alimentarius. Under such premises, a quantitative relevant increase in allergens might occur in GM plants as an unintended effect compared with conventionally produced crops, which could pose a risk to consumers. Currently, data showing a connection between dose and allergic sensitisation are scarce since the pathophysiological mechanisms of sensitisation are insufficiently understood. In contrast, data on population dose-distribution relationships acquired by oral food challenge are available showing a connection between quantity of allergenic protein consumed and the population of allergic individuals experiencing reactions. Soybean is currently the only recognised allergenic GM food by law for which EFSA has received applications and was therefore taken as an example for defining an assessment strategy. Identification of potential allergens, methodology for quantification as well as risk assessment considerations, are discussed. A strategy is proposed for the identification, assessment and evaluation of potential hazards/risks concerning endogenous allergenicity in food derived from plants developed by biotechnology. This approach could be expanded to other allergenic foods in the future, whenever required.

  15. Detection of glycoalkaloids using disposable biosensors based on genetically modified enzymes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Michelle Arredondo; Istamboulie, Georges; Chira, Ana; Noguer, Thierry; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-15

    In this work we present a rapid, selective, and highly sensitive detection of α-solanine and α-chaconine using cholinesterase-based sensors. The high sensitivity of the devices is brought by the use of a genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE), combined with a one-step detection method based on the measurement of inhibition slope. The selectivity was obtained by using butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme able to detect these two toxins with differential inhibition kinetics. The enzymes were immobilized via entrapment in PVA-AWP polymer directly on the working electrode surface. The analysis of the resulting inhibition slope was performed employing linear regression function included in Matlab. The high toxicity of α-chaconine compared to α-solanine due to a better affinity to the active site was proved. The inhibition of glycoalkaloids (GAs) mixture was performed over AChE enzyme wild-type AChE and BChE biosensors resulting in the detection of synergism effect. The developed method allows the detection of (GAs) at 50 ppb in potato matrix.

  16. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  17. Ecological impacts of genetically modified crops: ten years of field research and commercial cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before and during their commercial cultivation. Substantial scientific data on the environmental effects of the currently commercialized GM crops are available today. We have reviewed this scientific knowledge derived from the past 10 years of worldwide experimental field research and commercial cultivation. The review focuses on the currently commercially available GM crops that could be relevant for agriculture in Western and Central Europe (i.e., maize, oilseed rape, and soybean), and on the two main GM traits that are currently commercialized, herbicide tolerance (HT) and insect resistance (IR). The sources of information included peer-reviewed scientific journals, scientific books, reports from regions with extensive GM crop cultivation, as well as reports from international governmental organizations. The data available so far provide no scientific evidence that the cultivation of the presently commercialized GM crops has caused environmental harm. Nevertheless, a number of issues related to the interpretation of scientific data on effects of GM crops on the environment are debated controversially. The present review highlights these scientific debates and discusses the effects of GM crop cultivation on the environment considering the impacts caused by cultivation practices of modern agricultural systems.

  18. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  19. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals.

  20. Ocular surface mucins and local inflammation--studies in genetically modified mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kumi; Saika, Shizuya

    2015-12-17

    Mucins locate to the apical surfaces of all wet-surfaced epithelia including ocular surface. The functions of the mucins include anti-adhesive, lubrication, water retention, allergens and pathogen barrier function. Ocular surface pathologies, i.e. dry eye syndrome or allergic conjunctivitis, are reportedly associated with alteration of expression pattern of mucin components. Recent investigations indicated anti-bacterial adhesion or anti-inflammatory effects of members of mucins in non-ocular tissues, i.e., gastrointestinal tracts or airway tissues, by using genetically modified mouse lines that lacks an expression of a mucin member. However, examination of ocular phenotypes of each of mucin gene-ablated mouse lines has not yet fully performed. Muc16-deficient mouse is associated with spontaneous subclinical inflammation in conjunctiva. The article reviews the roles of mucin members in modulation of local inflammation in mucous membrane tissues and phenotype of mouse lines with the loss of a mucin gene. Analysis of ocular surface of mucin-gene related mutant mouse lines are to be further performed.

  1. Genetically modified flax expressing NAP-SsGT1 transgene: examination of anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-09-22

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet.

  2. Engineering RNA interference-based resistance to dengue virus type 2 in genetically modified Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander W E; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Adelman, Zach N; Blair, Carol D; Beaty, Barry J; James, Anthony A; Olson, Ken E

    2006-03-14

    Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were genetically modified to exhibit impaired vector competence for dengue type 2 viruses (DENV-2). We exploited the natural antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the mosquito midgut by constructing an effector gene that expresses an inverted-repeat (IR) RNA derived from the premembrane protein coding region of the DENV-2 RNA genome. The A. aegypti carboxypeptidase A promoter was used to express the IR RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingestion of a bloodmeal. The promoter and effector gene were inserted into the genome of a white-eye Puerto Rico Rexville D (Higgs' white eye) strain by using the nonautonomous mariner MosI transformation system. A transgenic family, Carb77, expressed IR RNA in the midgut after a bloodmeal. Carb77 mosquitoes ingesting an artificial bloodmeal containing DENV-2 exhibited marked reduction of viral envelope antigen in midguts and salivary glands after infection. DENV-2 titration of individual mosquitoes showed that most Carb77 mosquitoes poorly supported virus replication. Transmission in vitro of virus from the Carb77 line was significantly diminished when compared to control mosquitoes. The presence of DENV-2-derived siRNAs in RNA extracts from midguts of Carb77 and the loss of the resistance phenotype when the RNAi pathway was interrupted proved that DENV-2 resistance was caused by a RNAi response. Engineering of transgenic A. aegypti that show a high level of resistance against DENV-2 provides a powerful tool for developing population replacement strategies to control transmission of dengue viruses.

