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Sample records for genetically modified soybean

  1. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  2. Evaluating the Allergic Risk of Genetically Modified Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) soybean (carrying the EPSPS transgene) is the most common GM food in Korea. In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic adults who had been sensitized to soybeans. We enrolled 1,716 adult allergy patients and 40 healthy, non-atopic controls. Skin prick tests and IgE enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed using wild-type and GM soybean extracts, along with other common inhaled allergens. The specificities of serum IgE antibodies from allergic patients and the identities of the IgE-reactive components of the soybean extracts were compared using ELISA inhibition testing, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and IgE immunoblotting. To evaluate the effects of digestive enzymes and heat treatment, the soybean extracts were heated or pre- incubated with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The IgE sensitization rates to wild-type and GM soybeans were identical (3.8% of allergic adults), and circulating IgE antibodies specific for the two extracts were comparable. The results of the ELISA inhibition test, SDS-PAGE, and IgE immunoblotting showed a similar composition of IgE-binding components within the wild-type and GM extracts, which was confirmed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, IgE immunoblotting, and amino acid sequencing. None of the subjects had a positive response to purified EPSPS protein in the skin prick test, ELISA, or IgE immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that the IgE sensitization rate to GM soybean extracts is identical to that of wild-type soybean extracts in adult allergy patients. In addition, based on both in vivo and in vitro methods, the allergenicity of wild type and GM soybean extracts was identical. PMID:16941740

  3. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  4. Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

    2004-09-01

    Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

  5. Allelopathic effect of methanolic extracts of genetically modified and non-genetically modified canola on soybean.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study on the effect of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola on soybean was carried out for physiological and biochemical biosafety assessment of GM canola. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) under sterilized conditions. The extracts applied were of 3, 5, and 10% concentrations. The results showed that methanolic extracts of both GM and non-GM canola improved the germination percentage. However, germination rate index was significantly decreased with concomitant increase in mean germination time of soybean. A significant rate of decrease was observed in root fresh weight while increase in shoot length took place; when treatment of GM canola extracts were applied, however, no effect was observed in shoot fresh weight. A significant increase in protein contents, as well as phenolic, carotenoids, proline, and chlorophyll a content, was observed when different GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean; however, a significant rate of reduction in chlorophyll b content was observed by the application of GM canola treatment. Similar results were observed for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities. A significant increase in the sugar content levels was observed when GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean.

  6. [A 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio

    2008-08-01

    A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using F344 DuCrj rats. The rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were a closely related strain to the GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans in rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the termination (104 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examinations. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, organ weights and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and organ weights showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. In pathological observation, there was neither an increase in incidence nor any specific type of nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the GM soybeans group in each sex. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.

  7. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use. PMID:26507568

  8. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-10-27

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use.

  9. [Application of DNA extraction kit, 'GM quicker' for detection of genetically modified soybeans].

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans.

  10. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights.

  11. Safety assessment of a modified acetolactate synthase protein (GM-HRA) used as a selectable marker in genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mathesius, C A; Barnett, J F; Cressman, R F; Ding, J; Carpenter, C; Ladics, G S; Schmidt, J; Layton, R J; Zhang, J X Q; Appenzeller, L M; Carlson, G; Ballou, S; Delaney, B

    2009-12-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to herbicidal active ingredients and can be used as a selectable transformation marker. The safety assessment of the GM-HRA protein is discussed. Bioinformatics comparison of the amino acid sequence did not identify similarities to known allergenic or toxic proteins. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid degradation in simulated gastric fluid (<30s) and intestinal fluid (<1min). The enzymatic activity was completely inactivated at 50 degrees C for 15 min demonstrating heat lability. The protein expressed in planta is not glycosylated and genetically modified soybeans expressing the GM-HRA protein produced similar protein/allergen profiles as its non-transgenic parental isoline. No adverse effects were observed in mice following acute oral exposure at a dose of at least 436 mg/kg of body weight or in a 28-day repeated dose dietary toxicity study at doses up to 1247 mg/kg of body weight/day. The results demonstrate GM-HRA protein safety when used in agricultural biotechnology.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined Cf for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  13. [Comparison of soyasaponin and isoflavone contents between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM soybeans].

    PubMed

    Goda, Yukihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Suyama, Emiko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro; Toyoda, Masatake

    2002-12-01

    Soyasaponins and isoflavones are main secondary metabolites in soybeans. In this report we compared the content of secondary metabolites between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM soybeans. Six cultivars/lines of GM and six cultivars/lines of non-GM soybeans were extracted with methanol. Each extract was partitioned with aqueous methanol and hexane and the aqueous methanol fraction was partially purified by HP-20 and LH-20 column chromatography to afford crude soyasaponin and isoflavone fractions. The main A-type soyasaponin, acetylsoyasaponin A1 (AcA1), and the main B-type soyasaponins, soyasaponins I and II (I and II), in the crude fractions were identified by LC/MS analyses with authentic samples. The main isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein (DI, GI, DE and GE), in the crude fractions were identified by LC photo-diode array analyses with authentic samples. The contents of AcA1, I and II in the crude soyasaponin fractions and those of DI, GI, DE and GE in the crude isoflavone fractions were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC. The average contents (mg/100 g) of AcA1, I, II and total of B-type soyasaponins in GM soybeans were 36.4 +/- 24.2, 51.2 +/- 11.8, 26.4 +/- 7.6 and 77.7 +/- 18.5, respectively, and those in non-GM ones were 22.3 +/- 14.7, 46.3 +/- 17.8, 19.8 +/- 9.1 and 65.9 +/- 26.9, respectively. The average contents (mg/100 g) of DI, GI, DE, GE and total isoflavones in GM soybeans were 93.1 +/- 15.5, 121.8 +/- 19.4, 0.073 +/- 0.178, 0.320 +/- 0.082 and 215.3 +/- 33.3, respectively, and those in non-GM ones were 78.8 +/- 34.6, 106.7 +/- 28.3, 2.206 +/- 4.468, 0.822 +/- 0.754 and 188.5 +/- 26.7, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in soyasaponin and isoflavone contents between GM and non-GM soybeans. Therefore, it was estimated that the GM soybeans are equivalent to the non-GM ones in terms of the composition of the main secondary metabolites.

  14. The impact of non- and genetically modified soybean diets in aorta wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio B; Chagas, Mauricío A; Vellarde, Guillermo C; Ramos, Cristiane F; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nongenetically modified soybean (non-GMS) and genetically modified soybean (GMS) meal on growth and cardiometabolic parameters in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n= 10): non-GMS, GMS, and control group (CG). All animals received water and an isocaloric diet ad libitum for 455 d. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture, and serum was separated for subsequent biochemical analyses (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin, glucose, and testosterone). The aorta was quickly harvested and fixed; the body fat mass was removed and weighed. Non-GMS and GMS had a growth index (GI) similar to CG but with a lower body weight (P < 0.05) and a lower amount of body fat mass (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose concentrations, and aortic tunics were reduced (P < 0.05) in non-GMS and GMS compared to CG. Non-GMS and GMS are able to reduced serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose, and aortic remodeling in aged rats. No differences were observed between non-GMS and GMS in all parameters.

  15. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  16. [Usefulness of an immunoassay test TRAIT for detection of genetically modified Roundup ready soybean in food products].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Fonberg-Broczek, M; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, D; Badowski, P; Jedra, M

    2001-01-01

    The test based on immunoassay TRAIT Test for the specific detection of Roundup Ready Soybean was used for reference material in the form of dried powdered soy beans contained 0, 0.3, 1.25, 2.5% of genetically modified material, for soy beans declared as Roundup Ready and for soy products from Warsaw market. The detection limit was approximately 0.1% GMO on dry weight basis. Experiment was also carried out on heated soybeans. The positive results was obtained since temperature was under 65 degrees C during 15 minutes of heating grounded beans; above this temperature specific protein was not recognisable by the antibody. The TRAIT Test should be regarded as a qualitative method and could be recommended for screening purposes. Investigation demonstrated that above mentioned test was useful for detection of protein of genetically modified soybean in unprocessed products.

  17. Real-Time PCR-Based Quantitation Method for the Genetically Modified Soybean Line GTS 40-3-2.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Kazumi; Takabatake, Reona; Mano, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real-time PCR-based method for quantitation of the relative amount of genetically modified (GM) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 [Roundup Ready(®) soybean (RRS)] contained in a batch. The method targets a taxon-specific soybean gene (lectin gene, Le1) and the specific DNA construct junction region between the Petunia hybrida chloroplast transit peptide sequence and the Agrobacterium 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (epsps) sequence present in GTS 40-3-2. The method employs plasmid pMulSL2 as a reference material in order to quantify the relative amount of GTS 40-3-2 in soybean samples using a conversion factor (Cf) equal to the ratio of the RRS-specific DNA to the taxon-specific DNA in representative genuine GTS 40-3-2 seeds.

  18. Characterization of Soybean Genetically Modified for Drought Tolerance in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Ferreira, Leonardo C.; Rodrigues, Fabiana A.; Molinari, Hugo B. C.; Marin, Silvana R. R.; Molinari, Mayla D. C.; Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Mertz-Henning, Liliane M.; Farias, José R. B.; de Oliveira, Maria C. N.; Neumaier, Norman; Kanamori, Norihito; Fujita, Yasunari; Mizoi, Junya; Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nepomuceno, Alexandre L.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factor causing yield and economic losses in many soybean-producing regions. In the last decades, transcription factors (TFs) are being used to develop genetically modified plants more tolerant to abiotic stresses. Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) and ABA-responsive element-binding (AREB) TFs were introduced in soybean showing improved drought tolerance, under controlled conditions. However, these results may not be representative of the way in which plants behave over the entire season in the real field situation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to analyze agronomical traits and physiological parameters of AtDREB1A (1Ab58), AtDREB2CA (1Bb2193), and AtAREB1 (1Ea2939) GM lines under irrigated (IRR) and non-irrigated (NIRR) conditions in a field experiment, over two crop seasons and quantify transgene and drought-responsive genes expression. Results from season 2013/2014 revealed that line 1Ea2939 showed higher intrinsic water use and leaf area index. Lines 1Ab58 and 1Bb2193 showed a similar behavior to wild-type plants in relation to chlorophyll content. Oil and protein contents were not affected in transgenic lines in NIRR conditions. Lodging, due to plentiful rain, impaired yield from the 1Ea2939 line in IRR conditions. qPCR results confirmed the expression of the inserted TFs and drought-responsive endogenous genes. No differences were identified in the field experiment performed in crop season 2014/2015, probably due to the optimum rainfall volume during the cycle. These field screenings showed promising results for drought tolerance. However, additional studies are needed in further crop seasons and other sites to better characterize how these plants may outperform the WT under field water deficit. PMID:28443101

  19. Assessment of endogenous allergenicity of genetically modified plants exemplified by soybean - Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Selb, R; Wal, J M; Moreno, F J; Lovik, M; Mills, C; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Fernandez, A

    2017-03-01

    According to EU regulation, genetically modified (GM) plants considered to be allergenic have to be assessed concerning their endogenous allergens before placement on the EU market, in line with the international standards described in Codex Alimentarius. Under such premises, a quantitative relevant increase in allergens might occur in GM plants as an unintended effect compared with conventionally produced crops, which could pose a risk to consumers. Currently, data showing a connection between dose and allergic sensitisation are scarce since the pathophysiological mechanisms of sensitisation are insufficiently understood. In contrast, data on population dose-distribution relationships acquired by oral food challenge are available showing a connection between quantity of allergenic protein consumed and the population of allergic individuals experiencing reactions. Soybean is currently the only recognised allergenic GM food by law for which EFSA has received applications and was therefore taken as an example for defining an assessment strategy. Identification of potential allergens, methodology for quantification as well as risk assessment considerations, are discussed. A strategy is proposed for the identification, assessment and evaluation of potential hazards/risks concerning endogenous allergenicity in food derived from plants developed by biotechnology. This approach could be expanded to other allergenic foods in the future, whenever required.

  20. Histochemical and morpho-metrical study of mouse intestine epithelium after a long term diet containing genetically modified soybean

    PubMed Central

    Battistelli, S.; Citterio, B.; Baldelli, B.; Parlani, C.; Malatesta, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of both small and large intestine. In this study, we investigated the duodenum and colon of mice fed on genetically modified (GM) soybean during their whole life span (1–24 months) by focusing our attention on the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the epithelium, the histochemical pattern of goblet cell mucins, and the growth profile of the coliform population. Our results demonstrate that controls and GM-soybean fed mice are similarly affected by ageing. Moreover, the GM soybean-containing diet does not induce structural alterations in duodenal and colonic epithelium or in coliform population, even after a long term intake. On the other hand, the histochemical approach revealed significant diet-related changes in mucin amounts in the duodenum. In particular, the percentage of villous area occupied by acidic and sulpho-mucin granules decreased from controls to GM-fed animals, whereas neutral mucins did not change. PMID:20819774

  1. Current methods for assessing safety of genetically modified crops as exemplified by data on Roundup Ready soybeans.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rashmi S; Fuchs, Roy L; Schuette, Sheila A

    2002-01-01

    Several laboratories have used recombinant DNA technology in plant breeding to improve compositional, processing, and agronomic characteristics of plants. These transformed plants have been extensively tested in field trials, have gained full regulatory approvals and are currently being marketed in a number of countries around the world. This paper briefly summarizes the approach used to assure the safety of foods and feeds derived from these genetically modified crops, as exemplified by data on Roundup Ready soybeans that has been developed by Monsanto Company using biotechnology in order to confer tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide, by the production of the CP4 enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein. The results of the studies demonstrate that Roundup Ready soybeans are as safe as traditional soybeans with respect to food and feed safety.

  2. N-methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles as adsorbents for solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Deng, Manchen; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Li

    2013-04-10

    N-Methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles (MIm-MPs) were prepared and applied in the solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from genetically modified soybeans. The adsorption of MIm-MPs for DNA mainly resulted from the strong electrostatic interaction between the positively charged MPs and the negatively charged DNA. The elution of DNA from MPs-DNA conjugates using phosphate buffer resulted from the stronger electrostatic interaction of phosphate ions with MPs than DNA. In the extraction procedure, no harmful reagents (e.g. phenol, chloroform and isopropanol, etc.) used, high yield (10.4 μg DNA per 30 mg sample) and high quality (A260/A280=1.82) of DNA can be realized. The as-prepared DNA was used as template for duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were analyzed by a sieving capillary electrophoresis method. Quick and high quality extraction of DNA template, and fast and high resolution detection of duplex PCR products can be realized using the developed method. No toxic reagents are used throughout the method.

  3. Multiplex electrochemical DNA platform for femtomolar-level quantification of genetically modified soybean.

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Palenzuela, C Lorena; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2015-06-15

    Current EU regulations on the mandatory labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with a minimum content of 0.9% would benefit from the availability of reliable and rapid methods to detect and quantify DNA sequences specific for GMOs. Different genosensors have been developed to this aim, mainly intended for GMO screening. A remaining challenge, however, is the development of genosensing platforms for GMO quantification, which should be expressed as the number of event-specific DNA sequences per taxon-specific sequences. Here we report a simple and sensitive multiplexed electrochemical approach for the quantification of Roundup-Ready Soybean (RRS). Two DNA sequences, taxon (lectin) and event-specific (RR), are targeted via hybridization onto magnetic beads. Both sequences are simultaneously detected by performing the immobilization, hybridization and labeling steps in a single tube and parallel electrochemical readout. Hybridization is performed in a sandwich format using signaling probes labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or digoxigenin (Dig), followed by dual enzymatic labeling using Fab fragments of anti-Dig and anti-FITC conjugated to peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, respectively. Electrochemical measurement of the enzyme activity is finally performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The assay gave a linear range of 2-250 pM for both targets, with LOD values of 650 fM (160 amol) and 190 fM (50 amol) for the event-specific and the taxon-specific targets, respectively. Results indicate that the method could be applied for GMO quantification below the European labeling threshold level (0.9%), offering a general approach for the rapid quantification of specific GMO events in foods.

  4. Fate of transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid fragments in digesta and tissues of rabbits fed genetically modified soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Morera, P; Basiricò, L; Ronchi, B; Bernabucci, U

    2016-03-01

    Numerous animal feeding studies have investigated the presence of DNA from transgenic plants in tissues from different animal species, but the data reported are sometimes controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of transgenic DNA (tDNA) in the digesta and tissues of a meat rabbit breed fed genetically modified (GM) soybean meal. Fifteen male New Zealand White rabbits were used for the experimental trial. Ten rabbits (treated group [TG]) were fed a mixed feed containing 10% GM soybean meal and 5 rabbits (control group [CG]) received a mixed feed containing conventional soybean meal, both from weaning (28 d of age) to slaughter (80 ± 3 d). Samples of blood, liver, kidney, heart, stomach, intestine (jejunum), lateral quadricep muscle, longissimus muscle, and perirenal adipose tissue were collected to assess the possible DNA transfer from GM feed to animal tissues. Samples of stomach contents and feces were also taken to study the degradability of ingested tDNA from feed in the digestive tract of rabbit. Moreover, samples of hair were collected to determine the possible environmental contamination from feed powders present on the farm. The DNA extraction was performed using specific genomic DNA kits. All samples were monitored, by using real-time PCR, for oligonucleotide primers and probes specific for the transgenic Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 and for the endogenous () gene. As an internal control of rabbit tissues, the presence of the () gene was used. In this study, no fragments of tDNA were detectable in tissue DNA samples of rabbits except in the extracted DNA from stomach digesta, feces, and hair of rabbits fed with GM soybean. Similar results were found for the reference gene, whereas the presence of the gene was detected in all rabbit tissues. The lack of tDNA of soybean in rabbit tissues represents an important result, which demonstrates that meat from rabbits fed a diet containing GM feed is as that derived from rabbits fed

  5. Development and interlaboratory validation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for screening analysis of genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative screening method was developed for three genetically modified soybeans: RRS, A2704-12, and MON89788. The 35S promoter (P35S) of cauliflower mosaic virus is introduced into RRS and A2704-12 but not MON89788. We then designed a screening method comprised of the combination of the quantification of P35S and the event-specific quantification of MON89788. The conversion factor (Cf) required to convert the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO) from a copy number ratio to a weight ratio was determined experimentally. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDR), respectively. The determined RSDR values for the method were less than 25% for both targets. We consider that the developed method would be suitable for the simple detection and approximate quantification of GMO.

  6. Development of a screening method for genetically modified soybean by plasmid-based quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Eri; Kato, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2008-07-23

    A novel type of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) system for the detection and quantification of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) was developed. This system was designed based on the advantage of a fully validated real-time PCR method used for the quantification of RRS in Japan. A plasmid was constructed as a competitor plasmid for the detection and quantification of genetically modified soy, RRS. The plasmid contained the construct-specific sequence of RRS and the taxon-specific sequence of lectin1 (Le1), and both had 21 bp oligonucleotide insertion in the sequences. The plasmid DNA was used as a reference molecule instead of ground seeds, which enabled us to precisely and stably adjust the copy number of targets. The present study demonstrated that the novel plasmid-based QC-PCR method could be a simple and feasible alternative to the real-time PCR method used for the quantification of genetically modified organism contents.

  7. Development and application of a multi-targeting reference plasmid as calibrator for analysis of five genetically modified soybean events.

    PubMed

    Pi, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yiwei; Wang, Canhua; Pan, Liangwen; Yang, Litao

    2015-04-01

    Reference materials are important in accurate analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) contents in food/feeds, and development of novel reference plasmid is a new trend in the research of GMO reference materials. Herein, we constructed a novel multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, which contained seven event-specific sequences of five GM soybeans (MON89788-5', A2704-12-3', A5547-127-3', DP356043-5', DP305423-3', A2704-12-5', and A5547-127-5') and sequence of soybean endogenous reference gene Lectin. We evaluated the specificity, limit of detection and quantification, and applicability of pSOY in both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 20 copies in qualitative PCR, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) in quantitative PCR was 10 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and Lectin assays were higher than 90%, and the squared regression coefficients (R(2)) were more than 0.999. The quantification bias varied from 0.21% to 19.29%, and the relative standard deviations were from 1.08% to 9.84% in simulated samples analysis. All the results demonstrated that the developed multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, was a credible substitute of matrix reference materials, and could be used as a reliable reference calibrator in the identification and quantification of multiple GM soybean events.

  8. Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bakke-McKellep, A M; Koppang, E O; Gunnes, G; Sanden, M; Hemre, G-I; Landsverk, T; Krogdahl, A

    2007-02-01

    The paper reports the second and final part of an experiment aiming to study physiological and health-related effects of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) type Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) in diets for post-smolt Atlantic salmon. For 3 months salmon were fed diets containing 172 g kg(-1) full-fat SBM from RRS (GM-soy) or an unmodified, non-isogenic line (nGM-soy), or a reference diet with fishmeal as the sole protein source (FM). Slight differences in anti-nutrient levels were observed between the GM and nGM-soy. Histological changes were observed only in the distal intestine of the soy-fed fish. The incidence of moderate inflammation was higher in the GM-soy group (9 of 10 sampled fish) compared with the nGM-soy group (7 of 10). However, no differences in the concomitant decreases in activities of digestive enzymes located in the brush border (leucine aminopeptidase and maltase) and apical cytoplasm (acid phosphatase) of enterocytes or in the number of major histocompatibility complex class II+ cells, lysozyme activity, or total IgM of the distal intestine were observed. GM compared with nGM-soy fed fish had higher head kidney lysozyme (11,856 vs. 10,456 units g(-1) tissue) and a tendency towards higher acid phosphatase (0.45 vs. 0.39 micromol h(-1) kg(-1) body mass in whole tissue) activities, respectively. Plasma insulin and thyroxin levels, and hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities were not significantly affected. It is not possible, however, to conclude whether the differences in responses to GM-soy were due to the genetic modification or to differences in soy cultivars in the soy-containing diets. Results from studies using non-modified, parental line soybeans as the control group are necessary to evaluate whether genetic modification of soybeans in diets poses any risk to farmed Atlantic salmon.

  9. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research. PMID:27214227

  10. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations.

    PubMed

    Bakke-McKellep, A M; Sanden, M; Danieli, A; Acierno, R; Hemre, G-I; Maffia, M; Krogdahl, A

    2008-06-01

    Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready; GM-soy) and maize (MON810 Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal Na+-dependent d-glucose uptake and SGLT1 protein level in the region pyloric caeca in which the highest values were found in the GM-soy, intermediate in the nGM-soy, and lowest in the standard FM fed groups. Data from this study confirm that GM soybeans (RRS) and maize (MON810) at inclusion levels of about 6% appear to be as safe as commercially available nGM soy and maize in diets for Atlantic salmon parr. Results from studies with higher inclusion levels and with non-modified, isogenic or near-isogenic parental lines as control groups are pending.

  11. Development and inter-laboratory assessment of droplet digital PCR assays for multiplex quantification of 15 genetically modified soybean lines.

    PubMed

    Košir, Alexandra Bogožalec; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Žel, Jana; Dobnik, David

    2017-08-17

    Quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is often required for their labelling or for tolerance thresholds. Standard-curve-based simplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the prevailing technology, which is often combined with screening analysis. With the rapidly growing number of GMOs on the world market, qPCR analysis becomes laborious and expensive. Innovative cost-effective approaches are therefore urgently needed. Here, we report the development and inter-laboratory assessment of multiplex assays to quantify GMO soybean using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). The assays were developed to facilitate testing of foods and feed for compliance with current GMO regulations in the European Union (EU). Within the EU, the threshold for labelling is 0.9% for authorised GMOs per ingredient. Furthermore, the EU has set a technical zero tolerance limit of 0.1% for certain unauthorised GMOs. The novel multiplex ddPCR assays developed target 11 GMO soybean lines that are currently authorised, and four that are tolerated, pending authorisation in the EU. Potential significant improvements in cost efficiency are demonstrated. Performance was assessed for the critical parameters, including limits of detection and quantification, and trueness, repeatability, and robustness. Inter-laboratory performance was also determined on a number of proficiency programme and real-life samples.

  12. Event-specific detection of seven genetically modified soybean and maizes using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Zhu, Shuifang; Miao, Haizhen; Huang, Wensheng; Qiu, Minyan; Huang, Yan; Fu, Xuping; Li, Yao

    2007-07-11

    With the increasing development of genetically modified organism (GMO) detection techniques, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection. An oligonucleotide microarray is a glass chip to the surface of which an array of oligonucleotides was fixed as spots, each containing numerous copies of a sequence-specific probe that is complementary to a gene of interest. So it is used to detect ten or more targets synchronously. In this research, an event-specific detection strategy based on the unique and specific integration junction sequences between the host plant genome DNA and the integrated gene is being developed for its high specificity using multiplex-PCR together with oligonucleotide microarray. A commercial GM soybean (GTS 40-3-2) and six GM maize events (MON810, MON863, Bt176, Bt11, GA21, and T25) were detected by this method. The results indicate that it is a suitable method for the identification of these GM soybean and maizes.

  13. Chitosan functionalized magnetic particle-assisted detection of genetically modified soybeans based on polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Xu, Shen; Zhang, Sheng; Jia, Li

    2012-01-01

    The high quality of DNA template is one of the key factors to ensure the successful execution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, development of DNA extraction methods is very important. In this work, chitosan modified magnetic particles (MPs) were synthesized and employed for extraction of genomic DNA from genetically modified (GM) soybeans. The extraction protocol used aqueous buffers for DNA binding to and releasing from the surface of the MPs based on the pH inducing the charge switch of amino groups in chitosan modified MPs. The extracted DNA was pure enough (A(260)/A(280)=1.85) to be directly used as templates for PCR amplification. In addition, the PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis for screening of GM organisms. The developed DNA extraction method using chitosan modified MPs was capable of preparation of DNA templates, which were PCR inhibitor free and ready for downstream analysis. The whole process for DNA extraction and detection was preferable to conventional methods (phenol-chloroform extraction, PCR, and gel electrophoresis) due to its simplicity and rapidity as well as its avoiding the use of toxic reagents and PCR inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU

  15. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Feijó, Tatiana Silveira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n=10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically modified soy group (GG), and a control group (CG). All animals received water and diet ad libitum for 455 days. At the end of this period, the weight of the GG group was the same as that of the OG, and both were higher than CG. Protein intake was similar for the OG and GG, which were significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the CG. The growth rate (GR) of the rats, albumin levels, and total levels of serum protein were comparable for all groups. Hematocrit (p<0.04) and hemoglobin (p<0.03) for the OG and GG were less than the CG. Although the OG and GG demonstrated reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin, both types of soy were utilized in a way similar to casein. This result suggests that the protein quality of soy is parallel to the standard protein casein in terms of growth promotion but not hematological indicators.

  16. Establishment and application of event-specific polymerase chain reaction methods for two genetically modified soybean events, A2704-12 and A5547-127.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Pan, Liangwen; Li, Junyi; Zhang, Qigang; Zhang, Shuya; Lv, Rong; Yang, Litao

    2011-12-28

    For implementation of the issued regulations and labeling policies for genetically modified organism (GMO) supervision, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been widely used due to its high specificity and sensitivity. In particular, use of the event-specific PCR method based on the flanking sequence of transgenes has become the primary trend. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative PCR methods were established on the basis of the 5' flanking sequence of transgenic soybean A2704-12 and the 3' flanking sequence of transgenic soybean A5547-127, respectively. In qualitative PCR assays, the limits of detection (LODs) were 10 copies of haploid soybean genomic DNA for both A2704-12 and A5547-127. In quantitative real-time PCR assays, the LODs were 5 copies of haploid soybean genomic DNA for both A2704-12 and A5547-127, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 10 copies for both. Low bias and acceptable SD and RSD values were also achieved in quantification of four blind samples using the developed real-time PCR assays. In addition, the developed PCR assays for the two transgenic soybean events were used for routine analysis of soybean samples imported to Shanghai in a 6 month period from October 2010 to March 2011. A total of 27 lots of soybean from the United States and Argentina were analyzed: 8 lots from the Unites States were found to have the GM soybean A2704-12 event, and the GM contents were <1.5% in all eight analyzed lots. On the contrary, no GM soybean A5547-127 content was found in any of the eight lots. These results demonstrated that the established event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR methods could be used effectively in routine identification and quantification of GM soybeans A2704-12 and A5547-127 and their derived products.

  17. Globalization’s unexpected impact on soybean production in South America: linkages between preferences for non-genetically modified crops, eco-certifications, and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Rueda, Ximena; Lambin, Eric F.

    2013-12-01

    The land use impacts of globalization and of increasing global food and fuel demand depend on the trade relationships that emerge between consuming and producing countries. In the case of soybean production, increasing trade between South American farmers and consumers in Asia and Europe has facilitated soybean expansion in the Amazon, Chaco, and Cerrado biomes. While these telecouplings have been well documented, there is little understanding of how quality preferences influence trade patterns and supply chains, incentivizing or discouraging particular land use practices. In this study we provide empirical evidence that Brazil’s continued production of non-genetically modified (GM) soybeans has increased its competitive advantage in European countries with preferences against GM foods. Brazil’s strong trade relationship with European consumers has facilitated an upgrading of the soybean supply chain. Upgraded soybean supply chains create new conservation opportunities by allowing farmers to differentiate their products based on environmental quality in order to access premiums in niche markets in Europe. These interactions between GM preferences, trade flows, and supply chain structure help to explain why Brazilian soybean farmers have adopted environmental certification programs on a larger scale than Argentinian, Bolivian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan soybean producers.

  18. On-site detection of stacked genetically modified soybean based on event-specific TM-LAMP and a DNAzyme-lateral flow biosensor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nan; Shang, Ying; Xu, Yuancong; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-05-15

    Stacked genetically modified organisms (GMO) are becoming popular for their enhanced production efficiency and improved functional properties, and on-site detection of stacked GMO is an urgent challenge to be solved. In this study, we developed a cascade system combining event-specific tag-labeled multiplex LAMP with a DNAzyme-lateral flow biosensor for reliable detection of stacked events (DP305423× GTS 40-3-2). Three primer sets, both event-specific and soybean species-specific, were newly designed for the tag-labeled multiplex LAMP system. A trident-like lateral flow biosensor displayed amplified products simultaneously without cross contamination, and DNAzyme enhancement improved the sensitivity effectively. After optimization, the limit of detection was approximately 0.1% (w/w) for stacked GM soybean, which is sensitive enough to detect genetically modified content up to a threshold value established by several countries for regulatory compliance. The entire detection process could be shortened to 120min without any large-scale instrumentation. This method may be useful for the in-field detection of DP305423× GTS 40-3-2 soybean on a single kernel basis and on-site screening tests of stacked GM soybean lines and individual parent GM soybean lines in highly processed foods.