  3. A simplified and accurate detection of the genetically modified wheat MON71800 with one calibrator plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Sunghoon; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, unauthorized GMO releases into the food market have increased dramatically, and many countries have developed detection tools for them. This study described the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of unauthorized the GM wheat MON71800 with a reference plasmid (pGEM-M71800). The wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acc) gene was used as the endogenous gene. The plasmid pGEM-M71800, which contains both the acc gene and the event-specific target MON71800, was constructed as a positive control for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The limit of detection in the qualitative PCR assay was approximately 10 copies. In the quantitative PCR assay, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation repeatability values ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 and from 0.23% to 1.12%, respectively. This study supplies a powerful and very simple but accurate detection strategy for unauthorized GM wheat MON71800 that utilizes a single calibrator plasmid.

  4. A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

  5. Key elements in a strategic approach to capacity building in the biosafety of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Araya-Quesada, Marianela; Degrassi, Giuliano; Ripandelli, Decio; Craig, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, it has become imperative for countries to define and implement policy in biosafety due to the widespread adoption of genetically modified crops. As such, countries wishing to utilise transgenic technologies in the development of advanced agricultural products must have regulations in place coupled with trained personnel in national competent authorities able to contribute effectively to the decision-making process. Capacity building initiatives play an important role in supporting such individuals, institutions and governmental authorities by providing training and/or physical structures/equipment and technical assistance. There are many types of capacity building activities; however not all have the same relevance in different regions of the world. For capacity building to be effective, a strategic approach incorporating a variety of forms and disciplines is desired. This commentary discusses the importance of factors such as: the targeting of support to relevant beneficiary(ies); the identification of specific needs and the incorporation of socio-economic conditions when elaborating effective strategies designed to help building capacity. Moreover, the importance of interaction and collaboration amongst the various capacity builders is also discussed such that unnecessary duplication of efforts and best use of available human and economic resources results.

  6. Computational allergenicity prediction of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Misra, Amita; Subash, Swarna; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-09-01

    Development of genetically modified (GM) crops is on increase to improve food quality, increase harvest yields, and reduce the dependency on chemical pesticides. Before their release in marketplace, they should be scrutinized for their safety. Several guidelines of different regulatory agencies like ILSI, WHO Codex, OECD, and so on for allergenicity evaluation of transgenics are available and sequence homology analysis is the first test to determine the allergenic potential of inserted proteins. Therefore, to test and validate, 312 allergenic, 100 non-allergenic, and 48 inserted proteins were assessed for sequence similarity using 8-mer, 80-mer, and full FASTA search. On performing sequence homology studies, ~94% the allergenic proteins gave exact matches for 8-mer and 80-mer homology. However, 20 allergenic proteins showed non-allergenic behavior. Out of 100 non-allergenic proteins, seven qualified as allergens. None of the inserted proteins demonstrated allergenic behavior. In order to improve the predictability, proteins showing anomalous behavior were tested by Algpred and ADFS separately. Use of Algpred and ADFS softwares reduced the tendency of false prediction to a great extent (74-78%). In conclusion, routine sequence homology needs to be coupled with some other bioinformatic method like ADFS/Algpred to reduce false allergenicity prediction of novel proteins.

  7. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin

    2010-11-30

    The potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops on income, poverty and nutrition in developing countries continue to be the subject of public controversy. Here, a review of the evidence is given. As an example of a first-generation GM technology, the effects of insect-resistant Bt cotton are analysed. Bt cotton has already been adopted by millions of small-scale farmers, in India, China, and South Africa among others. On average, farmers benefit from insecticide savings, higher effective yields and sizeable income gains. Insights from India suggest that Bt cotton is employment generating and poverty reducing. As an example of a second-generation technology, the likely impacts of beta-carotene-rich Golden Rice are analysed from an ex ante perspective. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious nutritional problem, causing multiple adverse health outcomes. Simulations for India show that Golden Rice could reduce related health problems significantly, preventing up to 40,000 child deaths every year. These examples clearly demonstrate that GM crops can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries. To realise such social benefits on a larger scale requires more public support for research targeted to the poor, as well as more efficient regulatory and technology delivery systems.

  8. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-08-16

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%.

  9. Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

  10. Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Emdadull H; Mikami, Osamu; Murata, Hideo; Sultana, Parvin; Shimada, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2004-02-01

    The presence of maize intrinsic and recombinant cry1Ab genes in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and visceral organs of calves fed genetically modified Bt11 maize was examined by PCR in a subchronic 90-day performance study. Samples were collected from six Japanese Black/Holstein calves fed Bt11 maize and from six calves fed non-Bt maize. Fragments of maize zein (Ze1), invertase, chloroplast, and cry1Ab were detected inconsistently in the rumen fluid and rectal contents 5 and 18 h after feeding. The chloroplast DNA fragments of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and tRNA were detected inconsistently in the PBMC, the visceral organs, and the longissimus muscle, while the cry1Ab gene was never detected in PBMC or in the visceral organs. These results suggest that feed-derived maize DNA was mostly degraded in the GI tract but that fragmented DNA was detectable in the GI contents as a possible source of transfer to calf tissues. These results also suggest that the recombinant cry1Ab genes were not transferred to the PBMC and tissues of calves fed Bt11 maize.

  11. Enhanced ethanol fermentation of brewery wastewater using the genetically modified strain E. coli KO11.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kripa; Chaudhari, Vaibhav; Varanasi, Sasidhar; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2007-02-01

    We have used liquid waste obtained from a beer brewery process to produce ethanol. To increase the productivity, genetically modified organism, Escherichia coli KO11, was used for ethanol fermentation. Yeast was also used to produce ethanol from the same feed stock, and the ethanol production rates and resulting concentrations of sugars and ethanol were compared with those of KO11. In the experiments, first the raw wastewater was directly fermented using two strains with no saccharification enzymes added. Then, commercial enzymes, alpha-amylase, pectinase, or a combination of both, were used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and the results were compared with those of the no-enzyme experiments for KO11 and yeast. Under the given conditions with or without the enzymes, yeast produced ethanol more rapidly than E. coli KO11, but the final ethanol concentrations were almost the same. For both yeast and KO11, the enzymes were observed to enhance the ethanol yields by 61-84% as compared to the fermentation without enzymes. The combination of the two enzymes increased ethanol production the most for the both strains. The advantages of using KO11 were not demonstrated clearly as compared to the yeast fermentation results.

  12. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

  14. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    PubMed Central

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  15. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foreign-made processed foods containing corn and potato.

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Sagi, Naoki; Satoh, Masaki; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Satoh, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    Investigations of the validity of labeling regarding genetically modified (GM) products were conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for foreign-made processed foods made from corn and potato purchased in the Tokyo area and in the USA. Several kinds of GM crops were detected in 12 of 32 samples of processed corn samples. More than two GM events for which safety reviews have been completed in Japan were simultaneously detected in 10 samples. GM events MON810 and Bt11 were most frequently detected in the samples by qualitative PCR methods. MON810 was detected in 11 of the 12 samples, and Bt11 was detected in 6 of the 12 samples. In addition, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one of the 12 samples. On the other hand, CBH351, for which the safety assessment was withdrawn in Japan, was not detected in any of the 12 samples. A trial quantitative analysis was performed on six of the GM maize qualitatively positive samples. The estimated amounts of GM maize in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.8%, except for one sample, which contained 24.1%. For this sample, the total amount found by event-specific quantitative analysis was 23.8%. Additionally, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one sample of 21 potato-processed foods, although GM potatoes were not detected in any sample.

  16. A Novel Reference Plasmid for the Qualitative Detection of Genetically Modified Rice in Food and Feed

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS), the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S), the ubiquitin gene (Ubi), the bar gene, and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (Hpt), that are commonly present in GM rice. Therefore, we constructed a novel plasmid (pBJGMM001) that contains fragments of these elements and two endogenous reference genes (the sucrose phosphate synthase gene, SPS, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene, PEPC). pBJGMM001 can serve as a standard for detecting 96% of GM rice lines in China. The primers, amplicons, reaction mixture, and PCR program were developed based on Chinese National Standards. The protocol was validated and determined to be suitable for practical use in monitoring and identifying GM rice. PMID:26495318

  17. Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Organisms and Sources of Information123

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. PMID:26567205

  18. The socioeconomics of genetically modified biofortified crops: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Gellynck, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Building upon the growing interest and research on genetically modified (GM) biofortification, its socioeconomic potential has been increasingly examined. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide comprehensive evidence of consumers' willingness to pay (11 economic valuation studies, 64 estimates) and cost-effectiveness/benefits (five economic evaluation studies, 30 estimates). Worldwide, consumers were willing to pay 23.9% more for GM biofortified food crops. Aside from crop and design-related differences, information provision was deemed crucial. Positive information (nutrition and GM benefits) is associated with the highest consumer willingness to pay, compared with negative, objective, and conflicting GM information, especially when negative information was mentioned last. This health intervention would reduce the aggregated micronutrient deficiency burden in Asia (15.6 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)) by 12.5-51.4%, at a low cost of USD 7.9-27.8 per DALY in a pessimistic and optimistic scenario, respectively. Given that GM biofortified crops could tackle hidden hunger in a cost-effective and well-accepted way, its implementation is worth pursuing. A case study on folate biofortification further elaborates on the importance of socioeconomic research and the determinants of their market potential.

  19. High-resolution raster scan optoacoustic mesoscopy of genetically modified drosophila pupae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Gateau, Jérôme; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-03-01

    Optoacoutic mesoscopy aims to bridge the gap between optoacoustic microscopy and optoacoustic tomography. We have developed a setup for optoacoustic mesoscopy where we use a high frequency, high numerical aperture spherically focused ultrasound transducer, with a wide bandwidth of 25-125 MHz. The excitation is performed using a diode laser capable of >500 μJ/pulse, 1.8ns pulse width, 1.4 kHz pulse repetition rate, at 515 nm. The system is capable to penetrate more than 5 mm with a resolution of 7 μm axially and 30 μm transversally. Using high-speed stages and scanning the transducer in a quasi-continuous mode, a field of view of 2×2 mm2 is scanned in less than 2 minutes. The system is suitable for imaging biological samples that have a diameter of 1-5 mm; zebrafish, drosophila melanogaster, and thin biological samples such as the mouse ear and mouse extremities. We have used our mesoscopic setup to generate 3- dimensional images of genetically modified drosophila fly, and drosophila pupae expressing GFP from the wings, high resolution images were generated in both cases, in the fly we can see the wings, the legs, the eyes, and the shape of the body. In the pupae the outline of the pupae, the spiracles at both ends and a strong signal corresponding to the location of the future wings are observed.

  20. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yange; Shi, Zhaopeng; Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM) milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health. PMID:27438026

  1. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  2. Mass spectrometric detection of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya and maize.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Mireia Fernández; Fraser, Paul D; Patel, Raj K P; Halket, John M; Bramley, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    The potential of protein fractionation hyphenated to mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and characterize the transgenic protein present in Roundup Ready soya and maize has been investigated. Genetically modified (GM) soya and maize contain the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens CP4, which confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The GM soya and maize proteomes were fractionated by gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) prior to MS. This facilitated detection of a tryptic peptide map of CP4 EPSPS by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (nanoESI-QTOF) MS. Subsequently, sequence information from the CP4 EPSPS tryptic peptides was obtained by nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS. The identification was accomplished in 0.9% GM soya seeds, which is the current EU threshold for food-labeling requirements.

  3. Sampling and modeling for the quantification of adventitious genetically modified presence in maize.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Theodore Richard; Dwyer, Mark; McMillan, Jillian; Henry, Christine; Langrell, Stephen

    2008-05-14

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops is an important economic and political issue in the European Union. We examined the GM content in non-GM maize crops in Spain in 2005. Both the standing crop and the harvest were tested, and the %GM DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared the level of GM as a function of distance from known GM source fields in a 1.2 km2 landscape. The distribution of GM was compared to predictions from previous studies, and good agreement was found. Control and monitoring of adventitious GM presence in non-GM crops can only be achieved by fit-for-purpose sampling and testing schemes. We used a GM dispersal function to simulate non-GM crops in the studied zone and tested the accuracy of five different sampling schemes. Random sampling was found to be the most accurate and least susceptible to bias by GM spatial structure or gradients. Simulations showed that to achieve greater than 95% confidence in a GM labeling decision of a harvest (when treated as a single marketed lot), 34 samples would be needed when the harvest was outside 50% of the GM threshold value. The number of samples required increased rapidly as the harvest approached the GM threshold, implying that accurate labeling when the harvest is within +/-17% of the threshold may not be possible with high confidence.