  19. Hot topic: Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Santos, G; O'Donnell, A M; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Bauman, D E

    2010-01-01

    Very long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are important in human cardiac health and the prevention of chronic diseases, but food sources are limited. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is an n-3 fatty acid that humans are able to convert to EPA. In utilizing SDA-enhanced soybean oil (SBO) derived from genetically modified soybeans, our objectives were to examine the potential to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of milk fat and to determine the efficiency of SDA uptake from the digestive tract and transfer to milk fat. Three multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned randomly in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) control (no oil infusion); 2) abomasal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-abo); and 3) ruminal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-rum). The SDA-enhanced SBO contained 27.1% SDA, 10.4% alpha-linolenic acid, and 7.2% gamma-linolenic acid. Oil infusions provided 57 g/d of SDA with equal amounts of oil infused into either the rumen or abomasum at 6-h intervals over a 7-d infusion period. Cow numbers were limited and no treatment differences were detected for DMI or milk production (22.9+/-0.5 kg/d and 32.3+/-0.9 kg/d, respectively; least squares means +/- SE), milk protein percentage and yield (3.24+/-0.04% and 1.03+/-0.02 kg/d), or lactose percentage and yield (4.88+/-0.05% and 1.55+/-0.05 kg/d). Treatment also had no effect on milk fat yield (1.36+/-0.03 kg/d), but milk fat percentage was lower for the SDA-rum treatment (4.04+/-0.04% vs. 4.30+/-0.04% for control and 4.41+/-0.05% for SDA-abo). The SDA-abo treatment increased n-3 fatty acids to 3.9% of total milk fatty acids, a value more than 5-fold greater than that for the control. Expressed as a percentage of total milk fatty acids, values (least squares means +/- SE) for the SDA-abo treatment were 1.55+/-0.03% for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), 1.86+/-0.02 for SDA, 0.23 +/- <0.01 for eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and 0

  20. Environmental effects on allergen levels in commercially grown non-genetically modified soybeans: assessing variation across north america.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Severin E; Woods, Carlotta A; Hong, Bonnie; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Thelen, Jay J; Ladics, Gregory S

    2012-01-01

    Soybean (Glycinemax) is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch, and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing broadly in processed food products. As is true with many edible seeds, soybeans contain proteins that are anti-nutritional factors and allergens. Soybean, along with milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, and wheat, elicit a majority of food allergy reactions in the United States. Soybean seed composition can be affected by breeding, and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, moisture, insect/pathogen load, and/or soil nutrient levels). The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and environment on allergen and anti-nutritional proteins in soybean. To address genetic and environmental effects, four varieties of non-GM soybeans were grown in six geographically distinct regions of North America (Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Ontario, and Pennsylvania). Absolute quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry can be achieved with a technique called multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), during which signals from an endogenous protein are compared to those from a synthetic heavy-labeled internal standard. Using MRM, eight allergens were absolutely quantified for each variety in each environment. Statistical analyses show that for most allergens, the effects of environment far outweigh the differences between varieties brought about by breeding.

  1. Phosphate Fertilizer and Growing Environment Change the Phytochemicals, Oil Quality, and Nutritional Composition of Roundup Ready Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean.

    PubMed

    Scilewski da Costa Zanatta, Tatiane; Manica-Berto, Roberta; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Cardozo, Michele Maciel Crizel; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Zambiazi, Rui Carlos; Dias, Álvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-05

    Phosphorus (P) intake, genotype, and growth environment in soybean cultivation can affect the composition of the soybean. This experiment was conducted in two locations (microregions I and II) using a randomized complete block design, including conventional soybean (BRS Sambaíba) and genetically modified (GM) [Msoy 9144 Roundup Ready (RR)] cultivars and varying doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg/ha P2O5). Soybeans were evaluated for chemical composition, total phenols, phytic acid content, individual isoflavone content, antioxidant activity, oil quality, fatty acid profile, total carotenoid content, and individual tocopherol contents. Multivariate analysis facilitated reduction in the number of variables with respect to soybean genotype (conventional BRS Sambaíba and GM Msoy 9144 RR), dose of P2O5 fertilizer, and place of cultivation (microregion I and II). BRS Sambaíba had higher concentrations of β-glucosides, malonylglucosides, glycitein, and genistein than Msoy 9144 RR, which showed a higher concentration of daidzein. The highest concentrations of isoflavones and fatty acids were observed in soybeans treated with 120 and 240 kg/ha P2O5, regardless of the location and cultivar.

  2. Development and evaluation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean A2704-12.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event; A2704-12. During the plant transformation, DNA fragments derived from pUC19 plasmid were integrated in A2704-12, and the region was found to be A2704-12 specific. The pUC19-derived DNA sequences were used as primers for the specific detection of A2704-12. We first tried to construct a standard plasmid for A2704-12 quantification using pUC19. However, non-specific signals appeared with both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses using the specific primers with pUC19 as a template, and we then constructed a plasmid using pBR322. The conversion factor (C(f)), which is required to calculate the amount of the genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined with two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT and the Applied Biosystems 7500. The determined C(f) values were both 0.98. The quantitative method was evaluated by means of blind tests in multi-laboratory trials using the two real-time PCR instruments. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.1%. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSD(R)), and the determined bias and RSD(R) values for the method were each less than 20%. These results suggest that the developed method would be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of A2704-12.

  3. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis using programmed field strength gradients for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jeong; Chae, Joon-Seok; Chang, Jun Keun; Kang, Seong Ho

    2005-08-12

    We have developed a novel method for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in soybeans by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE) using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) in a conventional glass double-T microchip. Under the programmed electric field strength and 0.3% poly(ethylene oxide) sieving matrix, the GMO in soybeans was analyzed within only 11 s of the microchip. The MCGE-PFSG method was a program that changes the electric field strength during GMO analysis, and was also applied to the ultra-fast analysis of PCR products. Compared to MCGE using a conventional and constantly applied electric field, the MCGE-PFSG analysis generated faster results without the loss of resolving power and reproducibility for specific DNA fragments (100- and 250-bp DNA) of GM-soybeans. The MCGE-PFSG technique may prove to be a new tool in the GMO analysis due to its speed, simplicity, and high efficiency.

  4. Less waste corn, more land in soybeans, and the switch to genetically modified crops: trends with important implications to wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    An abundance of waste corn, a key food of many wildlife species, has helped make possible the widespread success of wildlife management in the United States over the past half century. We found waste corn post harvest in Nebraska declined by 47% from 1978 to 1998 due primarily to improvements in combine headers resulting in a marked decline in ear loss. The reduction in waste coincided with major declines in fat storage by sandhill cranes and white-fronted geese during spring migration. Sandhill cranes, northern pintails, white-fronted geese, and lesser snow geese avoided soybeans while staging in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area and Central Platte River Valley. These findings and other literature suggest soybeans are a marginal food for wildlife particularly during periods of high energy requirements. Soybean acreage has increased by 600% in the United States since 1950 and now comprises nearly one-quarter of the nation>'s cropland. With over 80% of the soybean crop now in genetically modified varieties and treated with glyphosate, weed seed is becoming scarce in soybean fields leaving limited food for wildlife on 72 million acres of U.S. cropland. We suggest that the combined effect of increasing efficiency of crop harvesting techniques, expansion of soybeans and other crops poorly suited for wildlife nutrient needs, and more efficient weed control through the shift to genetically modified crops may severely limit seed-eating wildlife populations in the future unless ways are found to replace high energy food sources being lost. We encourage more research to gain greater insight into effects of declining food resources on wildlife populations and propose that the conservation title of the 2002 farm bill be used as a mechanism to replace part of the high-energy food being lost due to changes in production agriculture.

  5. Subchronic feeding study of stacked trait genetically-modified soybean (3Ø5423 × 40-3-2) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaozhe; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Li, Shuangying; Zou, Shiying; Cao, Sishuo; Tang, Maozhi; Delaney, Bryan; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-09-01

    The genetically-modified (GM) soybean 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 expresses siRNA for the fatty acid desaturase-2 enzyme which results in higher concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) relative to linoleic acid (18:2) compared with non-GM soybeans. It also expresses the CP4 EPSPS protein for tolerance to glyphosate. In this study, three different dietary concentrations (7.5%, 15% and 30% wt/wt) of 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 or non-GM soybeans were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days during which in-life nutritional and growth performance variables were evaluated followed by analysis of standard clinical chemistry, hematology and organ variables. Compared with rats fed the non-GM control diet, some statistically significant differences were observed in rats fed the 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 diet. However the differences were not considered treatment-related and commonly fell within the normal ranges of the control group consuming the commercial diet. These results demonstrated that the GM soybean 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 is as safe as non-GM soybeans.

  6. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected].

  7. [The impact of components of conventional and genetically modified soybeans on parameters of the immune and reproductive systems in female rats].

    PubMed

    Dolaĭchuk, O P; Fedoruk, R S; Koval'chuk, I I

    2013-01-01

    The article presents results of research of the content of glycoproteins and their specific carbohydrate components, total protein, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, leucocytes molecules of average mass and circulating immune complexes in the blood of female rats under conditions feeding of conventional and transgenic soybeans. Also the reproductive function and mass coefficient of fetus of the studied animals was analyzed. The studies were conducted in three groups of female rats aged 3 months. Animals of I group (control) were kept on a balanced diet during the study period. Animals of groups II and III (research) received a diet according to the scheme of the control group with the addition of 30% from the nutritional value diet native or transgenic soybean, respectively. We found that soy feeding had no significant effect on hematological data in the second and third experimental groups versus control. However, addition to the diet of soybeans, including genetically modified, has a significant impact on the content of glycoproteins and their specific carbohydrate components, female's fertility and less pronounced impact on the data of functional status of their immune system. A generalized analysis of the results of research leads to the conclusion that there is no definite negative or positive impact of GM soy components on their physiological state compared with animals fed native soybeans.

  8. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    PubMed

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  9. Trends in pesticide use on soybean, corn and cotton since the introduction of major genetically modified crops in the United States.

    PubMed

    Coupe, Richard H; Capel, Paul D

    2016-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) varieties of soybean, corn and cotton have largely replaced conventional varieties in the United States. The most widely used applications of GM technology have been the development of crops that are resistant to a specific broad-spectrum herbicide (primarily glyphosate) or that produce insecticidal compounds within the plant itself. With the widespread adoption of GM crops, a decline in the use of conventional pesticides was expected. There has been a reduction in the annual herbicide application rate to corn since the advent of GM crops, but the herbicide application rate is mostly unchanged for cotton. Herbicide use on soybean has increased. There has been a substantial reduction in the amount of insecticides used on both corn and cotton since the introduction of GM crops. The observed changes in pesticide use are likely to be the result of many factors, including the introduction of GM crops, regulatory restrictions on some conventional pesticides, introduction of new pesticide technologies and changes in farming practices. In order to help protect human and environmental health and to help agriculture plan for the future, more detailed and complete documentation on pesticide use is needed on a frequent and ongoing basis. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Quantification of genetically modified soybeans using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system and a plasmid reference standard.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Akie; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hisayuki; Hino, Akihiro; Esaka, Muneharu; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-04-01

    Because the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved genetically modified varieties in many countries, there is a need for a rapid and useful method of GMO quantification in food samples. In this study, a rapid detection system was developed for Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) quantification using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system, a LightCycler real-time PCR system, and plasmid DNA as the reference standard. In addition, we showed for the first time that the plasmid and genomic DNA should be similar in the established detection system because the PCR efficiencies of using plasmid DNA and using genomic DNA were not significantly different. The conversion factor (Cf) to calculate RRS content (%) was further determined from the average value analyzed in three laboratories. The accuracy and reproducibility of this system for RRS quantification at a level of 5.0% were within a range from 4.46 to 5.07% for RRS content and within a range from 2.0% to 7.0% for the relative standard deviation (RSD) value, respectively. This system rapidly monitored the labeling system and had allowable levels of accuracy and precision.

  11. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  12. Effects of selective genetic introgression from wild soybean to soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding in the U.S. currently relies on a narrow genetic base in which more than half of the genetic contribution, calculated by pedigree analysis, comes from only 5 ancestral lines. For decades, but more intensely in recent years, efforts have been made ...

  13. Real-time quantitative PCR detection of genetically modified Maximizer maize and Roundup Ready soybean in some representative foods.

    PubMed

    Vaïtilingom, M; Pijnenburg, H; Gendre, F; Brignon, P

    1999-12-01

    A fast and quantitative method was developed to detect transgenic "Maximizer" maize "event 176" (Novartis) and "Roundup Ready" soybean (Monsanto) in food by real-time quantitative PCR. The use of the ABI Prism 7700 sequence detection system allowed the determination of the amplified product accumulation through a fluorogenic probe (TaqMan). Fluorescent dyes were chosen in such a way as to coamplify total and transgenic DNA in the same tube. Using real-time quantitative PCR, 2 pg of transgenic or total DNA per gram of starting sample was detected in 3 h after DNA extraction and the relative amounts of "Maximizer" maize and "Roundup Ready" soybean in some representative food products were quantified.

  14. Quantitative genetics in soybean: Is dominance important?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In soybeans, dominance is generally considered to be non-existent or of little importance. Because genetic variation due to dominance dissipates rapidly with inbreeding, dominance would presumably not be useful in breeding soybean cultivars which are highly inbred. Yet, there is evidence for hetero...

  15. Development and in-house validation of the event-specific polymerase chain reaction detection methods for genetically modified soybean MON89788 based on the cloned integration flanking sequence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Guo, Jinchao; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Ning; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-11-25

    Various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the execution of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling policies, of which an event-specific PCR detection method based on the flanking sequence of exogenous integration is the primary trend in GMO detection due to its high specificity. In this study, the 5' and 3' flanking sequences of the exogenous integration of MON89788 soybean were revealed by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The event-specific PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed based upon the revealed 5' flanking sequence, and the qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were established employing these designed primers and probes. In qualitative PCR, the limit of detection (LOD) was about 0.01 ng of genomic DNA corresponding to 10 copies of haploid soybean genomic DNA. In the quantitative PCR assay, the LOD was as low as two haploid genome copies, and the limit of quantification was five haploid genome copies. Furthermore, the developed PCR methods were in-house validated by five researchers, and the validated results indicated that the developed event-specific PCR methods can be used for identification and quantification of MON89788 soybean and its derivates.

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGY: Information on Prices of Genetically Modified Seeds in the United States and Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-29

    irrigation, and other factors. Roundup Ready soybean seeds were first marketed in the United States and Argentina in 1996. The Monsanto Company, which...While genetically modified seeds are available for many crops, Roundup Ready soybeans and Bt corn are the ones most widely grown. Roundup Ready...soybeans contain a gene that enables soybeans to withstand applications of Roundup -an herbicide effective on many kinds of weeds. Bt corn is genetically

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China’s major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans. PMID:26380899

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-09-18

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.

  19. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia in Paraguay†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu Shi; Figueredo, Antonio; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Hungria, Mariangela

    2000-01-01

    The soybean is an exotic plant introduced in Paraguay in this century; commercial cropping expanded after the 1970s. Inoculation is practiced in just 15 to 20% of the cropping areas, but root nodulation occurs in most sites where soybeans grow. Little is known about rhizobial diversity in South America, and no study has been performed in Paraguay until this time. Therefore, in this study, the molecular characterization of 78 rhizobial isolates from soybean root nodules, collected under field conditions in 16 sites located in the two main producing states, Alto Paraná and Itapúa, was undertaken. A high level of genetic diversity was detected by an ERIC-REP-PCR analysis, with the majority of the isolates representing unique strains. Most of the 58 isolates characterized by slow growth and alkaline reactions in a medium containing mannitol as a carbon source were clustered with strains representative of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii species, and the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of 5 of those isolates confirmed the species identities. However, slow growers were highly polymorphic in relation to the reference strains, including five carried in commercial inoculants in neighboring countries, thus indicating that the Paraguayan isolates might represent native bradyrhizobia. Twenty isolates highly polymorphic in the ERIC-REP-PCR profiles were characterized by fast growth and acid reactions in vitro, and two of them showed high 16S rDNA identities with Rhizobium genomic species Q. However, two other fast growers showed high 16S rDNA identity with Agrobacterium spp., and both of these strains established efficient symbioses with soybean plants. PMID:11055970

  20. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  1. Genome-wide detection of genetic loci associated with soybean aphid resistance in soybean germplasm PI 603712

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has become one of the major pests of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in North America since 2000. At least four biotypes of soybean aphid have been confirmed in the United States. Genetic characterization of new sources of soybean aphid resistance will facil...

  2. Less waste corn, more land in soybeans, and the switch to genetically modified crops: Trends with important implications for wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    American agriculture has provided abundant high-energy foods for migratory and resident wildlife populations since the onset of modern wildlife management. Responding to anecdotal evidence that corn residues are declining in cropland, we remeasured waste corn post-harvest in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska during 1997 and 1998 to compare with 1978. Post-harvest waste corn averaged 2.6% and 1.8% of yield in 1997 and 1998, respectively. After accounting for a 20% increase in yield, waste corn in 1997 and 1998 was reduced 24% and 47% from 1978. We also evaluated use of soybeans by spring-staging sandhill cranes (Crus canadensis) and waterfowl during spring 1998 and 1999. Despite being widely available in the CPRV, soybeans did not occur in esophageal contents of sandhill cranes (n=174), northern pintails (Anas acuta, n=139), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n=198), or lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens, n=208) collected with food in their esophagi. Lack of soybean consumption by cranes and waterfowl in Nebraska in early spring builds upon previously published findings, suggesting that soybeans are poorly suited for meeting nutrient needs of wildlife requiring a high-energy diet. Given evidence that high-energy food and numerous populations of seed-eating species found on farmland are declining, and the enormous potential risk to game and nongame wildlife populations if high-energy foods were to become scarce, a comprehensive research effort to study the problem appears warranted. Provisions under the Conservation Security subtitle of The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 offer a potential mechanism to encourage producers to manage cropland in ways that would replace part of the high-energy foods that have been lost to increasing efficiency of production agriculture.

  3. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  4. Validation of real-time PCR analyses for line-specific quantitation of genetically modified maize and soybean using new reference molecules.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Yoichiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Shono, Jinji; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Hino, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    Novel analytical methods based on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions by use of new reference molecules were validated in interlaboratory studies for the quantitation of genetically modified (GM) maize and soy. More than 13 laboratories from Japan, Korea, and the United States participated in the studies. The interlaboratory studies included 2 separate stages: (1) measurement tests of coefficient values, the ratio of recombinant DNA (r-DNA) sequence, and endogenous DNA sequence in the seeds of GM maize and GM soy; and (2) blind tests with 6 pairs of maize and soy samples, including different levels of GM maize or GM soy. Test results showed that the methods are applicable to the specific quantitation of the 5 lines of GM maize and one line of GM soy. After statistical treatment to remove outliers, the repeatability and reproducibility of these methods at a level of 5.0% were <13.7 and 15.9%, respectively. The quantitation limits of the methods were 0.50% for Bt11, T25, and MON810, and 0.10% for GA21, Event176, and Roundup Ready soy. The results of blind tests showed that the numerical information obtained from these methods will contribute to practical analyses for labeling systems of GM crops.

  5. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  6. Performance of Regular and Modified Canola and Soybean Oils in Rotational Frying.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Roman; Gruczynska, Eliza; Aladedunye, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Canola and soybean oils both regular and with modified fatty acid compositions by genetic modifications and hydrogenation were compared for frying performance. The frying was conducted at 185 ± 5 °C for up to 12 days where French fries, battered chicken and fish sticks were fried in succession. Modified canola oils, with reduced levels of linolenic acid, accumulated significantly lower amounts of polar components compared to the other tested oils. Canola oils generally displayed lower amounts of oligomers in their polar fraction. Higher rates of free fatty acids formation were observed for the hydrogenated oils compared to the other oils, with canola frying shortening showing the highest amount at the end of the frying period. The half-life of tocopherols for both regular and modified soybean oils was 1-2 days compared to 6 days observed for high-oleic low-linolenic canola oil. The highest anisidine values were observed for soybean oil with the maximum reached on the 10th day of frying. Canola and soybean frying shortenings exhibited a faster rate of color formation at any of the frying times. The high-oleic low-linolenic canola oil exhibited the greatest frying stability as assessed by polar components, oligomers and non-volatile carbonyl components formation. Moreover, food fried in the high-oleic low-linolenic canola oil obtained the best scores in the sensory acceptance assessment.

  7. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding in Soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean (Glycine max) genome sequencing project began as an interagency project with the DOE’s Joint Genome Institute providing the production sequencing throughput with the NSF and USDA funded groups providing genomic resources and soybean expertise to the project (Jackson et al, 2006). The go...

  8. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  9. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  10. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products.

  11. Impacts of genetic bottlenecks on soybean genome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Zhu, Youlin; Choi, Ik-Young; Nelson, Randall L.; Costa, Jose M.; Specht, James E.; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2006-01-01

    Soybean has undergone several genetic bottlenecks. These include domestication in Asia to produce numerous Asian landraces, introduction of relatively few landraces to North America, and then selective breeding over the past 75 years. It is presumed that these three human-mediated events have reduced genetic diversity. We sequenced 111 fragments from 102 genes in four soybean populations representing the populations before and after genetic bottlenecks. We show that soybean has lost many rare sequence variants and has undergone numerous allele frequency changes throughout its history. Although soybean genetic diversity has been eroded by human selection after domestication, it is notable that modern cultivars have retained 72% of the sequence diversity present in the Asian landraces but lost 79% of rare alleles (frequency ≤0.10) found in the Asian landraces. Simulations indicated that the diversity lost through the genetic bottlenecks of introduction and plant breeding was mostly due to the small number of Asian introductions and not the artificial selection subsequently imposed by selective breeding. The bottleneck with the most impact was domestication; when the low sequence diversity present in the wild species was halved, 81% of the rare alleles were lost, and 60% of the genes exhibited evidence of significant allele frequency changes. PMID:17068128

  12. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-07-07

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  14. Comparison of Allergenicity at Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K of Soybean after Genetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Chang, Ching-Yun; Liao, En-Chih

    2017-02-15

    Despite rapid growth of genetically modified (GM) crops, effective evaluations of genetic modification on allergenicity are still lacking. Gly m Bd 30K is cross-reactive with cow's milk protein casein, Gly m 4, and with birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Here we compared the allergenicity between GM and non-GM soybeans with respect to the foci Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K. Recombinant allergens of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 were generated and polyclonal antibodies raised to identify these two allergenic components in soybeans. GM soybean was first PCR-confirmed using 35S promoter. A total of 20 soybeans (half GM, half non-GM) obtained from a food market were used to assess their allergenicity based on IgE-binding and histamine release. The concentrations of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 in soybeans were then determined. Most soybean-allergic patients (9 of 10) showed IgE-positive reactions to the allergen of 30 kDa in molecular weight. That allergen turned out to be Glycine max Gly m Bd 30K based on LC-MS/MS analyses. Gly m Bd 30K is therefore the major allergen in the soybean. An increase in the transcription of both the Gly m 4 (stress-induced protein SAM22) and Gly m Bd 28K (soybean allergen precursor) was found after genetic modification. The protein concentrations of Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K were not statistically significant different between non-GM and GM soybeans. There were also no statistical significances between them in the tests of IgE binding and histamine release. In conclusion, soybeans showed similar concentrations of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 regardless of genetic modification or absence thereof. The allergenicity of both Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 was therefore not altered after genetic modification. Patients showing hypersensitivity to soybeans and who had pre-existing allergy to birch pollen and cow's milk casein might not further increase their allergic reactions following exposures to the GM soybeans.

  15. Detection of soil microarthropod aggregations in soybean fields, using a modified tullgren extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, F.P. Jr.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial distribution of soil microarthropods in soybean fields was investigated by use of a modified Tullgren extractor. Blocks of soil were extracted over a grid of collection cells from which microarthropod aggregations could be identified and measured. Aggregations in conventionally tilled soybeans were smaller than those in no tillage soybeans, and had less influence on population distributions. Population size was highly correlated with the area of soil microarthropod aggregations. 10 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  17. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  18. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  19. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  20. Analysis of genetically modified oils.

    PubMed

    Hazebroek, J P

    2000-11-01

    Genetically modified oils with altered functional or nutritional characteristics are being introduced into the marketplace. A wide array of analytical techniques has been utilized to facilitate developing these oils. This article attempts to review the utilization of these analytical procedures for characterizing both the chemistry and some functionality of these oils. Although techniques to assess oxidative stability in frying and food applications are covered, measurement of nutritional characteristics are not.

  1. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  2. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  3. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  4. Enzymatic Products from Modified Soybean Oil Containing Hydrazinoester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We use soybean oil to produce new, non-petroleum based products. The starting material is the ene reaction product of soybean oil and diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD), which can then be hydrolyzed chemically and enzymatically. Chemical hydrolysis gives hydrazino-fatty acids, whereas enzymatic hydro...

  5. Isoflavone composition and antioxidant capacity of modified-lipoxygenase soybeans grown in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Whent, Monica; Lv, Junli; Luthria, Devanand L; Kenworthy, William; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-12-28

    Maryland-grown soybean lines modified for low lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) content and a traditional nonmodified cultivar were analyzed for fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), isoflavone composition, relative DPPH• scavenging capacity (RDSC), and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC). Soybean lines included black, brown, and yellow soybeans. TPC of all soybean lines ranged from 2.84 to 4.74 mg gallic acid equiv (GAE)/g flour. Total isoflavones were between 2.78 and 8.66 μmol/g flour. RDSC of all lines was between 0.48 and 14.62 μmol Trolox equiv (TE)/g flour, and HOSC ranged from 53.57 to 135.52 μmol TE/g flour. Some modified-LOX genotypes demonstrated antioxidant capacity and/or isoflavone content similar to or higher than those of the nonmodified cultivar (P < 0.05). Black soybeans demonstrated higher TPC and RDSC than most yellow soybean lines, although they did not have higher isoflavone content. The results demonstrate that modification of the LOX trait did not necessarily alter the antioxidant capacity or chemical composition of the experimental soybean lines when compared with a nonmodified cultivar. These soybean lines may be studied further for nutraceutical properties and use in functional foods.

  6. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size (< 0.03 g), were directly collected in the field and came from all parts of Japan where wild soybeans grow, except Hokkaido. Japanese wild soybean showed significant reduction in observed heterozygosity, low outcrossing rate (mean 3.4%) and strong genetic differentiation among populations. However, the individual assignment test revealed evidence of rare long-distance seed dispersal (> 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  7. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  8. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    PubMed

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  9. Genetic improvement of U.S. soybean in Maturity Groups II, III, and IV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] improvement via plant breeding has been critical for the success of the crop. The objective of this study was to quantify genetic change in yield and other traits that occurred over the past 80 years of North American soybean breeding in maturity groups (MGs) II, III...

  10. RNA-seq analysis reveals genetic response and tolerance mechanisms to ozone exposure in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress caused by ground level ozone is a major contributor to yield loss in a number of important crop plants. Soybean (Glycine max) is especially ozone sensitive, and research into its response to oxidative stress is limited. To better understand the genetic response in soybean to oxida...

  11. Genetic diversity and structure of Phakopsora pachyrhizi infecting soybean in Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic structure of Nigerian field populations of the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi was determined using 18 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 113 fungal isolates was collected by hierarchical sampling infected leaves from soybean fields in three agroecological zones in 2...

  12. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  13. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  14. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  15. Adsorption of copper ions from aqueous solution by citric acid modified soybean straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to convert soybean straw to a metal ion adsorbent and further to investigate the potential of using the adsorbent for the removal of Cu(2+) from aqueous solution. The soybean straw was water or base washed and citric acid (CA) modified to enhance its nature adsorption capacity. The morphological and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent were evaluated by spectroscopy and N(2)-adsorption techniques. The porous structure, as well as high amounts of introduced free carboxyl groups of CA modified soybean straw makes the adsorbent be good to retain Cu(2+). The adsorption capacities increased when the solution pH increased from 2 to 6 and reached the maximum value at pH 6 (0.64 mmol g(-1) for the base washed, CA modified soybean straw (CA-BWSS)). The Cu(2+) uptake increased and percentage adsorption of the Cu(2+) decreased with the increase in initial Cu(2+) concentration from 1 mM to 20 mM. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were tested, and the Freundlich model fited much better than the Langmuir model. It was found that CA-BWSS have the highest adsorption capacity of the four kinds of pretreated soybean straw.

  16. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  17. Molecular approaches for genetic improvement of seed quality and characterization of genetic diversity in soybean: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Niraj; Khare, Dhirendra

    2016-10-01

    Soybean is an economically important leguminous crop. Genetic improvements of soybeans have focused on enhancement of seed and oil yield, development of varieties suited to different cropping systems, and breeding resistant/tolerant varieties for various biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant breeders have used conventional breeding techniques for the improvement of these traits in soybean. The conventional breeding process can be greatly accelerated through the application of molecular and genomic approaches. Molecular markers have proved to be a new tool in soybean breeding by enhancing selection efficiency in a rapid and time-bound manner. An overview of molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of soybean seed quality parameters, considering recent applications of marker-assisted selection and 'omics' research, is provided in this article.

  18. Genetic diversity and geographical distribution of indigenous soybean-nodulating Bradyrhizobia in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial genetic diversity and geographical distribution in the United States of America (USA) were investigated using soil isolates from eight states (Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Florida and Louisiana) with thre...

  19. Genetic diversity and genomic strategies for improving drought and waterlogging tolerance in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Valliyodan, Babu; Ye, Heng; Song, Li; Murphy, MacKensie; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-12-07

    Drought and its interaction with high temperature are the major abiotic stress factors affecting soybean yield and production stability. Ongoing climate changes are anticipated to intensify drought events, which will further impact crop production and food security. However, excessive water also limits soybean production. The success of soybean breeding programmes for crop improvement is dependent on the extent of genetic variation present in the germplasm base. Screening for natural genetic variation in drought- and flooding tolerance-related traits, including root system architecture, water and nitrogen-fixation efficiency, and yield performance indices, has helped to identify the best resources for genetic studies in soybean. Genomic resources, including whole-genome sequences of diverse germplasms, millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and high-throughput marker genotyping platforms, have expedited gene and marker discovery for translational genomics in soybean. This review highlights the current knowledge of the genetic diversity and quantitative trait loci associated with root system architecture, canopy wilting, nitrogen-fixation ability, and flooding tolerance that contributes to the understanding of drought- and flooding-tolerance mechanisms in soybean. Next-generation mapping approaches and high-throughput phenotyping will facilitate a better understanding of phenotype-genotype associations and help to formulate genomic-assisted breeding strategies, including genomic selection, in soybean for tolerance to drought and flooding stress.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA FLUXES OVER SOYBEAN USING MODIFIED BOWEN-RATIO TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of bi-directional ammonia exchange over a fertilized soybean canopy are presented for an 8-week period during the summer of 2002. The modified Bowne-ratio approach was used to determine fluxes from vertical NH3 and temperature gradients in combination with eddy covar...

  1. MEASUREMENT OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA FLUXES OVER SOYBEAN USING MODIFIED BOWEN-RATIO TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of bi-directional ammonia exchange over a fertilized soybean canopy are presented for an 8-week period during the summer of 2002. The modified Bowne-ratio approach was used to determine fluxes from vertical NH3 and temperature gradients in combination with eddy covar...

  2. Genetically modified pig models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Nana; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-02-20

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies. Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases, some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology. Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy, physiology, and genome. Thus, pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases. This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic disorders. We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  3. Genetic diversity of rhg1 and Rhg4 loci in wild soybeans resistant to soybean cyst nematode race 3.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C P; Wang, Y J; Zhao, H K; Zhang, L; Wang, Y M; Liu, X D; Zhong, X F; Dong, Y S

    2016-06-10

    Over-utilization of germplasms that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in soybean breeding programs can lead to genetic vulnerability in resistant cultivars. Resistant wild soybean (Glycine soja) is considered an invaluable gene source for increasing the genetic diversity of SCN resistance. In this study, we genotyped 23 G. soja accessions that are resistant to SCN race 3 for polymorphisms in the resistance genes, rhg1, Rhg4, and SHMT, and investigated their genetic relationship with eight Glycine max resistant cultivars. We identified 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 DNA insertion-deletions (InDels), of which 70 SNPs and 8 InDels were found in rhg1, 9 SNPs were found in Rhg4, and 10 SNPs and 3 InDels were found in SHMT. Nucleotide diversity was π = 0.00238 and θ = 0.00235, and haplotype diversity was 1.000. A phylogenetic tree comprising four clusters was constructed using sequence variations of the 23 G. soja and 8 G. max resistant accessions. Five G. soja accessions in subcluster A2, and four G. soja accessions in cluster B were genetically distant from G. max genotypes. Eight resistance-associated SNPs in the three resistance genes formed nine haplotypes in total. G. soja resistant accessions had different haplotypes (H2, H4, H5, H6, H7, and H8) compared with those of G. max (H1, H3, and H9). These results provide vital information on the use of wild soybeans for broadening the genetic base of SCN resistance.

  4. Genome-wide association studies dissect the genetic networks underlying agronomical traits in soybean.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Ma, Yanming; Wu, Shiwen; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Rui; Hu, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengkui; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Min; Pan, Yi; Zhou, Guoan; Ren, Haixiang; Du, Weiguang; Yan, Hongrui; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dezhi; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Shulin; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jixiang; Qin, Hao; Yuan, Jia; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Baoge; Tian, Zhixi

    2017-08-24

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the most important oil and protein crops. Ever-increasing soybean consumption necessitates the improvement of varieties for more efficient production. However, both correlations among different traits and genetic interactions among genes that affect a single trait pose a challenge to soybean breeding. To understand the genetic networks underlying phenotypic correlations, we collected 809 soybean accessions worldwide and phenotyped them for two years at three locations for 84 agronomic traits. Genome-wide association studies identified 245 significant genetic loci, among which 95 genetically interacted with other loci. We determined that 14 oil synthesis-related genes are responsible for fatty acid accumulation in soybean and function in line with an additive model. Network analyses demonstrated that 51 traits could be linked through the linkage disequilibrium of 115 associated loci and these links reflect phenotypic correlations. We revealed that 23 loci, including the known Dt1, E2, E1, Ln, Dt2, Fan, and Fap loci, as well as 16 undefined associated loci, have pleiotropic effects on different traits. This study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits and will facilitate future soybean functional studies and breeding through molecular design.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

  6. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  7. Delivering More Nutritious Soybeans After Molecular Genetic Detective Work

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean oil is an important, but hidden, component of the American diet. Both positive and negative impacts from the fatty acid components of oils have been demonstrated for human nutrition needs. The objective of this research was to identify soybean genes that underlie important oil quality trai...

  8. Soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary vulnerability of soybean production to climate change is likely to be from the effects of drought, which may be exacerbated by high temperature events. Technological adaptation can likely take advantage of warming in some production areas and rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon ...

  9. A Modified Screening Test for Determining Heterodera glycines Resistance in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Halbrendt, J. M.; Lewis, S. A.; Shipe, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    A modified version of a standard greenhouse bioassay for determining soybean cyst resistance in soybean plants is described. White plastic laundry tubs served as microplots for rearing large numbers of nematodes in a confined space; up to 3 million eggs of each generation were collected per tub. Before screening, SCN populations were evaluated on susceptible and resistant soybean to characterize female development; these were periodically retested. Screening tests took place in Todd planter flats (120 plants per flat). Test plants were inoculated with 1,200 eggs per plant and evaluated for resistance 33-37 days after inoculation. The plants were pruned at the cotyledonary node which resulted in a greatly reduced root system. Staining the roots in Toluidine Blue created contrast with the white females and facilitated counting. Greenhouse space was conserved, and the labor to set up and maintain the screening test was reduced. PMID:19290281

  10. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  11. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  12. Assessing the possibility of genetically modified DNA transfer from GM feed to broiler, laying hen, pig and calf tissues.

    PubMed

    Sieradzki, Z; Mazur, M; Kwiatek, K; Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Koreleski, J; Hanczakowska, E; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Goldsztejn, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of genetically modified DNA transfer from feed containing RR soybean or/and MON810 maize to animal tissues, gut bacterial flora, food of animal origin, and the fate of GM DNA in the animal digestive tract. The experiment was carried out on broilers, laying hens, pigs and calves. All animals were divided into four groups: I--control group (non-modified feed), II--GM soybean group (non-modified maize, RR soybean), III--GM maize group (MON810 maize, non-modified soybean), and IV--GM maize and soybean group (MON810 maize, RR soybean). Samples of blood, organs, tissues, digesta from the gastrointestinal tract, and eggs were analysed for the presence of plant species specific genes, and transgenic sequences of CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator. PCR amplifications of these GM sequences were conducted to investigate the GM DNA transfer from feed to animal tissues and bacterial gut flora. In none of the analysed samples of blood, organs, tissues, eggs, excreta and bacterial DNA were plant reference genes or GM DNA found. A GM crop diet did not affect bacterial gut flora as regards diversity of bacteria species, quantity of particular bacteria species in the animal gut, or incorporation of transgenic DNA to the bacteria genome. It can be concluded that MON810 maize and RR soybean used for animal feeding are substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts. Genetically modified DNA from MON810 maize and RR soybean is digested in the same way as plant DNA, with no probability of its transfer to animal tissues or gut bacterial flora.

  13. [Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].

    PubMed

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene.

  14. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  15. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  16. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Special Functions, IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genoa, Italy, 126 UO Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale di...Athens, Greece (Yannoukakos, Fostira); Instituto de Genética Humana , Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia (Torres); Molecular Genetics of

  17. Epigenetics: modifying the genetic blueprint.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint. While it is now possible to draw direct connections between specific DNA sequences and specific physical features and to predict disease risk, the effects of certain genes can be masked by a process called "epigenetics." Here, I summarize our current understanding of epigenetics and it affects gene expression, with impacts on health and aging.

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  19. Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve L.

    2001-01-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption. PMID:19265878

  20. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of the Vietnamese Soybean Cultivars Provides Potential Resources for Soybean Production and Genetic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the greatest constraints to soybean production in many countries, including Vietnam. Although a wide variety of the newly produced cultivars have been produced recently in Vietnam through classical breeding to cope with water shortage, little knowledge of their molecular and physiological responses to drought has been discovered. This study was conducted to quickly evaluate drought tolerance of thirteen local soybean cultivars for selection of the best drought-tolerant cultivars for further field test. Differences in drought tolerance of cultivars were assessed by root and shoot lengths, relative water content, and drought-tolerant index under both normal and drought conditions. Our data demonstrated that DT51 is the strongest drought-tolerant genotype among all the tested cultivars, while the highest drought-sensitive phenotype was observed with MTD720. Thus, DT51 could be subjected to further yield tests in the field prior to suggesting it for use in production. Due to their contrasting drought-tolerant phenotypes, DT51 and MTD720 provide excellent genetic resources for further studies underlying mechanisms regulating drought responses and gene discovery. Our results provide vital information to support the effort of molecular breeding and genetic engineering to improve drought tolerance of soybean. PMID:24804248

  1. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  2. Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Two Long-Term Randomly Mated Soybean Populations I. Genetic Variances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic effects of long term random mating and natural selection aided by genetic male sterility were evaluated in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations: RSII and RSIII. Population means, variances, and heritabilities were estimated to determine the effects of 26 generations of random...

  3. Genetic and phenotypic correlations of quantitative traits in two long-term randomly mated soybean populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic effects of long term random mating and natural selection aided by genetic male sterility (gms) were evaluated in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations designated: RSII and RSIII. These populations were evaluated in the field at three locations each with two replications. Genot...

  4. SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetics and genomics database

    PubMed Central

    Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T.; Cannon, Steven B.; Shoemaker, Randy C.

    2010-01-01

    SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetic database, is a comprehensive repository for professionally curated genetics, genomics and related data resources for soybean. SoyBase contains the most current genetic, physical and genomic sequence maps integrated with qualitative and quantitative traits. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) represent more than 18 years of QTL mapping of more than 90 unique traits. SoyBase also contains the well-annotated ‘Williams 82’ genomic sequence and associated data mining tools. The genetic and sequence views of the soybean chromosomes and the extensive data on traits and phenotypes are extensively interlinked. This allows entry to the database using almost any kind of available information, such as genetic map symbols, soybean gene names or phenotypic traits. SoyBase is the repository for controlled vocabularies for soybean growth, development and trait terms, which are also linked to the more general plant ontologies. SoyBase can be accessed at http://soybase.org. PMID:20008513

  5. Both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens modify favorably the blood lipoprotein profile in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2006-06-28

    The present study compared the hypolipidemic activity of kudzu phytoestrogens with that of soybean phytoestrogen in estrogen- and androgen-deficient hamsters. In the first experiment, ovariectomized hamsters (n = 37) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 9-10 each group). The first group was the control group, whereas the second group had the time-releasing estradiol-17beta subcutaneous (pellet) implants as a positive control. The third and fourth groups were orally administered soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts (30 mg/kg of body weight) per day. In the second experiments, the first group of male hamsters (n = 9) received a sham operation, whereas the other three groups of male hamsters (n = 9 each) were castrated. The castrated control group received orally distilled water, whereas the second and third castrated groups were orally given 30 mg/kg soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts. The results for the first experiment showed that the ovariectomized hamsters orally given soybean and kudzu phytoestrogen extracts had significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) being unaffected. The data from the second experiment demonstrated that administration of soybean but not kudzu phytoestrogen extracts decreased significantly serum TC. However, administration of kudzu phytoestrogens caused redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins, leading to a significant decrease in the ratio of non-HDL-C to HDL-C. It was concluded that both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens could modify favorably lipoprotein profiles in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

  6. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  7. Application of an Aspergillus saitoi protease preparation to soybean curd to modify its functional and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Nishinoaki, Mizuho; Asakura, Tomiko; Watanabe, Tomomi; Kunizaki, Etsuko; Matsumoto, Mami; Eto, Wakako; Tamura, Tomoko; Minami, Michiko; Obata, Akio; Abe, Keiko; Funaki, Junko

    2008-02-01

    An Aspergillus saitoi protease preparation, Molsin, was found to contain beta-glucosidase as well as protease activities. Application of Molsin to soybean curd improved its functionality by converting the contained isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones through beta-glucosidase, and also modified the rheological property into a creamy consistency through protease. The enzymatically modified soybean curd was characterized by a ductility flow having no particular rupture point.

  8. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  9. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  10. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies.

  11. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Genetic and molecular bases of photoperiod responses of flowering in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Harada, Kyuya; Abe, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is one of the most important processes involved in crop adaptation and productivity. A number of major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering have been reported in soybean (Glycine max). These genes and QTLs interact with one another and with the environment to greatly influence not only flowering and maturity but also plant morphology, final yield, and stress tolerance. The information available on the soybean genome sequence and on the molecular bases of flowering in Arabidopsis will undoubtedly facilitate the molecular dissection of flowering in soybean. Here, we review the present status of our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of flowering in soybean. We also discuss our identification of orthologs of Arabidopsis flowering genes from among the 46,367 genes annotated in the publicly available soybean genome database Phytozome Glyma 1.0. We emphasize the usefulness of a combined approach including QTL analysis, fine mapping, and use of candidate gene information from model plant species in genetic and molecular studies of soybean flowering. PMID:23136492

  13. Association mapping of loci controlling genetic and environmental interaction of soybean flowering time under various photo-thermal conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a short day plant. Its flowering and maturity time are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interaction. Previous studies have shown that both genetic and environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature control flowering time of soybean...

  14. Characterization of Soybean Storage and Allergen Proteins Affected by Environmental and Genetic Factors.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Khan, Farooq; Song, Qijian; Lakshman, Sukla; Cregan, Perry; Scott, Roy; Shipe, Emerson; Garrett, Wesley

    2016-02-17

    There is limited information on the influence of genetic and environmental variability on soybean protein composition. This study aimed to determine the role of genotype (G), environments (E), and the interrelationship of genotype and environment (G×E) on soybean seed protein. Three sets of nine soybean genotypes were grown in replicated trials at Maryland, South Carolina, and South Dakota. At each location, the nine genotypes were grown with two planting/sowing dates. We applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to study the variability of soybean storage and allergen proteins. Statistical analysis of 47 storage and 8 allergen proteins, in terms of differentially expressed protein spots significant at the p<0.005 level, was performed. We found more spots that showed statistically significant differences in expression among E compared to G and G×E interaction.

  15. Genetics and Adaptation of Soybean Cyst Nematode to Broad Spectrum Soybean Resistance.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael; Heinz, Robert; Wang, Jianying; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2017-03-10

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is a major threat to soybean production, made more challenging by the current limitations of natural resistance for managing this pathogen. The use of resistant host cultivars is effective, but, over time, results in the generation of virulent nematode populations able to robustly parasitize the resistant host. In order to understand how virulence develops in SCN, we utilized a single backcross BC1F2 strategy to mate a highly virulent inbred population (TN20), capable of reproducing on all current sources of resistance, with an avirulent one (PA3), unable to reproduce on any of the resistant soybean lines. The offspring were then investigated to determine how virulence is inherited on the main sources of SCN resistance, derived from soybean lines Peking, PI 88788, PI 90763, and the broad spectrum resistance source PI 437654. Significantly, our results suggest virulence on PI 437654 is a multigenic recessive trait that allows the nematode to reproduce on all current sources of resistance. In addition, we examined how virulence on different sources of resistance interact by placing virulent SCN populations under secondary selection, and identified a strong counter-selection between virulence on PI 88788- and PI 90763-derived resistances, while no such counter-selection existed between virulence on Peking and PI 88788 resistance sources. Our results suggest that the genes responsible for virulence on PI 88788 and PI 90763 may be different alleles at a common locus. If so, rotation of cultivars with resistance from these two sources may be an effective management protocol.

  16. Genetics and Adaptation of Soybean Cyst Nematode to Broad Spectrum Soybean Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Michael; Heinz, Robert; Wang, Jianying; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2017-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is a major threat to soybean production, made more challenging by the current limitations of natural resistance for managing this pathogen. The use of resistant host cultivars is effective, but, over time, results in the generation of virulent nematode populations able to robustly parasitize the resistant host. In order to understand how virulence develops in SCN, we utilized a single backcross BC1F2 strategy to mate a highly virulent inbred population (TN20), capable of reproducing on all current sources of resistance, with an avirulent one (PA3), unable to reproduce on any of the resistant soybean lines. The offspring were then investigated to determine how virulence is inherited on the main sources of SCN resistance, derived from soybean lines Peking, PI 88788, PI 90763, and the broad spectrum resistance source PI 437654. Significantly, our results suggest virulence on PI 437654 is a multigenic recessive trait that allows the nematode to reproduce on all current sources of resistance. In addition, we examined how virulence on different sources of resistance interact by placing virulent SCN populations under secondary selection, and identified a strong counter-selection between virulence on PI 88788- and PI 90763-derived resistances, while no such counter-selection existed between virulence on Peking and PI 88788 resistance sources. Our results suggest that the genes responsible for virulence on PI 88788 and PI 90763 may be different alleles at a common locus. If so, rotation of cultivars with resistance from these two sources may be an effective management protocol. PMID:28064187

  17. Development of INDEL Markers for Genetic Mapping Based on Whole Genome Resequencing in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wei, Haichao; Cheng, Wen; Yang, Suxin; Zhao, Yanxiu; Li, Xuan; Luo, Da; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Xianzhong

    2015-10-19

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop worldwide. In this study, a Chinese local soybean cultivar, Hedou 12, was resequenced by next generation sequencing technology to develop INsertion/DELetion (INDEL) markers for genetic mapping. 49,276 INDEL polymorphisms and 242,059 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between Hedou 12 and the Williams 82 reference sequence. Of these, 243 candidate INDEL markers ranging from 5-50 bp in length were chosen for validation, and 165 (68%) of them revealed polymorphisms between Hedou 12 and Williams 82. The validated INDEL markers were also tested in 12 other soybean cultivars. The number of polymorphisms in the pairwise comparisons of 14 soybean cultivars varied from 27 to 165. To test the utility of these INDEL markers, they were used to perform genetic mapping of a crinkly leaf mutant, and the CRINKLY LEAF locus was successfully mapped to a 360 kb region on chromosome 7. This research shows that high-throughput sequencing technologies can facilitate the development of genome-wide molecular markers for genetic mapping in soybean. Copyright © 2015 Song et al.

  18. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  19. Genetically modified plants: public and scientific perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rastogi Verma, Smita

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of mechanically and genetically sink-limited soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The absence of a reproductive sink causes physiological and morphological changes in soybean plants. These include increased accumulation of nitrogen and starch in the leaves and delayed leaf senescence. To identify transcriptional changes that occur in leaves of these sink-limited plants, we used R...

  1. Genetic Diversity and Agronomic Improvement of North American Soybean Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 1970 to 2008 there were 2,242 soybean cultivars registered in North America through U.S. PVP, U.S. utility patent, and journal registration. Of these, 80% were developed through proprietary and 20% through public programs. The most frequently used germplasm for cultivar development were the cul...

  2. Genetic characterization of the soybean Nested Association Mapping (NAM) population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A population of nested association mapping (NAM) families can be a valuable resource to a research community. A set of NAM families were developed by crossing 40 diverse soybean genotypes to the common hub cultivar IA 3023. The 41 parents were sequenced with next generation sequencing for single nuc...

  3. [Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].

    PubMed

    Drobník, J

    2002-03-01

    Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries.

  4. Population genetic structure and genetic diversity of soybean aphid collections from the USA, South Korea, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Hwan; Michel, Andrew P; Wenger, Jacob A; Kang, Sung-Taeg; Mian, M A Rouf

    2013-06-01

    Following its recent invasion of North America, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has become the number one insect pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the north central states of the USA. A few studies have been conducted on the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the soybean aphid and the source of its invasion in North America. Molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are very useful in the evaluation of population structure and genetic diversity. We used 18 SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity of soybean aphid collections from the USA, South Korea, and Japan. The aphids were collected from two sites in the USA (Indiana and South Dakota), two sites in South Korea (Yeonggwang district and Cheonan city), and one site in Japan (Utsunomiya). The SSR markers were highly effective in differentiating among aphid collections from different countries. The level of differentiation within each population and among populations from the same country was limited, even in the case of the USA where the two collection sites were more than 1200 km apart.

  5. Qualitative genetics - examples from soybean and other crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Qualitative genetics, also known as Mendelian genetics or transmission genetics, refers to those genetic traits that have a distinct appearance (phenotype) and are controlled by one or few genes. Examples of qualitative genetics include response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and anatomical, morpho...

  6. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul Ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-03-31

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil.

  7. Phasic temperature and photoperiod control for soybean using a modified CROPGRO model.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, J; Volk, T; Bugbee, B; Dougher, T

    1999-01-01

    A modified CROPGRO model is applied to phasic temperature and photoperiod control in order to optimize soybean production for NASA's program in Advanced Life Support. Baseline model simulations were established using data from soybean temperature experiments conducted at elevated CO2 levels (1100 micromol mol-1) at Utah State University (USU). The model simulations show little advantage in using phasic temperature control alone to increase average seed yield rate over the USU experimental values. However, simulations that combine phasic control of temperature (two phases) and photoperiod (two phases) do indicate the potential to improve seed yield (in g m-2 day-1) by approximately 15% over those currently obtained experimentally at USU for soybean cultivar Hoyt. This temperature and photoperiod phasing is experimentally practical. The simulations suggest extending photoperiods over those typically used experimentally during later phases of the crop life cycle, which would lengthen grain fill duration and thereby increase mass per seed. The model simulations indicate that the timing, and duration of extended photoperiods would be very important due to possible reductions in seed number m-2. Besides affecting seed yield directly, the model simulations suggest that such reductions may also cause feedback inhibition of photosynthesis due to low seed sink strength at elevated CO2 levels.

  8. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc)

    PubMed Central

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes. PMID:26952904

  9. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc).

    PubMed

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-03-08

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes.

  10. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  11. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods.

  12. Genetically modified pigs to model human diseases.

    PubMed

    Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

    2014-02-01

    Genetically modified mice are powerful tools to investigate the molecular basis of many human diseases. Mice are, however, of limited value for preclinical studies, because they differ significantly from humans in size, general physiology, anatomy and lifespan. Considerable efforts are, thus, being made to develop alternative animal models for a range of human diseases. These promise powerful new resources that will aid the development of new diagnostics, medicines and medical procedures. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genetically modified porcine models described in the scientific literature: various cancers, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, autosomal polycystic kidney disease, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, haemophilia A, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Alzheimer’s disease, various forms of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  14. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  15. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max) Using Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Yang, Jiyu; Li, Candong; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Guo, Yong; Chang, Ruzhen; Wang, Dechun; Wang, Shuming; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for number of days to flowering (ETF), number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM), and number of days to maturity (ETM) using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding. PMID:27367048

  16. Modeling RASopathies with Genetically Modified Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Guerra, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway plays key roles in development, cell survival and proliferation, as well as in cancer pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified a group of developmental syndromes, the RASopathies, caused by germ line mutations in this pathway. The syndromes included within this classification are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly known as LEOPARD syndrome), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS, NF1-like syndrome), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) type 1. Although these syndromes present specific molecular alterations, they are characterized by a large spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities, which include heart defects, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial malformations, and, in some cases, cancer predisposition. The development of genetically modified animals, such as mice (Mus musculus), flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been instrumental in elucidating the molecular and cellular bases of these syndromes. Moreover, these models can also be used to determine tumor predisposition, the impact of different genetic backgrounds on the variable phenotypes found among the patients and to evaluate preventative and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review a wide range of genetically modified mouse models used in the study of RASopathies and the potential application of novel technologies, which hopefully will help us resolve open questions in the field.

  17. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  18. The genetic architecture of seed composition in soybean is refined by genome-wide association scans across multiple populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to re...

  19. Genetic variation of maturity groups and four E genes in the Chinese soybean mini core collection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jicun; Wang, Xiaobo; Song, Wenwen; Huang, Xinyang; Zhou, Jing; Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Shi; Jia, Hongchang; Li, Wenbin; Zhou, Xinan; Li, Suzhen; Chen, Pengyin; Wu, Cunxiang; Guo, Yong; Han, Tianfu; Qiu, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    The mini core collection (MCC) has been established by streamlining core collection (CC) chosen from China National Genebank including 23,587 soybean (Glycine max) accessions by morphological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Few studies have been focused on the maturity that has been considered as one of the most critical traits for the determination of the adaptation-growing region of the soybean. In the current study, two hundred and ninty-nine accessions of MCC planted for two years at four locations namely in Heihe, Harbin, Jining and Wuhan cities in China were used to assess the variation of maturity in MCC and identify the integrated effect of 4 E loci on flowering and maturity time in soybean. Forty-two North American varieties served as references of maturity groups (MG). Each accession in MCC was classified by comparing with the MG references in the days from VE (emergence) and physiological maturity (R7). The results showed that MCC covered a large range of MGs from MG000 to MGIX/X. Original locations and sowing types were revealed as the major affecting factors for maturity groups of the MCC accessions. The ratio of the reproductive period to the vegetative period (R/V) varied among MCC accessions. Genotyping of 4 maturity genes (i.e. E1, E2, E3 and E4) in 228 accessions indicated that recessive alleles e1, e2, e3 and e4 promoted earlier flowering and shortened the maturity time with different effects, while the dominate alleles were always detected in accessions with longer maturity. The allelic combinations determined the diversification of soybean maturity groups and adaptation to different regions. Our results indicated that the maturity of Chinese soybean MCC showed genetic diversities in phenotype and genotype, which provided information for further MG classification, geographic adaptation analysis of Chinese soybean cultivars, as well as developing new soybean varieties with adaptation to specific regions.

  20. Genetic variation of maturity groups and four E genes in the Chinese soybean mini core collection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xinyang; Zhou, Jing; Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Shi; Jia, Hongchang; Li, Wenbin; Zhou, Xinan; Li, Suzhen; Chen, Pengyin; Wu, Cunxiang; Guo, Yong; Han, Tianfu; Qiu, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    The mini core collection (MCC) has been established by streamlining core collection (CC) chosen from China National Genebank including 23,587 soybean (Glycine max) accessions by morphological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Few studies have been focused on the maturity that has been considered as one of the most critical traits for the determination of the adaptation-growing region of the soybean. In the current study, two hundred and ninty-nine accessions of MCC planted for two years at four locations namely in Heihe, Harbin, Jining and Wuhan cities in China were used to assess the variation of maturity in MCC and identify the integrated effect of 4 E loci on flowering and maturity time in soybean. Forty-two North American varieties served as references of maturity groups (MG). Each accession in MCC was classified by comparing with the MG references in the days from VE (emergence) and physiological maturity (R7). The results showed that MCC covered a large range of MGs from MG000 to MGIX/X. Original locations and sowing types were revealed as the major affecting factors for maturity groups of the MCC accessions. The ratio of the reproductive period to the vegetative period (R/V) varied among MCC accessions. Genotyping of 4 maturity genes (i.e. E1, E2, E3 and E4) in 228 accessions indicated that recessive alleles e1, e2, e3 and e4 promoted earlier flowering and shortened the maturity time with different effects, while the dominate alleles were always detected in accessions with longer maturity. The allelic combinations determined the diversification of soybean maturity groups and adaptation to different regions. Our results indicated that the maturity of Chinese soybean MCC showed genetic diversities in phenotype and genotype, which provided information for further MG classification, geographic adaptation analysis of Chinese soybean cultivars, as well as developing new soybean varieties with adaptation to specific regions. PMID:28207889

  1. A High-Density Genetic Map for Soybean Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rongsheng; Xin, Dawei; Liu, Chunyan; Han, Xue; Jiang, Hongwei; Hong, Weiguo; Hu, Guohua; Zheng, Hongkun; Chen, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is an important oil seed crop, but very few high-density genetic maps have been published for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recently developed high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. SLAF-seq was employed in this study to obtain sufficient markers to construct a high-density genetic map for soybean. In total, 33.10 Gb of data containing 171,001,333 paired-end reads were obtained after preprocessing. The average sequencing depth was 42.29 in the Dongnong594, 56.63 in the Charleston, and 3.92 in each progeny. In total, 164,197 high-quality SLAFs were detected, of which 12,577 SLAFs were polymorphic, and 5,308 of the polymorphic markers met the requirements for use in constructing a genetic map. The final map included 5,308 markers on 20 linkage groups and was 2,655.68 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.5 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map has the shortest average distance of adjacent markers for soybean. We report here a high-density genetic map for soybean. The map was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population and the SLAF-seq approach, which allowed the efficient development of a large number of polymorphic markers in a short time. Results of this study will not only provide a platform for gene/quantitative trait loci fine mapping, but will also serve as a reference for molecular breeding of soybean. PMID:25118194

  2. Porphyran as a functional modifier of a soybean protein isolate through conjugation by the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Takano, Katsuya; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanuma, Shin; Takahashi, Koji

    2007-07-11

    Porphyran (Por) prepared from dried nori was applied as a functional modifier of a soybean protein isolate (SPI) to conjugate with SPI from defatted soybean by the Maillard reaction (79% relative humidity and 60 degrees C for 7 days). Two kinds of partially denatured conjugate (Conj 45 and Conj 63) were obtained from the reaction product by sequential extraction at pH 4.5 and pH 6.3, and the respective yield and weight ratios of the SPI and Por moieties were 8.4% and 1:1 for Conj 45 and 11.7% and 1:0.16 for Conj 63. Conj 63 demonstrated improved solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, while Conj 45 exhibited substantially complete solubility over the pH range of 2.0-8.0. Conj 63 showed more tolerance against digestion with pancreatin than SPI, whereas this was lost after denaturation. Conj 63 and Conj 45 both showed a markedly higher emulsion activity index and emulsion stability than SPI, even at pH 3.0; in particular, Conj 45 exhibited outstanding emulsifying ability. Conj 63 had about a two-fold higher calcium-binding ability than SPI, and Conj 63 and Conj 45 did not aggregate with added Ca2+ and Mg2+. It is believed that Por could be a valuable functional modifier of SPI for providing soybean protein-based liquid foods such as beverages by conjugation through the Maillard reaction.

  3. [Detection of genetically modified organisms in food and animal feed by polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-chang; Yang, Ming-jie; Yang, Xing-fen; Huang, Jun-ming

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the foods and animal feed samples in Guangzhou market. The presence of GMO were investigated by PCR detection of camv 35S promoter and nos terminator, and the presence of RoundUp Ready Soybean (RRS), Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard in GMO-positive samples were further determined by PCR detecting their specific DNA fragments respectively. One corn soup sample, two soybean samples, one potato fries sample as well as two animal feed samples were revealed to be GMO-positive in twenty-two food samples and three animal feed samples, and the presence of RRS in the GMO-positive soybean samples and the two positive animal feed samples were verified by PCR detection of a 129 bp RRS-specific DNA fragment, however, no Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard specific PCR products were obtained with the GMO-positive corn soup and animal feed DNA samples used as PCR templates. Genetically modified organism presented in foods and animal feeds even though they were not been labelled.

  4. Morphological characterization and assessment of genetic variability, character association, and divergence in soybean mutants.

    PubMed

    Malek, M A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Shahida Sharmin Afroz, Most; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Mondal, M Monjurul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV) for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement.

  5. Genetic divergence in a soybean (Glycine max) diversity panel based on agro-morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Marconato, M B; Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Bizari, E H; Pinheiro, J B; Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-11-21

    Owing to the narrow genetic basis of soybean (Glycine max), the incorporation of new sources of germplasm is indispensable when searching for alleles that contribute to a greater diversity of varieties. The alternative is plant introduction, which may increase genetic variability within breeding programs. Multivariate techniques are important tools to study genetic diversity and allow the precise elucidation of variability in a set of genotypes of interest. The agro-morphological traits of 93 soybean accessions from various continents were analyzed in order to assess the genetic diversity present, and to highlight important traits. The experimental design was incomplete blocks (Alpha lattice, 8 x 12) with three replicates. Nine agro-morphological traits were analyzed, and principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed, the latter by Ward's method. The dendrogram obtained contained eight subgroups, confirming the genetic diversity among the accessions and revealing similarities between 11 national genotypes. The geographical origin of the accessions was not always related to the clusters. The traits evaluated, and the methods used, facilitated the distinction and characterization of genotypes between and within groups, and could be used in Brazilian soybean breeding programs.