  4. Quantitative detection system for maize sample containing combined-trait genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Wakabayashi, Kaoru; Nakade, Shinsuke; Yasui, Shuji; Sakata, Kozue; Chiba, Ryoko; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Hino, Akihiro; Maitani, Tamio

    2005-11-15

    Various countries have established regulations that stipulate the labeling of agricultural commodities, feed, and food products that contain or are made from genetically modified (GM) material or that contain adventitious GM material in amounts that exceed certain threshold levels. While regulations in some countries refer to GM material on a weight per weight (w/w) percentage, the currently applied detection methods do not directly measure the w/w percentage of the GM material. Depending on the particular method and the sample matrix it is applied to, the conversion of analytical results to a w/w percentage is challenging or not possible. The first rapid PCR system for GM maize detection on a single kernel basis has been developed. The equipment for the grinding of individual kernels and a silica membrane-based 96-well DNA extraction kit were both significantly revised and optimized for this particular purpose, respectively. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR method for the rapid quantification of GM DNA sequences in the obtained DNA solutions. In addition, a multiplex qualitative PCR detection method allows for the simultaneous detection of different GM maize traits in each kernel and thereby for identification of individual kernels that contain a combination of two or more GM traits. Especially for grain samples that potentially contain combined-trait GM maize kernels, the proposed methods can deliver informative results in a rapid, precise, and reliable manner.

  5. Production of certified reference materials for the detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Trapmann, Stefanie; Schimmel, Heinz; Kramer, Gerard Nico; Van den Eede, Guy; Pauwels, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are an essenIial tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. They are produced, certified, and used in accordance with relevant ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM; Geel, Belgium) has produced the first powdery genetically modified organism (GMO) CRMs in cooperation with the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Ispra, Italy). Until now, different weight percentages in the range of 0-5% for 4 GMOs in Europe were produced and certified: Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis)-11 and Bt-176 maize, Roundup Ready soybean, and MON810 maize. Bt-11 and Bt-176 maize and Roundup Ready soybean were produced by IRMM on behalf of Fluka Chemie AG (Buchs, Switzerland). Characterization of used base material is the first step in production and is especially important for GMO CRMs. The production of powdery GMO CRMs and methods used for production control are described. Thorough control of homogeneity and stability are essential for certification of reference materials and ensure validity of the certificate for each bottle of a batch throughout a defined shelf-life. Because production of reference materials and their maintenance are very labor- and cost-intensive tasks, the usefulness of new types of GMO CRMs must be estimated carefully.

  6. Suggestions for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Spök, Armin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Laffer, Sylvia; Pauli, Gabrielle; Saito, Hirohisa; Sampson, Hugh; Sibanda, Elopy; Thomas, Wayne; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing continuously and, accordingly, there is a great desire to evaluate the allergenic potential of components in our daily environment (e.g., food). Although there is almost no scientific evidence that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) exhibit increased allergenicity compared with the corresponding wild type significant concerns have been raised regarding this matter. In principle, it is possible that the allergenic potential of GMOs may be increased due to the introduction of potential foreign allergens, to potentially upregulated expression of allergenic components caused by the modification of the wild type organism or to different means of exposure. According to the current practice, the proteins to be introduced into a GMO are evaluated for their physiochemical properties, sequence homology with known allergens and occasionally regarding their allergenic activity. We discuss why these current rules and procedures cannot predict or exclude the allergenicity of a given GMO with certainty. As an alternative we suggest to improve the current evaluation by an experimental comparison of the wild-type organism with the whole GMO regarding their potential to elicit reactions in allergic individuals and to induce de novo sensitizations. We also recommend that the suggested assessment procedures be equally applied to GMOs as well as to natural cultivars in order to establish effective measures for allergy prevention.

  7. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countries. The most significant advantages of GM crops include being independent to farm size, environment protection, improvement of occupational health issues, and the potential of bio-fortified crops to reduce malnutrition. Challenges faced by small-scale farmers for adoption of GM crops comprise availability and accessibility of GM crop seeds, seed dissemination and price, and the lack of adequate information. In addition, R&D and production costs in using GM crops make it difficult for these farmers to adopt the use of these crops. Moreover, intellectual property right regulations may deprive resource poor farmers from the advantages of GM technology. Finally, concerns on socio-economic and environment safety issues are also addressed in this paper.

  8. Visual detection of multiple genetically modified organisms in a capillary array.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ning; Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Jiaying; Li, Rong; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Shujuan; Hui, Junhou; Liu, Peng; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-01-31

    There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries. The surface of the capillary array is hydrophobic while the capillaries are hydrophilic, enabling the simultaneous loading and separation of the LAMP reaction mixtures into each capillary by capillary forces. LAMP reactions in the capillaries are then performed in parallel, and the results are visually detected by illumination with a hand-held UV device. Using CALM, we successfully detected seven frequently used transgenic genes/elements and five plant endogenous reference genes with high specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we found that measurements of real-world blind samples by CALM are consistent with results obtained by independent real-time PCRs. Thus, with an ability to detect multiple nucleic acids in a single easy-to-operate test, we believe that CALM will become a widely applied technology in GMO monitoring.

  9. Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

    2014-07-23

    A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context.