  6. Morphological Characterization and Assessment of Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Divergence in Soybean Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M. A.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Shahida Sharmin Afroz, Most.; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV) for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement. PMID:25197722

  7. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Indigenous Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shiro, Sokichi; Matsuura, Syota; Saiki, Rina; Sigua, Gilbert C.; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia and their geographical distribution in the United States using nine soil isolates from eight states. The bradyrhizobia were inoculated on three soybean Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, and Rj4). We analyzed their genetic diversity and community structure by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of PCR amplicons to target the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region, using 11 USDA Bradyrhizobium strains as reference strains. We also performed diversity analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis based on the Bray-Curtis index, and polar ordination analysis to describe the structure and geographical distribution of the soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community. The major clusters were Bradyrhizobium japonicum Bj123, in the northern United States, and Bradyrhizobium elkanii, in the middle to southern regions. Dominance of bradyrhizobia in a community was generally larger for the cluster belonging to B. elkanii than for the cluster belonging to B. japonicum. The indigenous American soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community structure was strongly correlated with latitude. Our results suggest that this community varies geographically. PMID:23563944

  9. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  10. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  12. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  13. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  14. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil. PMID:28321006

  16. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    high contents of protein, oil , isoflavones, and other bioactive compounds. However, it is susceptible to many biotic stresses such fungal, bacterial...for protein, oil , and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean. We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Jun-2011 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil

  17. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L; Lassen, J; Kettlitz, B; Scholderer, J; Beekman, V; Berdal, K G

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists, and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased public participation has been promoted as a way of increasing trust in institutional practices associated with the biosciences, although questions still arise as to how to best utilise the outputs of such exercises in policy development. This issue will become more of a priority as decision-making systems become more transparent and open to public scrutiny. The results are discussed in the context of risk assessment and risk management, and recommendations for future research are made. In particular, it is recommended that new methods are developed in order to integrate public values more efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general.

  18. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    PubMed Central

    Coser, Sara M.; Chowda Reddy, R. V.; Zhang, Jiaoping; Mueller, Daren S.; Mengistu, Alemu; Wise, Kiersten A.; Allen, Tom W.; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal genes. The aims of this study were to identify new sources of resistance to CR in a collection of 459 diverse plant introductions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Core Collection using field and greenhouse screenings, and to conduct GWAS to identify candidate genes and associated molecular markers. New sources for CR resistance were identified from both field and greenhouse screening from maturity groups I, II, and III. Five significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and putative candidate genes related to abiotic and biotic stress responses are reported from the field screening; while greenhouse screening revealed eight loci associated with eight candidate gene families, all associated with functions controlling plant defense response. No overlap of markers or genes was observed between field and greenhouse screenings suggesting a complex molecular mechanism underlying resistance to CR in soybean with varied response to different environments; but our findings provide useful information for advancing breeding for CR resistance as well as the genetic mechanism of resistance. PMID:28983305

  19. (Genetic engineering with a gene encoding a soybean storage protein)

    SciTech Connect

    Beachy, R.N.

    1985-12-18

    We have isolated and characterized a gene which encodes the alpha prime subunit of beta conglycinin. This gene was fully sequenced by DNA sequence analysis and a report of that work was prepared and submitted for publication in early November 1985. This represented the culmination of several years of research effort by several scientists. A preprint of that work is attached to this report and has been offered by Dr. J.J. Doyle, Dr. Mary A. Schuler and Dr. Jerry Slighton, as well as myself. This paper is a comparison of the alpha prime subunit gene with a similar gene from phaseolus vulgaris, the common garden bean. In this paper we compare the sequences that are 5' of the gene, and which would represent the transcriptional promoter, as well as the sequences within the structural region of the gene. The sequence paper also compares the amino acid sequence of these two genes with that of other genes from Phaseolus, peas and from soybeans. On the basis of this comparison, we predict evolutionary trends within the multigene families which encode these proteins in the various plants, as well as to look at the protein itself to try to predict regions of the protein that might have functional significance. All of this work was done on a prior DOE-BER grant and has simply been reported here for the first time.

  20. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  1. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  2. Complementary genetic and genomic approaches help characterize the linkage group I seed protein QTL in soybean

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The nutritional and economic value of many crops is effectively a function of seed protein and oil content. Insight into the genetic and molecular control mechanisms involved in the deposition of these constituents in the developing seed is needed to guide crop improvement. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) on Linkage Group I (LG I) of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) has a striking effect on seed protein content. Results A soybean near-isogenic line (NIL) pair contrasting in seed protein and differing in an introgressed genomic segment containing the LG I protein QTL was used as a resource to demarcate the QTL region and to study variation in transcript abundance in developing seed. The LG I QTL region was delineated to less than 8.4 Mbp of genomic sequence on chromosome 20. Using Affymetrix® Soy GeneChip and high-throughput Illumina® whole transcriptome sequencing platforms, 13 genes displaying significant seed transcript accumulation differences between NILs were identified that mapped to the 8.4 Mbp LG I protein QTL region. Conclusions This study identifies gene candidates at the LG I protein QTL for potential involvement in the regulation of protein content in the soybean seed. The results demonstrate the power of complementary approaches to characterize contrasting NILs and provide genome-wide transcriptome insight towards understanding seed biology and the soybean genome. PMID:20199683

  3. Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in U.S. maize and soybeans.

    PubMed

    Perry, Edward D; Ciliberto, Federico; Hennessy, David A; Moschini, GianCarlo

    2016-08-01

    The widespread adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has clearly led to changes in pesticide use, but the nature and extent of these impacts remain open questions. We study this issue with a unique, large, and representative sample of plot-level choices made by U.S. maize and soybean farmers from 1998 to 2011. On average, adopters of GE glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans used 28% (0.30 kg/ha) more herbicide than nonadopters, adopters of GT maize used 1.2% (0.03 kg/ha) less herbicide than nonadopters, and adopters of GE insect-resistant (IR) maize used 11.2% (0.013 kg/ha) less insecticide than nonadopters. When pesticides are weighted by the environmental impact quotient, however, we find that (relative to nonadopters) GE adopters used about the same amount of soybean herbicides, 9.8% less of maize herbicides, and 10.4% less of maize insecticides. In addition, the results indicate that the difference in pesticide use between GE and non-GE adopters has changed significantly over time. For both soybean and maize, GT adopters used increasingly more herbicides relative to nonadopters, whereas adopters of IR maize used increasingly less insecticides. The estimated pattern of change in herbicide use over time is consistent with the emergence of glyphosate weed resistance.

  4. Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in U.S. maize and soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Edward D.; Ciliberto, Federico; Hennessy, David A.; Moschini, GianCarlo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has clearly led to changes in pesticide use, but the nature and extent of these impacts remain open questions. We study this issue with a unique, large, and representative sample of plot-level choices made by U.S. maize and soybean farmers from 1998 to 2011. On average, adopters of GE glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans used 28% (0.30 kg/ha) more herbicide than nonadopters, adopters of GT maize used 1.2% (0.03 kg/ha) less herbicide than nonadopters, and adopters of GE insect-resistant (IR) maize used 11.2% (0.013 kg/ha) less insecticide than nonadopters. When pesticides are weighted by the environmental impact quotient, however, we find that (relative to nonadopters) GE adopters used about the same amount of soybean herbicides, 9.8% less of maize herbicides, and 10.4% less of maize insecticides. In addition, the results indicate that the difference in pesticide use between GE and non-GE adopters has changed significantly over time. For both soybean and maize, GT adopters used increasingly more herbicides relative to nonadopters, whereas adopters of IR maize used increasingly less insecticides. The estimated pattern of change in herbicide use over time is consistent with the emergence of glyphosate weed resistance. PMID:27652335

  5. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    PubMed

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop.

  6. Genetic Improvement in Short-Season Soybeans: II. Nitrogen Accumulation, Remobilization, and Partitioning.

    PubMed

    Kumudini, S.; Hume, D. J.; Chu, G.

    2002-01-01

    Genetic improvement in yield is conditional on surmounting yield-limiting factors. Nitrogen (N) has been considered an important limiting factor to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield. The high demand for N by soybean seed was previously considered to lead to early leaf senescence through accelerated remobilization of N from the vegetative tissue. The consequent reduction in photosynthetic capacity was postulated to limit yield. The objectives of the current experiment were to determine the changes in N accumulation, remobilization, and partitioning associated with genetic yield improvement. Two groups of old, low-yielding ('Pagoda' and 'Mandarin Ottawa') and new, high-yielding ('Maple Glen' and 'OAC Bayfield') soybean cultivars of similar maturity were grown in side-by-side trials at the Elora Research Station, Ontario, in 1996 and 1997. Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation in leaf, stem + petiole, roots, and seeds were determined during the growing season. The newer cultivars had higher yields and higher seed N content. Contrary to the postulated association between leaf senescence and leaf N values, neither leaf N concentration nor leaf N content per unit leaf area (at R6) were association consistently with either yield or leaf area duration (LAD). Although most of the N in the seed was derived from N remobilized from vegetative tissue, the newer cultivars with their higher yields and LAD, remobilized no more N out of the vegetative tissue than did older, lower-yielding ones. The newer cultivars were distinct from their older counterparts in their ability to accumulate more N during the seed filling period (SFP). Genetic improvement of the short-season soybeans tested was a consequence of continued N accumulation during the SFP and was not due to differences in the genotype's capacity to remobilize or partition N to the seed.

  7. Genetic separation of southern and northern soybean breeding programs in North America and their associated allelic variation at four maturity loci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean has only 90 years of breeding history in North America. During the short breeding period, soybean breeders have successfully developed a large collection of elite cultivars with diverse maturity groups. To understand the molecular and genetic basis underlying the diverse soybean maturity, ...

  8. [Study of genetic diversity and spatial structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population from the Ekaterinovka in the south of Primorskii krai].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, A V; Nedoluzhko, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-03-01

    Data are presented on the genetic diversity and spatial structure of the natural wild soybean population from the neighborhood of the settlement of Ekaterinovka in Primorskii krai and on the relationship between the genetic structure of this population and its spatial organization. These data are discussed in comparison with the results of studies of wild soybean populations in the Far East region of the Russian Federation and China. Recommendations are given concerning the collection of genetic wild soybean resources.

  9. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering.

  10. Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Maria K; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa

    2002-08-01

    The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 addressees, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents and those with lower level of education. A majority of the consumers had moral and ethical doubts about eating GM foods and did not perceive attributes like better taste or lower price beneficial enough to persuade them to purchase GM foods. However, tangible benefits, like being better for the environment or healthier, seemed to increase willingness to purchase GM foods.

  11. Genetic diversity in soybean genotypes using phenotypic characters and enzymatic markers.

    PubMed

    Zambiazzi, E V; Bruzi, A T; Sales, A P; Borges, I M M; Guilherme, S R; Zuffo, A M; Lima, J G; Ribeiro, F O; Mendes, A E S; Godinho, S H M; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-09-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of soybean cultivars by adopting phenotypic traits and enzymatic markers, the relative contribution of agronomic traits to diversity, as well as diversity between the level of technology used in soybean cultivars and genetic breeding programs in which cultivars were inserted. The experiments were conducted on the field at the Center for Scientific and Technological Development in crop-livestock production and the Electrophoresis Laboratory of Lavras Federal University. The agronomic traits adopted were grain yield, plant height, first legume insertion, plant lodging, the mass of one thousand seeds, and days for complete maturation, in which the Euclidean distance, grouped by Tocher and UPGMA criteria, was obtained. After electrophorese gels for enzymatic systems, dehydrogenase alcohol, esterase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase were performed. The genetic similarity estimative was also obtained between genotypes by the Jaccard coefficient with subsequent grouping by the UPGMA method. The formation of two groups was shown using phenotypic characters in the genetic diversity study and individually discriminating the cultivar 97R73 RR. The character with the greatest contribution to the genetic divergence was grain yield with contribution higher than 90.0%. To obtain six different groups, individually discriminating the cultivars CG 8166 RR, FPS Jupiter RR, and BRS MG 780 RR, enzymatic markers were used. Cultivars carrying the RR technology presented more divergence than conventional cultivars and IPRO cultivars.

  12. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  13. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  14. Wide genetic variation in phenolic compound content of seed coats among black soybean cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Phommalath, Siviengkhek; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Yoshikawa, Takanori; Saito, Hiroki; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Nakazaki, Tetsuya; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Black soybeans have been used as a food source and also in traditional medicine because their seed coats contain natural phenolic compounds such as proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin. The objective of this research is to reveal the genetic variation in the phenolic compound contents (PCCs) of seed coats in 227 black soybean cultivars, most of which were Japanese landraces and cultivars. Total phenolics were extracted from seed coats using an acidic acetone reagent and the proanthocyanidin content, monomeric anthocyanin content, total flavonoids content, total phenolics content, and radical scavenging activity were measured. The cultivars showed wide genetic variation in PCCs. Each of the contents was highly correlated with one another, and was closely associated with radical scavenging activity. PCCs were also moderately associated by flowering date but not associated by seed weight. Cultivars with purple flowers had a tendency to produce higher PCCs compared with cultivars with white flowers, suggesting that the W1 locus for flower color can affect phenolic compound composition and content. Our results suggest that developing black soybean cultivars with high functional phenolic compounds activity is feasible. PMID:25914597

  15. Soybean Stem Fly, Melanagromyza sojae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in the New World: detection of high genetic diversity from soybean fields in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, J A; Tay, W T; Walsh, T K; Brier, H; Gordon, K; Hickmann, F; Ugalde, G; Guedes, J V C

    2016-07-12

    Soybean Stem Fly (SSF), Melanagromyza sojae (Zehntner), belongs to the family Agromyzidae and is highly polyphagous, attacking many plant species of the family Fabaceae, including soybean and other beans. SSF is regarded as one of the most important pests in soybean fields of Asia (e.g., China, India), North East Africa (e.g., Egypt), parts of Russia, and South East Asia. Despite reports of Agromyzidae flies infesting soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil) in 1983 and 2009 and periodic interceptions of SSF since the 1940s by the USA quarantine authorities, SSF has not been officially reported to have successfully established in the North and South Americas. In South America, M. sojae was recently confirmed using morphology and its complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was characterized. In the present study, we surveyed the genetic diversity of M. sojae, collected directly from soybean host plants, using partial mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and provide evidence of multiple (>10) maternal lineages in SSF populations in South America, potentially representing multiple incursion events. However, a single incursion involving multiple-female founders could not be ruled out. We identified a haplotype that was common in the fields of two Brazilian states and the individuals collected from Australia in 2013. The implications of SSF incursions in southern Brazil are discussed in relation to the current soybean agricultural practices, highlighting an urgent need for better understanding of SSF population movements in the New World, which is necessary for developing effective management options for this significant soybean pest.

  16. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Guohua; Findley, Seth D; Cregan, Perry; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genome. Molecular markers provide anchor points for integration of genetic and physical maps and also validate BAC contigs assembled based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy and an in silico approach to anchor molecular markers onto the soybean physical map. Results A total of 1,470 markers (580 SSRs and 890 STSs) were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Williams 82 BstY I BAC library pooled into 208 pools in six dimensions. This resulted in 7,463 clones (~1× genome equivalent) associated with 1470 markers, of which the majority of clones (6,157, 82.5%) were anchored by one marker and 1106 (17.5%) individual clones contained two or more markers. This contributed to 1184 contigs having anchor points through this 6-D pool screening effort. In parallel, the 21,700 soybean Unigene set from NCBI was used to perform in silico mapping on 80,700 Williams 82 BAC end sequences (BES). This in silico analysis yielded 9,835 positive results anchored by 4152 unigenes that contributed to 1305 contigs and 1624 singletons. Among the 1305 contigs, 305 have not been previously anchored by PCR. Therefore, 1489 (78.8%) of 1893 contigs are anchored with molecular markers. These results are being integrated with BAC fingerprints to assemble the BAC contigs. Ultimately, these efforts will lead to an integrated physical and genetic map resource. Conclusion We demonstrated that the six-dimensional soybean BAC pools can be efficiently used to anchor markers to soybean BACs despite the complexity of the soybean genome. In addition to anchoring markers, the 6-D pooling method was also effective for targeting BAC clones for investigating gene families and

  17. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Guohua; Findley, Seth D; Cregan, Perry; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T

    2008-01-22

    Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genome. Molecular markers provide anchor points for integration of genetic and physical maps and also validate BAC contigs assembled based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy and an in silico approach to anchor molecular markers onto the soybean physical map. A total of 1,470 markers (580 SSRs and 890 STSs) were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Williams 82 BstY I BAC library pooled into 208 pools in six dimensions. This resulted in 7,463 clones (approximately 1x genome equivalent) associated with 1470 markers, of which the majority of clones (6,157, 82.5%) were anchored by one marker and 1106 (17.5%) individual clones contained two or more markers. This contributed to 1184 contigs having anchor points through this 6-D pool screening effort. In parallel, the 21,700 soybean Unigene set from NCBI was used to perform in silico mapping on 80,700 Williams 82 BAC end sequences (BES). This in silico analysis yielded 9,835 positive results anchored by 4152 unigenes that contributed to 1305 contigs and 1624 singletons. Among the 1305 contigs, 305 have not been previously anchored by PCR. Therefore, 1489 (78.8%) of 1893 contigs are anchored with molecular markers. These results are being integrated with BAC fingerprints to assemble the BAC contigs. Ultimately, these efforts will lead to an integrated physical and genetic map resource. We demonstrated that the six-dimensional soybean BAC pools can be efficiently used to anchor markers to soybean BACs despite the complexity of the soybean genome. In addition to anchoring markers, the 6-D pooling method was also effective for targeting BAC clones for investigating gene families and duplicated regions

  18. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  19. Using vegetative index and modified derivative for early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glyphosate is a non-selective, systemic herbicide highly toxic to sensitive plant species, and its use has seen a significant increase due to the increased adoption of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops since the mid-1990s. Glyphosate application for weed control in glyphosate-resistant...

  20. [Detection of genetically modified soy (Roundup-Ready) in processed food products].

    PubMed

    Hagen, M; Beneke, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the application of a qualitative and a quantitative method of analysis to detect genetically modified RR-Soy (Roundup-Ready Soy) in processed foods is described. A total of 179 various products containing soy such as baby food and diet products, soy drinks and desserts, tofu and tofu products, soy based meat substitutes, soy protein, breads, flour, granules, cereals, noodles, soy bean sprouts, fats and oils as well as condiments were investigated following the pattern of the section 35 LMBG-method L 23.01.22-1. The DNA was extracted from the samples and analysed using a soybean specific lectin gene PCR as well as a PCR, specific for the genetic modification. Additional, by means of PCR in combination with fluorescence-detection (TaqMan 5'-Nuclease Assay), suspicious samples were subjected to a real-time quantification of the percentage of genetically modified RR-Soy. The methods of analysis proved to be extremely sensitive and specific in regard to the food groups checked. The fats and oils, as well as the condiments were the exceptions in which amplifiable soy DNA could not be detected. The genetic modification of RR-Soy was detected in 34 samples. Eight of these samples contained more than 1% of RR-Soy. It is necessary to determine the percentage of transgenic soy in order to assess whether genetically modified ingredients were deliberately added, or whether they were caused by technically unavoidable contamination (for example during transportation and processing).

  1. Tyramine-modified pectins via periodate oxidation for soybean hull peroxidase induced hydrogel formation and immobilization.

    PubMed

    Prokopijevic, Milos; Prodanovic, Olivera; Spasojevic, Dragica; Kovacevic, Gordana; Polovic, Natalija; Radotic, Ksenija; Prodanovic, Radivoje

    2017-03-01

    Pectin was modified by oxidation with sodium periodate at molar ratios of 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% and reductive amination with tyramine and sodium cyanoborohydride afterwards. Concentration of tyramine groups within modified pectin ranged from 54.5 to 538 μmol/g of dry pectin while concentration of ionizable groups ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 mmol/g of dry polymer compared to 1.5 mmol/g before modification due to the introduction of amino group. All tyramine-pectins showed exceptional gelling properties and could form hydrogel both by cross-linking of carboxyl groups with calcium or by cross-linking phenol groups with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These hydrogels were tested as carriers for soybean hull peroxidase (SHP) immobilization within microbeads formed in an emulsion based enzymatic polymerization reaction. SHP immobilized within tyramine-pectin microbeads had an increased thermal and organic solvent stability compared to the soluble enzyme. Immobilized SHP was more active in acidic pH region and had slightly decreased K m value of 2.61 mM compared to the soluble enzyme. After 7 cycles of repeated use in batch reactor for pyrogallol oxidation microbeads, immobilized SHP retained half of the initial activity.

  2. Genetic Transformation System for the Fungal Soybean Pathogen Cercospora kikuchii

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, R. G.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Walker, D. C.; Sanders, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    An altered β-tubulin gene that confers resistance to the fungicide benomyl was isolated from a genomic library of a UV-induced mutant of Cercospora kikuchii and used as a selectable marker for transformation. The level of benomyl resistance conferred to the transformants was at least 150-fold greater than the intrinsic resistance of the C. kikuchii recipient protoplasts. In the majority of cases, the tubulin fragment was integrated at the native β-tubulin locus, apparently by gene replacement or gene conversion. The frequency of transformation ranged from 0.2 to 6 transformants per μg of DNA, depending on the recipient strain. Transformation with linearized plasmid resulted in a higher frequency, without changing the type of integration event. Transformants were phenotypically stable after eight consecutive transfers on medium without benomyl. This is the first report of a genetic transformation system for a Cercospora species. Images PMID:16348566

  3. Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods.

    PubMed

    Novak, W K; Haslberger, A G

    2000-06-01

    For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and antinutrients. Analysed were documents of rape (glucosinolates, phytate), maize (phytate), tomato (tomatine, solanine, chaconine, lectins, oxalate), potato (solanine, chaconine, protease-inhibitors, phenols) and soybean (protease-inhibitors, lectins, isoflavones, phytate). In several documents used for notifications no declarations even on essential inherent plant toxins and antinutrients could be found, for instance data on phytate in modified maize were provided only in one of four documents. Significant variations in the contents of these compounds in parental and modified plants especially due to environmental influences were observed: drought stress, for example, was made responsible for significantly increased glucosinolate levels of up to 72.6micromol/g meal in modified and parental rape plants in field trials compared to recommended standard concentrations of less than 30micromol/g. Taking into account these wide natural variations generally the concentrations of inherent plant toxins and antinutrients in modified products were in the range of the concentrations in parental organisms. The results presented indicate that the concept of the substantial equivalence is useful for the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) used for novel foods but possible environmental influences on constituents of modified crops need more attention. Consistent guidelines, specifying data of relevant compounds which have to be provided for notification documents of specific organisms have to be established. Because of the importance of inherent plant

  4. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Histone Modifiers and RNA Silencing Genes in Soybean during Floral Initiation Process

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics has been recognised to play vital roles in many plant developmental processes, including floral initiation through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The histone modifying proteins that mediate these modifications involve the SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases, JmjC domain-containing demethylase, acetylases and deacetylases. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-associated genes are also involved in epigenetic regulation via RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Soybean, a major crop legume, requires a short day to induce flowering. How histone modifications regulate the plant response to external cues that initiate flowering is still largely unknown. Here, we used RNA-seq to address the dynamics of transcripts that are potentially involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi mediated gene silencing during the floral initiation of soybean. Soybean is a paleopolyploid that has been subjected to at least two rounds of whole genome duplication events. We report that the expanded genomic repertoire of histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes in soybean includes 14 histone acetyltransferases, 24 histone deacetylases, 47 histone methyltransferases, 15 protein arginine methyltransferases, 24 JmjC domain-containing demethylases and 47 RNAi-associated genes. To investigate the role of these histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes during floral initiation, we compared the transcriptional dynamics of the leaf and shoot apical meristem at different time points after a short-day treatment. Our data reveal that the extensive activation of genes that are usually involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi gene silencing in the soybean shoot apical meristem are reprogrammed for floral development following an exposure to inductive conditions. PMID:24147010

  5. Analysis of the genetic divergence of soybean lines through hierarchical and Tocher optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Cantelli, D A V; Hamawaki, O T; Rocha, M R; Nogueira, A P O; Hamawaki, R L; Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, C D L

    2016-10-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency of soybean (Glycine max) lines, using seven different clustering methods. Our aim was to evaluate the best method for the identification of promising genotypes to obtain segregating populations. We used 51 generations F5 and F6 soybean lines originating from different hybridizations and backcrosses obtained from the soybean breeding program of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia in addition to three controls (Emgopa 302, BRSGO Luziânia, and MG/BR46 Conquista). We evaluated the following agronomic traits: number of days to flowering, number of days to maturity, height of the plant at maturity, insertion height of the first pod, grain yield, and weight of 100 seeds. The data was submitted to analyses of variance followed by average Euclidean distance matrix estimation used as measure of dissimilarity. Subsequently, clusters were formed using the Tocher method and dendrograms were constructed using the hierarchical methods simple connection (nearest neighbor), complete connection (most distant neighbor), Ward, median, average within cluster connection. The nearest neighbor method presented the largest number of genotypes in group I and showed the greatest similarity with the Tocher optimization method. The joint use of these two methodologies allows for differentiation of the most genetically distant genotypes that may constitute the optimal parents in a breeding program.

  6. Estimates of genetics and phenotypics parameters for the yield and quality of soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Zambiazzi, E V; Bruzi, A T; Guilherme, S R; Pereira, D R; Lima, J G; Zuffo, A M; Ribeiro, F O; Mendes, A E S; Godinho, S H M; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-09-27

    Estimating genotype x environment (GxE) parameters for quality and yield in soybean seed grown in different environments in Minas Gerais State was the goal of this study, as well as to evaluate interaction effects of GxE for soybean seeds yield and quality. Seeds were produced in three locations in Minas Gerais State (Lavras, Inconfidentes, and Patos de Minas) in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Field experiments were conducted in randomized blocks in a factorial 17 x 6 (GxE), and three replications. Seed yield and quality were evaluated for germination in substrates paper and sand, seedling emergence, speed emergency index, mechanical damage by sodium hypochlorite, electrical conductivity, speed aging, vigor and viability of seeds by tetrazolium test in laboratory using completely randomized design. Quadratic component genotypic, GXE variance component, genotype determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and environmental variation coefficient were estimated using the Genes software. Percentage analysis of genotypes contribution, environments and genotype x environment interaction were conducted by sites combination two by two and three sites combination, using the R software. Considering genotypes selection of broad adaptation, TMG 1179 RR, CD 2737 RR, and CD 237 RR associated better yield performance at high physical and physiological potential of seed. Environmental effect was more expressive for most of the characters related to soybean seed quality. GxE interaction effects were expressive though genotypes did not present coincidental behavior in different environments.

  7. Utility of Proteomic tools for assessing protein expression in soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean is the second most important cash crop in the U.S. with an estimated value of $19.8 billion in 2006. Genetically modified (GM) crops are commonly grown globally to enhance quality, productivity, and disease resistance. Some of the examples are, herbicide resistance (Roundup Ready soybeans)...

  8. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  9. Health risks of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Dona, Artemis; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2009-02-01

    As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.

  10. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  11. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  12. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  13. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds.

  14. Microencapsulation of stearidonic acid soybean oil in Maillard reaction-modified complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Ifeduba, Ebenezer A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-05-15

    The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h. Relationships between the extent of browning, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and the total oxidation (TOTOX) of encapsulated SDASO were fitted to quadratic models. The [GE-GA-MD] blends exhibited higher browning rates and TEAC values than corresponding [GE-GA] blends. Depending on the type of biopolymer blend and dry-heating time, TOTOX values of SDASO in MRP-derived microcapsules were 29-87% lower than that of the non-crosslinked control after 30 days of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2014-03-01

    The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of protein and phenolic compounds in seed from GMO and non-GMO soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean protein is a valuable and important component in human and animal diets. Approximately 94% of the soybean planted in the US is genetically modified (GM) to enhance quality and productivity. Since value-added traits are continuously being developed by genetic modification, it is important t...

  17. Construction of a reference plasmid molecule containing eight targets for the detection of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Yang, Yalin; Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-04-01

    A standard plasmid containing eight targets was developed for quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) soybeans and cotton. These eight targets were joined in tandem to form the pTLE8 plasmid with a length of 3,680 bp. This plasmid contains part of the endogenous soybean Lec1 gene, the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, the PAT gene of the soybean line A2704-12, the event-specific 5'-junction region of Roundup-Ready Soya (RRS, 35SG), the Cry1A(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the endogenous cotton Sad1 gene, and a part of RRS EPSPS gene. The PCR efficiencies with pTLE8 as a calibrator ranged from 99.4% to 100.2% for the standard curves of the RRS EPSPS gene and the taxon-specific Lec1 gene (R(2)≥0.996). The limits of detection and quantification were nine and 15 copies, respectively. The standard deviation (SD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) values of repeatability were from 0.09 to 0.52 and from 0.28% to 2.11%, and those for reproducibility were from 0.12 to 1.15 and 0.42% to 3.85%, respectively. The average conversion factor (Cf) for the CRMs RRS quantification was 0.91. The RSD of the mean values for known samples ranged from 3.09% to 18.53%, and the biases were from 0.5% to 40%. These results show that our method using the pTLE8 plasmid as a reference material (RM) is reliable and feasible in the identification of GM soybeans, thus paving the way for the establishment of identification management systems for various products containing GMO components.

  18. Application of sonication in combination with vacuum infiltration enhances the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in Indian soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Arun, Muthukrishnan; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Shivanandhan, Ganeshan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Soybean is a recalcitrant crop to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Development of highly efficient, reproducible, and genotype-independent transformation protocol is highly desirable for soybean genetic improvement. Hence, an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol has been developed for cultivar PK 416 by evaluating various parameters including Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (LBA4404, EHA101, and EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA1304 plasmid), sonication duration, vacuum infiltration pressure, and vacuum duration using cotyledonary node explants of soybean prepared from 7-day-old seedlings. The transformed plants were successfully developed through direct organogenesis system. Transgene expression was assessed by GUS histochemical and gfp visual assays, and integration was analyzed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Among the different combinations and durations evaluated, a maximum transformation efficiency of 18.6 % was achieved when the cotyledonary node explants of cv. PK 416 were sonicated for 20 s and vacuum infiltered for 2 min at 250 mmHg in A. tumefaciens EHA105 suspension. The amenability of the standardized protocol was tested on four more soybean cultivars JS 90-41, Hara Soy, Co 1, and Co 2 in which all the cultivars responded favorably with transformation efficiency ranging from 13.3 to 16.6 %. The transformation protocol developed in the present study would be useful to transform diverse soybean cultivars with desirable traits.

  19. Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2009-07-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.

  20. Genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Rylie M; Alexander, Matthew S

    2017-09-06

    Muscular dystrophy is defined as the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles that is caused by inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations. Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved the accuracy and speed of diagnosis for different types of muscular dystrophy. Advancements in depth of coverage, convenience, and overall reduced cost have led to the identification of genetic modifiers that are responsible for phenotypic variability in affected patients. These genetic modifiers have been postulated to explain key differences in disease phenotypes, including age of loss of ambulation, steroid responsiveness, and the presence or absence of cardiac defects in patients with the same form of muscular dystrophy. This review highlights recent findings on genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies based on animal and clinical studies. These genetic modifiers hold great promise to be developed into novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Anita

    2003-01-01

    Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins. However, there are concerns about the safety of genetically modified crops. The concerns are that they may contain allergenic substances due to introduction of new genes into crops. Another concern is that genetic engineering often involves the use of antibiotic-resistance genes as "selectable markers" and this could lead to production of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics. This would create a serious public health problem. The genetically modified crops might contain other toxic substances (such as enhanced amounts of heavy metals) and the crops might not be "substantially equivalent" in genome, proteome, and metabolome compared with unmodified crops. Another concern is that genetically modified crops may be less nutritious; for example, they might contain lower amounts of phytoestrogens, which protect against heart disease and cancer. The review of available literature indicates that the genetically modified crops available in the market that are intended for human consumption are generally safe; their consumption is not associated with serious health problems. However, because of potential for exposure of a large segment of human population to genetically modified foods, more research is needed to ensure that the genetically modified foods are safe for human consumption.

  2. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  3. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  4. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and

  5. High-Density Genetic Mapping Identifies New Major Loci for Tolerance to Low-Phosphorus Stress in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Jinshe; Zhang, Hengyou; Hu, Zhenbin; Chu, Shanshan; Lv, Haiyan; Yu, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is essential for all living cells and organisms, and low-P stress represents a major constraint on plant growth and yield worldwide. Soybean is an important economical resource of protein and oil for human and animals, and soybean is also a high-P demand species that is sensitive to low-P stress, which is considered a major constraint on soybean production. However, P efficiency is an important complex quantitative trait involving multiple genes, and the mechanisms underlying soybean P efficiency are largely unknown. Here, we reported the construction of a high-density genetic map using a specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) strategy in soybean. This map, spanning 3020.59 cM in length, contained 6159 markers on 20 chromosomes, with an average distance of 0.49 cM between adjacent markers. Based on this map, 20 loci, including eight novel loci, associated with P efficiency-related traits were identified across multiple years and treatments. The confidence intervals of almost all QTLs were refined significantly, and the accuracy of this map was evidenced by coincident detections of the previously identified P efficiency-related genes GmACP1 and GmPT1. Notably, a highly significant novel QTL located on chromosome 4, q4-2, was identified across traits, years and treatments. Several candidate genes, such as a pectin methylesterase-encoding gene (Glyma.04G214000) and a protein kinase gene (Glyma.13G161900), with significantly differential expression upon low-P stress were considered as promising candidates involved in regulating soybean P efficiency. Markers that tightly associated with P efficiency could be used for marker-assisted selection in a soybean P efficient breeding program. Further, dissection of these QTLs will facilitate gene cloning underlying P efficiency in soybean, and increase our understanding of efficient use of P in enhancing crop yield. PMID:27065041

  6. Genetic mapping of the powdery mildew resistance gene in soybean PI 567301B.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Hwan; Mian, M A Rouf; Kang, Sung-Taeg; Michel, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Powdery mildew (PMD) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is caused by the fungus Microsphaera diffusa. Severe infection of PMD on susceptible varieties often causes premature defoliation and chlorosis of the leaves, which can result in considerable yield losses under favorable environmental conditions for disease development in the field. A total of 334 F(7)-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of a PMD susceptible soybean cultivar Wyandot and PMD-resistant PI 567301B were used for genetic mapping of PMD resistance in PI 567301B and for development of molecular markers tightly linked to the gene. The result of the PMD screening for each line in the field was in agreement with that in the greenhouse test. The genetic map containing the PMD resistance gene was constructed in a 3.3 cM interval flanked by two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on chromosome 16. The PMD resistance gene was mapped at the same location with SSR marker BARCSOYSSR_16_1291, indicating that there was no recombination between the 334 RILs and this marker. In addition, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker developed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker with Rsa1 recognition site were used for the genetic mapping. These two markers were also mapped to the same genomic location with the PMD resistance gene. We validated three tightly linked markers to the PMD resistance gene using 38 BC(6)F(2) lines and corresponding BC(6)F(2:3) families. The three marker genotypes of the backcross lines predicted the observed PMD phenotypes of the lines with complete accuracy. We have mapped a putatively novel single dominant PMD resistance gene in PI 567301B and developed three new molecular markers closely linked to the gene. Molecular markers developed from this study may be used for high-throughput marker-assisted breeding for PMD resistance with the gene from PI 567301B.

  7. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  8. Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans using rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanzhao; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai; Yin, Jingdong; Jin, Hong

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the safety of soybean meal prepared from genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready; RR) soybeans and conventional soybeans. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males and 40 females) were randomly allotted to one of four groups according to sex and body weight for a 13-week feeding experiment. The rats were fed corn-based diets containing 60% conventional soybean meal, a mixture of 30% conventional and 30% RR soybean meal, 60% or 90% RR soybean meal. All diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level except the 90% RR diet. The two soybean meals were similar in chemical analysis and amino acid composition. During the 13-week growth trial, body weight (P < 0.05) and feed intake (P < 0.05) decreased only in rats fed with 90% RR soybean meal at the first week. No treatment-related deaths occurred during the experiment. Gross necropsy findings, haematological or urinalysis values and clinical serum parameters showed no meaningful differences between rats fed the control and RR soybean meals. A 145 bp of cp4 epsps gene specific for the GM constructs from RR soybean meal or a 407 bp of lec gene from endogenous soybean DNA could not be detected in investigated masseter muscle samples. No adverse effects of glyphosate-tolerant soybean meal on rats were seen even at levels as high as 90% of the diet.

  9. Genetically modified skin to treat disease: potential and limitations.

    PubMed

    Krueger, G G; Morgan, J R; Jorgensen, C M; Schmidt, L; Li, H L; Kwan, M K; Boyce, S T; Wiley, H S; Kaplan, J; Petersen, M J

    1994-11-01

    Molecular definition of disease at the level of the gene and advances in recombinant DNA technology suggest that many diseases are amenable to correction by genes not bearing the defective elements that result in disease. Many questions must be answered before this therapy can be used to correct chronic diseases. These questions fall into safety and efficacy categories. Experience with transplanting cellular elements of skin or skin substitutes (defined as skin that possess the cell types and a dermal structure to develop into a functioning skin) to athymic rodents is considerable and is seen as a system where these questions can be answered. This paper reviews these questions and presents our early analysis of genetically modified cells in skin substitutes in vivo and in vitro. Experimental data demonstrate that both a matrix of woven nylon, housing a fibroblast generated collage, and dead dermis can be utilized to shuttle genetically modified human fibroblasts from the laboratory to an in vivo setting. Genetically modified fibroblasts do not migrate from the shuttle to the surrounding tissue. The survival of significant numbers, approximately 70%, of genetically modified fibroblasts for at least 6 weeks in these shuttles, supports this general approach as having clinical utility. It is also concluded that skin substitute systems can be used to generate a genetically modified skin in vitro that has the capacity to develop into functional skin in vivo. Further, as genetically modified keratinocytes differentiate there is increased production by the transgene, supporting the concept that keratinocytes have true potential as shuttles for therapeutic genes. This work demonstrates that transplantation of systems containing genetically modified cells of the skin can be used to experimentally define many aspects of gene therapy using skin before this technology is taken to the clinic. Examples include determining the effect of gene transduction and expression on

  10. [Hygienic characteristics of foodstuffs containing genetically modified components].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, E N; Ivanov, A A; Fokin, M V

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes the results of the investigations of raw foods, foodstuffs for genetically modified components, conducted by the state sanitary and epidemiological service of the Russian Federation during its current sanitary inspection. The presented materials cover 2003-2004. The findings suggest that there is a great deal of foods containing genetically modified sources on the market and show the priority groups of foodstuffs and the distribution of these foods on the territory of the Russian Federation.

  11. Genetic and linkage analysis of purple-blue flower in soybean.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Oyoo, Maurice E; Khan, Nisar A

    2008-01-01

    Flower color of soybean is primarily controlled by genes W1, W3, W4, Wm, and Wp. In addition, the soybean gene symbol W2, w2 produces purple-blue flower in combination with W1. This study was conducted to determine the genetic control of purple-blue flower of cultivar (cv). Nezumisaya. F(1) plants derived from a cross between Nezumisaya and purple flower cv. Harosoy had purple flowers. Segregation of the F(2) plants fitted a ratio of 3 purple:1 purple-blue. F(3) lines derived from F(2) plants with purple-blue flowers were fixed for purple-blue flowers, whereas those from F(2) plants with purple flowers fitted a ratio of 1 fixed for purple flower:2 segregating for flower color. These results indicated that the flower color of Nezumisaya is controlled by a single gene whose recessive allele is responsible for purple-blue flower. Complementation analysis revealed that flower color of Nezumisaya is controlled by W2. Linkage mapping revealed that W2 is located in molecular linkage group B2. Sap obtained from banner petals of cvs. with purple flower had a pH value of 5.73-5.77, whereas that of cvs. with purple-blue flower had a value of 6.07-6.10. Our results suggested that W2 is responsible for vacuolar acidification of flower petals.

  12. Association mapping of loci controlling genetic and environmental interaction of soybean flowering time under various photo-thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Tingting; Li, Jinyu; Wen, Zixiang; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Jiang, Bingjun; Hou, Wensheng; Li, Wenbin; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun; Han, Tianfu

    2017-05-26

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a short day plant. Its flowering and maturity time are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, as well the interaction between the two factors. Previous studies have shown that both genetic and environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature, control flowering time of soybean. Additionally, these studies have reported gene × gene and gene × environment interactions on flowering time. However, the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in response to photoperiod and temperature have not been well evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to identify the effects of loci associated with flowering time under different photo-thermal conditions and to understand the effects of interaction between loci and environment on soybean flowering. Different photoperiod and temperature combinations were obtained by adjusting sowing dates (spring sowing and summer sowing) or day-length (12 h, 16 h). Association mapping was performed on 91 soybean cultivars from different maturity groups (MG000-VIII) using 172 SSR markers and 5107 SNPs from the Illumina SoySNP6K iSelectBeadChip. The effects of the interaction between QTL and environments on flowering time were also analysed using the QTXNetwork. Large-effect loci were detected on Gm 11, Gm 16 and Gm 20 as in previous reports. Most loci associated with flowering time are sensitive to photo-thermal conditions. Number of loci associated with flowering time was more under the long day (LD) than under the short day (SD) condition. The variation of flowering time among the soybean cultivars mostly resulted from the epistasis × environment and additive × environment interactions. Among the three candidate loci, i.e. Gm04_4497001 (near GmCOL3a), Gm16_30766209 (near GmFT2a and GmFT2b) and Gm19_47514601 (E3 or GmPhyA3), the Gm04_4497001 may be the key locus interacting with other loci for controlling soybean flowering time. The effects of loci associated

  13. The feeding value of soybeans fed to rats, chickens, catfish and dairy cattle is not altered by genetic incorporation of glyphosate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Naylor, M W; Knight, C D; Robinson, E H; Fuchs, R L; Padgette, S R

    1996-03-01

    Animal feeding studies were conducted with rats, broiler chickens, catfish and dairy cows as part of a safety assessment program for a soybean variety genetically modified to tolerate in-season application of glyphosate. These studies were designed to compare the feeding value (wholesomeness) of two lines of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) to the feeding value of the parental cultivar from which they were derived. Processed GTS meal was incorporated into the diets at the same concentrations as used commercially; diary cows were fed 10 g/100 g cracked soybeans in the diet, a level that is on the high end of what is normally fed commercially. In a separate study, laboratory rats were fed 5 and 10 g unprocessed soybean meal 100 g diet. The study durations were 4 wk (rats and dairy cows), 6 wk (broilers) and 10 wk (catfish). Growth, feed conversion (rats, catfish, broilers), fillet composition (catfish), and breast muscle and fat pad weights (broilers) were compared for animals fed the parental and GTS lines. Milk production, milk composition, rumen fermentation and nitrogen digestibility were also compared for dairy cows. In all studies, measured variables were similar for animals fed both GTS lines and the parental line, indicating that the feeding value of the two GTS lines is comparable to that of the parental line. These studies support detailed compositional analysis of the GTS seeds, which showed no meaningful differences between the parental and GTS lines in the concentrations of important nutrients and antinutrients. They also confirmed the results of other studies that demonstrated the safety of the introduced protein, a bacterial 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4.

  14. From George Washington Carver to the genome: leveraging genetics and molecular biology to improve soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1904, George Washington Carver studying the composition of soybeans concluded that they are a valuable source of protein and oil. He proposed that rotating soybeans with other crops would replenish the soil with nitrogen and minerals for 2 years. His findings brought soybeans into the mainstream ...

  15. Safety assessment and public concerns for genetically modified food products: the Japanese experience.

    PubMed

    Hino, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    The recombinant DNA (rDNA) technique is expected to bring about great progress in the improvement of breeding technology and the development of new plant varieties showing high quality and high yield, such as those with excellent pest and disease resistance, those with environmental stress tolerance, and so forth. In the United States and Canada, many genetically modified (GM) crop plants were commercialized as early as 1994. In Japan, 35 transgenic crop plants, such as herbicide tolerant soybean, cotton, and canola, and insect-resistant corn, cotton, and potatos, were authorized and considered marketable until April 2001. The general public, however, is not familiar with rDNA technology, and some people seem to feel uncomfortable with biotechnology, frequently because of the difficulty of the technology and lacking of sufficient information. New labeling systems were initiated in April 2001 in Japan to provide information regarding the use of GM crops as raw material.

  16. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  17. [Genetic diversity and recombination of soybean cultivar Suinong 14 and its pedigree].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Jiang, Cheng-Xi; Liu, Zhang-Xiong; Fu, Ya-Shu; Guan, Rong-Xia; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Li, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Meng-Chen; Jing, Yu-Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-11-01

    In this study, 14 agronomic traits and 139 SSR loci, distributed on 20 linkage groups of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivar Suinong 14 and its pedigree were analyzed to explain the genetic diversity and recombination of Suinong 14 and to provide useful information for breeding. The cluster analysis based on SSR makers agreed with the pedigree information. The Shannon-Weaver index of each SSR locus ranged from 0 to 1.677. The average genetic similarity coefficient among cultivars was 0.6380, ranged from 0.538 to 0.799. At least three SSR loci were needed to discriminate Suinong 14 from its pedigree, for example a combination of Satt543, Sat_130 and Satt218. These loci have more alleles. No significant difference was observed between the end portion and the mid-portion within a linkage group, which indicates that the distribution of recombination occurred randomly in each linkage group. No polymorphism was detected within 39 of 139 SSR loci between Suinong 14 and its 8 parents. It implys their importance during cultivar improvement. Satt168, a marker on LGB2, was the only locus transmitted from Zihua 4 to Suinong 14, which indicates that the genetic constitute of Suinong 14 is greatly changed compared with Zihua 4 through five generations of recombination.

  18. [Identification of genetically modified vegetable sources in food and feed using hydrogel oligonucleotide microchip].

    PubMed

    Griadunov, D A; Getman, I A; Chizhova, S I; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S; Romanov, G A

    2011-01-01

    A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by the hybridization on a hydrogel oligonucleotide biochip was developed for simultaneous identification of ten different transgenic elements of plant DNA in feed and food products. The biochip contained 22 immobilized probes intended for (i) detection of plant DNA; (ii) plant species determination (soybean, maize, potato, rice); (iii) identification of transgenic elements, including 35S CaMV, 35S FMV, rice actine gene promoters, nos, 35S CaMV, ocs, pea rbcS1 gene terminators, and bar, gus, nptII marker genes. The limit of detection was 0.5% of genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize in analyzed samples. Identification of transgenic DNA in food and feed products using either the developed approach or real-time PCR led to virtually identical results. The assay can be used for selection of GM samples by screening food and feed products for subsequent quantitative determination of the GM component based on the identified transgene.

  19. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  20. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    PubMed Central

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  1. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (P<0.05) in health parameters were most often observed when animals were fed Bt maize, although most effects measured were unlikely to be of biological significance and were within normal biological ranges. Health effects of RR soybean were only observed in one experimental study with broilers. Based on this literature review, we conclude that there is no clear evidence that feed composed of first generation GM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  3. Production of certified reference materials for the detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Trapmann, Stefanie; Schimmel, Heinz; Kramer, Gerard Nico; Van den Eede, Guy; Pauwels, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are an essenIial tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. They are produced, certified, and used in accordance with relevant ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM; Geel, Belgium) has produced the first powdery genetically modified organism (GMO) CRMs in cooperation with the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Ispra, Italy). Until now, different weight percentages in the range of 0-5% for 4 GMOs in Europe were produced and certified: Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis)-11 and Bt-176 maize, Roundup Ready soybean, and MON810 maize. Bt-11 and Bt-176 maize and Roundup Ready soybean were produced by IRMM on behalf of Fluka Chemie AG (Buchs, Switzerland). Characterization of used base material is the first step in production and is especially important for GMO CRMs. The production of powdery GMO CRMs and methods used for production control are described. Thorough control of homogeneity and stability are essential for certification of reference materials and ensure validity of the certificate for each bottle of a batch throughout a defined shelf-life. Because production of reference materials and their maintenance are very labor- and cost-intensive tasks, the usefulness of new types of GMO CRMs must be estimated carefully.

  4. Screening genetically modified organisms using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Miao, Haizhen; Wu, Houfei; Huang, Wensheng; Tang, Rong; Qiu, Minyan; Wen, Jianguo; Zhu, Shuifang; Li, Yao

    2006-07-15

    In this research, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex-PCR) coupled with a DNA microarray system simultaneously aiming at many targets in a consecutive reaction to detect a genetically modified organism (GMO). There are a total of 20 probes for detecting a GMO in a DNA microarray which can be classified into three categories according to their purpose: the first for screening GMO from un-transgenic plants based on the common elements such as promoter, reporter and terminator genes; the second for specific gene confirmation based on the target gene sequences such as herbicide-resistance or insect-resistance genes; the third for species-specific genes which the sequences are unique for different plant species. To ensure the reliability of this method, different kinds of positive and negative controls were used in DNA microarray. Commercial GM soybean, maize, rapeseed and cotton were identified by means of this method and further confirmed by PCR analysis and sequencing. The results indicate that this method discriminates between the GMOs very quickly and in a cost-saving and more time efficient way. It can detect more than 95% of currently commercial GMO plants and the limits of detection are 0.5% for soybean and 1% for maize. This method is proved to be a new method for routine analysis of GMOs.

  5. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    PubMed

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I(2)). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  6. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  7. Genetic modifiers of obesity and bariatric surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Samantha; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable trait. While acute and chronic changes in body weight or obesity-related comorbidities are heavily influenced by environmental factors, there are still strong genomic modifiers that help account for inter-subject variability in baseline traits and in response to interventions. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of genetic influences on obesity, with emphasis on genetic modifiers of baseline traits and responses to intervention. We begin by reviewing how genetic variants can influence obesity. We then examine genetic modifiers of weight loss via different intervention strategies, focusing on known and potential modifiers of surgical weight loss outcomes. We will pay particular attention to the effects of patient age on outcomes, addressing the risks and benefits of adopting early intervention strategies. Finally, we will discuss how the field of bariatric surgery can leverage knowledge of genetic modifiers to adopt a personalized medicine approach for optimal outcomes across this widespread and diverse patient population.

  8. Genetically Modified T Cells to Target Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Simone; Rodríguez-Cruz, Tania G.; DeRenzo, Christopher; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical procedures, radiation, and chemotherapy the outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. While GBM cells express antigens that are potentially recognized by T cells, GBMs prevent the induction of GBM-specific immune responses by creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The advent of gene transfer has allowed the rapid generation of antigen-specific T cells as well as T cells with enhanced effector function. Here we review recent advances in the field of cell therapy with genetically modified T cells and how these advances might improve outcomes for patients with GBM in the future. PMID:24427741

  9. Application of a modified Haug and Lantzsch method for the rapid and accurate photometrical phytate determination in soybean, wheat, and maize meals.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kirsten; Hatzack, Frank

    2008-05-14

    A modified version of the Haug and Lantzsch method for rapid photometrical phytate determination was applied for the analysis of phytate in soybean, wheat, and maize meals. In comparison to the original protocol, the amount of the toxic reagent thioglycolic acid is reduced substantially to minimize potential health risks for laboratory personnel. Different extraction conditions for soybean meal were tested, and boiling for at least 30 min was found to be necessary to remove an interfering compound in soybean meal extracts. Phytate contents determined according to the modified Haug and Lantzsch method did not differ from those obtained by measuring total precipitated phosphorus or by sensitive and specific high-performance ion chromatography. Applicability and accuracy of the modified method for phytate analysis in major feed substrates, including soy-based textured vegetable protein, were demonstrated.

  10. Genetic and environmental modifiers of Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Weiss, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by remarkable variety in its phenotypic presentation. Patients with WD can present with hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric symptoms combined in different and unpredictable ways. Importantly, no convincing phenotype-genotype correlation has ever been identified, opening the possibility that other genes, aside from ATPase copper-transporting beta (ATP7B), are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. In addition, modifier genes, or genes that can affect the expression of other genes, may be involved. Clinical and basic science data indicate that environmental and dietary factors can potentially modify gene expression in WD and, consequently, its clinical presentation and course. In particular, previously studied genes include copper metabolism domain-containing 1 (COMMD1), antioxidant 1 copper chaperone (ATOX1), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), apolipoprotein E (APOE), hemochromatosis (HFE), and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Dietary factors include iron and methyl group donors which could affect methionine metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Most of the work conducted in this field is in its initial stages but it has the potential to change the diagnosis and treatment of WD. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates from Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Shin, Donghun; Lee, Bitnara; Lee, Inhyung; Jeong, Do-Won

    2017-02-24

    Eighty-five Enterococcus faecalis isolates collected from animals (40 isolates), Meju (Korean fermented soybean product; 27 isolates), humans (10 isolates), and various environmental samples (eight isolates) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify genetic differences between samples of different origins. MLST analysis resulted in 44 sequence types (STs), and the eBURST algorithm clustered the STs into 21 clonal complexes (CCs) and 17 singletons. The predominant STs, ST695 (21.1%, 18/85) and ST694 (9.4%, 8/85), were singletons, and only contained isolates originating from Meju. None of the STs in the current study belonged to CC2 or CC9, which comprise clinical isolates with high levels of antibiotic resistance. The E. faecalis isolates showed the highest rates of resistance to tetracycline (32.9%), followed by erythromycin (9.4%) and vancomycin (2.4%). All isolates from Meju were sensitive to these three antibiotics. Hence, MLST uncovered genetic diversity within E. faecalis, and clustering of the STs using eBURST revealed a correlation between the genotypes and origins of the isolates.

  12. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    PubMed

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  13. Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Xing, Da; Zhang, Chunsun

    2009-02-01

    The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the copper. On this device, the P35S and Tnos sequences were successfully amplified within 9min, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was estimated to be 0.005 ng microl(-1). Furthermore, a duplex continuous-flow PCR was also reported for the detection of the P35S and Tnos sequences in GMOs simultaneously. This method was coupled with the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Using this method, temperature differences were identified by the specific melting temperature values of two sequences, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was assessed to be 0.01 ng microl(-1). Therefore, our results demonstrated that the continuous-flow PCR assay could discriminate the GMOs in a cost-saving and less time-consuming way.

  14. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  15. MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  17. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  19. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives.

    PubMed

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications.

  20. Synthesis and properties of a novel bio-based polymer from modified soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.; Tang, Z. J.

    2017-02-01

    Maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) was prepared by acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleic anhydride. AESO were obtained by the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with acrylic acid as the ring-opening reagent. The polymer was prepared by MAESO react with styrene. The structures of the products were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and were consistent with the theoretical structures. Swelling experiment indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO. Thermal properties was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), indicating that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO, and thermal stability of polymer have a good correlation with the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties analysis presented that tensile strength and impact strength affected by epoxy value of ESO. With the increase of epoxy value, the tensile strength increase, while the impact strength decrease. The property of the polymer ranged from elastomer to plastic character depended on the functionality of the ESO.

  1. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F

    2004-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition from feeding rations that contained different sources of genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multiparous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk at the beginning of the experiments. Treatments in Experiment 1 were: Bollgard cotton containing the cry1Ac gene, Bollgard II cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes, Roundup Ready cotton containing the cp4 epsps gene, and a control nongenetically modified but genetically similar cottonseed. In Experiment 2, two commercial sources, a parental control line, and the transgenic cotton containing both cry1Ac and cp4 epsps genes were used as treatments. All cows received the same total mixed ration but with different whole cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide 2.50 kg per cow daily (dry matter [DM] basis) or about 10% of the total diet DM. The ingredient composition of the total mixed ration was 32% alfalfa hay, 28% corn silage, 22% corn grain, 17% soybean meal, and 2% minerals and vitamins. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from a subset of milk samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot hybridization for small fragments of the cry1Ac transgene and an endogenous cotton gene, acp1. No sample was positive for transgenic or plant DNA fragments at the limits of detection for the assays following detailed data evaluation criteria. The DMI, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score did not differ among treatments. Cottonseed from genetically modified varieties used in these studies yielded similar performance in lactating dairy cows when compared to non-transgenic control and reference cottonseed.

  2. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes.

    PubMed

    Bub, Achim; Möseneder, Jutta; Wenzel, Gerhard; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Briviba, Karlis

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However, zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether zeaxanthin from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes is bioavailable in humans. Three men participated in this randomized, controlled double-blinded, crossover pilot study. All subjects consumed 1,100 g of mashed potatoes, either genetically modified (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica GM47/18; 3 mg zeaxanthin) or wild-type control potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica; 0.14 mg zeaxanthin). A second treatment was followed after a 7-day wash-out period. The concentration of zeaxanthin was significantly increased in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified potatoes and 0.27 mg of the 3 mg zeaxanthin dose could be detected in chylomicrons. Consumption of control potatoes had no effect on concentrations of zeaxanthin in chylomicrons. After normalization of chylomicron zeaxanthin for plasma triacylglycerol, the time course of zeaxanthin concentrations peaked at 7 h after consumption of genetically modified potatoes. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other major potato carotenoids such as lutein and beta-carotene in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified and wild type control potatoes. Thus, consumption of zeaxanthin-rich potatoes significantly increases chylomicron zeaxanthin concentrations suggesting that potentially such potatoes could be used as an important dietary source of zeaxanthin.

  3. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  4. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated

  5. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  6. An algorithm for the identification of genetically modified animals.

    PubMed

    Forabosco, Flavio; Sundström, Fredrik L; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2013-05-01

    The diffusion of genetically modified (GM) animals has generated a demand for accurate and unique identification to assure compliance with relevant national and international legislation. Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities.

  7. Genetic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions for charcoal rot in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and it is contributing to food and agricultural security with expanding production in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is attacked by several diseases and pests, and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and...

  8. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid from Asia and North America based on microsatellites.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid, APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura, was recently introduced from Asia into North America (NA) where it has become a serious pest of soybeans. This invasive pest spread rapidly throughout the north central United States and southern Canada since its discovery in 2000. We examined 593 individ...

  9. Candidates as Suspects: Delivering More Nutritious Soybeans After Molecular Genetic Detective Work

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean oil is an important, but hidden, component of the American diet. Both positive and negative impacts from the fatty acid components of oils have been demonstrated for human nutrition needs. The objective of this research was to identify soybean genes that underlie important oil quality trai...

  10. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  11. Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-12-01

    Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components.

  12. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  13. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Cláudio Roberto Cardoso; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2009-04-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F(2) and F (4) , 30 progenies F (2:3) , 30 progenies BC (1) F (2:3) and 30 progenies BC (2) F (2:3) , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F (3) or F (4) ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  14. The genetic interaction between non-nodulation and supernodulation in soybean: an example of developmental epistasis.

    PubMed

    Mathews, A; Carroll, B J; Gresshoff, P M

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between three non-nodulation mutants (nod49, nod772 and nod139) and a supernodulation mutant (nts382) of soybean was studied by analysing the progeny from crosses between these mutants. Previously it had been shown that the non-nodulation mutants arose from single mutation events and that nod49 and nod772 are allelic, whereas nod139 represents another gene required for nodulation. Analysis of progeny from crosses between nts382 and the wild type showed that this mutant also arose from a single mutation. Complementation tests demonstrated that the mutation responsible for supernodulation in nts382 is not allelic to either of these non-nodulation characters, and that it segregates independently. Progeny were identified that were homozygous for both supernodulation and non-nodulation, and these plants were incapable of nodulation. Thus, non-nodulation is epistatic over supernodulation and this is discussed in terms of the developmental blockage in the two mutant types. The identification and confirmation of these double mutants of the supernodulation and non-nodulation mutations are described. Although the non-nodulation mutations behave as recessive characters in a wild-type background, these mutations are incompletely dominant in a genetic background homozygous for supernodulation. The significance of these results to the understanding of nodule ontogeny is discussed.

  15. Genetic diversity of fast-growing rhizobia that nodulate soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr).

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Gustavo; Martinez-Alcántara, Virginia; Vinardell, José M; Bellogín, Ramón; Ruíz-Sainz, José E; Balatti, Pedro Alberto

    2003-07-01

    The fast-growing Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, isolated from Papua New Guinea, and 13 strains of Sinorhizobium fredii, isolated from China and Vietnam, were fingerprinted by means of RAPD, REP, ERIC and ARDRA. ERIC, REP and RAPD markers revealed a considerable genetic diversity among fast-growing rhizobia. Chinese isolates showed higher levels of diversity than those strains isolated from Vietnam. ARDRA analysis revealed three different genotypes among fast-growing rhizobia that nodulate soybean, even though all belonged to a subcluster that included Sinorhizobium saheli and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Among S. fredii rhizobia, two strains, SMH13 and HH303, might be representatives of other species of nitrogen-fixing organisms. Although restriction analysis of the nifD- nifK intergenic DNA fragment confirmed the unique nature of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, several similarities between Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and S. fredii USDA257, the ARDRA analysis and the full sequence of the 16S rDNA confirmed that NGR234 is a S. fredii strain. In addition, ARDRA analysis and the full sequence of the 16S rDNA suggested that two strains of rhizobia might be representatives of other species of rhizobia.

  16. Genetic mapping revealed two loci for soybean aphid resistance in PI 567301B.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Hwan; Rouf Mian, M A; Michel, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most damaging insect pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America. New soybean aphid biotypes have been evolving quickly and at least three confirmed biotypes have been reported in USA. These biotypes are capable of defeating most known aphid resistant soybean genes indicating the need for identification of new genes. Plant Introduction (PI) 567301B was earlier identified to have antixenosis resistance against biotype 1 and 2 of the soybean aphid. Two hundred and three F(7:9) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross of soybean aphid susceptible cultivar Wyandot and resistant PI 567301B were used for mapping aphid resistance genes using the quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach. A subset of 94 RILs and 516 polymorphic SNP makers were used to construct a genome-wide molecular linkage map. Two candidate QTL regions for aphid resistance were identified on this linkage map. Fine mapping of the QTL regions was conducted with SSR markers using all 203 RILs. A major gene on chromosome 13 was mapped near the previously identified Rag2 gene. However, an earlier study revealed that the detached leaves of PI 567301B had no resistance against the soybean aphids while the detached leaves of PI 243540 (source of Rag2) maintained aphid resistance. These results and the earlier finding that PI 243540 showed antibiosis resistance and PI 567301B showed antixenosis type resistance, indicating that the aphid resistances in the two PIs are not controlled by the same gene. Thus, we have mapped a new gene near the Rag2 locus for soybean aphid resistance that should be useful in breeding for new aphid-resistant soybean cultivars. Molecular markers closely linked to this gene are available for marker-assisted breeding. Also, the minor locus found on chromosome 8 represents the first reported soybean aphid-resistant locus on this chromosome.