  10. Genetic Modifier Screens Reveal New Components that Interact with the Drosophila Dystroglycan-Dystrophin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yatsenko, Andriy S.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.; Fischer, Karin A.; Maksymiv, Dariya V.; Chernyk, Yaroslava I.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    The Dystroglycan-Dystrophin (Dg-Dys) complex has a capacity to transmit information from the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton inside the cell. It is proposed that this interaction is under tight regulation; however the signaling/regulatory components of Dg-Dys complex remain elusive. Understanding the regulation of the complex is critical since defects in this complex cause muscular dystrophy in humans. To reveal new regulators of the Dg-Dys complex, we used a model organism Drosophila melanogaster and performed genetic interaction screens to identify modifiers of Dg and Dys mutants in Drosophila wing veins. These mutant screens revealed that the Dg-Dys complex interacts with genes involved in muscle function and components of Notch, TGF-β and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, components of pathways that are required for cellular and/or axonal migration through cytoskeletal regulation, such as Semaphorin-Plexin, Frazzled-Netrin and Slit-Robo pathways show interactions with Dys and/or Dg. These data suggest that the Dg-Dys complex and the other pathways regulating extracellular information transfer to the cytoskeletal dynamics are more intercalated than previously thought. PMID:18545683

  11. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) affinity biosensor for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Ilaria; Minunni, Maria; Tombelli, Sara; Mascini, Marco

    2003-03-01

    A DNA piezoelectric sensor has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The probe sequences were internal to the sequence of the 35S promoter (P) and Nos terminator (T), which are inserted sequences in the genome of GMOs regulating the transgene expression. Two different probe immobilisation procedures were applied: (a) a thiol-dextran procedure and (b) a thiol-derivatised probe and blocking thiol procedure. The system has been optimised using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were then applied to samples of plasmidic and genomic DNA isolated from the pBI121 plasmid, certified reference materials (CRM), and real samples amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analytical parameters of the sensor have been investigated (sensitivity, reproducibility, lifetime etc.). The results obtained showed that both immobilisation procedures enabled sensitive and specific detection of GMOs, providing a useful tool for screening analysis in food samples.

  12. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system.

  13. Safety and risk assessment of the genetically modified Lactococci on rats intestinal bacterial flora.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Chien; Liu, Chin-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Hsing; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between Lactococcus lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and intestinal microflora was evaluated as a method to assess safety of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK is one kind of GMM and able to produce the intracellular subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) under induction with nisin. The host strain L. lactis NZ9000 was a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganism. Six groups of Wistar rats were orally administered with L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and L. lactis NZ9000 for 6 weeks. Fecal and cecal contents were collected to determine the number of L. lactis NZ9000, L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK, Lactobacillus, coliform bacteria, beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and harmful bacteria Clostridium perfringens. The liver, spleen, kidney and blood were evaluated for the bacterial translocation. After 6 weeks consumption with GM and non-GM Lactococcus, no adverse effects were observed on the rat's body weight, hematological or serum biochemical parameters, or intestinal microflora. The bacterial translocation test showed that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK did not translocate to any organ or blood. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in feces after administration of both Lactococcus strains (L. lactis NZ9000 and L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK), while C. perfringens remained undetectable during the experiment. These results suggested that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK could be safe in animal experiments and monitoring of the interaction between test strains and intestinal microflora might be applied as a method for other GMM safety assessments.

  14. Toxicity studies of genetically modified plants: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2007-01-01

    According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals during the current decade did not find, or the number was particularly small, references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods. In this paper, the scientific information concerning the potential toxicity of GM/transgenic plants using the Medline database is reviewed. Studies about the safety of the potential use of potatoes, corn, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomatoes, sweet pepper, peas, and canola plants for food and feed were included. The number of references was surprisingly limited. Moreover, most published studies were not performed by the biotechnology companies that produce these products. This review can be concluded raising the following question: where is the scientific evidence showing that GM plants/food are toxicologically safe?

  15. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  16. Detection of genetically modified crops and their derivatives: critical steps in sample preparation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Terry, Catherine F; Harris, Neil; Parkes, Helen C

    2002-01-01

    The detection of genetically modified crops in foodstuff relies on detection of transgenic DNA or protein material in the sample matrix. Purified DNA or proteins are used as analytical material for polymerase chain reaction technologies and immunodiagnostics. Successful sample preparation is critical to the validity of subsequent analysis. For routine analysis, a good sample preparation technique should be simple, safe, and inexpensive while reproducibly generating DNA/protein of sufficient quality and yield. The suitability of isolated DNA or protein as an analyte for a detection or characterization technique depends on amount or concentration, purity, and integrity, each of which may be influenced by sample matrix and the extraction technique, and, in turn, may impact the validity of analytical techniques. The key sample preparation steps of homogenization, pretreatment, extraction, and purification are discussed as well as typical analytical methods. Consideration is given to application of these steps for particular sample matrixes to maximize yield, reduce inhibition effects, and minimize contamination. The choice of the most appropriate and valid methods for sample preparation from particular foods is discussed with respect to DNA analysis. Attention is also given to ease of use, cost, and generic applicability of the procedures.

  17. Status of market, regulation and research of genetically modified crops in Chile.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Miguel A; León, Gabriel

    2016-12-25

    Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops. Despite imports of GM food/feed or ingredients for the food industry being allowed without restrictions, Chilean farmers are not using GM seeds for farming purposes because of a lack of clear guidelines. Chile is in a rather contradictory situation about GM crops. The country has invested considerable resources to fund research and development on GM crops, but the lack of clarity in the current regulatory situation precludes the use of such research to develop new products for Chilean farmers. Meanwhile, a larger scientific capacity regarding GM crop research continues to build up in the country. The present study maps and analyses the current regulatory environment for research and production of GM crops in Chile, providing an updated overview of the current status of GM seeds production, research and regulatory issues.

  18. Genetically Modified T-Cell-Based Adoptive Immunotherapy in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Baixin; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of hematological malignancies remain limited in treatment options. Immune system modulation serves as a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a central role in antitumor immunity; unfortunately, nonspecific approaches for targeted recognition of tumor cells by CTLs to mediate tumor immune evasion in hematological malignancies imply multiple mechanisms, which may or may not be clinically relevant. Recently, genetically modified T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and engineered T-cell receptor (TCR) T-cell therapy, promise to overcome immune evasion by redirecting the specificity of CTLs to tumor cells. In clinic trials, CAR-T-cell- and TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy have produced encouraging clinical outcomes, thereby demonstrating their therapeutic potential in mitigating tumor development. The purpose of the present review is to (1) provide a detailed overview of the multiple mechanisms for immune evasion related with T-cell-based therapies; (2) provide a current summary of the applications of CAR-T-cell- as well as neoantigen-specific TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy and routes taken to overcome immune evasion; and (3) evaluate alternative approaches targeting immune evasion via optimization of CAR-T and TCR-T-cell immunotherapies. PMID:28116322

  19. Genome editing revolutionize the creation of genetically modified pigs for modeling human diseases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    Pigs have anatomical, physiological and genomic characteristics that make them highly suitable for modeling human diseases. Genetically modified (GM) pig models of human diseases are critical for studying pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. The emergence of nuclease-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully employed for engineering of the pig genome, which has revolutionize the creation of GM pig models with highly complex pathophysiologies and comorbidities. In this review, we summarize the progress of recently developed genome editing technologies, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), which enable highly efficient and precise introduction of genome modifications into pigs, and tailored disease models that have been generated in various disciplines via genome editing technology. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated by conventional transgenic strategies. Additionally, perspectives regarding the application of GM pigs in biomedical research are discussed.

  20. Biodiesel development: New markets for conventional and genetically modified agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, J.; Shapouri, H.; Graboski, M.; McCormick, R.; Wilson, R.

    1998-09-01

    With environmental and energy source concerns on the rise, using agricultural fats and oils as fuel in diesel engines has captured increasing attention. Substituting petroleum diesel with biodiesel may reduce air emissions, increase the domestic supply of fuel, and create new markets for farmers. US agricultural fats and oils could support a large amount of biodiesel, but high production costs and competing uses of biodiesel feedstocks will likely prevent mass adoption of biodiesel fuel. Higher-priced niche markets could develop for biodiesels as a result of environmental regulations. Biodiesel has many environmental advantages relative to petroleum diesel, such as lower CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, and particulate matter emissions. Enhancing fuel properties by genetically modifying oil crops could improve NO{sub x} emissions, cold flow, and oxidative stability, which have been identified as potential problems for biodiesel. Research activities need to be directed toward cost reduction, improving fuel properties, and analyzing the economic effects of biodiesel development on US agriculture.

  1. Toxicological safety assessment of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis with additional N-acyl homoserine lactonase gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Chenfei; Chen, Shouwen; Ruan, Lifang; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicology safety to mammals of a genetically modified (GM) Bacillus thuringiensis with an additional N-acyl homoserine lactones gene (aiiA), which possesses insecticidal activity together with restraint of bacterial pathogenicity and is intended for use as a multifunctional biopesticide. Safety assessments included an acute oral toxicity test and 28-d animal feeding study in Wistar rats, primary eye and dermal irritation in Zealand White rabbits, and delayed contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Tests were conducted using spray-dried powder preparation. This GM product showed toxicity neither in oral acute toxicity test nor in 28-d animal feeding test at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. During the animal feeding test, there were no significant differences in growth, food and water consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights, and histopathology finding between rats in controls and tested groups. Tested animals in primary eye and dermal irritation and delayed contact hypersensitivity test were also devoid of any toxicity compared to controls. All the above results demonstrated that the GM based multifunctional B. thuringiensis has low toxicity and low eye and dermal irritation and would not cause hypersensitivity to laboratory mammals and therefore could be regarded as safe for use as a pesticide.

  2. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  3. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-02

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  4. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  5. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. Methods The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Results The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated

  6. Identification of genetic modifiers of age-at-onset for familial Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Ross, Owen A.; Wissemann, William T.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Siuda, Joanna; Lynch, Timothy; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Silburn, Peter A.; Mellick, George D.; Ritz, Beate; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Factor, Stewart A.; Breheny, Patrick J.; Payami, Haydeh

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative movement disorder and the second most common cause of dementia. Genes are thought to have a stronger effect on age-at-onset of PD than on risk, yet there has been a phenomenal success in identifying risk loci but not age-at-onset modifiers. We conducted a genome-wide study for age-at-onset. We analysed familial and non-familial PD separately, per prior evidence for strong genetic effect on age-at-onset in familial PD. GWAS was conducted in 431 unrelated PD individuals with at least one affected relative (familial PD) and 1544 non-familial PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC); an additional 737 familial PD and 2363 non-familial PD were used for replication. In familial PD, two signals were detected and replicated robustly: one mapped to LHFPL2 on 5q14.1 (PNGRC = 3E-8, PReplication = 2E-5, PNGRC + Replication = 1E-11), the second mapped to TPM1 on 15q22.2 (PNGRC = 8E-9, PReplication = 2E-4, PNGRC + Replication = 9E-11). The variants that were associated with accelerated onset had low frequencies (<0.02). The LHFPL2 variant was associated with earlier onset by 12.33 [95% CI: 6.2; 18.45] years in NGRC, 8.03 [2.95; 13.11] years in replication, and 9.79 [5.88; 13.70] years in the combined data. The TPM1 variant was associated with earlier onset by 15.30 [8.10; 22.49] years in NGRC, 9.29 [1.79; 16.79] years in replication, and 12.42 [7.23; 17.61] years in the combined data. Neither LHFPL2 nor TPM1 was associated with age-at-onset in non-familial PD. LHFPL2 (function unknown) is overexpressed in brain tumours. TPM1 encodes a highly conserved protein that regulates muscle contraction, and is a tumour-suppressor gene. PMID:27402877

  7. Assuring the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods: the importance of an holistic, integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew

    2002-09-11

    Genes change continuously by natural mutation and recombination enabling man to select and breed crops having the most desirable traits such as yield or flavour. Genetic modification (GM) is a recent development which allows specific genes to be identified, isolated, copied and inserted into other plants with a high level of specificity. The food safety considerations for GM crops are basically the same as those arising from conventionally bred crops, very few of which have been subject to any testing yet are generally regarded as being safe to eat. In contrast a rigorous safety testing paradigm has been developed for GM crops, which utilises a systematic, stepwise and holistic approach. The resultant science based process, focuses on a classical evaluation of the toxic potential of the introduced novel trait and the wholesomeness of the transformed crop. In addition, detailed consideration is given to the history and safe use of the parent crop as well as that of the gene donor. The overall safety evaluation is conducted under the concept known as substantial equivalence which is enshrined in all international crop biotechnology guidelines. This provides the framework for a comparative approach to identify the similarities and differences between the GM product and its comparator which has a known history of safe use. By building a detailed profile on each step in the transformation process, from parent to new crop, and by thoroughly evaluating the significance from a safety perspective, of any differences that may be detected, a very comprehensive matrix of information is constructed which enables the conclusion as to whether the GM crop, derived food or feed is as safe as its traditional counterpart. Using this approach in the evaluation of more than 50 GM crops which have been approved worldwide, the conclusion has been that foods and feeds derived from genetically modified crops are as safe and nutritious as those derived from traditional crops. The lack of

  8. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  9. Could age modify the effect of genetic variants in IL6 and TNF-α genes in multiple myeloma?

    PubMed

    Martino, Alessandro; Buda, Gabriele; Maggini, Valentina; Lapi, Francesco; Lupia, Antonella; Di Bello, Domenica; Orciuolo, Enrico; Galimberti, Sara; Barale, Roberto; Petrini, Mario; Rossi, Anna Maria

    2012-05-01

    Cytokines play a central role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis thus genetic variations within cytokines coding genes could influence MM susceptibility and therapy outcome. We investigated the impact of 8 SNPs in these genes in 202 MM cases and 235 controls also evaluating their impact on therapy outcome in a subset of 91 patients. Despite the overall negative findings, we found a significant age-modified effect of IL6 and TNF-α SNPs, on MM risk and therapy outcome, respectively. Therefore, this observation suggests that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes could be an important mediator of the complex interplay between ageing and cancer.

  10. Applications of Genetically Modified Immunobiotics with High Immunoregulatory Capacity for Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shigemori, Suguru; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by dysregulated immune responses of the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, the incidence of IBDs has increased in developed nations, but their prophylaxis/treatment is not yet established. Site-directed delivery of molecules showing anti-inflammatory properties using genetically modified (gm)-probiotics shows promise as a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of IBD. Advantages of gm-probiotics include (1) the ability to use bacteria as a delivery vehicle, enabling safe and long-term use by humans, (2) decreased risks of side effects, and (3) reduced costs. The intestinal delivery of anti-inflammatory proteins such as cytokines and enzymes using Lactococcus lactis has been shown to regulate host intestinal homeostasis depending on the delivered protein-specific machinery. Additionally, clinical experience using interleukin 10-secreting Lc. lactis has been shown to be safe and to facilitate biological containment in IBD therapy. On the other hand, some preclinical studies have demonstrated that gm-strains of immunobiotics (probiotic strains able to beneficially regulate the mucosal immunity) provide beneficial effects on intestinal inflammation as a result of the synergy between the immunoregulatory effects of the bacterium itself and the anti-inflammatory effects of the delivered recombinant proteins. In this review, we discuss the rapid progression in the development of strategies for the prophylaxis and treatment of IBD using gm-probiotics that exhibit immune regulation effects (gm-immunobiotics). In particular, we discuss the type of strains used as delivery agents. PMID:28179904

  11. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    PubMed

    Purchase, Iain F H

    2005-09-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tones. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalization (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

  12. Proposed definition of environmental damage illustrated by the cases of genetically modified crops and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Robert; Heink, Ulrich; Kowarik, Ingo

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of non-native plant species and the release of genetically modified (GM) crops can induce environmental changes at gene to ecosystem levels. Regulatory frameworks such as the Convention on Biological Diversity or the EU Deliberate Release Directive aim to prevent environmental damage but do not define the term. Although ecologists and conservationists often refer to environmental effects of GM crops or invasive species as damage, most authors do not disclose their normative assumptions or explain why some environmental impacts are regarded as detrimental and others are not. Thus far, a concise definition of environmental damage is missing and is necessary for a transparent assessment of environmental effects or risks. Therefore, we suggest defining environmental damage as a significant adverse effect on a biotic or abiotic conservation resource (i.e., a biotic or abiotic natural resource that is protected by conservational or environmental legislation) that has an impact on the value of the conservation resource, the conservation resource as an ecosystem component, or the sustainable use of the conservation resource. This definition relies on three normative assumptions: only concrete effects on a conservation resource can be damages; only adverse effects that lead to a decrease in the value of the conservation resource can be damages; and only significant adverse effects constitute damage to a conservation resource. Applying this definition within the framework of environmental risk assessment requires further normative determinations, for example, selection of a threshold to distinguish between adverse and significant adverse effects and approaches for assessing the environmental value of conservation resources. Such determinations, however, are not part of the definition of environmental damage. Rather they are part of the definition's operationalization through assessment procedures, which must be grounded in a comprehensible definition of

  13. Optimization of digital droplet polymerase chain reaction for quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Lars; Iwobi, Azuka; Busch, Ulrich; Pecoraro, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Digital PCR in droplets (ddPCR) is an emerging method for more and more applications in DNA (and RNA) analysis. Special requirements when establishing ddPCR for analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in a laboratory include the choice between validated official qPCR methods and the optimization of these assays for a ddPCR format. Differentiation between droplets with positive reaction and negative droplets, that is setting of an appropriate threshold, can be crucial for a correct measurement. This holds true in particular when independent transgene and plant-specific reference gene copy numbers have to be combined to determine the content of GM material in a sample. Droplets which show fluorescent units ranging between those of explicit positive and negative droplets are called 'rain'. Signals of such droplets can hinder analysis and the correct setting of a threshold. In this manuscript, a computer-based algorithm has been carefully designed to evaluate assay performance and facilitate objective criteria for assay optimization. Optimized assays in return minimize the impact of rain on ddPCR analysis. We developed an Excel based 'experience matrix' that reflects the assay parameters of GMO ddPCR tests performed in our laboratory. Parameters considered include singleplex/duplex ddPCR, assay volume, thermal cycler, probe manufacturer, oligonucleotide concentration, annealing/elongation temperature, and a droplet separation evaluation. We additionally propose an objective droplet separation value which is based on both absolute fluorescence signal distance of positive and negative droplet populations and the variation within these droplet populations. The proposed performance classification in the experience matrix can be used for a rating of different assays for the same GMO target, thus enabling employment of the best suited assay parameters. Main optimization parameters include annealing/extension temperature and oligonucleotide concentrations. The