  17. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean. PMID:26432877

  18. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean.

  19. A comparison of corn fiber gum, hydrophobically modified starch, gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide: interfacial dynamics, viscoelastic response at oil/water interfaces and emulsion stabilization mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interfacial rheology of polysaccharide adsorption layers of corn fiber gum (CFG), octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), gum arabic (GA) and soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) at the oil/water interface and their emulsifying properties in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were compa...

  20. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  1. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  2. Soybean genetic transformation: A valuable tool for the functional study of genes and the production of agronomically improved plants

    PubMed Central

    Homrich, Milena Schenkel; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an invaluable tool for molecular, genetic, biochemical and physiological studies by gene overexpression or silencing, transposon-based mutagenesis, protein sub-cellular localization and/or promoter characterization as well as a breakthrough for breeding programs, allowing the production of novel and genetically diverse genotypes. However, the stable transformation of soybean cannot yet be considered to be routine because it depends on the ability to combine efficient transformation and regeneration techniques. Two methods have been used with relative success to produce completely and stably transformed plants: particle bombardment and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. In addition, transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes has been used as a powerful tool for functional studies. Most available information on gene function is based on heterologous expression systems. However, as the activity of many promoters or proteins frequently depends on specific interactions that only occur in homologous backgrounds, a final confirmation based on a homologous expression system is desirable. With respect to soybean biotech improvement, transgenic lines with agronomical, nutritional and pharmaceutical traits have been obtained, including herbicide-tolerant soybeans, which represented the principal biotech crop in 2011, occupying 47% of the global biotech area. PMID:23412849

  3. Wheat gluten-based renewable and biodegradable polymer materials with enhanced hydrophobicity by using epoxidized soybean oil as a modifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Do, My Dieu; Kurniawan, Lusiana; Qiao, Greg G

    2010-10-13

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was applied as an additive for wheat gluten (WG) to modify the properties of the renewable and biodegradable natural polymer materials. Optimum intermolecular interactions and crosslinking between ESO chains and the WG matrix were achieved under alkaline conditions. The WGESO materials were heterogeneous on a scale of 20-30 nm, but the homogeneity was improved upon increasing the amount of glycerol as a plasticizer in the materials. The combination of plasticization and crosslinking effects derived from ESO resulted in good retention in mechanical strength for the plasticized WGESO materials as compared to those without 10 wt% of mobile ESO additives. The hydrophobicity of the plasticized WG materials was also enhanced significantly by using the ESO additives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein γ-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

  5. The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

    PubMed

    Padgette, S R; Taylor, N B; Nida, D L; Bailey, M R; MacDonald, J; Holden, L R; Fuchs, R L

    1996-03-01

    One important aspect of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops destined for food and feed uses is the characterization of the consumed portion of the crop. One crop currently under development, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS), was modified by the addition of a glyphosate-tolerance gene to a commercial soybean cultivar. The composition of seeds and selected processing fractions from two GTS lines, designated 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, was compared with that of the parental soybean cultivar, A5403. Nutrients measured in the soybean seeds included macronutrients by proximate analyses (protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids and fatty acids. Antinutrients measured in either the seed or toasted meal were trypsin inhibitor, lectins, isoflavones, stachyose, raffinose and phytate. Proximate analyses were also performed on batches of defatted toasted meal, defatted nontoasted meal, protein isolate, and protein concentrate prepared from GTS and control soybean seeds. In addition, refined, bleached, deodorized oil was made, along with crude soybean lecithin, from GTS and control soybeans. The analytical results demonstrated the GTS lines are equivalent to the parental, conventional soybean cultivar.

  6. Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.

    PubMed

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Randolph, J H; Parker, G R; Coffey, R D; Laurent, K M; Armstrong, C L; Mikel, W B; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2002-03-01

    Dehulled soybean meal prepared from genetically modified, herbicide (glyphosate)-tolerant Roundup Ready soybeans containing the CP4 EPSPS protein and near-isogenic conventional soybeans were assessed in an experiment with growing-finishing pigs. The soybeans were grown in the yr 2000 under similar agronomic conditions except that the Roundup Ready soybeans were sprayed with Roundup herbicide. Both were processed at the same plant. The composition of the two types of soybeans and the processed soybean meal were similar. Corn-soybean meal diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal and fortified with minerals and vitamins were fed to 100 cross-bred pigs from 24 to 111 kg BW. Diets contained approximately 0.95% lysine initially and were reduced to 0.80 and 0.65% lysine when pigs reached 55 and 87 kg BW, respectively. There were 10 pens (five pens of barrows and five pens of gilts) per treatment with five pigs per pen. All pigs were scanned at 107 kg mean BW and all barrows were killed at the end of the test for carcass measurements and tissue collection. Rate and efficiency of weight gain, scanned backfat and longissimus area, and calculated carcass lean percentage were not different (P > 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal. Gilts gained slower, but they were more efficient and leaner (P < 0.05) than barrows. Responses to the type of soybean meal were similar for the two sexes with no evidence of a diet x sex interaction for any of the traits. In most instances, carcass traits of barrows were similar for the two types of soybean meal. Longissimus muscle samples from barrows fed conventional soybean meal tended (P = 0.06) to have less fat than those fed Roundup Ready soybean meal, but water, protein, and ash were similar. Sensory scores of cooked longissimus muscles were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. The results indicate that Roundup Ready soybean meal is essentially equivalent in composition and

  8. (Genetic engineering with a gene encoding a soybean storage protein). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Beachy, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported on research directed toward introducing a gene (Gmg 17.1) encoding the ..cap alpha..'-subunit of ..beta..-conglycinin, a soybean seed protein, into petunia plants using gene transfer mechanisms. (ACR)

  9. Considerations for importing live genetically modified mice from academic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Jennifer A

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified mice have been an invaluable tool for the study of gene function in an intact biological system. Researchers frequently obtain genetically modified mice from other academic institutions. This form of collaboration between laboratories comes with a unique set of challenges, and a clear set of guidelines for navigating the process has yet to be defined. The author provides suggestions for how to initiate an exchange of animal resources and steps for ensuring a successful collaboration. Both parties should be clear about their expectations. The importing lab should prepare in advance for potential animal health considerations and breeding and colony management strategies prior to importation. The number, gender, age and genotype of the imported animals should be confirmed as soon as possible by the importing lab. It is in the best interest of all parties to be courteous, forthright and thorough when sharing animal resources so that everyone can benefit from the resulting research.

  10. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  11. [Genetically modified foods. Advantages and human health risks].

    PubMed

    Filip, Lorena; Miere, Doina; Indrei, L L

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important issue with which the mankind is confronting now is related to the quantitatively as well as qualitatively assurance of the food supply necessary for human species existence. In this context, by means of genetic engineering, modified genetic organisms were obtained. In the first stage, plant crops with high productivity and resistant against diseases and pests were obtained. After that, food products having modified organoleptic properties and high nutrition values were produced. The main problem concerning the long-term consumption of these products is their toxicity, which until now was not confirmed or denied. For this reason, tests are necessary to be made in order to stipulate and prevent these effects.

  12. Genetically modified foods: hazard identification and risk assessment. Session summary.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nobuyuki

    2002-07-01

    During a Joint Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP)/International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) International Symposium, held between June 24 and 28, 2001, in Orlando, FL, USA, there was a session entitled as "Genetically Modified Foods: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment". The purpose of this session was to present and discuss the current situations in the US, European Union and Japan for the public concerns, safety assessments and regulations on genetically modified (GM) products used as foods or food ingredients. Assuming the wide and fast growing of the usage of GM products, it is the duty for us as toxicologic pathologists, to supply reliable data on their safety and possible risks or hazards as a world-wide basis to not only governments or regulatory agencies but also general public of our countries.

  13. Validation of PCR methods for quantitation of genetically modified plants in food.

    PubMed

    Hübner, P; Waiblinger, H U; Pietsch, K; Brodmann, P

    2001-01-01

    For enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients, quantitative detection methods such as quantitative competitive (QC-PCR) and real-time PCR are applied by official food control laboratories. The experiences of 3 European food control laboratories in validating such methods were compared to describe realistic performance characteristics of quantitative PCR detection methods. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of GMO-specific, real-time PCR was experimentally determined to reach 30-50 target molecules, which is close to theoretical prediction. Starting PCR with 200 ng genomic plant DNA, the LOQ depends primarily on the genome size of the target plant and ranges from 0.02% for rice to 0.7% for wheat. The precision of quantitative PCR detection methods, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied from 10 to 30%. Using Bt176 corn containing test samples and applying Bt176 specific QC-PCR, mean values deviated from true values by -7to 18%, with an average of 2+/-10%. Ruggedness of real-time PCR detection methods was assessed in an interlaboratory study analyzing commercial, homogeneous food samples. Roundup Ready soybean DNA contents were determined in the range of 0.3 to 36%, relative to soybean DNA, with RSDs of about 25%. Taking the precision of quantitative PCR detection methods into account, suitable sample plans and sample sizes for GMO analysis are suggested. Because quantitative GMO detection methods measure GMO contents of samples in relation to reference material (calibrants), high priority must be given to international agreements and standardization on certified reference materials.

  14. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed.

  15. Application of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational research.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Hitomi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    Pigs are increasingly being recognized as good large-animal models for translational research, linking basic science to clinical applications in order to establish novel therapeutics. This article reviews the current status and future prospects of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational studies. It also highlights pigs specially designed as disease models, for xenotransplantation or to carry cell marker genes. Finally, use of porcine somatic stem and progenitor cells in preclinical studies of cell transplantation therapy is also discussed.

  16. Manufacturing genetically modified T cells for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gee, A P

    2015-03-01

    Compliance with Food and Drug Administration regulations relating to initiating early phase clinical trials of new cellular therapy products often presents a hurdle to new investigators. One of the biggest obstacles is the requirement to manufacture the therapeutic products under current Good Manufacturing Practices-a system that is usually poorly understood by both basic researchers and clinicians. This article reviews the major points that must be addressed when manufacturing genetically modified T cells for therapeutic use.

  17. How can genetically modified foods be made publicly acceptable?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Gene

    2004-03-01

    A recent study by Lusk suggests that consumers might voluntarily pay more for a genetically modified (GM) food than a non-GM equivalent if made aware of the possible health benefits. However, other research indicates that the acceptability of novel hazards is affected by a variety of factors, in addition to benefits, and that making agricultural biotechnology publicly acceptable will be more complex than indicated by the results from Lusk's study.

  18. Controversy over genetically modified organisms: the governing laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Keatley, K L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modified. There are other concerns from some of the scientific world and some government officials and organizations such as the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to qualify GMOs as safe for long-term use. Of particular concern are the allergenic properties, a GMO may impart, possible transfer effects of antibiotic resistance (given that antibiotic resistant marker genes are used for many GMOs), the expression of previously unexpressed traits, and the drift of pollen from genetically modified crops. It has also been noted that the laws and regulations governing the biotechnology world are outdated, are not comprehensive, and span too many agencies. The primary agencies currently regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  19. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies. PMID:26035842

  20. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-04-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  1. Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, John P; Walsh, Ultan F; O'Donnell, Anne; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; O'Gara, Fergal

    2002-08-01

    The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors, biotechnology has the potential to make significant advances through the use of genetically modified (GM) microbial inoculants that can reduce agri-chemical usage or remediate polluted environments. Although many GM inoculants have been developed and tested under laboratory conditions, commercial exploitation has lagged behind. Here, we review scientific and regulatory requirements that must be satisfied as part of that exploitation process. Particular attention is paid to new European Union (EU) regulations (Directives) that govern the testing and release of genetically modified organisms and microbial plant protection inoculants in the EU. With regard to the release of GM inoculants, the impact of the inoculant and the fate of modified genes are important concerns. Long term monitoring of release sites is necessary to address these issues. Data are reported from the monitoring of a site 6 years after release of GM Sinorhizobium meliloti strains. It was found that despite the absence of a host plant, the GM strains persisted in the soil for at least 6 years. Horizontal transfer and microevolution of a GM plasmid between S. meliloti strains was also observed. These data illustrate the importance of assessing the long-term persistence of GM inoculants.

  2. Barcode System for Genetic Identification of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Cultivars Using InDel Markers Specific to Dense Variation Blocks.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Su-Jeong; Hwang, Tae-Young; Park, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Yu-Young; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Dongwoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Hong, Su-Young; Song, Yun-Ho; Koo, Bon-Cheol; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    For genetic identification of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, co-dominant and relatively abundant. Despite their biological importance, the investigation of InDels with proven quality and reproducibility has been limited. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a dense variation block (dVB) with non-random recombination due to many variations. Firstly, 2,274 VBs were mined by analyzing whole genome data in six soybean cultivars (Backun, Sinpaldal 2, Shingi, Daepoong, Hwangkeum, and Williams 82) for transferability to dVB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, 73,327 putative InDels in the dVB regions were identified for the development of soybean barcode system. Among them, 202 dVB-specific InDels from all soybean cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the markers were assessed in 147 soybean cultivars, and the soybean barcode system that allows a clear distinction among soybean cultivars is also detailed. In addition, the changing of the dVBs in a chromosomal level can be quickly identified due to investigation of the reshuffling pattern of the soybean cultivars with 27 maker sets. Especially, a backcross-inbred offspring, "Singang" and a recurrent parent, "Sowon" were identified by using the 27 InDel markers. These results indicate that the soybean barcode system enables not only the minimal use of molecular markers but also comparing the data from different sources due to no need of exploiting allele binning in new varieties.

  3. A meta-analysis on the effects of 2,4-D and dicamba drift on soybean and cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial introduction of cultivars of soybean and cotton genetically modified with resistance to the synthetic-auxin herbicides dicamba and 2,4-D will allow these compounds to be used with greater flexibility but may expose susceptible soybean and cotton cultivars to non-target herbicide drift. Fr...

  4. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

    2015-02-05

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  5. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient either because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard, because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds, or because they can be overcome by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code to confer metabolic dependence on nonstandard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically circumvent their biocontainment mechanisms using environmentally available compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape via mutagenesis and HGT. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

  6. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  7. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-21

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. In this paper, we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. Finally, this work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  8. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    DOE PAGES

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; ...

    2015-01-21

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. In this paper, we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass theirmore » biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. Finally, this work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.« less

  9. The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kateřina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

  10. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  11. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  12. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  13. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  14. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  15. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-02

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  18. Whole Genome Sequence of the Soybean Aphid Endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola and Genetic Differentiation among Biotype-Specific Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cassone, Bryan J.; Wenger, Jacob A.; Michel, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Endosymbiosis with microorganisms is common in insects, with more than 10% of species requiring the metabolic capabilities of intracellular bacteria for their nutrient acquisition. Aphids harbor an obligate mutualism with the vertically transferred endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, which produces key nutrients lacking in the aphid's phloem-based diet that are necessary for normal development and reproduction. It is thought that, in some groups of insects, bacterial symbionts may play key roles in biotype evolution against host-plant resistance. The genome of Buchnera has been sequenced in several aphid strains but little genomic data is currently available for the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), one of the most important pests of soybean in North America. In this study, DNA sequencing was used to assemble and annotate the genome sequence of the Buchnera A. glycines strain and to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among different strains. In addition, we identified several fixed Buchnera SNPs between Aphis glycines biotypes that were avirulent or virulent to a soybean aphid resistance gene (Rag1). The results of this study describe the genetic and evolutionary relationships of the Buchnera A. glycines strain, and begin to define the roles of an aphid symbiont in host-plant resistance. PMID:26516375

  19. Arthropod abundance and diversity in transgenic Bt soybean.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huilin; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-08-01

    Before the commercialization of any insect-resistant genetically modified crop, it must be subjected to a rigorous premarket risk assessment. Here, possible effects of growing of transgenic Cry1Ac soybean on arthropod communities under field conditions were assessed for 2 yr and quantified in terms of arthropod community indices including the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, richness index, and dominance index. Our results showed no significant differences of diversity, richness, or dominant indices for Bt soybean compared with the recipient cultivar, conventional soybean, or sprayed conventional soybean. Conventional soybean treatment with insecticide had an adverse effect on the arthropod community after spraying, but arthropod community diversity recovered quickly. Bt soybean had no negative effect on the dominant distribution of subcommunities, including sucking pests, other pests, predators, parasitoids, and others except for lepidopteran pests. The dominance distribution of lepidopteran pests decreased significantly in Bt soybean because of the significant decrease in the numbers of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ascotis selenaria Schiffermüller et Denis compared with the recipient cultivar. Our results showed that there were no negative effects of Cry1Ac soybean on the arthropod community in soybean field plots in the short term.

  20. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  1. Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araujo, Welington Luiz

    2003-11-01

    About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as yeasts. After the introduction of recombinant DNA techniques, the transfer of DNA between species belonging to different genera, families or kingdoms became possible. The release of transgenic plants has aroused debates about several aspects of the environmental and human risks that could result from the introduction of genetically modified crops. Less effort has been dedicated to evaluate the impact of transgenic plants on their associated microorganisms, some of which (e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic microbiota) are extremely important for the survival of the plant. Investigations have been made regarding the horizontal transfer of genetic material between transgenic plants and microorganisms and on the disturbance of useful symbiotic associations between plants and endophytic, epiphytic and rhizosphere communities. In most cases the results do no show any adverse effect of transgenic plants on autochthonous plant-associated microorganisms. Results from our laboratory show small changes caused by genetically modified endophytic bacteria on the indigenous endophytic population of the sweet orange Citrus sinensis. In tests using appropriated fungal strains preliminary results using extracts from transgenic plants indicate that these plants do not affect haploidization, mitotic crossing-over, mutation rate or chromosomal alterations.

  2. Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Chesson, Andrew; Aulrich, Karen

    2005-02-01

    Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically modified plants (GMP) in animal nutrition properly raises many questions and issues, such as the role of a nutritional assessment of the modified feed or feed additive as part of safety assessment, the possible influence of genetically modified (GM) products on animal health and product quality and the persistence of the recombinant DNA and of the 'novel' protein in the digestive tract and tissues of food-producing animals. During the last few years many studies have determined the nutrient value of GM feeds compared to their conventional counterparts and some have additionally followed the fate of DNA and novel protein. The results available to date are reassuring and reveal no significant differences in the safety and nutritional value of feedstuffs containing material derived from the so-called 1st generation of genetically modified plants (those with unchanged gross composition) in comparison with non-GM varieties. In addition, no residues of recombinant DNA or novel proteins have been found in any organ or tissue samples obtained from animals fed with GMP. These results indicate that for compositionally equivalent GMP routine-feeding studies with target species generally add little to nutritional and safety assessment. However, the strategies devised for the nutritional and safety assessment of the 1st generation products will be much more difficult to apply to 2nd generation GMP in which significant changes in constituents have been deliberately introduced (e.g., increased fatty acids or amino acids content or a reduced concentration of undesirable constituents). It is suggested that studies made with animals

  3. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.

  4. Genetically Modified T-Cell Therapy for Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    DeRenzo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    T-cell immunotherapy may offer an approach to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma, who fail current therapies. In addition, it has the potential to reduce treatment-related complications for all patients. Generating tumor-specific T cells with conventional antigen presenting cells ex vivo is time consuming and often results in T-cell products with a low frequency of tumor-specific T cells. In addition, the generated T cells remain sensitive to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Genetic modification of T cells is one strategy to overcome these limitations. For example, T cells can be genetically modified to render them antigen specific, resistant to inhibitory factors, or increase their ability to home to tumor sites. Most genetic modification strategies have only been evaluated in preclinical models, however early phase clinical trials are in progress. In this chapter we review the current status of gene-modified T-cell therapy with special focus on osteosarcoma, highlighting potential antigenic targets, preclinical and clinical studies, and strategies to improve current T-cell therapy approaches. PMID:24924183

  5. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  6. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  7. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s...

  8. Soybean plants modify metal oxide nanoparticle effects on soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yuan; Priester, John H; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Walker, Sharon L; Nisbet, Roger M; An, Youn-Joo; Schimel, Joshua P; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-11-18

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are entering agricultural soils through land application of nanocontaining biosolids and agrochemicals. The potential adverse effects of ENPs have been studied on food crops and soil bacterial communities separately; however, how ENPs will affect the interacting plant-soil system remains unknown. To address this, we assessed ENP effects on soil microbial communities in soybean-planted, versus unplanted, mesocosms exposed to different doses of nano-CeO2 (0-1.0 g kg(-1)) or nano-ZnO (0-0.5 g kg(-1)). Nano-CeO2 did not affect soil bacterial communities in unplanted soils, but 0.1 g kg(-1) nano-CeO2 altered soil bacterial communities in planted soils, indicating that plants interactively promote nano-CeO2 effects in soil, possibly due to belowground C shifts since plant growth was impacted. Nano-ZnO at 0.5 g kg(-1) significantly altered soil bacterial communities, increasing some (e.g., Rhizobium and Sphingomonas) but decreasing other (e.g., Ensifer, Rhodospirillaceae, Clostridium, and Azotobacter) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Fewer OTUs decreased from nano-ZnO exposure in planted (41) versus unplanted (85) soils, suggesting that plants ameliorate nano-ZnO effects. Taken together, plants--potentially through their effects on belowground biogeochemistry--could either promote (i.e., for the 0.1 g kg(-1) nano-CeO2 treatment) or limit (i.e., for the 0.5 g kg(-1) nano-ZnO treatment) ENP effects on soil bacterial communities.

  9. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  10. Toxicity studies of genetically modified plants: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2007-01-01

    According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals during the current decade did not find, or the number was particularly small, references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods. In this paper, the scientific information concerning the potential toxicity of GM/transgenic plants using the Medline database is reviewed. Studies about the safety of the potential use of potatoes, corn, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomatoes, sweet pepper, peas, and canola plants for food and feed were included. The number of references was surprisingly limited. Moreover, most published studies were not performed by the biotechnology companies that produce these products. This review can be concluded raising the following question: where is the scientific evidence showing that GM plants/food are toxicologically safe?

  11. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  12. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    PubMed

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescent detection for highly sensitive assay of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Yang, Huanghao; Qiu, Bin; Xiao, Xueyang; Xue, Linlin; Kim, Donghwan; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    A capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescent detection system (CE-ECL) was developed for the detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons. The ECL luminophore, tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(phen)(3)(2+)), was labeled to the PCR primers before amplification. Ru(phen)(3)(2+) was then introduced to PCR amplicons by PCR amplification. Eventually, the PCR amplicons were separated and detected by the homemade CE-ECL system. The detection of a typical genetically modified organism (GMO), Roundup Ready Soy (RRS), was shown as an example to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed approach. Four pairs of primers were amplified by multiple PCR (MPCR) simultaneously, three of which were targeted on the specific sequence of exogenous genes of RRS, and another was targeted on the endogenous reference gene of soybean. Both the conditions for PCR amplification and CE-ECL separation and detection were investigated in detail. Results showed that, under the optimal conditions, the proposed method can accurately identifying RRS. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was below 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

  15. Ecological impacts of genetically modified crops: ten years of field research and commercial cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before and during their commercial cultivation. Substantial scientific data on the environmental effects of the currently commercialized GM crops are available today. We have reviewed this scientific knowledge derived from the past 10 years of worldwide experimental field research and commercial cultivation. The review focuses on the currently commercially available GM crops that could be relevant for agriculture in Western and Central Europe (i.e., maize, oilseed rape, and soybean), and on the two main GM traits that are currently commercialized, herbicide tolerance (HT) and insect resistance (IR). The sources of information included peer-reviewed scientific journals, scientific books, reports from regions with extensive GM crop cultivation, as well as reports from international governmental organizations. The data available so far provide no scientific evidence that the cultivation of the presently commercialized GM crops has caused environmental harm. Nevertheless, a number of issues related to the interpretation of scientific data on effects of GM crops on the environment are debated controversially. The present review highlights these scientific debates and discusses the effects of GM crop cultivation on the environment considering the impacts caused by cultivation practices of modern agricultural systems.

  16. Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

    2014-07-23

    A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context.

  17. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  18. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells for improved islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Ye, Zhaoyang; Mahato, Ram I

    2011-10-03

    The use of adult stem cells for therapeutic purposes has met with great success in recent years. Among several types of adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) and other sources have gained popularity for basic research and clinical applications because of their therapeutic potential in treating a variety of diseases. Because of their tissue regeneration potential and immune modulation effect, MSCs were recently used as cell-based therapy to promote revascularization, increase pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and avoid allograft rejection in islet transplantation. Taking advantage of the recent progress in gene therapy, genetically modified MSCs can further enhance and expand the therapeutic benefit of primary MSCs while retaining their stem-cell-like properties. This review aims to gain a thorough understanding of the current obstacles to successful islet transplantation and discusses the potential role of primary MSCs before or after genetic modification in islet transplantation.

  19. Unintended effects in genetically modified crops: revealed by metabolomics?

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2006-03-01

    In Europe the commercialization of food derived from genetically modified plants has been slow because of the complex regulatory process and the concerns of consumers. Risk assessment is focused on potential adverse effects on humans and the environment, which could result from unintended effects of genetic modifications: unintended effects are connected to changes in metabolite levels in the plants. One of the major challenges is how to analyze the overall metabolite composition of GM plants in comparison to conventional cultivars, and one possible solution is offered by metabolomics. The ultimate aim of metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all small molecules in an organism; however, a single method enabling complete metabolome analysis does not exist. Given a comprehensive extraction method, a hierarchical strategy--starting with global fingerprinting and followed by complementary profiling attempts--is the most logical and economic approach to detect unintended effects in GM crops.

  20. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  1. [Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops.

  2. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed.

  3. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  4. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  5. Genetic diversity of Cercospora kikuchii isolates from soybean cultured in Argentina as revealed by molecular markers and cercosporin production.

    PubMed

    Lurá, María Cristina; Latorre Rapela, María Gabriela; Vaccari, María Celia; Maumary, Roxana; Soldano, Anabel; Mattio, Mónica; González, Ana María

    2011-05-01

    Leaf blight and purple seed, caused by the fungal pathogen Cercospora kikuchii (Matsumoto & Tomoyasu) M. W. Gardner are very important diseases of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Argentina. The aims of this work were: (a) to confirm and to assess the genetic variability among C. kikuchii isolates collected from different soybean growing areas in Santa Fe province using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers and sequence information from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and (b) to analyze the cercosporin production of the regional C. kikuchi isolates in order to assess whether there was any relationship between the molecular profiles and the toxin production. Isolates from different regions in Santa Fe province were studied. The sequence of the ITS regions showed high similarity (99-100%) to the GenBank sequences of C. kikuchii BRCK179 (accession number AY633838). The ISSR markers clustered all the isolates into many groups and cercosporin content was highly variable among isolates. No relationship was observed between ITS region, ISSR groups and origin or cercosporin content. The high degree of genetic variability and cercosporin production among isolates compared in this study characterizes a diverse population of C. kikuchii in the region.

  6. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  8. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Yong-Bae; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jong-Bok; No, Wan-Seob; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus contamination is a major food safety problem for Korean fermented soybean products, but few studies have assessed its potential to cause foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. B. cereus was detected in 110 of 162 (67.9%) samples. The highest B. cereus frequency was observed in deonjang (68 of 93 samples, 73.1%) and cheonggukjang (18 of 25, 72.0%); however, nonhemolytic enterotoxin was detected only in 22 of 162 samples (13.6%). Although the tested B. cereus isolates showed diverse pulsotypes according to repetitive sequence-PCR banding patterns, they displayed similar antibiotic sensitivity spectra. The low frequency of enterotoxin detection suggests that the potential risk of B. cereus foodborne illness associated with Korean fermented soybean products is lower than generally presumed. However, considering the prevalence of B. cereus and the high content of fermented soybean products in the Korean diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of contamination with B. cereus and its toxins in such Korean food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  10. Genetic mapping of resistance to purple seed stain in PI 80837 soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean caused by Cercospora kikuchii is an important disease that reduces market grade and can affect seed germination and vigor. A single dominant gene was shown to confer PSS resistance in PI 80837. The objective of this research was to map the PSS resistance gene in P...

  11. Identification of unique genetic sources of soybean rust resistance from the USDA germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean rust (SBR) is caused by the fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Thus far, six rust resistance loci (Rpp1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) have been reported. On the basis of field and greenhouse phenotyping assays between 2006 and 2011, we identified 75 SBR-resistant plant introductions (PIs). Crosses...

  12. Genetic mapping of the powdery mildew resistance gene in soybean PI 567301B

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew (PMD) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is caused by the fungus Microsphaera diffusa. Severe infection of PMD on susceptible varieties often cause premature defoliation and chlorosis of the leaves, which can result in considerable yield losses under favorable environmental condition...

  13. Genetic variation of world soybean maturity date and geographic distribution of maturity groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueqin; Wu, Ji-An; Ren, Haixiang; Qi, Yuxin; Li, Chunyan; Cao, Jiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhipeng; Cai, Zhaoyan; Gai, Junyi

    2017-06-01

    The maturity date of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sensitive to photoperiod, which varies with latitude and growing seasons. The maturity group (MG) system, composed of 13 MGs, is a major approach in characterizing varieties' ecological properties and adaptable areas. A total of 512 world soybean varieties, including 48 MG checks, were tested at a major site (Nanjing, 32.04°N) with portions tested in supplementary sites (Heihe, 50.22°N; Mudanjiang, 44.60°N; Jining, 35.38°N and Nanning, 22.84°N) in China to explore the world-wide MG distribution. The maturity date of the world soybean varied greatly (75-201 d) in Nanjing. Along with soybeans disseminated to new areas, the MGs further expanded during the last 70 years from MG I-VII to the early MG 0-000 in the north continents and to the late MG VIII-X in the south continents with the growth period structure differentiated into two subgroups in each MG 0-VIII except V. The cluster analysis among MGs and subgroups using genome-wide markers validated the MG sequential emergence order and the subgroup differentiation in eight MGs. For future evaluation, in addition to one major site (Nanjing), one supplementary southern site (Nanning) and one supplementary northern site (Heihe) are sufficient.

  14. Genetic map of lps3: a new short petiole gene in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Sung-Taeg

    2012-02-01

    The short petiole trait is valuable for the development of plant ideotypes with high yield by improving the plant canopy. The soybean breeding line SS98206SP has shown extremely short petioles in the greenhouse and fields. A new single recessive gene designated as lps3 confers the short petiole trait in SS98206SP. The objectives of this study were to map the short petiole gene in SS98206SP with PCR-based markers. In total, 187 F(2) plants and their F(2:3) families from a cross between the short petiole line SS98206SP and the long petiole cultivar 'Taekwang' along with the two parental lines were evaluated for their petiole lengths in a greenhouse. An SSR marker from each 10-cM section of a consensus soybean map was selected for bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to identify the tentative genomic location of the gene. The BSA technique was useful to localize the gene to a genomic region in the soybean linkage group F (chromosome 13). A linkage map with six SSR and two SNP markers flanking the gene was constructed. We positioned the gene between two SSR markers, Sat_234 and Sct_033, at distances of 8.5 and 3.5 cM from the marker, respectively. The makers flanking the gene (lps3) were located within 3-4 cM of the gene. These markers will be useful for maker-assisted selection in the development of new ideotype soybean plants.

  15. Genetic variation of world soybean maturity date and geographic distribution of maturity groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueqin; Wu, Ji-an; Ren, Haixiang; Qi, Yuxin; Li, Chunyan; Cao, Jiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhipeng; Cai, Zhaoyan; Gai, Junyi

    2017-01-01

    The maturity date of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sensitive to photoperiod, which varies with latitude and growing seasons. The maturity group (MG) system, composed of 13 MGs, is a major approach in characterizing varieties’ ecological properties and adaptable areas. A total of 512 world soybean varieties, including 48 MG checks, were tested at a major site (Nanjing, 32.04°N) with portions tested in supplementary sites (Heihe, 50.22°N; Mudanjiang, 44.60°N; Jining, 35.38°N and Nanning, 22.84°N) in China to explore the world-wide MG distribution. The maturity date of the world soybean varied greatly (75–201 d) in Nanjing. Along with soybeans disseminated to new areas, the MGs further expanded during the last 70 years from MG I–VII to the early MG 0–000 in the north continents and to the late MG VIII–X in the south continents with the growth period structure differentiated into two subgroups in each MG 0–VIII except V. The cluster analysis among MGs and subgroups using genome-wide markers validated the MG sequential emergence order and the subgroup differentiation in eight MGs. For future evaluation, in addition to one major site (Nanjing), one supplementary southern site (Nanning) and one supplementary northern site (Heihe) are sufficient. PMID:28744175

  16. Isoflavones in soybean seeds: Genetic variation and environmental effects in field-grown crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both controlled environment and field studies indicate that isoflavones, a dietary source of a class of bioactive phytochemicals present primarily in soybean seeds, increase greatly when seeds mature under cooler conditions or when plants are well-watered. Environmental effects can be superimposed ...

  17. Genetic mapping and characterization of two novel Phytophthora resistance genes from soybean landrace PI567139B

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) disease, caused by P. sojae, is a widespread soybean disease resulting in an annual yield loss of $1~2 billion worldwide. To control the disease, breeders primarily employ race-specific resistant genes which are named Rps genes which have been identified to be lo...

  18. Genetic architecture of cyst nematode resistance revealed by genome-wide association study in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bi-parental mapping populations have been commonly utilized to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe). Although this approach successfully mapped a large number of SCN resistance QTL, it captures onl...

  19. Research on purple seed stain of soybean: germplasm screening and genetic resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean purple seed stain (PSS) causes seed decay and purple seed discoloration, resulting in overall poor seed quality and reduced market grade and value. It is a prevalent disease that also affects seed vigor and stand establishment. PSS is caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii and other Cercos...

  20. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  1. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-12-01

    Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5-10 y of age (BMI-z(5to10)). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z(5to10) (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. The median BMI-z(5to10) was -0.07 (range: -3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z(5to10) was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z(5to10) than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.

  3. Conservation biology, genetically modified organisms, and the biosafety protocol.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan; Sendashonga, Cyrie

    2006-12-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects on biological diversity of the use of living modified organisms (LMOs, which are commonly known by similar terms such as genetically modified organisms). At the international level these concerns are addressed in part by an agreement known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and include potential toxic effects of insect-resistant crops on nontarget organisms and potential ecological effects of gene flow from modified crops, fish, microorganisms, or insects to wild species or counterparts. We reviewed the protocol's main provisions, including those dealing with risk assessment and risk management, decision making on imports, documentation accompanying shipments, and liability resulting from damages caused by LMOs. A medium-term program of work has been adopted by the parties, which includes the potential contribution of conservation biologists to delivering capacity building, developing risk assessment guidance, evaluating mechanisms of potential ecological damages from LMOs, and other issues. Conservation biologists and other experts have opportunities to influence the negotiations and implementation of the protocol by providing inputs at meetings, offering expertise to governments and organizations, and participating in or developing relevant projects and initiatives. Involvement of conservation biologists in the implementation and further development of the protocol would contribute to its effectiveness.

  4. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan’s markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

  5. Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lisa M.; Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Knight, Jonathan D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2017-01-01

    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students’ conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise. We developed a novel written assessment tool and administered it to 120 non–biology majors, 154 entering biology majors, 120 advanced biology majors (ABM), and nine biology faculty. Results indicated that undergraduate biology majors rarely included molecular and cellular rationales in their initial explanations of GMOs. Despite ABM demonstrating that they have much of the biology knowledge necessary to understand genetic modification, they did not appear to apply this knowledge to explaining GMOs. Further, this study showed that all undergraduate student populations exhibited evidence of essentialist thinking while explaining GMOs, regardless of their level of biology training. Finally, our results suggest an association between scientifically accurate ideas and the application of molecular and cellular rationales, as well as an association between misconceptions and essentialist rationales. PMID:28821537

  6. Molecular scissors and their application in genetically modified farm animals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-06-01

    Molecular scissors (MS), incl. Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN), Transcription-activator like endoncleases (TALENS) and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These molecular scissors mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, MS can increase the targeting rate 10,000-fold, and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair is stimulated at a similar frequency. The successful application of different MS has been shown in different organisms, including insects, amphibians, plants, nematodes, and mammals, including humans. Recently, another novel class of molecular scissors was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN, especially by its easy design. MS can be successfully employed for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, incl. creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on molecular scissors, their underlying mechanism and focuses on new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals.

  7. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012.

  8. Identification of several gy4 nulls from the USDA soybean germplasm collection provides new genetic resources for the development of high-quality tofu cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Seok; Ho, Heo Jae; Nelson, Randall L; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-12-10

    Tofu, a cheese-like food made by curdling soy milk, is a major dietary staple of Asian countries. Consumption of tofu and other soy products is steadily increasing in North America due to its well-known health benefits. Soybean A(5), A(4), and B(3) peptide null lines 'Enrei' and 'Raiden' are commonly utilized in breeding programs to develop high-quality tofu cultivars. To expand the genetic diversity it is desirable to identify and utilize other A(5), A(4), and B(3) null genotypes in the development of improved tofu cultivars that are adapted to North American conditions. In this study were screened diverse soybean accessions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection to identify Gy4 mutants, the locus that controls A(5), A(4), and B(3) peptide production. Analysis of total seed proteins from 485 soybean lines by SDS-PAGE enabled the identification of 38 accessions that lacked the A(5), A(4), and B(3) peptides. These accessions showed marked differences in seed size and seed coat color and represented different maturity groups ranging from 0 to IX. To ascertain the molecular basis for the lack of A(5), A(4), and B(3) peptides in the newly identified Gy4 mutants, the nucleotide sequence of a portion of the Gy4 gene was determined from eight soybean accessions representing different maturity groups. These eight Gy4 mutants revealed a single point mutation that changed the translation initiation codon ATG to ATA, resulting in the A(5), A(4), and B(3) null phenotype. The newly identified Gy4 mutants from this study will enable plant breeders to expand the genetic diversity of North American food-quality soybeans and also aid in the development of hypoallergenic soybeans.

  9. A SNP genetic linkage map based on the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line (RIL) population identified QTL for seed Isoflavone contents in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide for its protein, oil as well as the health beneficial phytoestrogens or isoflavone. This study reports a relatively dense SNP-Based genetic map based on ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and quantitative t...

  10. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  11. A high resolution genetic linkage map of soybean based on 357 recombinant inbred lines genotyped with BARCSoySNP6K

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to construct a high density genetic map of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) using a high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping on 357 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of ‘Wyandot’ × PI 567301B. Of 5,403 SNP loci scored from the Infiniu...

  12. Production and characterization of genetically modified human IL-11 variants.

    PubMed

    Sano, Emiko; Takei, Toshiaki; Ueda, Takuya; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been expected as a drug on severe thrombocytopenia caused by myelo-suppressive chemotherapy. Whereas, development of IL-11 inhibitor is also expected for a treatment against IL-11 related cancer progression. Here, we will demonstrate the creation of various kinds of genetically modified hIL-11s. Modified vectors were constructed by introducing N- or O-glycosylation site on the region of hIL-11 that does not belong to the core α-helical motif based on the predicted secondary structure. N-terminal (N: between 22 to 23 aa), the first loop (M1:70 to 71 aa), the second loop (M2:114-115 aa), the third loop (M3:160-161 aa) and C-terminal (C: 200- aa) were selected for modification. A large scale production system was established and the characteristics of modified hIL-11s were evaluated. The structure was analyzed by amino acid sequence and composition analysis and CD-spectra. Glycan was assessed by monosaccharide composition analysis. Growth promoting activity and biological stability were analyzed by proliferation of T1165 cells. N-terminal modified proteins were well glycosylated and produced. Growth activity of 3NN with NASNASNAS sequence on N-terminal was about tenfold higher than wild type (WT). Structural and biological stabilities of 3NN were also better than WT and residence time in mouse blood was longer than WT. M1 variants lacked growth activity though they are well glycosylated and secondary structure is very stable. Both of 3NN and OM1 with AAATPAPG on M1 associated with hIL-11R strongly. These results indicate N-terminal and M1 variants will be expected for practical use as potent agonists or antagonists of hIL-11.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Native Bradyrhizobia Isolated from Soybeans (Glycine max L.) in Different Agricultural-Ecological-Climatic Regions of India▿

    PubMed Central

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N′Zoue, Angèle; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2008-01-01

    Fifty isolates from root nodules of soybean plants sampled in five agricultural-ecological-climatic regions of India were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (IGS), and the nifH and nodC genes. Eight haplotypes assigned to the Bradyrhizobium genus were identified, and the genetic diversity was conserved across regions. Sequence analyses of the IGS and the dnaK, glnII, recA, and nifH genes revealed three groups. One of them (26% of isolates) was assigned to Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. A second group (36% of isolates) was identified as B. yuanmingense but likely forms a new biovar able to nodulate soybean plants. The third lineage (38% of isolates) was different from all described Bradyrhizobium species but showed the same symbiotic genotype as B. liaoningense and B. japonicum bv. glycinearum. PMID:18676699

  14. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R.; Echazarreta-González, C.; Roubik, D. W.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.

    2014-01-01

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011–2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas. PMID:24503936

  15. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  16. Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Frey, Joachim

    2007-07-26

    Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment

  17. Genetically modified mosquito: the Malaysian public engagement experience.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, T S Saraswathy; Lee, Han Lim; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-11-01

    On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control.

  18. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  19. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  20. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed.

  1. Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Here we provide the first experimental evidence that public concerns about the use of animals in research are accentuated when genetically modified (GM) animals are used. Using an online survey, we probed participant views on two uses of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without GM. We surveyed 327 animal technicians, researchers, advocates, university students and others. In both scenarios and across demographics, support dropped off when the research required the use of GM pigs or GM corn. For example, 66% of participants supported using pigs to reduce phosphorus pollution, but this declined to 49% when the pigs were fed GM corn and to 20% when the research required the creation of a new GM line of pigs. Those involved in animal research were more consistently supportive compared to those who were not or those who were vegetarians.

  2. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.

  3. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods.

  4. Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2006-12-01

    Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

  5. Molecular characterization of genetically-modified crops: Challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Yan, Xiaofang; Biswas, Sukumar; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    Molecular characterization lays a foundation for safety assessment and subsequent monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops. Due to the target-specific nature, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods cannot comprehensively detect unintended gene insertions, let alone unknown GM events. As more and more new developed GM crops including new plant breeding technology (NPBT) generated crops are in the pipeline for commercialization, alternative -omics approaches, particularly next generation sequencing, have been developed for molecular characterization of authorized or unauthorized GM (UGM) crops. This review summarizes first those methods, addresses their challenges, and discusses possible strategies for molecular characterization of engineered crops generated by NPBT, highlighting needs for a global information-sharing database and cost-effective, accurate and comprehensive molecular characterization approaches.

  6. Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.

    PubMed

    Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

    2013-06-15

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction for asthma

    PubMed Central

    Corvol, Harriet; De Giacomo, Anthony; Eng, Celeste; Seibold, Max; Ziv, Elad; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon; Watson, H. Geoffrey; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael; Avila, Pedro C.; Choudhry, Shweta; Burchard, Esteban Gonz!lez

    2009-01-01

    Objective A recent admixture mapping analysis identified interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL6 receptor (IL6R) as candidate genes for inflammatory diseases. In the airways during allergic inflammation, IL6 signaling controls the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. In addition, albuterol, a commonly prescribed asthma therapy, has been shown to influence IL6 gene expression. Therefore, we reasoned that interactions between the IL6 and IL6R genes might be associated with bronchodilator drug responsiveness to albuterol in asthmatic patients. Methods Four functional IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a nonsynonymous IL6R SNP were genotyped in 700 Mexican and Puerto Rican asthma families and in 443 African-American asthma cases and controls. Both family-based association tests and linear regression models were used to assess the association between individual SNPs and haplotypes with bronchodilator response. Gene–gene interactions were tested by using multiple linear regression analyses. Results No single SNP was consistently associated with drug response in all the three populations. However, on the gene level, we found a consistent IL6 and IL6R pharmacogenetic interaction in the three populations. This pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction was contextual and dependent upon ancestry (racial background). This interaction resulted in higher drug response to albuterol in Latinos, but lower drug response in African-Americans. Herein, we show that there is an effect modification by ancestry on bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol. Conclusion Genetic variants in the IL6 and IL6R genes act synergistically to modify the bronchodilator drug responsiveness in asthma and this pharmacogenetic interaction is modified by the genetic ancestry. PMID:19503017

  8. Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene-gene interaction for asthma.

    PubMed

    Corvol, Harriet; De Giacomo, Anthony; Eng, Celeste; Seibold, Max; Ziv, Elad; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon; Watson, H Geoffrey; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael; Avila, Pedro C; Choudhry, Shweta; Burchard, Esteban González

    2009-07-01

    A recent admixture mapping analysis identified interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL6 receptor (IL6R) as candidate genes for inflammatory diseases. In the airways during allergic inflammation, IL6 signaling controls the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. In addition, albuterol, a commonly prescribed asthma therapy, has been shown to influence IL6 gene expression. Therefore, we reasoned that interactions between the IL6 and IL6R genes might be associated with bronchodilator drug responsiveness to albuterol in asthmatic patients. Four functional IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a nonsynonymous IL6R SNP were genotyped in 700 Mexican and Puerto Rican asthma families and in 443 African-American asthma cases and controls. Both family-based association tests and linear regression models were used to assess the association between individual SNPs and haplotypes with bronchodilator response. Gene-gene interactions were tested by using multiple linear regression analyses. No single SNP was consistently associated with drug response in all the three populations. However, on the gene level, we found a consistent IL6 and IL6R pharmacogenetic interaction in the three populations. This pharmacogenetic gene-gene interaction was contextual and dependent upon ancestry (racial background). This interaction resulted in higher drug response to albuterol in Latinos, but lower drug response in African-Americans. Herein, we show that there is an effect modification by ancestry on bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol. Genetic variants in the IL6 and IL6R genes act synergistically to modify the bronchodilator drug responsiveness in asthma and this pharmacogenetic interaction is modified by the genetic ancestry.

  9. Acceptance of genetically modified foods: the relation between technology and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.

  10. Genetically modified laboratory mice with sebaceous glands abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Carmen; Schneider, Marlon R

    2016-12-01

    Sebaceous glands (SG) are exocrine glands that release their product by holocrine secretion, meaning that the whole cell becomes a secretion following disruption of the membrane. SG may be found in association with a hair follicle, forming the pilosebaceous unit, or as modified SG at different body sites such as the eyelids (Meibomian glands) or the preputial glands. Depending on their location, SG fulfill a number of functions, including protection of the skin and fur, thermoregulation, formation of the tear lipid film, and pheromone-based communication. Accordingly, SG abnormalities are associated with several diseases such as acne, cicatricial alopecia, and dry eye disease. An increasing number of genetically modified laboratory mouse lines develop SG abnormalities, and their study may provide important clues regarding the molecular pathways regulating SG development, physiology, and pathology. Here, we summarize in tabulated form the available mouse lines with SG abnormalities and, focusing on selected examples, discuss the insights they provide into SG biology and pathology. We hope this survey will become a helpful information source for researchers with a primary interest in SG but also as for researchers from unrelated fields that are unexpectedly confronted with a SG phenotype in newly generated mouse lines.

  11. Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

    2003-12-15

    Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification.

  12. Genetically modified foods, science, consumers and the media.

    PubMed

    Rowland, I R

    2002-02-01

    In contrast to the situation in the USA, where a wide range of genetically modified (GM) foods is available, in Europe very few GM products have been approved for marketing as foods, and there is widespread public concern about their safety and environmental impact. The marketing of a GM crop for food use in Europe falls under the EC novel foods regulations, and applications require the submission of an extensive dossier of information. The safety evaluation of GM foods presents considerable problems both in the conduct and interpretation of experimental studies, because conventional toxicity tests used in the evaluation of simple chemicals may not be appropriate for whole foods. To rationalise the safety evaluation process and to circumvent the difficulties in toxicological assessment of food materials, the concept of substantial equivalence has been developed. The concept is that if it can be demonstrated that the novel food is essentially similar to its conventional counterpart in terms of critical nutritional or anutritional components, then it is likely to be no more or less toxic than the latter. The possible introduction of unintended effects by the genetic modification process is particularly problematic for the safety evaluation process. The new genomic and post-genomic techniques are potentially valuable in the safety evaluation of GM foods, although they are as yet in their infancy.

  13. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  14. Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lisa M; Bissonnette, Sarah A; Knight, Jonathan D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2017-01-01

    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise. We developed a novel written assessment tool and administered it to 120 non-biology majors, 154 entering biology majors, 120 advanced biology majors (ABM), and nine biology faculty. Results indicated that undergraduate biology majors rarely included molecular and cellular rationales in their initial explanations of GMOs. Despite ABM demonstrating that they have much of the biology knowledge necessary to understand genetic modification, they did not appear to apply this knowledge to explaining GMOs. Further, this study showed that all undergraduate student populations exhibited evidence of essentialist thinking while explaining GMOs, regardless of their level of biology training. Finally, our results suggest an association between scientifically accurate ideas and the application of molecular and cellular rationales, as well as an association between misconceptions and essentialist rationales. © 2017 L. M. Potter et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. A Genetic Relationship between Phosphorus Efficiency and Photosynthetic Traits in Soybean As Revealed by QTL Analysis Using a High-Density Genetic Map

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyan; Yang, Yuming; Zhang, Hengyou; Chu, Shanshan; Zhang, Xingguo; Yin, Dongmei; Yu, Deyue; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Plant productivity relies on photosynthesis, and the photosynthetic process relies on phosphorus (P). The genetic basis of photosynthesis and P efficiency (PE) affecting yield has been separately characterized in various crop plants. However, the genetic relationship between PE and photosynthesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used a combined analysis of phenotypic correlation, linkage mapping, and expression analysis to dissect the relationship between PE and photosynthesis. We found significant phenotypic correlations between PE and photosynthetic related traits, particularly under low P stress. A total of 172 QTLs for both traits were detected and classified into 29 genomic regions. 12 (41.4%) of 29 regions were detected to be associated with both PE and photosynthetic related traits. Three major QTLs, q14-2, q15-2, and q19-2, were found to be associated with both traits and explained 6.6–58.9% of phenotypic variation. A photosynthetic-specific QTL cluster, q12-1, was detected under both normal and low P conditions, suggesting that genes responsible for this region were less effected by low P stress, and could be used in high photosynthetic efficiency breeding programs. In addition, several candidate genes with significantly differential expression upon low P stress, such as a purple acid phosphatase gene (Glyma.19G193900) within q19-2 region, were considered as promising candidates involved in regulating both soybean PE and photosynthetic capacity. Our results reveal a significant genetic relationship between PE and photosynthetic traits, and uncover several major genomic regions specific or common to these traits. The markers linked closely to these major QTLs may be used for selection of soybean varieties with improved P efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. PMID:27446154

  16. A Genetic Relationship between Phosphorus Efficiency and Photosynthetic Traits in Soybean As Revealed by QTL Analysis Using a High-Density Genetic Map.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Yang, Yuming; Zhang, Hengyou; Chu, Shanshan; Zhang, Xingguo; Yin, Dongmei; Yu, Deyue; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Plant productivity relies on photosynthesis, and the photosynthetic process relies on phosphorus (P). The genetic basis of photosynthesis and P efficiency (PE) affecting yield has been separately characterized in various crop plants. However, the genetic relationship between PE and photosynthesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used a combined analysis of phenotypic correlation, linkage mapping, and expression analysis to dissect the relationship between PE and photosynthesis. We found significant phenotypic correlations between PE and photosynthetic related traits, particularly under low P stress. A total of 172 QTLs for both traits were detected and classified into 29 genomic regions. 12 (41.4%) of 29 regions were detected to be associated with both PE and photosynthetic related traits. Three major QTLs, q14-2, q15-2, and q19-2, were found to be associated with both traits and explained 6.6-58.9% of phenotypic variation. A photosynthetic-specific QTL cluster, q12-1, was detected under both normal and low P conditions, suggesting that genes responsible for this region were less effected by low P stress, and could be used in high photosynthetic efficiency breeding programs. In addition, several candidate genes with significantly differential expression upon low P stress, such as a purple acid phosphatase gene (Glyma.19G193900) within q19-2 region, were considered as promising candidates involved in regulating both soybean PE and photosynthetic capacity. Our results reveal a significant genetic relationship between PE and photosynthetic traits, and uncover several major genomic regions specific or common to these traits. The markers linked closely to these major QTLs may be used for selection of soybean varieties with improved P efficiency and photosynthetic capacity.

  17. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research.

  18. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Fangneng; Ghimire, Mukti N; Leonard, B Rogers; Siegfried, Blair D; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Yang, Yajun; Wu, Yidong; Gahan, Linda J; Heckel, David G; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2011-10-09

    Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are grown widely for pest control, but insect adaptation can reduce their efficacy. The genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were designed to counter insect resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Previous results suggested that the modified toxins would be effective only if resistance was linked with mutations in genes encoding toxin-binding cadherin proteins. Here we report evidence from five major crop pests refuting this hypothesis. Relative to native toxins, the potency of modified toxins was >350-fold higher against resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis in which resistance was not linked with cadherin mutations. Conversely, the modified toxins provided little or no advantage against some resistant strains of three other pests with altered cadherin. Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains.

  20. 77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests... environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or...

  1. 76 FR 63279 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered for Insect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests... environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or...

  2. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant...

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of Aurantimonas and Methylobacterium strains from stems of hypernodulated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi; Eda, Shima; Okubo, Takashi; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate Aurantimonas and Methylobacterium strains that responded to soybean nodulation phenotypes and nitrogen fertilization rates in a previous culture-independent analysis (Ikeda et al. ISME J. 4:315-326, 2010). Two strategies were adopted for isolation from enriched bacterial cells prepared from stems of field-grown, hypernodulated soybeans: PCR-assisted isolation for Aurantimonas and selective cultivation for Methylobacterium. Thirteen of 768 isolates cultivated on Nutrient Agar medium were identified as Aurantimonas by colony PCR specific for Aurantimonas and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Meanwhile, among 187 isolates on methanol-containing agar media, 126 were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Methylobacterium. A clustering analysis (>99% identity) of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for the combined datasets of the present and previous studies revealed 4 and 8 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for Aurantimonas and Methylobacterium, respectively, and showed the successful isolation of target bacteria for these two groups. ERIC- and BOX-PCR showed the genomic uniformity of the target isolates. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of Aurantimonas revealed a phyllosphere-specific cluster in the genus. The isolates obtained in the present study will be useful for revealing unknown legume-microbe interactions in relation to the autoregulation of nodulation.

  4. In vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed--with particular regard to ingredients consisting of genetically modified plant materials.

    PubMed

    Pryme, Ian F; Lembcke, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration:--ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals/fish--ingredients produced by/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present--studies on consequences for the environment or biodiversity--in vitro studies or computer simulations. According to a Norwegian report "Gen-mat" (NOU 2000:29), and a more recent search in Medline and Citations Index, to our knowledge a total of ten studies have been published on the health effects of GM-foods and feeds. In this minireview the data made available in these published studies is discussed.

  5. Biochar Amendment Modifies Expression of Soybean and Rhizoctonia solani Genes Leading to Increased Severity of Rhizoctonia Foliar Blight

    PubMed Central

    Copley, Tanya; Bayen, Stéphane; Jabaji, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Application of biochar, a pyrolyzed biomass from organic sources, to agricultural soils is considered a promising strategy to sustain soil fertility leading to increased plant productivity. It is also known that applications of biochar to soilless potting substrates and to soil increases resistance of plants against diseases, but also bear the potential to have inconsistent and contradictory results depending on the type of biochar feedstock and application rate. The following study examined the effect of biochar produced from maple bark on soybean resistance against Rhizoctonia foliar blight (RFB) disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and examined the underlying molecular responses of both soybean and R. solani during interaction with biochar application. Soybean plants were grown in the presence of 1, 3, or 5% (w/w) or absence of maple bark biochar for 2 weeks, and leaves were infected with R. solani AG1-IA. At lower concentrations (1 and 3%), biochar was ineffective against RFB, however at the 5% amendment rate, biochar was conducive to RFB with a significant increase in disease severity. For the first time, soybean and R. solani responsive genes were monitored during the development of RFB on detached leaves of plants grown in the absence and presence of 5% biochar at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h post-inoculation (h.p.i.). Generally, large decreases in soybean transcript abundances of genes associated with primary metabolism such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, starch, amino acid and glutathione metabolism together with genes associated with plant defense and immunity such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid pathways were observed after exposure of soybean to high concentration of biochar. Such genes are critical for plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. The general down-regulation of soybean genes and changes in SA hormonal balance were tightly linked with an increased susceptibility to RFB. In conjunction, R. solani genes associated

  6. Biochar Amendment Modifies Expression of Soybean and Rhizoctonia solani Genes Leading to Increased Severity of Rhizoctonia Foliar Blight.

    PubMed

    Copley, Tanya; Bayen, Stéphane; Jabaji, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Application of biochar, a pyrolyzed biomass from organic sources, to agricultural soils is considered a promising strategy to sustain soil fertility leading to increased plant productivity. It is also known that applications of biochar to soilless potting substrates and to soil increases resistance of plants against diseases, but also bear the potential to have inconsistent and contradictory results depending on the type of biochar feedstock and application rate. The following study examined the effect of biochar produced from maple bark on soybean resistance against Rhizoctonia foliar blight (RFB) disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and examined the underlying molecular responses of both soybean and R. solani during interaction with biochar application. Soybean plants were grown in the presence of 1, 3, or 5% (w/w) or absence of maple bark biochar for 2 weeks, and leaves were infected with R. solani AG1-IA. At lower concentrations (1 and 3%), biochar was ineffective against RFB, however at the 5% amendment rate, biochar was conducive to RFB with a significant increase in disease severity. For the first time, soybean and R. solani responsive genes were monitored during the development of RFB on detached leaves of plants grown in the absence and presence of 5% biochar at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h post-inoculation (h.p.i.). Generally, large decreases in soybean transcript abundances of genes associated with primary metabolism such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, starch, amino acid and glutathione metabolism together with genes associated with plant defense and immunity such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid pathways were observed after exposure of soybean to high concentration of biochar. Such genes are critical for plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. The general down-regulation of soybean genes and changes in SA hormonal balance were tightly linked with an increased susceptibility to RFB. In conjunction, R. solani genes associated

  7. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics.

  8. Nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor for visual detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Kalogianni, Despina P; Koraki, Theodora; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2006-01-15

    Although screening of raw ingredients and food products for genetically modified organisms (GMO) may be accomplished by detecting either the exogenous DNA or the novel protein, DNA is the preferred analyte because of its superior stability during food processing. The development of DNA biosensors is of increasing importance due to the growing demand for rapid and reliable methods for GMO detection. We report the first DNA biosensor in a dry-reagent dipstick configuration for visual detection and confirmation of GMO-related sequences by hybridization within minutes. The sensor is disposable and does not require special instrumentation. It detects the 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences that are present in the majority of transgenic plants. The target sequences are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridized (7min) with probes bearing oligo(dA) tail. The biotinylated product is applied to the sensor followed by immersion in the appropriate buffer. Migration of the buffer rehydrates gold nanoparticles conjugated to oligo(dT), which hybridize with the oligo(dA) tails. The hybrids are captured by immobilized streptavidin at the test zone of the sensor giving a characteristic red line due to the accumulation of the nanoparticles. The excess of nanoparticle conjugates are captured at the control zone by immobilized oligo(dA) strands. Amplified 35S or NOS DNA is detectable at 0.16nM. Soybean powder certified reference material with 0.1% GMO content is clearly detectable after 35 and 40 amplification cycles for 35S and NOS sequence, respectively. The sensor was also applied to real samples from various sources.

  9. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  10. Assessing genetically modified crops to minimize the risk of increased food allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Hefle, Susan L; Taylor, Steven L; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-06-01

    The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the current understanding of food allergens and knowledge regarding the prediction of allergenic activity. Although there have been refinements, the key aspects of the evaluation have not changed. The allergenic properties of the gene donor and the host (recipient) organisms are considered in determining the appropriate testing strategy. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is compared to all known allergens to determine whether the protein is a known allergen or is sufficiently similar to any known allergen to indicate an increased probability of allergic cross-reactivity. Stability of the protein in the presence of acid with the stomach protease pepsin is tested as a risk factor for food allergenicity. In vitro or in vivo human IgE binding are tested when appropriate, if the gene donor is an allergen or the sequence of the protein is similar to an allergen. Serum donors and skin test subjects are selected based on their proven allergic responses to the gene donor or to material containing the allergen that was matched in sequence. While some scientists and regulators have suggested using animal models, performing broadly targeted serum IgE testing or extensive pre- or post-market clinical tests, current evidence does not support these tests as being predictive or practical. Based on the evidence to date, the current assessment process has worked well to prevent the unintended introduction of allergens in commercial GM crops.

  11. CRISPR/Cas mutagenesis of soybean and Medicago truncatula using a new web-tool and a modified Cas9 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Michno, Jean-Michel; Wang, Xiaobo; Liu, Junqi; Curtin, Shaun J; Kono, Thomas Jy; Stupar, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is rapidly becoming the reagent of choice for targeted mutagenesis and gene editing in crop species. There are currently intense research efforts in the crop sciences to identify efficient CRISPR/Cas9 platforms to carry out targeted mutagenesis and gene editing projects. These efforts typically result in the incremental tweaking of various platform components including the identification of crop-specific promoters and terminators for optimal expression of the Cas9 enzyme and identification of promoters for expression of the CRISPR guide RNA. In this report, we demonstrate the development of an online web tool for fast identification of CRISPR/Cas9 target loci within soybean gene models, and generic DNA sequences. The web-tool described in this work can quickly identify a high number of potential CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, including restriction enzyme sites that can facilitate the detection of new mutations. In conjunction with the web tool, a soybean codon-optimized CRISPR/Cas9 platform was designed to direct double-stranded breaks to the targeted loci in hairy root transformed cells. The modified Cas9 enzyme was shown to successfully mutate target genes in somatic cells of 2 legume species, soybean and Medicago truncatula. These new tools may help facilitate targeted mutagenesis in legume and other plant species.

  12. CRISPR/Cas mutagenesis of soybean and Medicago truncatula using a new web-tool and a modified Cas9 enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Michno, Jean-Michel; Wang, Xiaobo; Liu, Junqi; Curtin, Shaun J; Kono, Thomas JY; Stupar, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is rapidly becoming the reagent of choice for targeted mutagenesis and gene editing in crop species. There are currently intense research efforts in the crop sciences to identify efficient CRISPR/Cas9 platforms to carry out targeted mutagenesis and gene editing projects. These efforts typically result in the incremental tweaking of various platform components including the identification of crop-specific promoters and terminators for optimal expression of the Cas9 enzyme and identification of promoters for expression of the CRISPR guide RNA. In this report, we demonstrate the development of an online web tool for fast identification of CRISPR/Cas9 target loci within soybean gene models, and generic DNA sequences. The web-tool described in this work can quickly identify a high number of potential CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, including restriction enzyme sites that can facilitate the detection of new mutations. In conjunction with the web tool, a soybean codon-optimized CRISPR/Cas9 platform was designed to direct double-stranded breaks to the targeted loci in hairy root transformed cells. The modified Cas9 enzyme was shown to successfully mutate target genes in somatic cells of 2 legume species, soybean and Medicago truncatula. These new tools may help facilitate targeted mutagenesis in legume and other plant species. PMID:26479970

  13. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1.

  14. A survey of the use of soy in processed Turkish meat products and detection of genetic modification.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2014-01-01

    To screen for possible illegal use of soybeans in meat products, the performance characteristics of a commercial polymer chain reaction (PCR) kit for detection of soybean DNA in raw and cooked meat products were established. Minced chicken and beef products containing soybean at levels from 0.1% to 10.0% were analysed by real-time PCR to amplify the soybean lectin gene. The PCR method could reliably detect the addition of soybean at a level of 0.1%. A survey of 38 Turkish processed meat products found only six samples to be negative for the presence of soybean. In 32 (84%) positive samples, 13 (34%) contained levels of soy above 0.1%. Of soybean positive samples, further DNA analysis was conducted by real-time PCR to detect whether genetically modified (GM) soybean had been used. Of 32 meat samples containing soybean, two samples were positive for GM modification.

  15. Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, B; Flach, F; Vecchio, L; Barabino, S M L; Battistelli, S; Martin, T E; Malatesta, M; Biggiogera, M

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo several transformation steps to generate mature mRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that a diet containing a genetically modified (GM) soybean can induce modifications of nuclear constituents involved in RNA processing in some tissues of young, adult and old mice. On this basis, we have investigated the ultrastructural and immunocytochemical features of pre-implantation embryos from mice fed either GM or non- GM soybean in order to verify whether the parental diet can affect the morpho-functional development of the embryonic ribonucleoprotein structural constituents involved in pre-mRNA pathways. Morphological observations revealed that the general aspect of embryo nuclear components is similar in the two experimental groups. However, immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization results suggest a temporary decrease of pre-mRNA transcription and splicing in 2-cell embryos and a resumption in 4-8-cell embryos from mice fed GM soybean; moreover, pre-mRNA maturation seems to be less efficient in both 2-cell and 4-8-cell embryos from GM-fed mice than in controls. Although our results are still preliminary and limited to the pre-implantation phases, the results of this study encourage deepening on the effects of food components and/or contaminants on embryo development.

  16. The endogenous transposable element Tgm9 is suitable for functional analyses of soybean genes and generating novel mutants for genetic improvement of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 has been mapped to the W4 locus where the allele containing the elem...

  17. The endogenous transposable element Tgm9 is suitable for generating knockout mutants for functional analyses of soybean genes and genetic improvement in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Devinder; Ghosh, Jayadri; Johnson, Callie; Baumbach, Jordan; Baumert, Eric; Cina, Tyler; Grant, David

    2017-01-01

    In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from Intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase of the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 was mapped to the W4 locus, where the allele containing Tgm9 was termed w4-m. In this study we have demonstrated that previously identified morphological mutants (three chlorophyll deficient mutants, one male sterile-female fertile mutant, and three partial female sterile mutants) were caused by insertion of Tgm9 following its excision from DFR2. Analyses of Tgm9 insertion sites among 105 independent mutants demonstrated that Tgm9 hops to all 20 soybean chromosomes from its original location on Chromosome 17. Some genomic regions are prone to increased Tgm9-insertions. Tgm9 transposed over 25% of the time into exon or intron sequences. Tgm9 is therefore suitable for generating an indexed insertional mutant collection for functional analyses of most soybean genes. Furthermore, desirable Tgm9-induced stable knockout mutants can be utilized in generating improved traits for commercial soybean cultivars. PMID:28797084

  18. Genetically modified crops: success, safety assessment, and public concern.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om V; Ghai, Shivani; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-08-01

    With the emergence of transgenic technologies, new ways to improve the agronomic performance of crops for food, feed, and processing applications have been devised. In addition, ability to express foreign genes using transgenic technologies has opened up options for producing large quantities of commercially important industrial or pharmaceutical products in plants. Despite this high adoption rate and future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the environment. Potential contamination of the environment and food chains has prompted detailed consideration of how such crops and the molecules that they produce can be effectively isolated and contained. One of the reasonable steps after creating a transgenic plant is to evaluate its potential benefits and risks to the environment and these should be compared to those generated by traditional agricultural practices. The precautionary approach in risk management of GM plants may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Effective risk assessment and monitoring mechanisms are the basic prerequisites of any legal framework to adequately address the risks and watch out for new risks. Several agencies in different countries monitor the release of GM organisms or frame guidelines for the appropriate application of recombinant organisms in agro-industries so as to assure the safe use of recombinant organisms and to achieve sound overall development. We feel that it is important to establish an internationally harmonized framework for the safe handling of recombinant DNA organisms within a few years.

  19. Environmental impacts of genetically modified plants: A review.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad; Kouretas, Demetrios; Balias, Georgios; Savolainen, Kai; Tutelyan, Victor A; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Lee, Jeong Dong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2017-03-27

    Powerful scientific techniques have caused dramatic expansion of genetically modified crops leading to altered agricultural practices posing direct and indirect environmental implications. Despite the enhanced yield potential, risks and biosafety concerns associated with such GM crops are the fundamental issues to be addressed. An increasing interest can be noted among the researchers and policy makers in exploring unintended effects of transgenes associated with gene flow, flow of naked DNA, weediness and chemical toxicity. The current state of knowledge reveals that GM crops impart damaging impacts on the environment such as modification in crop pervasiveness or invasiveness, the emergence of herbicide and insecticide tolerance, transgene stacking and disturbed biodiversity, but these impacts require a more in-depth view and critical research so as to unveil further facts. Most of the reviewed scientific resources provide similar conclusions and currently there is an insufficient amount of data available and up until today, the consumption of GM plant products are safe for consumption to a greater extent with few exceptions. This paper updates the undesirable impacts of GM crops and their products on target and non-target species and attempts to shed light on the emerging challenges and threats associated with it. Underpinning research also realizes the influence of GM crops on a disturbance in biodiversity, development of resistance and evolution slightly resembles with the effects of non-GM cultivation. Future prospects are also discussed.

  20. Perspectives on genetically modified crops and food detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  2. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended.

  3. Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-06-23

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited.

  4. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods.

  5. Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2005-01-01

    The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  6. New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Kasama, Kikuko; Toyota, Akie; Nouno, Masanori; Saita, Ayako; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Kubo, Misao

    2004-09-01

    In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study.

  7. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats.

    PubMed

    Chrenková, Mária; Sommer, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana; Nitrayová, Sona; Prostredná, Miroslava

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15 g.kg-1 DM) and of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan (2.6 and 1.7 g.kg-1 DM, respectively) were observed. In the biological experiment carried out on rats the tested maize lines were the only dietary sources of nitrogen, thus, the experimental diets contained 9% CP in dietary dry matter. In the feeding experiment no significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed between groups receiving conventional or transgenic maize (1.51 and 1.41, respectively). Also almost equal results were obtained in the balance experiments. Both maize lines revealed a high nitrogen digestibility (84.9 and 84.5%, respectively) and the net protein utilization amounted to 63.5 and 63.2%, respectively. From these results can be concluded that regarding nutrient composition and utilisation, genetically modified (RR) maize is equivalent to isogenic maize.

  9. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  10. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  11. Gene flow, invasiveness, and ecological impact of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Suzanne I; Beckie, Hugh J; Hall, Linda M

    2009-06-01

    The main environmental concerns about genetically modified (GM) crops are the potential weediness or invasiveness in the crop itself or in its wild or weedy relatives as a result of transgene movement. Here we briefly review evidence for pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from GM crops to non-GM or other GM crops and to wild relatives. The report focuses on the effect of abiotic and biotic stress-tolerance traits on plant fitness and their potential to increase weedy or invasive tendencies. An evaluation of weediness and invasive traits that contribute to the success of agricultural weeds and invasive plants was of limited value in predicting the effect of biotic and abiotic stress-tolerance GM traits, suggesting context-specific evaluation rather than generalizations. Fitness data on herbicide, insect, and disease resistance, as well as cold-, drought-, and salinity-tolerance traits, are reviewed. We describe useful ecological models predicting the effects of gene flow and altered fitness in GM crops and wild/weedy relatives, as well as suitable mitigation measures. A better understanding of factors controlling population size, dynamics, and range limits in weedy volunteer GM crop and related host or target weed populations is necessary before the effect of biotic and abiotic stress-tolerance GM traits can be fully assessed.

  12. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  13. Genetically modified organisms: do the benefits outweigh the risks?

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.

  14. Safety of foods derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John A

    2003-03-01

    Biopharmaceuticals have been available for clinical use for nearly three decades, but foods derived from agribiotechnology have been available for just under a decade. Controversy surrounding foods from genetically modified (GM) plants has focused primarily upon their allergenicity, with lesser concerns about antibiotic resistance genes. Concerns are related to possible environmental impacts on non-human species, including effects on non-target species (e.g., butterflies) and on the development of so-called "super weeds." Food allergies are no more prevalent in foods from GM plants than in conventional foods. Further, the use of antibiotics in the development of GM plants does not pose a significant risk to the human population. Foods from the current GM plant products have been shown not to pose any detrimental effects to humans, and, in fact, nutritionally enhanced products are being developed. GM foods are subjected globally to intense regulatory scrutiny, and extensive data have been provided consistently to regulatory agencies in the United States on a voluntary basis, with mandatory reporting of data soon to be in force. Existing environmental concerns appear to be unjustified on the basis of existing data and experience.

  15. Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments.

    PubMed

    Schilter, Benoît; Constable, Anne

    2002-02-28

    The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context, regulatory control may develop in several directions. One response to the public concern is to strengthen the data requirements for the risk assessment process. Several avenues have been proposed. They include the application of technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics to assess unintended changes, and the development of predictive methods to evaluate allergenicity. Obligations for post-launch surveillance have appeared in regulations. Criteria are required to define when and why such approaches are necessary. Significant challenges including feasibility and validation of the methods, and safety relevance of the data generated will have to be addressed before any general application of these new approaches. Effective monitoring requires the ability to identify the presence of GM products and trace their origin. Traceability and labeling are therefore important developments in the GM food regulatory arena. Both require the development of reliable analytical detection tools.

  16. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  17. Genetically modified crops for biomass increase. Genes and strategies.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Cristian Antonio; Hemerly, Adrianna Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been developed to accelerate the creation of new varieties with improved characteristics such as disease resistance, stress tolerance and higher quality composition. However, agriculture, without minimizing its role in food, feed and fiber source, has become important for the energy matrix of many countries. GMCs are also attractive systems that could fulfill the requirements for these new necessities. An increase of crop yields in an environmental friendly system is a new goal for plant biology research in the twenty-first century. In particular, biomass yield improvement is needed to render the use of biofuels economically feasible. In this context, research directed toward increasing biomass production has attracted much attention and a considerable effort is being made to reach new goals. Nonetheless, in some cases differentiated strategies are needed, as biomass improvement requires approaches other than those employed with traditional crops. This review summarizes the various approaches applied so far to modulate plant growth applying molecular biology-based strategies and increase biomass production, and it highlights several outstanding issues about the developmental constraints that must be addressed.

  18. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.

  19. Mating-type distribution and genetic diversity of Cercospora sojina populations on soybean from Arkansas: evidence for potential sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H

    2013-10-01

    Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction.

  20. Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Kleter, Gijs A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

  1. Overview of the current status of genetically modified plants in Europe as compared to the USA.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Genetically modified crops have been tested in 1,726 experimental releases in the EU member states and in 7,815 experimental releases in the USA. The global commercial cultivation area of genetically modified crops is likely to reach 50 million hectares in 2001, however, the commercial production of genetically modified crops in the EU amounts to only a few thousand hectares and accounts for only some 0.03% of the world production. A significant gap exists between the more than fifty genetically modified crop species already permitted to be cultivated and to be placed on the market in the USA, Canada and other countries and the five genetically modified crop species permitted for the same use in the EU member states, which are still pending inclusion in the Common Catalogue of agricultural plant species. The further development of the "green gene technology" in the EU will be a matter of public acceptance and administrative legislation.

  2. 78 FR 66891 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is... regulations in 7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests,'' regulate, among other...

  3. Characterization of soybean storage and allergen protein affected by environmental and genetic factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of the impact of genetic variability and diverse environments on the protein composition of crop seed is of value for the comparative safety assessments in the development of genetically engineered (GMO) crops. The objective of this study was to determine the role of genotype (G), environ...

  4. [Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food].

    PubMed

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline - via PubMed -, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors "organisms, genetically modified" and "food labeling". The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modified products and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies.

  5. Amino acid substitution in P3 of Soybean mosaic virus to convert avirulence to virulence on Rsv4-genotype soybean is influenced by the genetic composition of P3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Khatabi, B; Hajimorad, M R

    2015-04-01

    The modification of avirulence factors of plant viruses by one or more amino acid substitutions converts avirulence to virulence on hosts containing resistance genes. Limited experimental studies have been conducted on avirulence/virulence factors of plant viruses, in particular those of potyviruses, to determine whether avirulence/virulence sites are conserved among strains. In this study, the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-Rsv4 pathosystem was exploited to determine whether: (i) avirulence/virulence determinants of SMV reside exclusively on P3 regardless of virus strain; and (ii) the sites residing on P3 and crucial for avirulence/virulence of isolates belonging to strain G2 are also involved in virulence of avirulent isolates belonging to strain G7. The results confirm that avirulence/virulence determinants of SMV on Rsv4-genotype soybean reside exclusively on P3. Furthermore, the data show that sites involved in the virulence of SMV on Rsv4-genotype soybean vary among strains, with the genetic composition of P3 playing a crucial role.

  6. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows.

  7. [Methods of identification and assessment of safety of genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A; Nesterenko, L N; Naroditskiĭ, B S

    2011-01-01

    Methods of identification of genetically modified microorganisms (GMM), used in manufacture food on control probes are presented. Results of microbiological and molecular and genetic analyses of food products and their components important in microbiological and genetic expert examination of GMM in foods are considered. Examination of biosafety of GMM are indicated.

  8. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

  9. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods.

  10. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  11. Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hauke; Middelhoff, Ulrike; Graef, Frieder; Verhoeven, Richard; Batz, Thomas; Weis, Martin; Schmidt, Gunther; Schröder, Winfried; Breckling, Broder

    2010-09-01

    European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and evaluate the monitoring data. A structure for an Information System for Monitoring GMO (ISMO) was developed by a multidisciplinary research team. It is based on the requirement to organise all relevant information in a logical, readily accessible and functional manner. For the ISMO, we present a combination of three interrelated components: Firstly, an ISMO should comprise a knowledge database structured according to information related to the different scale levels of biological organisation relevant to GMO monitoring and scientific hypotheses on cause-effects which should be validated by monitoring data. Secondly, a monitoring database should be part of an ISMO containing GMO-specific monitoring data and meta-data. This monitoring database should be linked with monitoring data from other monitoring programmes which are relevant for GMO-related questions. Thirdly, an ISMO should encompass a database covering administrative and procedural data. Neither national nor international approaches to an ISMO exist yet. An ISMO as designed in this paper could support competent authorities in both the GMO notification process and in post-market monitoring. This includes evaluating the environmental risks of experimentally releasing GMO and placing them on the market, assessing monitoring plans and evaluating monitoring results. The ISMO should be implemented on both the national and international level, preferably combining different administrative scales. Harmonisation approaches towards GMO monitoring data are at an initial stage, but they are a precondition to coordinated GMO monitoring and to successfully

  12. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  13. Transgene × Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Simon L.; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Background The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. Methods and Findings We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology. PMID:20635001

  14. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-06-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

  15. Risks and benefits of genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa: views from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Muula, Adamson S; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph M

    2003-02-01

    In 2001 and 2002, many countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have suffered from severe food shortages resulting in an estimated 14 million people facing starvation due to inadequate quantities of the staple maize. The international community's response has been the donation of foodstuffs, including genetically modified maize. Reactions of the recipient countries of Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi have been different. Zambia appealed to the donors not to send genetically modified maize, whereas Malawi accepted the maize donations. Malawi is currently facing many public health challenges because 10% of its 10-million population is HIV-positive, maternal mortality rate has almost doubled between 1992 and 2000, and there are also an estimated 1 million orphans due to HIV/AIDS. In the European Union, genetically modified maize falls under "Novel Foods" and its marketing and distribution are strictly regulated by law. This has never been the case in the southern African countries. In this article, we discuss the ethical challenges associated with genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa. Although genetically modified food offers a way to avoid many adverse effects of food shortages, we believe that some of the ethical questions of genetically modified food donations should be solved first, under the leadership of the donor countries and partnership of the developing countries. There are fears that consummation of genetically modified maize could have adverse health effects. These fears must be addressed if the confidence of developing countries in the donor community is to be maintained.

  16. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  17. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing-based investigation of the genetic architecture responsible for a ~sevenfold increase in soybean seed stearic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean oil is highly unsaturated and oxidatively unstable, rendering it non-ideal for most food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, a process which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fat and most...

  19. An RNA-Seq study reveals genetic responses of diverse wild soybean accessions to increased ozone levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ozone is a pollutant widely known to cause decrease in productivity in many plant species, including soybean. While cultivated soybean response to ozone has been studied, less work has been done to identify sources of resistance from wild relatives. This study presents a putative SNP marker on Chrom...

  20. Genetic resistance to soybean rust in PI 567099A is at or near the Rpp3 locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research identified soybean accession PI 567099A as resistant to soybean rust (SBR). The objective of this research was to map the resistance genes(s) of PI 567099A. A population segregating for SBR resistance was evaluated in the 2008 and 2009 seasons in Paraguay. In both seasons F2:3 f...

  1. Data in support of the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Noor; Alzubi, Hussein; Kader, Ahmad Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data. The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis.

  2. One Novel Multiple-Target Plasmid Reference Molecule Targeting Eight Genetically Modified Canola Events for Genetically Modified Canola Detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuqing; Li, Xiang; Wang, Canhua; Song, Guiwen; Pi, Liqun; Zheng, Lan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2017-09-27

    Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc. The LODs are 15 copies for RF2, MS1, and RT73 assays using pCAN as the calibrator and 10 genome copies for the other events. The LOQ in each event-specific real-time PCR assay is 20 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and PEP assays are between 91% and 97%, and the squared regression coefficients (R(2)) are all higher than 0.99. The quantification bias values varied from 0.47% to 20.68% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.06% to 24.61% in the quantification of simulated samples. Furthermore, 10 practical canola samples sampled from imported shipments in the port of Shanghai, China, were analyzed employing pCAN as the calibrator, and the results were comparable with those assays using commercial certified materials as the calibrator. Concluding from these results, we believe that this newly developed pCAN plasmid is one good candidate for being a plasmid DNA reference material in the detection and quantification of the eight GM canola events in routine analysis.

  3. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  4. Preventing the spread of malaria and dengue fever using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed.

  5. Preventing the Spread of Malaria and Dengue Fever Using Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    James, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed. PMID:18979028

  6. Recent advances in genome editing and creation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Butler, James R; Ladowski, Joseph M; Martens, Gregory R; Tector, Matthew; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The field of xenotransplantation is benefiting greatly from recent advances in genetic engineering. The efficiency and pace with which new model animals are being created has dramatically sped progress towards clinical relevance. Endonuclease-driven genome editing now allows for the efficient generation of targeted genetic alterations. Herein we review the available methods of genetic engineering that have been successfully employed to create genetically modified pigs.

  7. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-02

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods.

  8. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Brandon J.; Galan, Maria P.; Schafer, Ariane C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods. PMID:27248569

  9. Investigation of endogenous soybean food allergens by using a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach.

    PubMed

    Rouquié, David; Capt, Annabelle; Eby, William H; Sekar, Vaithilingam; Hérouet-Guicheney, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    As part of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) soybean, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses were performed with the isoxaflutole and glyphosate tolerant soybean FG72, its non-GM near-isogenic counterpart (Jack) and three commercial non-GM soybean lines. The objective was to compare the known endogenous human food allergens in seeds in the five different soybean lines in order to evaluate any potential unintended effect(s) of the genetic modification. In total, 37 protein spots representing five well known soybean food allergen groups were quantified in each genotype. Qualitatively, all the allergenic proteins were detected in the different genetic backgrounds. Quantitatively, among 37 protein spots, the levels of accumulation of three allergens were slightly lower in the GM soybean than in the non-GM counterparts. Specifically, while the levels of two of these three allergens fell within the normal range of variation observed in the four non-GM varieties, the level of the third allergen was slightly below the normal range. Overall, there was no significant increase in the level of allergens in FG72 soybean seeds. Therefore, the FG72 soybean can be considered as safe as its non-GM counterpart with regards to endogenous allergenicity. Additional research is needed to evaluate the biological variability in the levels of endogenous soybean allergens and the correlation between level of allergens and allergenic potential in order to improve the interpretation of these data in the safety assessment of GM soybean context. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents.

  11. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) website: genome-wide association analysis for genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H.; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. OBJECTIVE Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. METHODS In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. RESULTS Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. CONCLUSIONS Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/. PMID:26444025

  12. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor OnsetAge (GeM MOA) Website: Genome-wide Association Analysis for Genetic Modifiers of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/.

  13. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly.

  14. How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modified organisms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.

  15. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  16. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  17. Construction of high-density genetic map and QTL mapping of yield-related and two quality traits in soybean RILs population by RAD-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nianxi; Li, Mu; Hu, Xiangbao; Ma, Qibin; Mu, Yinghui; Tan, Zhiyuan; Xia, Qiuju; Zhang, Gengyun; Nian, Hai

    2017-06-19

    One of the overarching goals of soybean breeding is to develop lines that combine increased yield with improved quality characteristics. High-density-marker QTL mapping can serve as an effective strategy to identify novel genomic information to facilitate crop improvement. In this study, we genotyped a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (Zhonghuang 24 × Huaxia 3) using a restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) approach. A high-density soybean genetic map was constructed and used to identify several QTLs that were shown to influence six yield-related and two quality traits. A total of 47,472 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for the RILs that were integrated into 2639 recombination bin units, with an average distance of 1.00 cM between adjacent markers. Forty seven QTLs for yield-related traits and 13 QTLs for grain quality traits were found to be distributed on 16 chromosomes in the 2 year studies. Among them, 18 QTLs were stable, and were identified in both analyses. Twenty six QTLs were identified for the first time, with a single QTL (qNN19a) in a 56 kb region explaining 32.56% of phenotypic variation, and an additional 10 of these were novel, stable QTLs. Moreover, 8 QTL hotpots on four different chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. With RAD-sequencing, some novel QTLs and important QTL clusters for both yield-related and quality traits were identified based on a new, high-density bin linkage map. Three predicted genes were selected as candidates that likely have a direct or indirect influence on both yield and quality in soybean. Our findings will be helpful for understanding common genetic control mechanisms of co-localized traits and to select cultivars for further analysis to predictably modulate soybean yield and quality simultaneously.

  18. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  19. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  20. Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans (Glycine max L.) MON 87708 and MON 87708 × MON 89788 Are Compositionally Equivalent to Conventional Soybean.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mary; Bickel, Anna; Mannion, Rhonda; Bell, Erin; Harrigan, George G

    2017-09-13

    Herbicide-tolerant crops can expand both tools for and timing of weed control strategies. MON 87708 soybean has been developed through genetic modification and confers tolerance to the dicamba herbicide. As part of the safety assessment conducted for new genetically modified (GM) crop varieties, a compositional assessment of MON 87708 was performed. Levels of key soybean nutrients and anti-nutrients in harvested MON 87708 were compared to levels of those components in a closely related non-GM variety as well as to levels measured in other conventional soybean varieties. From this analysis, MON 87708 was shown to be compositionally equivalent to its comparator. A similar analysis conducted for a stacked trait product produced by conventional breeding, MON 87708 × MON 89788, which confers tolerance to both dicamba and glyphosate herbicides, reached the same conclusion. These results are consistent with other results that demonstrate no compositional impact of genetic modification, except in those cases where an impact was an intended outcome.

  1. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  2. In silico peptide prediction for antibody generation to recognize 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Marani, Mariela M; Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Camperi, Silvia A; Leite, José Roberto de Souza Almeida

    2015-03-01

    For the prospective immunorecognition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) as a biomarker protein expressed by transgenic soybean, an extensive in silico evaluation of the referred protein was performed. The main objective of this study was the selection of a set of peptides that could function as potential immunogens for the production of novel antibodies against CP4-EPSPS protein. For this purpose, the protein was in silico cleaved with trypsin/chymotrypsin and the resultant peptides were extensively analyzed for further selection of the best candidates for antibody production. The analysis enabled the successful proposal of four peptides with potential immunogenicity for their future use as screening biomarkers of genetically modified organisms. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to select and define potential linear epitopes for the immunization of animals and, subsequently, to generate adequate antibodies for CP4-EPSPS recognition. The present work will be followed by the synthesis of the candidate peptides to be incubated in animals for antibody generation and potential applicability for the development of an immunosensor for CP4-EPSPS detection.

  3. Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

  4. Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

  5. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  6. Mining plant genome browsers as a means for efficient connection of physical, genetic and cytogenetic mapping: An example using soybean

    PubMed Central

    Belarmino, Luis C.; da S. Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; de A. Bortoleti, Kyria C.; Bezerra-Neto, João Pacífico; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical maps are important tools to uncover general chromosome structure as well as to compare different plant lineages and species, helping to elucidate genome structure, evolution and possibilities regarding synteny and colinearity. The increasing production of sequence data has opened an opportunity to link information from mapping studies to the underlying sequences. Genome browsers are invaluable platforms that provide access to these sequences, including tools for genome analysis, allowing the integration of multivariate information, and thus aiding to explain the emergence of complex genomes. The present work presents a tutorial regarding the use of genome browsers to develop targeted physical mapping, providing also a general overview and examples about the possibilities regarding the use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC), simple sequence repeats (SSR) and rDNA probes, highlighting the potential of such studies for map integration and comparative genetics. As a case study, the available genome of soybean was accessed to show how the physical and in silico distribution of such sequences may be compared at different levels. Such evaluations may also be complemented by the identification of sequences beyond the detection level of cytological methods, here using members of the aquaporin gene family as an example. The proposed approach highlights the complementation power of the combination of molecular cytogenetics and computational approaches for the anchoring of coding or repetitive sequences in plant genomes using available genome browsers, helping in the determination of sequence location, arrangement and number of repeats, and also filling gaps found in computational pseudochromosome assemblies. PMID:22802719

  7. Glyphosate and dicamba herbicide tank mixture effects on native plant and non-genetically engineered soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2015-07-01

    Crops engineered to contain genes for tolerance to multiple herbicides may be treated with several herbicides to manage weeds resistant to each herbicide. Thus, nearby non-target plants may be subjected to increased exposure to several herbicides used in combination. Of particular concern are native plants, as well as adjacent crops which have not been genetically engineered for tolerance to herbicides. We evaluated responses of seven species of native plants grown in a greenhouse and treated less than field application rates of glyphosate and/or dicamba: Andropogon gerardii, Asclepias syriaca, Eutrochium purpureum, Oenothera biennis, Polyganum lapathifolium, Solidago canadensis and Tridens flavus, and non-herbicide resistant soybean (Glycine max, Oregon line M4). Herbicide concentrations were 0.03 or 0.1 × field application rates of 1122 g ha(-1) active ingredient (a.i) (831 g ha(-1) acid glyphosate) for glyphosate and 562 g ha(-1) a.i. for dicamba. In general, plant growth responses to combinations of glyphosate and dicamba were less than the sum of growth responses to the individual herbicides (i.e., antagonistic effect), primarily when one or both herbicides alone caused a large reduction in growth. E. purpureum, P. lapathifolium and S. canadensis were the most sensitive species to both herbicides, while A. gerardii was the most tolerant, with no response to either herbicide. The combinations of herbicides resulted in responses most similar to that from dicamba alone for G. max and from glyphosate alone for T. flavus. The results of this study indicated the need for more data such as effects on native plants in the field to assess risks to non-target plants from combinations of herbicides.

  8. Response of Pennsylvania native plant species, corn and soybean to tank mixes of dicamba and glyphosate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crops such as soybean are being genetically modified to be tolerant to multiple herbicides, such as dicamba and glyphosate, in order to allow treatment with several herbicides to control the development of herbicide resistance in weeds. However, with increased use of multiple-he...

  9. Response of Pennsylvania native plant species, corn and soybean to tank mixes of dicamba and glyphosate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crops such as soybean are being genetically modified to be tolerant to multiple herbicides, such as dicamba and glyphosate, in order to allow treatment with several herbicides to control the development of herbicide resistance in weeds. However, with increased use of multiple-he...

  10. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  11. Education Modifies Genetic and Environmental Influences on BMI

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height2) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were −.13 in women, −.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity. PMID:21283825

  12. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms.

  13. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  14. Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barreto Bruno; Gomes, Almério de Castro; Natal, Delsio; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2009-10-01

    The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific promoter into immature females. Advantages of these approaches over other biological and chemical control strategies include: highly species-specific, environmentally safety, low production cost, and high efficacy. The use of this genetic modification technique will constitute an important tool for integrated vector management.

  15. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  16. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  17. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  18. Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

  19. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  20. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.