  14. Individual detection of genetically modified maize varieties in non-identity-preserved maize samples.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Kondo, Kazunari; Tanaka, Asako; Liu, Ming S; Oguchi, Taichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2008-03-26

    In many countries, the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. The GMO content in a maize sample containing the combined-trait (stacked) GM maize as determined by the currently available methodology is likely to be overestimated. However, there has been little information in the literature on the mixing level and varieties of stacked GM maize in real sample grains. For the first time, the GMO content of non-identity-preserved (non-IP) maize samples imported from the United States has been successfully determined by using a previously developed individual kernel detection system coupled to a multiplex qualitative PCR method followed by multichannel capillary gel electrophoresis system analysis. To clarify the GMO content in the maize samples imported from the United States, determine how many stacked GM traits are contained therein, and which GM trait varieties frequently appeared in 2005, the GMO content (percent) on a kernel basis and the varieties of the GM kernels in the non-IP maize samples imported from the United States were investigated using the individual kernel analysis system. The average (+/-standard deviation) of the GMO contents on a kernel basis in five non-IP sample lots was determined to be 51.0+/-21.6%, the percentage of a single GM trait grains was 39%, and the percentage of the stacked GM trait grains was 12%. The MON810 grains and NK603 grains were the most frequent varieties in the single GM traits. The most frequent stacked GM traits were the MON810xNK603 grains. In addition, the present study would provide the answer and impact for the quantification of GM maize content in the GM maize kernels on labeling regulation.

  15. Off-label prescription of genetically modified organism medicines in europe: emerging conflicts of interest?

    PubMed

    Schagen, Frederik H E; Hoeben, Rob C; Hospers, Geke A P

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product is intended. Within this use, the application of the GMO medicine is permitted, without the need for the institution to obtain a specific permit. In practice, however, medicinal products are also frequently prescribed for treatment outside the registered therapeutic use, a practice that is referred to as "off-label use." While off-label use of conventional medicines is permitted and has been very useful, the off-label use of GMO medicines is not covered in the European Union (EU) legislation or guidelines and falls under each member state's national environmental legislation. This implies that in the Netherlands and most other EU member states, an environmental permit will be required for any institution that uses the GMO medicine outside the registered application(s). In the Netherlands, this permit is identical to the permits required for the execution of clinical trials involving nonregistered GMOs. The application procedure for such permit is time-consuming. This process can therefore limit the therapeutic options for medical professionals. As a consequence, desired treatment regimens could be withheld for certain patient (groups). To make future off-label use of GMO medicines permissible in a way that is acceptable for all stakeholders, regulators should adopt a proactive attitude and formulate transparent legislative procedures for this. Only then the field can maintain the public acceptance of GMO medicines, while maintaining the freedom to operate of medical professionals.

  16. Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, B L; Blackshaw, Robert E; Roy, Julie; He, Tianpei

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM plants. In this study, we investigated kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)) and neomycin-resistant (Nm(R)) soil bacterial populations in a 3-year field trial using a commercial GM corn (Zea mays L.) carrying the nptII gene and its near isogenic line. The results showed that a portion (2.3 - 15.6 %) of cultivable soil bacteria was naturally resistant to kanamycin or neomycin. However, no significant difference in the population level of Km(R) or Nm(R) soil bacteria was observed between the GM and non-GM corn fields. The nptII gene was not detected in any of the total 3000 Km(R) or Nm(R) isolates screened by PCR. Further, total soil bacterial cells were collected through Nycodenz gradient centrifugation and bacterial community DNA was subjected to PCR. Detection limit was about 500 cells per gram of fresh soil. Our study suggests that the nptII gene was relatively rare in the soil bacterial populations and there was no evidence of gene transfer from a GM corn plant to soil bacteria based on the data from total soil bacterial communities.

  17. Effect of genetically modified corn on the jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Okasha, Ebtsam F

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure.

  18. Multitrophic interactions involving genetically modified potatoes, nontarget aphids, natural enemies and hyperparasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cowgill, S E; Danks, C; Atkinson, H J

    2004-03-01

    Genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) have been developed as an option for the management of plant parasitic nematodes. The relative impact of such plants on predators and parasitoids (natural enemies) of nontarget insects was determined in a field trial. The trial consisted of GM plants, control plants grown in soil treated with a nematicide and untreated control plants. The quantity of nontarget aphids and their quality as hosts for natural enemies were studied. Aphid density was significantly reduced by nematicide treatment and few natural enemies were recorded from treated potatoes during the study. In contrast, similar numbers of aphids and their more abundant predators were recorded from the untreated control and the GM potatoes. The size of aphids on GM and control plants was recorded twice during the study. During the first sampling period (2-9 July) aphids clip-caged on GM plants were smaller than those on control plants. During the second sampling period (23-30 July) there was no difference in aphid size between those from the GM and control plants. Host size is an important component of host quality. It can affect the size and fecundity of parasitoid females and the sex ratio of their offspring. However, neither the fitness of females of Aphidius ervi, the most prevalent primary parasitoid, nor the sex ratio of their progeny, were affected when the parasitoids developed on aphids feeding on GM plants. Two guilds of secondary parasitoid were also recorded during the study. The fitness of the most abundant species, Aspahes vulgaris, was not affected when it developed on hosts from GM plants. The transgene product, OC I Delta D86, was not detected in aphids that had fed on GM plants in the field, suggesting that there is minimal secondary exposure of natural enemies to the inhibitor. The results indicate that transgenic nematode resistance is potentially more compatible with aphid biological control than is

  19. Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants