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Sample records for genetically-encoded ratiometric indicator

  1. Probing subcellular organic hydroperoxide formation via a genetically encoded ratiometric and reversible fluorescent indicator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Zhang, Gong; Zeng, Shizhe; He, Chuan; Chen, Peng R

    2013-12-01

    A ratiometric and reversible organic hydroperoxide (OHP) sensor, rOHSer, was developed with high sensitivity and selectivity for subcellular OHP visualization. Through targeting rOHSer to the nucleus, we demonstrated that high levels of D-glucose cause elevated OHP production in this compartment. Further utilization of rOHSer probe may allow more elucidation of unique roles of OHPs in diverse biological processes.

  2. MagIC, a genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for monitoring cellular Mg2+ using a non-Förster resonance energy transfer ratiometric imaging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldenkova, Vadim Pérez; Matsuda, Tomoki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular Mg roles are commensurate with its abundance in the cell cytoplasm. However, little is known about Mg subcellular dynamics, primarily due to the lack of suitable Mg-selective tools to monitor this ion in intracellular compartments. To cope with this lack, we developed a Mg-sensitive indicator-MagIC (indicator for Magnesium Imaging in Cell) -composed of a functionalized yellow fluorescent protein (FP) variant fused to a red-emitting FP serving as a reference, thus allowing ratiometric imaging of Mg. MagIC expressed in mammalian cells is homogeneously distributed between the cytosol and nucleus but its fusion with appropriate targeting sequences redirects it to mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum. MagIC shows little interference by intracellular Ca [Kd(Mg2+)=5.1 mM Kd(Ca2+)=4.8 mM] and its kinetic properties (k=84 s-1) approach those of indicator dyes. With MagIC, as reported previously, we also observed a cytosolic Mg increase provoked by application of 50 mM MgCl2 in the medium. This effect is, however, mimicked by 75 mM KCl or 150 mM D-sorbitol addition, indicating that it is a response to the associated hyperosmotic shock and not to Mg itself. Our results confirm the functionality of MagIC as a useful tool for the long-awaited possibility of prolonged and organelle-specific monitoring of cellular Mg.

  3. MagIC, a genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for monitoring cellular Mg2+ using a non-Förster resonance energy transfer ratiometric imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Koldenkova, Vadim Pérez; Matsuda, Tomoki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular Mg(2+) roles are commensurate with its abundance in the cell cytoplasm. However, little is known about Mg(2+) subcellular dynamics, primarily due to the lack of suitable Mg(2+)-selective tools to monitor this ion in intracellular compartments. To cope with this lack, we developed a Mg(2+)-sensitive indicator--MagIC (indicator for Magnesium Imaging in Cell)--composed of a functionalized yellow fluorescent protein (FP) variant fused to a red-emitting FP serving as a reference, thus allowing ratiometric imaging of Mg(2+) MagIC expressed in mammalian cells is homogeneously distributed between the cytosol and nucleus but its fusion with appropriate targeting sequences redirects it to mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum. MagIC shows little interference by intracellular Ca(2+) [Kd (Mg(2+)) = 5.1 mM; Kd (Ca(2+)) = 4.8 mM] and its kinetic properties (k(off) = 84 s(-1)) approach those of indicator dyes. With MagIC, as reported previously, we also observed a cytosolic Mg(2+) increase provoked by application of 50 mM MgCl2 in the medium. This effect is, however, mimicked by 75 mM KCl or 150 mM D-sorbitol addition, indicating that it is a response to the associated hyperosmotic shock and not to Mg(2+) itself. Our results confirm the functionality of MagIC as a useful tool for the long-awaited possibility of prolonged and organelle-specific monitoring of cellular Mg(2+).

  4. Genetically encoded indicators of neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael Z; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2016-08-26

    Experimental efforts to understand how the brain represents, stores and processes information require high-fidelity recordings of multiple different forms of neural activity within functional circuits. Thus, creating improved technologies for large-scale recordings of neural activity in the live brain is a crucial goal in neuroscience. Over the past two decades, the combination of optical microscopy and genetically encoded fluorescent indicators has become a widespread means of recording neural activity in nonmammalian and mammalian nervous systems, transforming brain research in the process. In this review, we describe and assess different classes of fluorescent protein indicators of neural activity. We first discuss general considerations in optical imaging and then present salient characteristics of representative indicators. Our focus is on how indicator characteristics relate to their use in living animals and on likely areas of future progress. PMID:27571193

  5. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Xian, Wenying; Müller, Andreas; Oberhofer, Martin; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Sinnecker, Daniel; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Moretti, Alessandra; Lipp, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided. PMID:26370981

  6. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Xian, Wenying; Müller, Andreas; Oberhofer, Martin; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Sinnecker, Daniel; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Moretti, Alessandra; Lipp, Peter

    2015-09-08

    Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided.

  7. Genetically encoded ratiometric biosensors to measure intracellular exchangeable zinc in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da; Hurst, Tamiika K.; Thompson, Richard B.; Fierke, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element for numerous cellular processes, therefore zinc homeostasis is regulated in living organisms. Fluorescent sensors have been developed as important tools to monitor the concentrations of readily exchangeable zinc in live cells. One type of biosensor uses carbonic anhydrase (CA) as the recognition element based on its tunable affinity, superior metal selectivity, and fluorescence signal from aryl sulfonamide ligands coupled to zinc binding. Here, we fuse carbonic anhydrase with a red fluorescent protein to create a series of genetically-encoded Förster resonance energy transfer-based excitation ratiometric zinc sensors that exhibit large signal increases in response to alterations in physiological-free zinc concentrations. These sensors were applied to the prokaryotic model organism Escherichia coli to quantify the readily exchangeable zinc concentration. In minimal media, E. coli BL21(DE3) cells expressing the CA sensor, exhibit a median intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration of 20 pM, much less than the total cellular zinc concentration of ∼0.2 mM. Furthermore, the intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration varies with the concentration of environmental zinc. PMID:21895338

  8. Genetically encoded ratiometric biosensors to measure intracellular exchangeable zinc in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da; Hurst, Tamiika K.; Thompson, Richard B.; Fierke, Carol A.

    2011-08-01

    Zinc is an essential element for numerous cellular processes, therefore zinc homeostasis is regulated in living organisms. Fluorescent sensors have been developed as important tools to monitor the concentrations of readily exchangeable zinc in live cells. One type of biosensor uses carbonic anhydrase (CA) as the recognition element based on its tunable affinity, superior metal selectivity, and fluorescence signal from aryl sulfonamide ligands coupled to zinc binding. Here, we fuse carbonic anhydrase with a red fluorescent protein to create a series of genetically-encoded Förster resonance energy transfer-based excitation ratiometric zinc sensors that exhibit large signal increases in response to alterations in physiological-free zinc concentrations. These sensors were applied to the prokaryotic model organism Escherichia coli to quantify the readily exchangeable zinc concentration. In minimal media, E. coli BL21(DE3) cells expressing the CA sensor, exhibit a median intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration of 20 pM, much less than the total cellular zinc concentration of ~0.2 mM. Furthermore, the intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration varies with the concentration of environmental zinc.

  9. Chronic imaging of cortical sensory map dynamics using a genetically encoded calcium indicator.

    PubMed

    Minderer, Matthias; Liu, Wenrui; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Kügler, Sebastian; Helmchen, Fritjof; Margolis, David J

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging can reveal the dynamics of large-scale cortical activity, but methods for chronic recording are limited. Here we present a technique for long-term investigation of cortical map dynamics using wide-field ratiometric fluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Yellow Cameleon 3.60. We find that wide-field GECI signals report sensory-evoked activity in anaesthetized mouse somatosensory cortex with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal precision, and furthermore, can be measured repeatedly in separate imaging sessions over multiple weeks. This method opens new possibilities for the longitudinal study of stability and plasticity of cortical sensory representations.

  10. Monitoring activity in neural circuits with genetically encoded indicators

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Gerard J.; Liang, Ruqiang; Tian, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in genetically encoded indicators of neural activity (GINAs) have greatly advanced the field of systems neuroscience. As they are encoded by DNA, GINAs can be targeted to genetically defined cellular populations. Combined with fluorescence microscopy, most notably multi-photon imaging, GINAs allow chronic simultaneous optical recordings from large populations of neurons or glial cells in awake, behaving mammals, particularly rodents. This large-scale recording of neural activity at multiple temporal and spatial scales has greatly advanced our understanding of the dynamics of neural circuitry underlying behavior—a critical first step toward understanding the complexities of brain function, such as sensorimotor integration and learning. Here, we summarize the recent development and applications of the major classes of GINAs. In particular, we take an in-depth look at the design of available GINA families with a particular focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators (GCaMPs), sensors probing synaptic activity, and genetically encoded voltage indicators. Using the family of the GCaMP as an example, we review established sensor optimization pipelines. We also discuss practical considerations for end users of GINAs about experimental methods including approaches for gene delivery, imaging system requirements, and data analysis techniques. With the growing toolbox of GINAs and with new microscopy techniques pushing beyond their current limits, the age of light can finally achieve the goal of broad and dense sampling of neuronal activity across time and brain structures to obtain a dynamic picture of brain function. PMID:25538558

  11. Genetically encoded optical indicators for the analysis of neuronal circuits.

    PubMed

    Knöpfel, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    In a departure from previous top-down or bottom-up strategies used to understand neuronal circuits, many forward-looking research programs now place the circuit itself at their centre. This has led to an emphasis on the dissection and elucidation of neuronal circuit elements and mechanisms, and on studies that ask how these circuits generate behavioural outputs. This movement towards circuit-centric strategies is progressing rapidly as a result of technological advances that combine genetic manipulation with light-based methods. The core tools of these new approaches are genetically encoded optical indicators and actuators that enable non-destructive interrogation and manipulation of neuronal circuits in behaving animals with cellular-level precision. This Review examines genetically encoded reporters of neuronal function and assesses their value for circuit-oriented neuroscientific investigations.

  12. Photoactivatable Genetically-Encoded Calcium Indicators for targeted neuronal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Shai; Carroll, Elizabeth C.; Newman, Zachary L.; Okada, Hitomi O.; Quinn, Carson M.; Kallman, Benjamin; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2015-01-01

    Circuit mapping requires knowledge of both structural and functional connectivity between cells. While optical tools have been made to assess either the morphology and projections of neurons or their activity and functional connections, few probes integrate this information. We have generated a family of photoactivatable Genetically Encoded Ca2+ Indicators (pa-GECIs) that combines attributes of high-contrast photo-labeling with high-sensitivity Ca2+ detection in a single-color, protein-sensor. We demonstrate the utility of pa-GECIs in cultured neurons and in vivo in Drosophila and zebrafish larvae. We show how single cells can be selected out of dense populations for Golgi-like visualization of morphology and high signal-to-noise measurements of activity, synaptic transmission and connectivity. Our design strategy is readily transferrable to other sensors based on circularly permutated GFP (cpGFP). PMID:26167640

  13. Designs and sensing mechanisms of genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicators

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, François; Chavarha, Mariya; Lin, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons tightly regulate the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane with millivolt accuracy and millisecond resolution. Membrane voltage dynamics underlie the generation of an impulse, the transduction of impulses from one end of the neuron to the other, and the release of neurotransmitters. Imaging these voltage dynamics in multiple neurons simultaneously is therefore critical for understanding how neurons function together within circuits in intact brains. Genetically encoded fluorescent voltage sensors have long been desired to report voltage in defined subsets of neurons with optical readout. In this review, we discuss the diverse strategies used to design and optimize protein-based voltage sensors, and highlight the chemical mechanisms by which different classes of reporters sense voltage. To guide neuroscientists in choosing an appropriate sensor for their applications, we also describe operating tradeoffs of each class of voltage indicators. PMID:26079047

  14. Generation of transgenic marmosets expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Eun; Zhang, Xian Feng; Choi, Sang-Ho; Okahara, Junko; Sasaki, Erika; Silva, Afonso C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic monitoring of neuronal activity in the living brain with optical imaging techniques became feasible owing to the continued development of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs). Here we report for the first time the successful generation of transgenic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), an important nonhuman primate model in neurophysiological research, which were engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based family of GECIs, GCaMP, under control of either the CMV or the hSyn promoter. High titer lentiviral vectors were produced, and injected into embryos collected from donor females. The infected embryos were then transferred to recipient females. Eight transgenic animals were born and shown to have stable and functional GCaMP expression in several different tissues. Germline transmission of the transgene was confirmed in embryos generated from two of the founder transgenic marmosets that reached sexual maturity. These embryos were implanted into six recipient females, three of which became pregnant and are in advanced stages of gestation. We believe these transgenic marmosets will be invaluable non-human primate models in neuroscience, allowing chronic in vivo monitoring of neural activity with functional confocal and multi-photon optical microscopy imaging of intracellular calcium dynamics. PMID:27725685

  15. Genetically encoded reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox indicators.

    PubMed

    Pouvreau, Sandrine

    2014-02-01

    Redox processes are increasingly being recognized as key elements in the regulation of cellular signaling cascades. They are frequently encountered at the frontier between physiological functions and pathological events. The biological relevance of intracellular redox changes depends on the subcellular origin, the spatio-temporal distribution and the redox couple involved. Thus, a key task in the elucidation of the role of redox reactions is the specific and quantitative measurement of redox conditions with high spatio-temporal resolution. Unfortunately, until recently, our ability to perform such measurements was limited by the lack of adequate technology. Over the last 10 years, promising imaging tools have been developed from fluorescent proteins. Genetically encoded reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox indicators (GERRIs) have the potential to allow real-time and pseudo-quantitative monitoring of specific ROS and thiol redox state in subcellular compartments or live organisms. Redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent proteins (rxYFP family), redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFP family), HyPer (a probe designed to measure H2 O2 ), circularly permuted YFP and others have been used in several models and sufficient information has been collected to highlight their main characteristics. This review is intended to be a tour guide of the main types of GERRIs, their origins, properties, advantages and pitfalls.

  16. Calcium imaging with genetically encoded indicators in behaving primates

    PubMed Central

    Seidemann, Eyal; Chen, Yuzhi; Bai, Yoon; Chen, Spencer C; Mehta, Preeti; Kajs, Bridget L; Geisler, Wilson S; Zemelman, Boris V

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neural basis of behaviour requires studying brain activity in behaving subjects using complementary techniques that measure neural responses at multiple spatial scales, and developing computational tools for understanding the mapping between these measurements. Here we report the first results of widefield imaging of genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP6f) signals from V1 of behaving macaques. This technique provides a robust readout of visual population responses at the columnar scale over multiple mm2 and over several months. To determine the quantitative relation between the widefield GCaMP signals and the locally pooled spiking activity, we developed a computational model that sums the responses of V1 neurons characterized by prior single unit measurements. The measured tuning properties of the GCaMP signals to stimulus contrast, orientation and spatial position closely match the predictions of the model, suggesting that widefield GCaMP signals are linearly related to the summed local spiking activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16178.001 PMID:27441501

  17. Optogenetic Monitoring of Synaptic Activity with Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryuichi; Jung, Arong; Yoon, Bong-June; Baker, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The age of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) has matured to the point that changes in membrane potential can now be observed optically in vivo. Improving the signal size and speed of these voltage sensors has been the primary driving forces during this maturation process. As a result, there is a wide range of probes using different voltage detecting mechanisms and fluorescent reporters. As the use of these probes transitions from optically reporting membrane potential in single, cultured cells to imaging populations of cells in slice and/or in vivo, a new challenge emerges—optically resolving the different types of neuronal activity. While improvements in speed and signal size are still needed, optimizing the voltage range and the subcellular expression (i.e., soma only) of the probe are becoming more important. In this review, we will examine the ability of recently developed probes to report synaptic activity in slice and in vivo. The voltage-sensing fluorescent protein (VSFP) family of voltage sensors, ArcLight, ASAP-1, and the rhodopsin family of probes are all good at reporting changes in membrane potential, but all have difficulty distinguishing subthreshold depolarizations from action potentials and detecting neuronal inhibition when imaging populations of cells. Finally, we will offer a few possible ways to improve the optical resolution of the various types of neuronal activities. PMID:27547183

  18. pHlash: A New Genetically Encoded and Ratiometric Luminescence Sensor of Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. Brian; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a genetically encodable and ratiometic pH probe named “pHlash” that utilizes Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) rather than fluorescence excitation. The pHlash sensor–composed of a donor luciferase that is genetically fused to a Venus fluorophore–exhibits pH dependence of its spectral emission in vitro. When expressed in either yeast or mammalian cells, pHlash reports basal pH and cytosolic acidification in vivo. Its spectral ratio response is H+ specific; neither Ca++, Mg++, Na+, nor K+ changes the spectral form of its luminescence emission. Moreover, it can be used to image pH in single cells. This is the first BRET-based sensor of H+ ions, and it should allow the approximation of pH in cytosolic and organellar compartments in applications where current pH probes are inadequate. PMID:22905204

  19. Redox Indicator Mice Stably Expressing Genetically Encoded Neuronal roGFP: Versatile Tools to Decipher Subcellular Redox Dynamics in Neuropathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Kerstin C.; Kolbrink, Benedikt; Dietrich, Katharina; Kizina, Kathrin M.; Terwitte, Lukas S.; Kempkes, Belinda; Bao, Guobin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downstream redox alterations not only mediate physiological signaling but also neuropathology. For long, ROS/redox imaging was hampered by a lack of reliable probes. Genetically encoded redox sensors overcame this gap and revolutionized (sub)cellular redox imaging. Yet, the successful delivery of sensor-coding DNA, which demands transfection/transduction of cultured preparations or stereotaxic microinjections of each subject, remains challenging. By generating transgenic mice, we aimed to overcome limiting cultured preparations, circumvent surgical interventions, and to extend effectively redox imaging to complex and adult preparations. Results: Our redox indicator mice widely express Thy1-driven roGFP1 (reduction–oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 1) in neuronal cytosol or mitochondria. Negative phenotypic effects of roGFP1 were excluded and its proper targeting and functionality confirmed. Redox mapping by ratiometric wide-field imaging reveals most oxidizing conditions in CA3 neurons. Furthermore, mitochondria are more oxidized than cytosol. Cytosolic and mitochondrial roGFP1s reliably report cell endogenous redox dynamics upon metabolic challenge or stimulation. Fluorescence lifetime imaging yields stable, but marginal, response ranges. We therefore developed automated excitation ratiometric 2-photon imaging. It offers superior sensitivity, spatial resolution, and response dynamics. Innovation and Conclusion: Redox indicator mice enable quantitative analyses of subcellular redox dynamics in a multitude of preparations and at all postnatal stages. This will uncover cell- and compartment-specific cerebral redox signals and their defined alterations during development, maturation, and aging. Cross-breeding with other disease models will reveal molecular details on compartmental redox homeostasis in neuropathology. Combined with ratiometric 2-photon imaging, this will foster our mechanistic understanding

  20. A genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for illuminating proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bae; Ozawa, Takeaki; Umezawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method to evaluate the activities of cytokines based on the nuclear transport of NF-κB. A pair of bioluminescent indicators was made for conferring cytokine sensitivity to cervical carcinoma-derived HeLa cells. The principle is based on reconstitution of split fragments of Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc) by protein splicing with a DnaE intein from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The bioluminescence intensity of thus reconstituted RLuc in the HeLa cells was used as a measure of the activities for cytokines. With the present method, we evaluated the activities of various cytokines based on the nuclear transport of NF-κB in human cervical carcinoma-derived HeLa cells carrying the indicators. The present approach to evaluating the activities of cytokines may provide a potential clinical value in monitoring drug activity and directing treatment for various diseases related with NF-κB. The method highlights the experimental procedure from our original publications, Anal. Biochem. 2006, 359, 147-149 and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2004, 101, 11542. The summary of the method is: •Cytokine activities are determined within 2 h after stimulation.•Temporarily inactivated split-luciferase fragments are reconstituted by protein splicing.•Nucleartrafficking of NF-κB was illuminated for gauging the ligand-driven activity. PMID:27489781

  1. Redox imaging using genetically encoded redox indicators in zebrafish and mice.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Wittmann, Christine; Misgeld, Thomas; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Grabher, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    Redox signals have emerged as important regulators of cellular physiology and pathology. The advent of redox imaging in vertebrate systems now provides the opportunity to dynamically visualize redox signaling during development and disease. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the generation of genetically encoded redox indicators (GERIs), introduce new redox imaging strategies, and highlight key publications in the field of vertebrate redox imaging. We also discuss the limitations and future potential of in vivo redox imaging in zebrafish and mice.

  2. An expanded palette of genetically encoded Ca²⁺ indicators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxin; Araki, Satoko; Wu, Jiahui; Teramoto, Takayuki; Chang, Yu-Fen; Nakano, Masahiro; Abdelfattah, Ahmed S; Fujiwara, Manabi; Ishihara, Takeshi; Nagai, Takeharu; Campbell, Robert E

    2011-09-30

    Engineered fluorescent protein (FP) chimeras that modulate their fluorescence in response to changes in calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentration are powerful tools for visualizing intracellular signaling activity. However, despite a decade of availability, the palette of single FP-based Ca(2+) indicators has remained limited to a single green hue. We have expanded this palette by developing blue, improved green, and red intensiometric indicators, as well as an emission ratiometric indicator with an 11,000% ratio change. This series enables improved single-color Ca(2+) imaging in neurons and transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans. In HeLa cells, Ca(2+) was imaged in three subcellular compartments, and, in conjunction with a cyan FP-yellow FP-based indicator, Ca(2+) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate were simultaneously imaged. This palette of indicators paints the way to a colorful new era of Ca(2+) imaging. PMID:21903779

  3. Monitoring Intracellular pH Change with a Genetically Encoded and Ratiometric Luminescence Sensor in Yeast and Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfei; Robertson, J Brian; Xie, Qiguang; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2016-01-01

    "pHlash" is a novel bioluminescence-based pH sensor for measuring intracellular pH, which is developed based on Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET). pHlash is a fusion protein between a mutant of Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and a Venus fluorophore. The spectral emission of purified pHlash protein exhibits pH dependence in vitro. When expressed in either yeast or mammalian cells, pHlash reports basal pH and cytosolic acidification. In this chapter, we describe an in vitro characterization of pHlash, and also in vivo assays including in yeast cells and in HeLa cells using pHlash as a cytoplasmic pH indicator. PMID:27424899

  4. Calcium Signaling throughout the Toxoplasma gondii Lytic Cycle: A STUDY USING GENETICALLY ENCODED CALCIUM INDICATORS.

    PubMed

    Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Budu, Alexandre; McKnight, Ciara A; Moore, Christina A; Vella, Stephen A; Hortua Triana, Miryam A; Liu, Jing; Garcia, Celia R S; Pace, Douglas A; Moreno, Silvia N J

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades host cells, creating a parasitophorous vacuole where it communicates with the host cell cytosol through the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. The lytic cycle of the parasite starts with its exit from the host cell followed by gliding motility, conoid extrusion, attachment, and invasion of another host cell. Here, we report that Ca(2+) oscillations occur in the cytosol of the parasite during egress, gliding, and invasion, which are critical steps of the lytic cycle. Extracellular Ca(2+) enhances each one of these processes. We used tachyzoite clonal lines expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with host cells expressing transiently expressed calcium indicators of different colors, and we measured Ca(2+) changes in both parasites and host simultaneously during egress. We demonstrated a link between cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations in the host and in the parasite. Our approach also allowed us to measure two new features of motile parasites, which were enhanced by Ca(2+) influx. This is the first study showing, in real time, Ca(2+) signals preceding egress and their direct link with motility, an essential virulence trait.

  5. An Improved Genetically Encoded Red Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicator for Detecting Optically Evoked Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ikegaya, Yuji; Nakai, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools to image activities of defined cell populations. Here, we developed an improved red fluorescent GECI, termed R-CaMP1.07, by mutagenizing R-GECO1. In HeLa cell assays, R-CaMP1.07 exhibited a 1.5–2-fold greater fluorescence response compared to R-GECO1. In hippocampal pyramidal neurons, R-CaMP1.07 detected Ca2+ transients triggered by single action potentials (APs) with a probability of 95% and a signal-to-noise ratio >7 at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The amplitudes of Ca2+ transients linearly correlated with the number of APs. The expression of R-CaMP1.07 did not significantly alter the electrophysiological properties or synaptic activity patterns. The co-expression of R-CaMP1.07 and channelrhodpsin-2 (ChR2), a photosensitive cation channel, in pyramidal neurons demonstrated that R-CaMP1.07 was applicable for the monitoring of Ca2+ transients in response to optically evoked APs, because the excitation light for R-CaMP1.07 hardly activated ChR2. These technical advancements provide a novel strategy for monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with single cell resolution. PMID:22808076

  6. A Neuron-Based Screening Platform for Optimizing Genetically-Encoded Calcium Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Schreiter, Eric R.; Hasseman, Jeremy P.; Tsegaye, Getahun; Fosque, Benjamin F.; Behnam, Reza; Shields, Brenda C.; Ramirez, Melissa; Kimmel, Bruce E.; Kerr, Rex A.; Jayaraman, Vivek; Looger, Loren L.; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent protein-based sensors for detecting neuronal activity have been developed largely based on non-neuronal screening systems. However, the dynamics of neuronal state variables (e.g., voltage, calcium, etc.) are typically very rapid compared to those of non-excitable cells. We developed an electrical stimulation and fluorescence imaging platform based on dissociated rat primary neuronal cultures. We describe its use in testing genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs). Efficient neuronal GECI expression was achieved using lentiviruses containing a neuronal-selective gene promoter. Action potentials (APs) and thus neuronal calcium levels were quantitatively controlled by electrical field stimulation, and fluorescence images were recorded. Images were segmented to extract fluorescence signals corresponding to individual GECI-expressing neurons, which improved sensitivity over full-field measurements. We demonstrate the superiority of screening GECIs in neurons compared with solution measurements. Neuronal screening was useful for efficient identification of variants with both improved response kinetics and high signal amplitudes. This platform can be used to screen many types of sensors with cellular resolution under realistic conditions where neuronal state variables are in relevant ranges with respect to timing and amplitude. PMID:24155972

  7. Mapping Functional Connectivity between Neuronal Ensembles with Larval Zebrafish Transgenic for a Ratiometric Calcium Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Louis; Lauderdale, James D.; Sornborger, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to map functional connectivity is necessary for the study of the flow of activity in neuronal circuits. Optical imaging of calcium indicators, including FRET-based genetically encoded indicators and extrinsic dyes, is an important adjunct to electrophysiology and is widely used to visualize neuronal activity. However, techniques for mapping functional connectivities with calcium imaging data have been lacking. We present a procedure to compute reduced functional couplings between neuronal ensembles undergoing seizure activity from ratiometric calcium imaging data in three steps: (1) calculation of calcium concentrations and neuronal firing rates from ratiometric data; (2) identification of putative neuronal populations from spatio-temporal time-series of neural bursting activity; and then, (3) derivation of reduced connectivity matrices that represent neuronal population interactions. We apply our method to the larval zebrafish central nervous system undergoing chemoconvulsant-induced seizures. These seizures generate propagating, central nervous system-wide neural activity from which population connectivities may be calculated. This automatic functional connectivity mapping procedure provides a practical and user-independent means for summarizing the flow of activity between neuronal ensembles. PMID:21373259

  8. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation.

    PubMed

    Gee, J Michael; Gibbons, Meredith B; Taheri, Marsa; Palumbos, Sierra; Morris, S Craig; Smeal, Roy M; Flynn, Katherine F; Economo, Michael N; Cizek, Christian G; Capecchi, Mario R; Tvrdik, Petr; Wilcox, Karen S; White, John A

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson's disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (<5 kb). In utero electroporation (IUE) offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s, or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat (ITR)-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal activity

  9. Genetically Encoded Green Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicators with Improved Detectability for Neuronal Ca2+ Signals

    PubMed Central

    Sadakari, Junko; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Kagawa-Nagamura, Yuko; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ikegaya, Yuji; Nakai, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the activities of individual neurons with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) is a promising method for understanding neuronal network functions. Here, we report GECIs with improved neuronal Ca2+ signal detectability, termed G-CaMP6 and G-CaMP8. Compared to a series of existing G-CaMPs, G-CaMP6 showed fairly high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, both of which are suitable properties for detecting subtle and fast neuronal activities. G-CaMP8 showed a greater signal (Fmax/Fmin = 38) than G-CaMP6 and demonstrated kinetics similar to those of G-CaMP6. Both GECIs could detect individual spikes from pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices or acute cortical slices with 100% detection rates, demonstrating their superior performance to existing GECIs. Because G-CaMP6 showed a higher sensitivity and brighter baseline fluorescence than G-CaMP8 in a cellular environment, we applied G-CaMP6 for Ca2+ imaging of dendritic spines, the putative postsynaptic sites. By expressing a G-CaMP6-actin fusion protein for the spines in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and electrically stimulating the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, which innervate CA3 pyramidal neurons, we found that sub-threshold stimulation triggered small Ca2+ responses in a limited number of spines with a low response rate in active spines, whereas supra-threshold stimulation triggered large fluorescence responses in virtually all of the spines with a 100% activity rate. PMID:23240011

  10. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Gee, J. Michael; Gibbons, Meredith B.; Taheri, Marsa; Palumbos, Sierra; Morris, S. Craig; Smeal, Roy M.; Flynn, Katherine F.; Economo, Michael N.; Cizek, Christian G.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Tvrdik, Petr; Wilcox, Karen S.; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson's disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (<5 kb). In utero electroporation (IUE) offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s, or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat (ITR)-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5–14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal

  11. Optogenetic Reporters: Fluorescent Protein-Based Genetically-Encoded Indicators of Signaling and Metabolism in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent protein technology has evolved to include genetically-encoded biosensors that can monitor levels of ions, metabolites, and enzyme activities as well as protein conformation and even membrane voltage. They are well suited to live-cell microscopy and quantitative analysis, and they can be used in multiple imaging modes, including one or two-photon fluorescence intensity or lifetime microscopy. Although not nearly complete, there now exists a substantial set of genetically-encoded reporters that can be used to monitor many aspects of neuronal and glial biology, and these biosensors can be used to visualize synaptic transmission and activity-dependent signaling in vitro and in vivo. In this review we present an overview of design strategies for engineering biosensors, including sensor designs using circularly-permuted fluorescent proteins and using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins. We also provide examples of indicators that sense small ions (e.g., pH, chloride, zinc), metabolites (e.g., glutamate, glucose, ATP, cAMP, lipid metabolites), signaling pathways (e.g., G protein coupled receptors, Rho GTPases), enzyme activities (e.g., protein kinase A, caspases), and reactive species. We focus on examples where these genetically-encoded indicators have been applied to brain-related studies and used with live-cell fluorescence microscopy. PMID:22341329

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator protein GCaMP2

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez Guilbe, María M.; Alfaro Malavé, Elisa C.; Akerboom, Jasper; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Looger, Loren L.; Schreiter, Eric R.

    2008-07-01

    The genetically encoded fluorescent calcium-indicator protein GCaMP2 was crystallized in the calcium-saturated form. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. Fluorescent proteins and their engineered variants have played an important role in the study of biology. The genetically encoded calcium-indicator protein GCaMP2 comprises a circularly permuted fluorescent protein coupled to the calcium-binding protein calmodulin and a calmodulin target peptide, M13, derived from the intracellular calmodulin target myosin light-chain kinase and has been used to image calcium transients in vivo. To aid rational efforts to engineer improved variants of GCaMP2, this protein was crystallized in the calcium-saturated form. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.1, b = 47.1, c = 68.8 Å, β = 100.5° and one GCaMP2 molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure was phased by molecular replacement and refinement is currently under way.

  13. Genetically-encoded yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator with an expanded dynamic range for dual-color imaging.

    PubMed

    Odaka, Haruki; Arai, Satoshi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous second messenger, which mediates many cellular responses mainly initiated by activation of cell surface receptors. Various Förster resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric cAMP indicators have been created for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of cAMP at the single-cell level. However, single fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicators have been poorly developed, with improvement required for dynamic range and brightness. Based on our previous yellow fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator, Flamindo, we developed an improved yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator named Flamindo2. Flamindo2 has a 2-fold expanded dynamic range and 8-fold increased brightness compared with Flamindo by optimization of linker peptides in the vicinity of the chromophore. We found that fluorescence intensity of Flamindo2 was decreased to 25% in response to cAMP. Live-cell cAMP imaging of the cytosol and nucleus in COS7 cells using Flamindo2 and nlsFlamindo2, respectively, showed that forskolin elevated cAMP levels in each compartment with different kinetics. Furthermore, dual-color imaging of cAMP and Ca2+ with Flamindo2 and a red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, R-GECO, showed that cAMP and Ca2+ elevation were induced by noradrenaline in single HeLa cells. Our study shows that Flamindo2, which is feasible for multi-color imaging with other intracellular signaling molecules, is useful and is an alternative tool for live-cell imaging of intracellular cAMP dynamics.

  14. Genetically encoded pH-indicators reveal activity-dependent cytosolic acidification of Drosophila motor nerve termini in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Adam J; Chouhan, Amit K; Macleod, Gregory T

    2013-04-01

    All biochemical processes, including those underlying synaptic function and plasticity, are pH sensitive. Cytosolic pH (pH(cyto)) shifts are known to accompany nerve activity in situ, but technological limitations have prevented characterization of such shifts in vivo. Genetically encoded pH-indicators (GEpHIs) allow for tissue-specific in vivo measurement of pH. We expressed three different GEpHIs in the cytosol of Drosophila larval motor neurons and observed substantial presynaptic acidification in nerve termini during nerve stimulation in situ. SuperEcliptic pHluorin was the most useful GEpHI for studying pH(cyto) shifts in this model system. We determined the resting pH of the nerve terminal cytosol to be 7.30 ± 0.02, and observed a decrease of 0.16 ± 0.01 pH units when the axon was stimulated at 40 Hz for 4 s. Realkalinization occurred upon cessation of stimulation with a time course of 20.54 ± 1.05 s (τ). The chemical pH-indicator 2,7-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein corroborated these changes in pH(cyto). Bicarbonate-derived buffering did not contribute to buffering of acid loads from short (≤ 4 s) trains of action potentials but did buffer slow (~60 s) acid loads. The magnitude of cytosolic acid transients correlated with cytosolic Ca(2+) increase upon stimulation, and partial inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, a Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger, attenuated pH(cyto) shifts. Repeated stimulus trains mimicking motor patterns generated greater cytosolic acidification (~0.30 pH units). Imaging through the cuticle of intact larvae revealed spontaneous pH(cyto) shifts in presynaptic termini in vivo, similar to those seen in situ during fictive locomotion, indicating that presynaptic pH(cyto) shifts cannot be dismissed as artifacts of ex vivo preparations.

  15. Comparison of genetically encoded calcium indicators for monitoring action potentials in mammalian brain by two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Podor, Borbala; Hu, Yi-ling; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Croll, Roger; Fine, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Imaging calcium transients associated with neuronal activity has yielded important insights into neural physiology. Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) offer conspicuous potential advantages for this purpose, including exquisite targeting. While the catalogue of available GECIs is steadily growing, many newly developed sensors that appear promising in vitro or in model cells appear to be less useful when expressed in mammalian neurons. We have, therefore, evaluated the performance of GECIs from two of the most promising families of sensors, G-CaMPs [Nat. Biotechnol. 19(2), 137–141 (2001)11175727] and GECOs [Science 333(6051), 1888–1891 (2011)21903779], for monitoring action potentials in rat brain. Specifically, we used two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to compare calcium transients detected by G-CaMP3; GCaMP6f; G-CaMP7; Green-GECO1.0, 1.1 and 1.2; Blue-GECO; Red-GECO; Rex-GECO0.9; Rex-GECO1; Carmine-GECO; Orange-GECO; and Yellow-GECO1s. After optimizing excitation wavelengths, we monitored fluorescence signals associated with increasing numbers of action potentials evoked by current injection in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat organotypic hippocampal slices. Some GECIs, particularly Green-GECO1.2, GCaMP6f, and G-CaMP7, were able to detect single action potentials with high reliability. By virtue of greatest sensitivity and fast kinetics, G-CaMP7 may be the best currently available GECI for monitoring calcium transients in mammalian neurons. PMID:26158004

  16. Genetically encoded pH-indicators reveal activity-dependent cytosolic acidification of Drosophila motor nerve termini in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Adam J; Chouhan, Amit K; Macleod, Gregory T

    2013-01-01

    All biochemical processes, including those underlying synaptic function and plasticity, are pH sensitive. Cytosolic pH (pHcyto) shifts are known to accompany nerve activity in situ, but technological limitations have prevented characterization of such shifts in vivo. Genetically encoded pH-indicators (GEpHIs) allow for tissue-specific in vivo measurement of pH. We expressed three different GEpHIs in the cytosol of Drosophila larval motor neurons and observed substantial presynaptic acidification in nerve termini during nerve stimulation in situ. SuperEcliptic pHluorin was the most useful GEpHI for studying pHcyto shifts in this model system. We determined the resting pH of the nerve terminal cytosol to be 7.30 ± 0.02, and observed a decrease of 0.16 ± 0.01 pH units when the axon was stimulated at 40 Hz for 4 s. Realkalinization occurred upon cessation of stimulation with a time course of 20.54 ± 1.05 s (τ). The chemical pH-indicator 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein corroborated these changes in pHcyto. Bicarbonate-derived buffering did not contribute to buffering of acid loads from short (≤4 s) trains of action potentials but did buffer slow (∼60 s) acid loads. The magnitude of cytosolic acid transients correlated with cytosolic Ca2+ increase upon stimulation, and partial inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, a Ca2+/H+ exchanger, attenuated pHcyto shifts. Repeated stimulus trains mimicking motor patterns generated greater cytosolic acidification (∼0.30 pH units). Imaging through the cuticle of intact larvae revealed spontaneous pHcyto shifts in presynaptic termini in vivo, similar to those seen in situ during fictive locomotion, indicating that presynaptic pHcyto shifts cannot be dismissed as artifacts of ex vivo preparations. PMID:23401611

  17. Antibody-based fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine.

    PubMed

    Huynh Nhat, Kim Phuong; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Yoshikoshi, Kensuke; Hohsaka, Takahiro

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescent indicators for protein phosphorylation are very important in not only fundamental biology but also biomedical applications. In this study, we developed novel fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) derivatives. A single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) against phosphotyrosine was fluorescent-labeled by incorporation of tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-linked nonnatural amino acid at the N- or C-terminus. The TAMRA-labeled scFv showed fluorescence enhancement upon addition of pTyr-containing peptides based on antigen-dependent fluorescence quenching effect on TAMRA. The TAMRA-labeled scFv was further fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to generate a double-labeled scFv for pTyr. In the absence of antigen, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurred from EGFP to TAMRA but TAMRA was quenched. The antigen-binding removed the quenching of TAMRA while FRET occurred without altering its efficiency. As a result of the FRET and antigen-dependent fluorescence quenching effect, the double-labeled scFv exhibited fluorescence ratio enhancement upon the antigen-binding. The fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators obtained in this study will become a novel tool for analysis of protein phosphorylation. Moreover, this strategy utilizes antibody derivatives, and therefore, can be easily applied to other antigen-antibody pairs to generate fluorescent ratiometric indicators for various target molecules. PMID:26896314

  18. Visualization of ATP levels inside single living cells with fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based genetically encoded indicators.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Hiromi; Nhat, Kim P Huynh; Togawa, Hiroko; Saito, Kenta; Iino, Ryota; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Takeharu; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-15

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency of cells and is involved in many cellular processes. However, there is no method for real-time monitoring of ATP levels inside individual living cells. To visualize ATP levels, we generated a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicators for ATP that were composed of the epsilon subunit of the bacterial F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase sandwiched by the cyan- and yellow-fluorescent proteins. The indicators, named ATeams, had apparent dissociation constants for ATP ranging from 7.4 muM to 3.3 mM. By targeting ATeams to different subcellular compartments, we unexpectedly found that ATP levels in the mitochondrial matrix of HeLa cells are significantly lower than those of cytoplasm and nucleus. We also succeeded in measuring changes in the ATP level inside single HeLa cells after treatment with inhibitors of glycolysis and/or oxidative phosphorylation, revealing that glycolysis is the major ATP-generating pathway of the cells grown in glucose-rich medium. This was also confirmed by an experiment using oligomycin A, an inhibitor of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase. In addition, it was demonstrated that HeLa cells change ATP-generating pathway in response to changes of nutrition in the environment.

  19. Validation of optical voltage reporting by the genetically encoded voltage indicator VSFP-Butterfly from cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse brain slices

    PubMed Central

    Empson, Ruth M; Goulton, Chelsea; Scholtz, David; Gallero-Salas, Yasir; Zeng, Hongkui; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how behavior emerges from brain electrical activity is one of the ultimate goals of neuroscience. To achieve this goal we require methods for large-scale recording of the electrical activity of specific neuronal circuits. A very promising approach is to use optical reporting of membrane voltage transients, particularly if the voltage reporter is genetically targeted to specific neuronal populations. Targeting in this way allows population signals to be recorded and interpreted without blindness to neuronal diversity. Here, we evaluated the voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein, VSFP Butterfly 2.1, a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI), for monitoring electrical activity of layer 2/3 cortical pyramidal neurons in mouse brain slices. Standard widefield fluorescence and two-photon imaging revealed robust, high signal-to-noise ratio read-outs of membrane voltage transients that are predominantly synaptic in nature and can be resolved as discrete areas of synaptically connected layer 2/3 neurons. We find that targeted expression of this GEVI in the cortex provides a flexible and promising tool for the analysis of L2/3 cortical network function. PMID:26229003

  20. Dual optical recordings for action potentials and calcium handling in induced pluripotent stem cell models of cardiac arrhythmias using genetically encoded fluorescent indicators.

    PubMed

    Song, LouJin; Awari, Daniel W; Han, Elizabeth Y; Uche-Anya, Eugenia; Park, Seon-Hye E; Yabe, Yoko A; Chung, Wendy K; Yazawa, Masayuki

    2015-05-01

    Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency has been used to investigate disease mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutics. However, the methods used for reprogramming, in vitro differentiation, and phenotyping are still complicated, expensive, and time-consuming. To address the limitations, we first optimized a protocol for reprogramming of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes into pluripotency using single lipofection and the episomal vectors in a 24-well plate format. This method allowed us to generate multiple lines of integration-free and feeder-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from seven patients with cardiac diseases and three controls. Second, we differentiated human iPSCs derived from patients with Timothy syndrome into cardiomyocytes using a monolayer differentiation method. We found that Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes showed slower, irregular contractions and abnormal calcium handling compared with the controls. The results are consistent with previous reports using a retroviral method for reprogramming and an embryoid body-based method for cardiac differentiation. Third, we developed an efficient approach for recording the action potentials and calcium transients simultaneously in control and patient cardiomyocytes using genetically encoded fluorescent indicators, ArcLight and R-GECO1. The dual optical recordings enabled us to observe prolonged action potentials and abnormal calcium handling in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes. We confirmed that roscovitine rescued the phenotypes in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes and that these findings were consistent with previous studies using conventional electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging with dyes. The approaches using our optimized methods and dual optical recordings will improve iPSC applicability for disease modeling to investigate mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias and to test potential therapeutics.

  1. Colorimetric sensing of anions in water using ratiometric indicator-displacement assay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao; Chen, Liang; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-09-19

    The analysis of anions in water presents a difficult challenge due to their low charge-to-radius ratio, and the ability to discriminate among similar anions often remains problematic. The use of a 3×6 ratiometric indicator-displacement assay (RIDA) array for the colorimetric detection and identification of ten anions in water is reported. The sensor array consists of different combinations of colorimetric indicators and metal cations. The colorimetric indicators chelate with metal cations, forming the color changes. Upon the addition of anions, anions compete with the indicator ligands according to solubility product constants (K(sp)). The indicator-metal chelate compound changes color back dramatically when the competition of anions wins. The color changes of the RIDA array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. No confusion or errors in classification by hierarchical clustering analysis were observed in 44 trials. The limit of detection was calculated approximately, and most limits of detections of anions are well below μM level using our RIDA array. The pH effect, temperature influence, interfering anions were also investigated, and the RIDA array shows the feasibility of real sample testing.

  2. Illumination of the spatial order of intracellular pH by genetically encoded pH-sensitive sensors.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mojca

    2013-12-05

    Fluorescent proteins have been extensively used for engineering genetically encoded sensors that can monitor levels of ions, enzyme activities, redox potential, and metabolites. Certain fluorescent proteins possess specific pH-dependent spectroscopic features, and thus can be used as indicators of intracellular pH. Moreover, concatenated pH-sensitive proteins with target proteins pin the pH sensors to a definite location within the cell, compartment, or tissue. This study provides an overview of the continually expanding family of pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins that have become essential tools for studies of pH homeostasis and cell physiology. We describe and discuss the design of intensity-based and ratiometric pH sensors, their spectral properties and pH-dependency, as well as their performance. Finally, we illustrate some examples of the applications of pH sensors targeted at different subcellular compartments.

  3. Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

  4. Ratiometric imaging of pH probes.

    PubMed

    Grillo-Hill, Bree K; Webb, Bradley A; Barber, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of intracellular pH can be readily accomplished using tools and methods described in this chapter. We present a discussion of technical considerations of various ratiometric pH-sensitive probes including dyes and genetically encoded sensors. These probes can be used to measure pH across physical scales from macroscopic whole-mount tissues down to organelles and subcellular domains. We describe protocols for loading pH-sensitive probes into single cells or tissues and discuss ratiometric image acquisition and analysis.

  5. Toward Better Genetically Encoded Sensors of Membrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Storace, Douglas; Sepehri Rad, Masoud; Kang, BokEum; Cohen, Lawrence B; Hughes, Thom; Baker, Bradley J

    2016-05-01

    Genetically encoded optical sensors of cell activity are powerful tools that can be targeted to specific cell types. This is especially important in neuroscience because individual brain regions can include a multitude of different cell types. Optical imaging allows for simultaneous recording from numerous neurons or brain regions. Optical signals of membrane potential are useful because membrane potential changes are a direct sign of both synaptic and action potentials. Here we describe recent improvements in the in vitro and in vivo signal size and kinetics of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) and discuss their relationship to alternative sensors of neural activity.

  6. A genetically encoded sensor for H2O2 with expanded dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Markvicheva, Kseniya N; Bilan, Dmitry S; Mishina, Natalia M; Gorokhovatsky, Andrey Yu; Vinokurov, Leonid M; Lukyanov, Sergey; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2011-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important second messenger controlling intracellular signaling cascades by selective oxidation of redox active thiolates in proteins. Changes in intracellular [H(2)O(2)] can be tracked in real time using HyPer, a ratiometric genetically encoded fluorescent probe. Although HyPer is sensitive and selective for H(2)O(2) due to the properties of its sensing domain derived from the Escherichia coli OxyR protein, many applications may benefit from an improvement of the indicator's dynamic range. We here report HyPer-2, a probe that fills this demand. Upon saturating [H(2)O(2)] exposure, HyPer-2 undergoes an up to sixfold increase of the ratio F500/F420 versus a threefold change in HyPer. HyPer-2 was generated by a single point mutation A406V from HyPer corresponding to A233V in wtOxyR. This mutation was previously shown to destabilize interface between monomers in OxyR dimers. However, in HyPer-2, the A233V mutation stabilizes the dimer and expands the dynamic range of the probe.

  7. Imaging Cellular Inorganic Phosphate in Caenorhabditis elegans Using a Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Swayoma; Versaw, Wayne K.; Garcia, L. Rene

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has central roles in metabolism, cell signaling and energy conversion. The distribution of Pi to each cell and cellular compartment of an animal must be tightly coordinated with its dietary supply and with the varied metabolic demands of individual cells. An analytical method for monitoring Pi dynamics with spatial and temporal resolution is therefore needed to gain a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms governing the transport and recycling of this essential nutrient. Here we demonstrate the utility of a genetically encoded FRET-based Pi sensor to assess cellular Pi levels in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The sensor was expressed in different cells and tissues of the animal, including head neurons, tail neurons, pharyngeal muscle, and the intestine. Cytosolic Pi concentrations were monitored using ratiometric imaging. Injection of phosphate buffer into intestinal cells confirmed that the sensor was responsive to changes in Pi concentration in vivo. Live Pi imaging revealed cell-specific and developmental stage-specific differences in cytosolic Pi concentrations. In addition, cellular Pi levels were perturbed by food deprivation and by exposure to the respiratory inhibitor cyanide. These results suggest that Pi concentration is a sensitive indicator of metabolic status. Moreover, we propose that live Pi imaging in C. elegans is a powerful approach to discern mechanisms that govern Pi distribution in individual cells and throughout an animal. PMID:26484766

  8. A long Stokes shift red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator protein for two-photon and ratiometric imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiahui; Abdelfattah, Ahmed S; Miraucourt, Loïs S; Kutsarova, Elena; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Zhou, Hang; Ballanyi, Klaus; Wicks, Geoffrey; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Rebane, Aleksander; Ruthazer, Edward S; Campbell, Robert E

    2014-10-31

    The introduction of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) indicators based on red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) has created new opportunities for multicolour visualization of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. However, one drawback of these indicators is that they have optimal two-photon excitation outside the near-infrared window (650-1,000 nm) where tissue is most transparent to light. To address this shortcoming, we developed a long Stokes shift RFP-based Ca(2+) indicator, REX-GECO1, with optimal two-photon excitation at <1,000 nm. REX-GECO1 fluoresces at 585 nm when excited at 480 nm or 910 nm by a one- or two-photon process, respectively. We demonstrate that REX-GECO1 can be used as either a ratiometric or intensiometric Ca(2+) indicator in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (one- and two-photon) and the visual system of albino tadpoles (two-photon). Furthermore, we demonstrate single excitation wavelength two-colour Ca(2+) and glutamate imaging in organotypic cultures.

  9. A long Stokes shift red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator protein for two-photon and ratiometric imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiahui; Abdelfattah, Ahmed S.; Miraucourt, Loïs S.; Kutsarova, Elena; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Zhou, Hang; Ballanyi, Klaus; Wicks, Geoffrey; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Rebane, Aleksander; Ruthazer, Edward S.; Campbell, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of calcium ion (Ca2+) indicators based on red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) has created new opportunities for multicolour visualization of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. However, one drawback of these indicators is that they have optimal two-photon excitation outside the near-infrared window (650–1,000 nm) where tissue is most transparent to light. To address this shortcoming, we developed a long Stokes shift RFP-based Ca2+ indicator, REX-GECO1, with optimal two-photon excitation at <1,000 nm. REX-GECO1 fluoresces at 585 nm when excited at 480 nm or 910 nm by a one- or two-photon process, respectively. We demonstrate that REX-GECO1 can be used as either a ratiometric or intensiometric Ca2+ indicator in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (one- and two-photon) and the visual system of albino tadpoles (two-photon). Furthermore, we demonstrate single excitation wavelength two-colour Ca2+ and glutamate imaging in organotypic cultures. PMID:25358432

  10. A long Stokes shift red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator protein for two-photon and ratiometric imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiahui; Abdelfattah, Ahmed S; Miraucourt, Loïs S; Kutsarova, Elena; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Zhou, Hang; Ballanyi, Klaus; Wicks, Geoffrey; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Rebane, Aleksander; Ruthazer, Edward S; Campbell, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) indicators based on red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) has created new opportunities for multicolour visualization of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. However, one drawback of these indicators is that they have optimal two-photon excitation outside the near-infrared window (650-1,000 nm) where tissue is most transparent to light. To address this shortcoming, we developed a long Stokes shift RFP-based Ca(2+) indicator, REX-GECO1, with optimal two-photon excitation at <1,000 nm. REX-GECO1 fluoresces at 585 nm when excited at 480 nm or 910 nm by a one- or two-photon process, respectively. We demonstrate that REX-GECO1 can be used as either a ratiometric or intensiometric Ca(2+) indicator in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (one- and two-photon) and the visual system of albino tadpoles (two-photon). Furthermore, we demonstrate single excitation wavelength two-colour Ca(2+) and glutamate imaging in organotypic cultures. PMID:25358432

  11. Measuring the in situ Kd of a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor.

    PubMed

    Park, J Genevieve; Palmer, Amy E

    2015-01-05

    The use of genetically encoded Ca(2+) sensors (GECIs) for long-term monitoring of intracellular Ca(2+) has become increasingly common in the last decade. Emission-ratiometric GECIs, such as those in the Yellow Cameleon family, can be used to make quantitative measurements, meaning that their fluorescence signals can be converted to free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]free). This conversion is only as accurate as the sensor's apparent dissociation constant for Ca(2+) (K'd), which depends on temperature, pH, and salt concentration. This protocol describes a method for performing a titration, in living cells (in situ), of cytosolic, nuclear, or mitochondrial sensors.

  12. Use of Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators (GECIs) Combined with Advanced Motion Tracking Techniques to Examine the Behavior of Neurons and Glia in the Enteric Nervous System of the Intact Murine Colon

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Grant W.; Gould, Thomas W.; Koh, Sang Don; Corrigan, Robert D.; Heredia, Dante J.; Shonnard, Matthew C.; Smith, Terence K.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) have been used extensively in many body systems to detect Ca2+ transients associated with neuronal activity. Their adoption in enteric neurobiology has been slower, although they offer many advantages in terms of selectivity, signal-to-noise and non-invasiveness. Our aims were to utilize a number of cell-specific promoters to express the Ca2+ indicator GCaMP3 in different classes of neurons and glia to determine their effectiveness in measuring activity in enteric neural networks during colonic motor behaviors. We bred several GCaMP3 mice: (1) Wnt1-GCaMP3, all enteric neurons and glia; (2) GFAP-GCaMP3, enteric glia; (3) nNOS-GaMP3, enteric nitrergic neurons; and (4) ChAT-GCaMP3, enteric cholinergic neurons. These mice allowed us to study the behavior of the enteric neurons in the intact colon maintained at a physiological temperature, especially during the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), using low power Ca2+ imaging. In this preliminary study, we observed neuronal and glial cell Ca2+ transients in specific cells in both the myenteric and submucous plexus in all of the transgenic mice variants. The number of cells that could be simultaneously imaged at low power (100–1000 active cells) through the undissected gut required advanced motion tracking and analysis routines. The pattern of Ca2+ transients in myenteric neurons showed significant differences in response to spontaneous, oral or anal stimulation. Brief anal elongation or mucosal stimulation, which evokes a CMMC, were the most effective stimuli and elicited a powerful synchronized and prolonged burst of Ca2+ transients in many myenteric neurons, especially when compared with the same neurons during a spontaneous CMMC. In contrast, oral elongation, which normally inhibits CMMCs, appeared to suppress Ca2+ transients in some of the neurons active during a spontaneous or an anally evoked CMMC. The activity in glial networks appeared to follow neural activity

  13. Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    Baker, B. J.; Mutoh, H.; Dimitrov, D.; Akemann, W.; Perron, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Jin, L.; Cohen, L. B.; Isacoff, E. Y.; Pieribone, V. A.; Hughes, T.; Knöpfel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging activity of neurons in intact brain tissue was conceived several decades ago and, after many years of development, voltage-sensitive dyes now offer the highest spatial and temporal resolution for imaging neuronal functions in the living brain. Further progress in this field is expected from the emergent development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential. These fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors overcome the drawbacks of organic voltage sensitive dyes such as non-specificity of cell staining and the low accessibility of the dye to some cell types. In a transgenic animal, a genetically encoded sensor could in principle be expressed specifically in any cell type and would have the advantage of staining only the cell population determined by the specificity of the promoter used to drive expression. Here we critically review the current status of these developments. PMID:18679801

  14. Genetically encoded optical probes for imaging cellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Yoshio

    2005-06-15

    The intracellular signaling can be monitored in vivo in living cells by genetically encoded intracellular fluorescent and bioluminescent probes or indicators, which include second messengers, protein phosphorylation, protein conformational changes, protein-protein interactions, and protein localizations. These probes are of general use not only for fundamental biological studies, but also for assay and screening of possible pharmaceutical or toxic chemicals that inhibit or facilitate cellular signaling pathways. In this review, two examples of such indicators were briefly introduced. First, a genetically encoded fluorescent indicator was described for the detection and characterization of estrogen agonists and antagonists. The indicator was named SCCoR (single cell-coactivator recruitment). The high sensitivity of the present indicator made it possible to distinguish between estrogen strong and weak agonists in a dose-dependent fashion, immediately after adding a ligand to live cells. Discrimination of agonists from antagonists was efficiently achieved using the indicator. The approach described here can be applied to develop biosensors for other hormone receptors as well. Another example herein is a genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for monitoring the nuclear trafficking of target proteins in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated quantitative cell-based in vitro sensing of ligand-induced translocation of androgen receptor, which allowed high-throughput screening of exo- and endogenous agonists and antagonists. Furthermore, the indicator enabled noninvasive in vivo imaging of the androgen receptor translocation in the brains of living mice with a charge-coupled device imaging system. These rapid and quantitative analyses in vitro and in vivo provide a wide variety of applications for screening pharmacological or toxicological compounds and testing them in living animals.

  15. A genetically-encoded chloride and pH sensor for dissociating ion dynamics in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Joseph V.; Joyce, Bradley; Kay, Louise; Schlagheck, Theresa; Newey, Sarah E.; Srinivas, Shankar; Akerman, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Within the nervous system, intracellular Cl− and pH regulate fundamental processes including cell proliferation, metabolism, synaptic transmission, and network excitability. Cl− and pH are often co-regulated, and network activity results in the movement of both Cl− and H+. Tools to accurately measure these ions are crucial for understanding their role under physiological and pathological conditions. Although genetically-encoded Cl− and pH sensors have been described previously, these either lack ion specificity or are unsuitable for neuronal use. Here we present ClopHensorN—a new genetically-encoded ratiometric Cl− and pH sensor that is optimized for the nervous system. We demonstrate the ability of ClopHensorN to dissociate and simultaneously quantify Cl− and H+ concentrations under a variety of conditions. In addition, we establish the sensor's utility by characterizing activity-dependent ion dynamics in hippocampal neurons. PMID:24312004

  16. Quantitative measurement of Ca2+ and Zn2+ in mammalian cells using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. Genevieve; Palmer, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetically encoded, ratiometric, fluorescent biosensors can be used to quantitatively measure intracellular ion concentrations in living cells. We describe important factors to consider when selecting a Ca2+ or Zn2+ biosensor, such as the sensor’s dissociation constant (Kd’) and its dynamic range. We also discuss the limits of quantitative measurement using these sensors and reasons why a sensor may perform differently in different biological systems or subcellular compartments. We outline protocols for 1) quickly confirming sensor functionality in a new biological system, 2) calibrating a sensor to convert a sensor’s FRET ratio to ion concentration, and 3) titrating a sensor in living cells to obtain its Kd’ under different experimental conditions. PMID:24052378

  17. Measuring the in situs Kd of a genetically-encoded Ca2+ sensor

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. Genevieve; Palmer, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetically-encoded Ca2+ sensors (GECIs) for long-term monitoring of intracellular Ca2+ has become increasingly common in the last decade. Emission-ratiometric GECIs, such as those in the yellow cameleon family, are capable of making quantitative measurements, meaning that their fluorescence signals can be converted to free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]free). This conversion is only as accurate as the sensor’s apparent dissociation constant for Ca2+ (Kd’), which depends on temperature, pH, and salt concentration. This protocol describes a method for performing a titration, in living cells (in situ), of cytosolic, nuclear, or mitochondrial sensors. An excellent example of calibration of an ER-targeted sensor is presented elsewhere (Rudolf et al. 2006). PMID:25561615

  18. Genetically Encoded Protein Sensors of Membrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Storace, Douglas; Rad, Masoud Sepehri; Han, Zhou; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B; Hughes, Thom; Baker, Bradley J; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Organic voltage-sensitive dyes offer very high spatial and temporal resolution for imaging neuronal function. However these dyes suffer from the drawbacks of non-specificity of cell staining and low accessibility of the dye to some cell types. Further progress in imaging activity is expected from the development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential. Cell type specificity of expression of these fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors can be obtained via several different mechanisms. One is cell type specificity of infection by individual virus subtypes. A second mechanism is specificity of promoter expression in individual cell types. A third, depends on the offspring of transgenic animals with cell type specific expression of cre recombinase mated with an animal that has the DNA for the FP voltage sensor in all of its cells but its expression is dependent on the recombinase activity. Challenges remain. First, the response time constants of many of the new FP voltage sensors are slower (2-10 ms) than those of organic dyes. This results in a relatively small fractional fluorescence change, ΔF/F, for action potentials. Second, the largest signal presently available is only ~40% for a 100 mV depolarization and many of the new probes have signals that are substantially smaller. Large signals are especially important when attempting to detect fast events because the shorter measurement interval results in a relatively small number of detected photons and therefore a relatively large shot noise (see Chap. 1). Another kind of challenge has occurred when attempts were made to transition from one species to another or from one cell type to another or from cell culture to in vivo measurements.Several laboratories have recently described a number of novel FP voltage sensors. Here we attempt to critically review the current status of these developments in terms of signal size, time course, and in vivo function.

  19. A genetically encoded, high-signal-to-noise maltose sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, Jonathan S.; Schreiter, Eric R.; Echevarría, Ileabett M.; Looger, Loren L.

    2012-10-23

    We describe the generation of a family of high-signal-to-noise single-wavelength genetically encoded indicators for maltose. This was achieved by insertion of circularly permuted fluorescent proteins into a bacterial periplasmic binding protein (PBP), Escherichia coli maltodextrin-binding protein, resulting in a four-color family of maltose indicators. The sensors were iteratively optimized to have sufficient brightness and maltose-dependent fluorescence increases for imaging, under both one- and two-photon illumination. We demonstrate that maltose affinity of the sensors can be tuned in a fashion largely independent of the fluorescent readout mechanism. Using literature mutations, the binding specificity could be altered to moderate sucrose preference, but with a significant loss of affinity. We use the soluble sensors in individual E. coli bacteria to observe rapid maltose transport across the plasma membrane, and membrane fusion versions of the sensors on mammalian cells to visualize the addition of maltose to extracellular media. The PBP superfamily includes scaffolds specific for a number of analytes whose visualization would be critical to the reverse engineering of complex systems such as neural networks, biosynthetic pathways, and signal transduction cascades. We expect the methodology outlined here to be useful in the development of indicators for many such analytes.

  20. MagFRET: The First Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Mg2+ Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Oortwijn, Jorn; Aper, Stijn J. A.; Merkx, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium has important structural, catalytic and signaling roles in cells, yet few tools exist to image this metal ion in real time and at subcellular resolution. Here we report the first genetically encoded sensor for Mg2+, MagFRET-1. This sensor is based on the high-affinity Mg2+ binding domain of human centrin 3 (HsCen3), which undergoes a transition from a molten-globular apo form to a compactly-folded Mg2+-bound state. Fusion of Cerulean and Citrine fluorescent domains to the ends of HsCen3, yielded MagFRET-1, which combines a physiologically relevant Mg2+ affinity (Kd = 148 µM) with a 50% increase in emission ratio upon Mg2+ binding due to a change in FRET efficiency between Cerulean and Citrine. Mutations in the metal binding sites yielded MagFRET variants whose Mg2+ affinities were attenuated 2- to 100-fold relative to MagFRET-1, thus covering a broad range of Mg2+ concentrations. In situ experiments in HEK293 cells showed that MagFRET-1 can be targeted to the cytosol and the nucleus. Clear responses to changes in extracellular Mg2+ concentration were observed for MagFRET-1-expressing HEK293 cells when they were permeabilized with digitonin, whereas similar changes were not observed for intact cells. Although MagFRET-1 is also sensitive to Ca2+, this affinity is sufficiently attenuated (Kd of 10 µM) to make the sensor insensitive to known Ca2+ stimuli in HEK293 cells. While the potential and limitations of the MagFRET sensors for intracellular Mg2+ imaging need to be further established, we expect that these genetically encoded and ratiometric fluorescent Mg2+ sensors could prove very useful in understanding intracellular Mg2+ homeostasis and signaling. PMID:24312622

  1. GAP, an aequorin-based fluorescent indicator for imaging Ca2+ in organelles

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Arancha; Rojo-Ruiz, Jonathan; Navas-Navarro, Paloma; Aulestia, Francisco Javier; Gallego-Sandin, Sonia; Garcia-Sancho, Javier; Alonso, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators allow monitoring subcellular Ca2+ signals inside organelles. Most genetically encoded calcium indicators are fusions of endogenous calcium-binding proteins whose functionality in vivo may be perturbed by competition with cellular partners. We describe here a novel family of fluorescent Ca2+ sensors based on the fusion of two Aequorea victoria proteins, GFP and apo-aequorin (GAP). GAP exhibited a unique combination of features: dual-excitation ratiometric imaging, high dynamic range, good signal-to-noise ratio, insensitivity to pH and Mg2+, tunable Ca2+ affinity, uncomplicated calibration, and targetability to five distinct organelles. Moreover, transgenic mice for endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GAP exhibited a robust long-term expression that correlated well with its reproducible performance in various neural tissues. This biosensor fills a gap in the actual repertoire of Ca2+ indicators for organelles and becomes a valuable tool for in vivo Ca2+ imaging applications. PMID:24501126

  2. Heme dynamics and trafficking factors revealed by genetically encoded fluorescent heme sensors.

    PubMed

    Hanna, David A; Harvey, Raven M; Martinez-Guzman, Osiris; Yuan, Xiaojing; Chandrasekharan, Bindu; Raju, Gheevarghese; Outten, F Wayne; Hamza, Iqbal; Reddi, Amit R

    2016-07-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor and signaling molecule. Heme acquisition by proteins and heme signaling are ultimately reliant on the ability to mobilize labile heme (LH). However, the properties of LH pools, including concentration, oxidation state, distribution, speciation, and dynamics, are poorly understood. Herein, we elucidate the nature and dynamics of LH using genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent heme sensors in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae We find that the subcellular distribution of LH is heterogeneous; the cytosol maintains LH at ∼20-40 nM, whereas the mitochondria and nucleus maintain it at concentrations below 2.5 nM. Further, we find that the signaling molecule nitric oxide can initiate the rapid mobilization of heme in the cytosol and nucleus from certain thiol-containing factors. We also find that the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase constitutes a major cellular heme buffer, and is responsible for maintaining the activity of the heme-dependent nuclear transcription factor heme activator protein (Hap1p). Altogether, we demonstrate that the heme sensors can be used to reveal fundamental aspects of heme trafficking and dynamics and can be used across multiple organisms, including Escherichia coli, yeast, and human cell lines. PMID:27247412

  3. Transgenic zebrafish for ratiometric imaging of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ response in teleost embryo.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideaki; Sassa, Takayuki; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ imaging has widely been used to visualize intracellular signals, but the application in an intact animal is still limited due to difficulty of the indicator loading. In addition, the motion of the living animal produces artifacts. To investigate Ca2+ signaling at early embryonic stage, we established transgenic zebrafish line expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator, cameleon YC2.60, driven by a constitutively active promoter, hspa8. Although the embryo dynamically changes its morphology, the motion artifact could be canceled out by taking the advantage of YC2.60 as a ratiometric indicator. The transgenic zebrafish was used to visualize the propagation of cytosolic Ca2+ during the early embryonic stage upon fertilization and along cleavage furrow, and the rise in Ca2+ in the myocytes contracting spontaneously in the embryo. We also established a transgenic zebrafish line expressing YC2.60 targeted to the mitochondria. The rise in mitochondrial Ca2+ was rather sustained (≈2 min), which is consistent with the requirement of ATP refilling since the mitochondrial Ca2+ upregulates rate-limiting enzymes of Krebs cycle. This is in contrast with the transient rise in the cytosol Ca2+ that directly evokes the muscle contraction. These transgenic zebrafish lines are expected to serve as useful tools further Ca2+ imaging in vivo.

  4. Genetically-encoded probes for measurement of intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Small, fluorescent, calcium-sensing molecules have been enormously useful in mapping intracellular calcium signals in time and space, as chapters in this volume attest. Despite their widespread adoption and utility, they suffer some disadvantages. Genetically-encoded calcium sensors that can by expressed inside cells by transfection or transgenesis are desirable. The last ten years have been marked by a rapid evolution in the laboratory of genetically encoded calcium sensors two families both figuratively and literally, resulting in11distinct configurations of fluorescent proteins and their attendant calcium sensor modules. Here, I described the design logic and performance of this abundant collection of sensors and describe their use and performance in intro and in vivo. Genetically-encoded calcium sensors have proved valuable in the measurement of calcium concentration in cellular organelles, for the most part in single cells in vitro. Their success as quantitative calcium sensors in tissues in vitro and in vivo is qualified, but they have proved valuable in imaging the pattern of calcium signals within tissues in whole animals. Some branches of the calcium sensor evolutionary tree continue to evolve rapidly and the steady progress in optimising sensor parameters leads to the certain hope that these drawbacks will eventually be overcome by further genetic engineering. PMID:21035686

  5. Genetically encoded cleavable protein photo-cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shixian; He, Dan; Long, Teng; Zhang, Shuai; Meng, Rong; Chen, Peng R

    2014-08-27

    We have developed a genetically encoded, selenium-based cleavable photo-cross-linker that allows for the separation of bait and prey proteins after protein photo-cross-linking. We have further demonstrated the efficient capture of the in situ generated selenenic acid on the cleaved prey proteins. Our strategy involves tagging the selenenic acid with an alkyne-containing dimethoxyaniline molecule and subsequently labeling with an azide-bearing fluorophore or biotin probe. This cleavage-and-capture after protein photo-cross-linking strategy allows for the efficient capture of prey proteins that are readily accessible by two-dimensional gel-based proteomics and mass spectrometry analysis.

  6. Imaging of endogenous RNA using genetically encoded probes.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeaki; Umezawa, Yoshio

    2011-03-01

    Imaging of RNAs in single cells revealed their localized transcription and specific function. Such information cannot be obtained from bulk measurements. This unit contains a protocol of an imaging method capable of visualizing endogenous RNAs bound to genetically encoded fluorescent probes in single living cells. The protocol includes methods of design and construction of the probes, their characterization, and imaging a target RNA in living cells. The methods for RNA imaging are generally applicable to many kinds of RNAs and may allow for elucidating novel functions of localized RNAs and understanding their dynamics in living cells. Curr. Protoc. Chem. Biol. 3:27-37 © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves II, H. James

    2015-01-01

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or “chemistry space.” Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set. PMID:25802223

  8. Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves, H. James, II

    2015-03-01

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or ``chemistry space.'' Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set.

  9. Method for Enzyme Design with Genetically Encoded Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the methodologies for the design of artificial enzymes with genetically encoded unnatural amino acids. Genetically encoded unnatural amino acids offer great promise for constructing artificial enzymes with novel activities. In our studies, the designs of artificial enzyme were divided into two steps. First, we considered the unnatural amino acids and the protein scaffold separately. The scaffold is designed by traditional protein design methods. The unnatural amino acids are inspired by natural structure and organic chemistry methods, and synthesized by either organic chemistry methods or enzymatic conversion. With the increasing number of published unnatural amino acids with various functions, we described an unnatural amino acids toolkit containing metal chelators, redox mediators, and click chemistry reagents. These efforts enable a researcher to search the toolkit for appropriate unnatural amino acids for the study, rather than design and synthesize the unnatural amino acids from the beginning. After the first step, the model enzyme was optimized by computational methods and directed evolution. Lastly, we describe a general method for evolving aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and expressing unnatural amino acids incorporated into a protein. PMID:27586330

  10. Method for Enzyme Design with Genetically Encoded Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the methodologies for the design of artificial enzymes with genetically encoded unnatural amino acids. Genetically encoded unnatural amino acids offer great promise for constructing artificial enzymes with novel activities. In our studies, the designs of artificial enzyme were divided into two steps. First, we considered the unnatural amino acids and the protein scaffold separately. The scaffold is designed by traditional protein design methods. The unnatural amino acids are inspired by natural structure and organic chemistry methods, and synthesized by either organic chemistry methods or enzymatic conversion. With the increasing number of published unnatural amino acids with various functions, we described an unnatural amino acids toolkit containing metal chelators, redox mediators, and click chemistry reagents. These efforts enable a researcher to search the toolkit for appropriate unnatural amino acids for the study, rather than design and synthesize the unnatural amino acids from the beginning. After the first step, the model enzyme was optimized by computational methods and directed evolution. Lastly, we describe a general method for evolving aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and expressing unnatural amino acids incorporated into a protein.

  11. Visualizing Presynaptic Calcium Dynamics and Vesicle Fusion with a Single Genetically Encoded Reporter at Individual Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rachel E.; Burrone, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic transmission depends on the influx of calcium into the presynaptic compartment, which drives neurotransmitter release. Genetically encoded reporters are widely used tools to understand these processes, particularly pHluorin-based reporters that report vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis through pH dependent changes in fluorescence, and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) that exhibit changes in fluorescence upon binding to calcium. The recent expansion of the color palette of available indicators has made it possible to image multiple probes simultaneously within a cell. We have constructed a single molecule reporter capable of concurrent imaging of both presynaptic calcium influx and exocytosis, by fusion of sypHy, the vesicle associated protein synaptophysin containing a GFP-based pHluorin sensor, with the red-shifted GECI R-GECO1. Due to the fixed stoichiometry of the two probes, the ratio of the two responses can also be measured, providing an all optical correlate of the calcium dependence of release. Here, we have characterized stimulus-evoked sypHy-RGECO responses of hippocampal synapses in vitro, exploring the effects of different stimulus strengths and frequencies as well as variations in external calcium concentrations. By combining live sypHy-RGECO imaging with post hoc fixation and immunofluorescence, we have also investigated correlations between structural and functional properties of synapses. PMID:27507942

  12. Evaluating a Genetically Encoded Optical Sensor of Neural Activity Using Electrophysiology in Intact Adult Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Vivek; Laurent, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical indicators hold the promise of enabling non-invasive monitoring of activity in identified neurons in behaving organisms. However, the interpretation of images of brain activity produced using such sensors is not straightforward. Several recent studies of sensory coding used G-CaMP 1.3—a calcium sensor—as an indicator of neural activity; some of these studies characterized the imaged neurons as having narrow tuning curves, a conclusion not always supported by parallel electrophysiological studies. To better understand the possible cause of these conflicting results, we performed simultaneous in vivo 2-photon imaging and electrophysiological recording of G-CaMP 1.3 expressing neurons in the antennal lobe (AL) of intact fruitflies. We find that G-CaMP has a relatively high threshold, that its signal often fails to capture spiking response kinetics, and that it can miss even high instantaneous rates of activity if those are not sustained. While G-CaMP can be misleading, it is clearly useful for the identification of promising neural targets: when electrical activity is well above the sensor's detection threshold, its signal is fairly well correlated with mean firing rate and G-CaMP does not appear to alter significantly the responses of neurons that express it. The methods we present should enable any genetically encoded sensor, activator, or silencer to be evaluated in an intact neural circuit in vivo in Drosophila. PMID:18946545

  13. Visualizing Presynaptic Calcium Dynamics and Vesicle Fusion with a Single Genetically Encoded Reporter at Individual Synapses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rachel E; Burrone, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic transmission depends on the influx of calcium into the presynaptic compartment, which drives neurotransmitter release. Genetically encoded reporters are widely used tools to understand these processes, particularly pHluorin-based reporters that report vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis through pH dependent changes in fluorescence, and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) that exhibit changes in fluorescence upon binding to calcium. The recent expansion of the color palette of available indicators has made it possible to image multiple probes simultaneously within a cell. We have constructed a single molecule reporter capable of concurrent imaging of both presynaptic calcium influx and exocytosis, by fusion of sypHy, the vesicle associated protein synaptophysin containing a GFP-based pHluorin sensor, with the red-shifted GECI R-GECO1. Due to the fixed stoichiometry of the two probes, the ratio of the two responses can also be measured, providing an all optical correlate of the calcium dependence of release. Here, we have characterized stimulus-evoked sypHy-RGECO responses of hippocampal synapses in vitro, exploring the effects of different stimulus strengths and frequencies as well as variations in external calcium concentrations. By combining live sypHy-RGECO imaging with post hoc fixation and immunofluorescence, we have also investigated correlations between structural and functional properties of synapses. PMID:27507942

  14. Genetically encoded force sensors for measuring mechanical forces in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiu; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    There are three sources of free energy for cells: chemical potential, electrical potential and mechanical potential. There is little known about the last one since there have not been simple ways to measure stress in proteins in cells. we have now developed genetically encoded force sensors to assess the stress in fibrous proteins in living cells. These FReT based fluorescence sensors can be read out at video rates and provide real time maps of the stress distribution in cells, tissues and animals. The sensors can be inserted into specific proteins and in general do not disturb the normal function or anatomy. The original sensors used mutant GFPs linked by elastic linkers. These sensors provide a linear output with applied stress but the response is linear in strain. To improve contrast and dynamic range we have now developed a new class of sensors that are smaller making them less invasive, and have much higher intrinsic sensitivity since force modulates the angle between the donor and acceptor much more than the distance between them. Known as cpstFRET, the probe shows improved biocompatibility, wider dynamic range and higher sensitivity. PMID:21966553

  15. Fluorescent Proteins as Genetically Encoded FRET Biosensors in Life Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hochreiter, Bernhard; Pardo Garcia, Alan; Schmid, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence- or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a measurable physical energy transfer phenomenon between appropriate chromophores, when they are in sufficient proximity, usually within 10 nm. This feature has made them incredibly useful tools for many biomedical studies on molecular interactions. Furthermore, this principle is increasingly exploited for the design of biosensors, where two chromophores are linked with a sensory domain controlling their distance and thus the degree of FRET. The versatility of these FRET-biosensors made it possible to assess a vast amount of biological variables in a fast and standardized manner, allowing not only high-throughput studies but also sub-cellular measurements of biological processes. In this review, we aim at giving an overview over the recent advances in genetically encoded, fluorescent-protein based FRET-biosensors, as these represent the largest and most vividly growing group of FRET-based sensors. For easy understanding, we are grouping them into four categories, depending on their molecular mechanism. These are based on: (a) cleavage; (b) conformational-change; (c) mechanical force and (d) changes in the micro-environment. We also address the many issues and considerations that come with the development of FRET-based biosensors, as well as the possibilities that are available to measure them. PMID:26501285

  16. Genetically encoded sensors of protein hydrodynamics and molecular proximity.

    PubMed

    Hoepker, Alexander C; Wang, Ariel; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus; Yan, Yuling; Marriott, Gerard

    2015-05-19

    The specialized light organ of the ponyfish supports the growth of the bioluminescent symbiont Photobacterium leiognathi. The bioluminescence of P. leiognathi is generated within a heteromeric protein complex composed of the bacterial luciferase and a 20-kDa lumazine binding protein (LUMP), which serves as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor protein, emitting a cyan-colored fluorescence with an unusually long excited state lifetime of 13.6 ns. The long fluorescence lifetime and small mass of LUMP are exploited for the design of highly optimized encoded sensors for quantitative fluorescence anisotropy (FA) measurements of protein hydrodynamics. In particular, large differences in the FA values of the free and target-bound states of LUMP fusions appended with capture sequences of up to 20 kDa are used in quantitative FA imaging and analysis of target proteins. For example, a fusion protein composed of LUMP and a 5-kDa G protein binding domain is used as an FA sensor to quantify the binding of the GTP-bound cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) (21 kDa) in solution and within Escherichia coli. Additionally, the long fluorescence lifetime and the surface-bound fluorescent cofactor 6,7-dimethyl-8- (1'-dimethyl-ribityl) lumazine in LUMP are utilized in the design of highly optimized FRET probes that use Venus as an acceptor probe. The efficiency of FRET in a zero-length LUMP-Venus fusion is 62% compared to ∼ 31% in a related CFP-Venus fusion. The improved FRET efficiency obtained by using LUMP as a donor probe is used in the design of a FRET-optimized genetically encoded LUMP-Venus substrate for thrombin. PMID:25931526

  17. Genetically encoded sensors of protein hydrodynamics and molecular proximity

    PubMed Central

    Hoepker, Alexander C.; Wang, Ariel; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus; Yan, Yuling; Marriott, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The specialized light organ of the ponyfish supports the growth of the bioluminescent symbiont Photobacterium leiognathi. The bioluminescence of P. leiognathi is generated within a heteromeric protein complex composed of the bacterial luciferase and a 20-kDa lumazine binding protein (LUMP), which serves as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor protein, emitting a cyan-colored fluorescence with an unusually long excited state lifetime of 13.6 ns. The long fluorescence lifetime and small mass of LUMP are exploited for the design of highly optimized encoded sensors for quantitative fluorescence anisotropy (FA) measurements of protein hydrodynamics. In particular, large differences in the FA values of the free and target-bound states of LUMP fusions appended with capture sequences of up to 20 kDa are used in quantitative FA imaging and analysis of target proteins. For example, a fusion protein composed of LUMP and a 5-kDa G protein binding domain is used as an FA sensor to quantify the binding of the GTP-bound cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) (21 kDa) in solution and within Escherichia coli. Additionally, the long fluorescence lifetime and the surface-bound fluorescent cofactor 6,7-dimethyl-8- (1′-dimethyl-ribityl) lumazine in LUMP are utilized in the design of highly optimized FRET probes that use Venus as an acceptor probe. The efficiency of FRET in a zero-length LUMP-Venus fusion is 62% compared to ∼31% in a related CFP-Venus fusion. The improved FRET efficiency obtained by using LUMP as a donor probe is used in the design of a FRET-optimized genetically encoded LUMP-Venus substrate for thrombin. PMID:25931526

  18. KillerRed and miniSOG as genetically encoded photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmanova, Marina V.; Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Ryumina, Alina P.; Turchin, Ilya V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Ignatova, Nadezhda I.; Klementieva, Natalia V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the success of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer treatment, the problems of low selective accumulation of a photosensitizer in a tumor and skin phototoxicity have not resolved yet. The idea of encoding of a photosensitizer in genome of cancer cells is attractive, particularly because it can provide highly selective light induced cell killing. This work is aimed at the development of new approach to PDT of cancer, namely to using genetically encoded photosensitizers. A phototoxicity of red fluorescent GFP-like protein KillerRed and FMN-binding protein miniSOG was investigated on HeLa tumor xenografts in nude mice. The tumors were generated by subcutaneous injection of HeLa cells stably expressing the phototoxic proteins. The tumors were irradiated with 594 nm or 473 nm laser at 150 mW/cm2 for 20 or 30 min, repeatedly. Fluorescence intensity of the tumors was measured in vivo before and after each treatment procedure. Detailed pathomorphological analysis was performed 24 h after the therapy. On the epi-fluorescence images in vivo photobleaching of both proteins was observed indicating photodynamic reaction. Substantial pathomorphological abnormalities were found in the treated KillerRed-expressing tumor tissue, such as vacuolization of cytoplasm, cellular and nuclear membrane destruction, activation of apoptosis. In contrast, miniSOG-expressing tumors displayed no reaction to PDT, presumably due to the lack of FMN cofactor needed for fluorescence recovery of the flavoprotein. The results are of interest for photodynamic therapy as a proof of possibility to induce photodamages in cancer cells in vivo using genetically encoded photosensitizers.

  19. Transgenic mouse lines for non-invasive ratiometric monitoring of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Batti, Laura; Mukhtarov, Marat; Audero, Enrica; Ivanov, Anton; Paolicelli, Rosa Chiara; Zurborg, Sandra; Gross, Cornelius; Bregestovski, Piotr; Heppenstall, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride is the most abundant physiological anion and participates in a variety of cellular processes including trans-epithelial transport, cell volume regulation, and regulation of electrical excitability. The development of tools to monitor intracellular chloride concentration ([Cli]) is therefore important for the evaluation of cellular function in normal and pathological conditions. Recently, several Cl-sensitive genetically encoded probes have been described which allow for non-invasive monitoring of [Cli]. Here we describe two mouse lines expressing a CFP-YFP-based Cl probe called Cl-Sensor. First, we generated transgenic mice expressing Cl-Sensor under the control of the mouse Thy1 mini promoter. Cl-Sensor exhibited good expression from postnatal day two (P2) in neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and its level increased strongly during development. Using simultaneous whole-cell monitoring of ionic currents and Cl-dependent fluorescence, we determined that the apparent EC50 for Cli was 46 mM, indicating that this line is appropriate for measuring neuronal [Cli] in postnatal mice. We also describe a transgenic mouse reporter line for Cre-dependent conditional expression of Cl-Sensor, which was targeted to the Rosa26 locus and by incorporating a strong exogenous promoter induced robust expression upon Cre-mediated recombination. We demonstrate high levels of tissue-specific expression in two different Cre-driver lines targeting cells of the myeloid lineage and peripheral sensory neurons. Using these mice the apparent EC50 for Cli was estimated to be 61 and 54 mM in macrophages and DRG, respectively. Our data suggest that these mouse lines will be useful models for ratiometric monitoring of Cli in specific cell types in vivo. PMID:23734096

  20. Live imaging of intra- and extracellular pH in plants using pHusion, a novel genetically encoded biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gjetting, Kisten Sisse Krag; Ytting, Cecilie Karkov; Schulz, Alexander; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2012-05-01

    Changes in pH are now widely accepted as a signalling mechanism in cells. In plants, proton pumps in the plasma membrane and tonoplast play a key role in regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis and maintenance of transmembrane proton gradients. Proton transport in response to external stimuli can be expected to be finely regulated spatially and temporally. With the ambition to follow such changes live, a new genetically encoded sensor, pHusion, has been developed. pHusion is especially designed for apoplastic pH measurements. It was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis and targeted for expression in either the cytosol or the apoplast including intracellular compartments. pHusion consists of the tandem concatenation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), and works as a ratiometric pH sensor. Live microscopy at high spatial and temporal resolution is highly dependent on appropriate immobilization of the specimen for microscopy. Medical adhesive often used in such experiments destroys cell viability in roots. Here a novel system for immobilizing Arabidopsis seedling roots for perfusion experiments is presented which does not impair cell viability. With appropriate immobilization, it was possible to follow changes of the apoplastic and cytosolic pH in mesophyll and root tissue. Rapid pH homeostasis upon external pH changes was reflected by negligible cytosolic pH fluctuations, while the apoplastic pH changed drastically. The great potential for analysing pH regulation in a whole-tissue, physiological context is demonstrated by the immediate alkalinization of the subepidermal apoplast upon external indole-3-acetic acid administration. This change is highly significant in the elongation zone compared with the root hair zone and control roots.

  1. Using a Genetically Encoded Sensor to Identify Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii Ca2+ Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Saima M.; Hortua Triana, Miryam A.; Paul, Aditya S.; El Bakkouri, Majida; Hackett, Caroline G.; Tran, Fanny; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Hui, Raymond; Zuercher, William J.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Lourido, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites progress in accordance with fluxes in cytosolic Ca2+. Such fluxes are necessary for events like motility and egress from host cells. We used genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GCaMPs) to develop a cell-based phenotypic screen for compounds that modulate Ca2+ signaling in the model apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii. In doing so, we took advantage of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast, which we show acts in part through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G; PKG) to raise levels of cytosolic Ca2+. We define the pool of Ca2+ regulated by PKG to be a neutral store distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum. Screening a library of 823 ATP mimetics, we identify both inhibitors and enhancers of Ca2+ signaling. Two such compounds constitute novel PKG inhibitors and prevent zaprinast from increasing cytosolic Ca2+. The enhancers identified are capable of releasing intracellular Ca2+ stores independently of zaprinast or PKG. One of these enhancers blocks parasite egress and invasion and shows strong antiparasitic activity against T. gondii. The same compound inhibits invasion of the most lethal malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Inhibition of Ca2+-related phenotypes in these two apicomplexan parasites suggests that depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by the enhancer may be an effective antiparasitic strategy. These results establish a powerful new strategy for identifying compounds that modulate the essential parasite signaling pathways regulated by Ca2+, underscoring the importance of these pathways and the therapeutic potential of their inhibition. PMID:26933036

  2. Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungmoo; Piao, Hong Hua; Sepheri-Rad, Masoud; Jung, Arong; Sung, Uhna; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Baker, Bradley J

    2016-02-04

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) have improved to the point where they are beginning to be useful for in vivo recordings. While the ultimate goal is to image neuronal activity in vivo, one must be able to image activity of a single cell to ensure successful in vivo preparations. This procedure will describe how to image membrane potential in a single cell to provide a foundation to eventually image in vivo. Here we describe methods for imaging GEVIs consisting of a voltage-sensing domain fused to either a single fluorescent protein (FP) or two fluorescent proteins capable of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in vitro. Using an image splitter enables the projection of images created by two different wavelengths onto the same charge-coupled device (CCD) camera simultaneously. The image splitter positions a second filter cube in the light path. This second filter cube consists of a dichroic and two emission filters to separate the donor and acceptor fluorescent wavelengths depending on the FPs of the GEVI. This setup enables the simultaneous recording of both the acceptor and donor fluorescent partners while the membrane potential is manipulated via whole cell patch clamp configuration. When using a GEVI consisting of a single FP, the second filter cube can be removed allowing the mirrors in the image splitter to project a single image onto the CCD camera.

  3. Genetically encoded tools: bridging the gap between neuronal identity and function.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Ku

    2015-01-21

    Genetically encoded tools are positioned to serve a unique and critical role in bridging the gap between the genetic identity of neurons and their functional properties. However, the use of these tools is limited by our current understanding of cell-type identity. As we make technological advances that focus on capturing functional aspects of neurons such as connectivity, activity, and metabolic states, our understanding of neuronal identity will deepen and may enable the use of genetically encoded tools for modulating disease-specific circuits for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Monitoring Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes with Genetically Encoded Calcium and Voltage Fluorescent Reporters

    PubMed Central

    Shinnawi, Rami; Huber, Irit; Maizels, Leonid; Shaheen, Naim; Gepstein, Amira; Arbel, Gil; Tijsen, Anke J.; Gepstein, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Summary The advent of the human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has transformed biomedical research, providing new tools for human disease modeling, drug development, and regenerative medicine. To fulfill its unique potential in the cardiovascular field, efficient methods should be developed for high-resolution, large-scale, long-term, and serial functional cellular phenotyping of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). To achieve this goal, we combined the hiPSC technology with genetically encoded voltage (ArcLight) and calcium (GCaMP5G) fluorescent indicators. Expression of ArcLight and GCaMP5G in hiPSC-CMs permitted to reliably follow changes in transmembrane potential and intracellular calcium levels, respectively. This allowed monitoring short- and long-term changes in action-potential and calcium-handling properties and the development of arrhythmias in response to several pharmaceutical agents and in hiPSC-CMs derived from patients with different inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes. Combining genetically encoded fluorescent reporters with hiPSC-CMs may bring a unique value to the study of inherited disorders, developmental biology, and drug development and testing. PMID:26372632

  5. Quench-Shield Ratiometric Upconversion Luminescence Nanoplatform for Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Dai-Liang; Zhang, Cui-Cui; Li, Jun-Bin; Wu, Yuan; Song, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Ru-Qin; Tan, Weihong

    2016-02-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) possess several unique features, but they suffer from surface quenching effects caused by the interaction between the UCNPs and fluorophore. Thus, the use of UCNPs for target-induced emission changes for biosensing and bioimaging has been challenging. In this work, fluorophore and UCNPs are effectively separated by a silica transition layer with a thickness of about 4 nm to diminish the surface quenching effect of the UCNPs, allowing a universal and efficient luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) ratiometric upconversion luminescence nanoplatform for biosensing applications. A pH-sensitive fluorescein derivative and Hg(2+)-sensitive rhodamine B were chosen as fluoroionphores to construct the LRET nanoprobes. Both showed satisfactory target-triggered ratiometric upconversion luminescence responses in both solution and live cells, indicating that this strategy may find wide applications in the design of nanoprobes for various biorelated targets. PMID:26744211

  6. Rapid Cellular Phenotyping of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes using a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Leyton-Mange, Jordan S.; Mills, Robert W.; Macri, Vincenzo S.; Jang, Min Young; Butte, Faraz N.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Milan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In addition to their promise in regenerative medicine, pluripotent stem cells have proved to be faithful models of many human diseases. In particular, patient-specific stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate key features of several life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. For both modeling and regenerative approaches, phenotyping of stem cell-derived tissues is critical. Cellular phenotyping has largely relied upon expression of lineage markers rather than physiologic attributes. This is especially true for cardiomyocytes, in part because electrophysiological recordings are labor intensive. Likewise, most optical voltage indicators suffer from phototoxicity, which damages cells and degrades signal quality. Here we present the use of a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, ArcLight, which we demonstrate can faithfully report transmembrane potentials in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate the application of this fluorescent sensor in high-throughput, serial phenotyping of differentiating cardiomyocyte populations and in screening for drug-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24527390

  7. Monitoring cytosolic and ER Zn(2+) in stimulated breast cancer cells using genetically encoded FRET sensors.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Anne M; Taylor, Kathryn M; Merkx, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    The Zn(2+)-specific ion channel ZIP7 has been implicated to play an important role in releasing Zn(2+) from the ER. External stimulation of breast cancer cells has been proposed to induce phosphorylation of ZIP7 by CK2α, resulting in ZIP7-mediated Zn(2+) release from the ER into the cytosol. Here, we examined whether changes in cytosolic and ER Zn(2+) concentrations can be detected upon such external stimuli. Two previously developed FRET sensors for Zn(2+), eZinCh-2 (Kd = 1 nM at pH 7.1) and eCALWY-4 (Kd = 0.63 nM at pH 7.1), were expressed in both the cytosol and the ER of wild-type MCF-7 and TamR cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and TamR cells with external Zn(2+) and pyrithione, one of the previously used triggers, resulted in an immediate increase in free Zn(2+) in both cytosol and ER, suggesting that Zn(2+) was directly transferred across the cellular membranes by pyrithione. Cells treated with a second trigger, EGF/ionomycin, showed no changes in intracellular Zn(2+) levels, neither in multicolor imaging experiments that allowed simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and ER Zn(2+), nor in experiments in which cytosolic and ER Zn(2+) were monitored separately. In contrast to previous work using small-molecule fluorescent dyes, these results indicate that EGF-ionomycin treatment does not result in significant changes in cytosolic Zn(2+) levels as a result from Zn(2+) release from the ER. These results underline the importance of using genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to complement and verify intracellular imaging experiments with synthetic fluorescent Zn(2+) dyes. PMID:26739447

  8. Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumoto, Sakiko; Looger, Loren L.; Micheva, Kristina D.; Reimer, Richard J.; Smith, Stephen J.; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2005-06-01

    Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Once released, its rapid removal from the synaptic cleft is critical for preventing excitotoxicity and spillover to neighboring synapses. Despite consensus on the role of glutamate in normal and disease physiology, technical issues limit our understanding of its metabolism in intact cells. To monitor glutamate levels inside and at the surface of living cells, genetically encoded nanosensors were developed. The fluorescent indicator protein for glutamate (FLIPE) consists of the glutamate/aspartate binding protein ybeJ from Escherichia coli fused to two variants of the green fluorescent protein. Three sensors with lower affinities for glutamate were created by mutation of residues peristeric to the ybeJ binding pocket. In the presence of ligands, FLIPEs show a concentration-dependent decrease in FRET efficiency. When expressed on the surface of rat hippocampal neurons or PC12 cells, the sensors respond to extracellular glutamate with a reversible concentration-dependent decrease in FRET efficiency. Depolarization of neurons leads to a reduction in FRET efficiency corresponding to 300 nM glutamate at the cell surface. No change in FRET was observed when cells expressing sensors in the cytosol were superfused with up to 20 mM glutamate, consistent with a minimal contribution of glutamate uptake to cytosolic glutamate levels. The results demonstrate that FLIPE sensors can be used for real-time monitoring of glutamate metabolism in living cells, in tissues, or in intact organisms, providing tools for studying metabolism or for drug discovery. aspartate | hippocampal neuron | neurotransmitter | secretion | transport

  9. Ratiometric electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Goggins, Sean; Naz, Christophe; Marsh, Barrie J; Frost, Christopher G

    2015-01-11

    A novel ferrocene-derived substrate for the ratiometric electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was designed and synthesised. It was demonstrated to be an excellent electrochemical substrate for the ALP-labelled enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  10. Genetically encoded protein photocrosslinker with a transferable mass spectrometry-identifiable label

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Song, Haiping; He, Dan; Zhang, Shuai; Dai, Shizhong; Lin, Shixian; Meng, Rong; Wang, Chu; Chen, Peng R.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling photocrosslinking reagents with mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for studying protein–protein interactions in living systems, but it still suffers from high rates of false-positive identifications as well as the lack of information on interaction interface due to the challenges in deciphering crosslinking peptides. Here we develop a genetically encoded photo-affinity unnatural amino acid that introduces a mass spectrometry-identifiable label (MS-label) to the captured prey proteins after photocrosslinking and prey–bait separation. This strategy, termed IMAPP (In-situ cleavage and MS-label transfer After Protein Photocrosslinking), enables direct identification of photo-captured substrate peptides that are difficult to uncover by conventional genetically encoded photocrosslinkers. Taking advantage of the MS-label, the IMAPP strategy significantly enhances the confidence for identifying protein–protein interactions and enables simultaneous mapping of the binding interface under living conditions. PMID:27460181

  11. Photoswitching-free FRAP analysis with a genetically encoded fluorescent tag.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Tatsuya; McNally, James G

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a widely used imaging technique for measuring protein dynamics in live cells that has provided many important biological insights. Although FRAP presumes that the conversion of a fluorophore from a bright to a dark state is irreversible, GFP as well as other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins now in common use can also exhibit a reversible conversion known as photoswitching. Various studies have shown how photoswitching can cause at least four different artifacts in FRAP, leading to false conclusions about various biological phenomena, including the erroneous identification of anomalous diffusion or the overestimation of the freely diffusible fraction of a cellular protein. Unfortunately, identifying and then correcting these artifacts is difficult. Here we report a new characteristic of an organic fluorophore tetramethylrhodamine bound to the HaloTag protein (TMR-HaloTag), which like GFP can be genetically encoded, but which directly and simply overcomes the artifacts caused by photoswitching in FRAP. We show that TMR exhibits virtually no photoswitching in live cells under typical imaging conditions for FRAP. We also demonstrate that TMR eliminates all of the four reported photoswitching artifacts in FRAP. Finally, we apply this photoswitching-free FRAP with TMR to show that the chromatin decondensation following UV irradiation does not involve loss of nucleosomes from the damaged DNA. In sum, we demonstrate that the TMR Halo label provides a genetically encoded fluorescent tag very well suited for accurate FRAP experiments. PMID:25233348

  12. Photoswitching-Free FRAP Analysis with a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Tag

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Tatsuya; McNally, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a widely used imaging technique for measuring protein dynamics in live cells that has provided many important biological insights. Although FRAP presumes that the conversion of a fluorophore from a bright to a dark state is irreversible, GFP as well as other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins now in common use can also exhibit a reversible conversion known as photoswitching. Various studies have shown how photoswitching can cause at least four different artifacts in FRAP, leading to false conclusions about various biological phenomena, including the erroneous identification of anomalous diffusion or the overestimation of the freely diffusible fraction of a cellular protein. Unfortunately, identifying and then correcting these artifacts is difficult. Here we report a new characteristic of an organic fluorophore tetramethylrhodamine bound to the HaloTag protein (TMR-HaloTag), which like GFP can be genetically encoded, but which directly and simply overcomes the artifacts caused by photoswitching in FRAP. We show that TMR exhibits virtually no photoswitching in live cells under typical imaging conditions for FRAP. We also demonstrate that TMR eliminates all of the four reported photoswitching artifacts in FRAP. Finally, we apply this photoswitching-free FRAP with TMR to show that the chromatin decondensation following UV irradiation does not involve loss of nucleosomes from the damaged DNA. In sum, we demonstrate that the TMR Halo label provides a genetically encoded fluorescent tag very well suited for accurate FRAP experiments. PMID:25233348

  13. KillerOrange, a Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer Activated by Blue and Green Light

    PubMed Central

    Bozhanova, Nina G.; Sharonov, George V.; Staroverov, Dmitriy B.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Ryabova, Anastasia V.; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded photosensitizers, proteins that produce reactive oxygen species when illuminated with visible light, are increasingly used as optogenetic tools. Their applications range from ablation of specific cell populations to precise optical inactivation of cellular proteins. Here, we report an orange mutant of red fluorescent protein KillerRed that becomes toxic when illuminated with blue or green light. This new protein, KillerOrange, carries a tryptophan-based chromophore that is novel for photosensitizers. We show that KillerOrange can be used simultaneously and independently from KillerRed in both bacterial and mammalian cells offering chromatic orthogonality for light-activated toxicity. PMID:26679300

  14. Synthesis of Non-linear Protein Dimers through a Genetically Encoded Thiol-ene Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Kolbus, Jessica; Chou, Chungjung; Liu, Jihe; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal unnatural amino acids into proteins provides a useful tool for the installation of specific functionalities that will allow for the labeling of proteins with virtually any probe. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a set of alkene lysines using the orthogonal PylRS/PylTCUA pair in Escherichia coli. The installed double bond functionality was then applied in a photoinitiated thiol-ene reaction of the protein with a fluorescent thiol-bearing probe, as well as a cysteine residue of a second protein, showing the applicability of this approach in the formation of heterogeneous non-linear fused proteins. PMID:25181502

  15. Engineering a genetically-encoded SHG chromophore by electrostatic targeting to the membrane.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Yuka; Shoda, Keiko; Rial-Verde, Emiliano; Yuste, Rafael; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Although second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy provides unique imaging advantages for voltage imaging and other biological applications, genetically-encoded SHG chromophores remain relatively unexplored. SHG only arises from non-centrosymmetric media, so an anisotropic arrangement of chromophores is essential to provide strong SHG signals. Here, inspired by the mechanism by which K-Ras4B associates with plasma membranes, we sought to achieve asymmetric arrangements of chromophores at the membrane-cytoplasm interface using the fluorescent protein mVenus. After adding a farnesylation motif to the C-terminus of mVenus, nine amino acids composing its β-barrel surface were replaced by lysine, forming an electrostatic patch. This protein (mVe9Knus-CVIM) was efficiently targeted to the plasma membrane in a geometrically defined manner and exhibited SHG in HEK293 cells. In agreement with its design, mVe9Knus-CVIM hyperpolarizability was oriented at a small angle (~7.3°) from the membrane normal. Genetically-encoded SHG chromophores could serve as a molecular platform for imaging membrane potential. PMID:25505870

  16. FRET-based genetically-encoded sensors for quantitative monitoring of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Neighboring cells in the same tissue can exist in different states of dynamic activities. After genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, fluxomics is now equally important for generating accurate quantitative information on the cellular and sub-cellular dynamics of ions and metabolite, which is critical for functional understanding of organisms. Various spectrometry techniques are used for monitoring ions and metabolites, although their temporal and spatial resolutions are limited. Discovery of the fluorescent proteins and their variants has revolutionized cell biology. Therefore, novel tools and methods targeting sub-cellular compartments need to be deployed in specific cells and targeted to sub-cellular compartments in order to quantify the target-molecule dynamics directly. We require tools that can measure cellular activities and protein dynamics with sub-cellular resolution. Biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are genetically encoded and hence can specifically target sub-cellular organelles by fusion to proteins or targetted sequences. Since last decade, FRET-based genetically encoded sensors for molecules involved in energy production, reactive oxygen species and secondary messengers have helped to unravel key aspects of cellular physiology. This review, describing the design and principles of sensors, presents a database of sensors for different analytes/processes, and illustrate examples of application in quantitative live cell imaging.

  17. FRET-based genetically-encoded sensors for quantitative monitoring of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Neighboring cells in the same tissue can exist in different states of dynamic activities. After genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, fluxomics is now equally important for generating accurate quantitative information on the cellular and sub-cellular dynamics of ions and metabolite, which is critical for functional understanding of organisms. Various spectrometry techniques are used for monitoring ions and metabolites, although their temporal and spatial resolutions are limited. Discovery of the fluorescent proteins and their variants has revolutionized cell biology. Therefore, novel tools and methods targeting sub-cellular compartments need to be deployed in specific cells and targeted to sub-cellular compartments in order to quantify the target-molecule dynamics directly. We require tools that can measure cellular activities and protein dynamics with sub-cellular resolution. Biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are genetically encoded and hence can specifically target sub-cellular organelles by fusion to proteins or targetted sequences. Since last decade, FRET-based genetically encoded sensors for molecules involved in energy production, reactive oxygen species and secondary messengers have helped to unravel key aspects of cellular physiology. This review, describing the design and principles of sensors, presents a database of sensors for different analytes/processes, and illustrate examples of application in quantitative live cell imaging. PMID:26184603

  18. Remote regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice using genetically encoded nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Means for temporally regulating gene expression and cellular activity are invaluable for elucidating underlying physiological processes and would have therapeutic implications. Here we report the development of a genetically encoded system for remote regulation of gene expression by low-frequency radio waves (RFs) or a magnetic field. Iron oxide nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly as a GFP-tagged ferritin heavy and light chain fusion. The ferritin nanoparticles associate with a camelid anti-GFP–transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 fusion protein, αGFP-TRPV1, and can transduce noninvasive RF or magnetic fields into channel activation, also showing that TRPV1 can transduce a mechanical stimulus. This, in turn, initiates calcium-dependent transgene expression. In mice with stem cell or viral expression of these genetically encoded components, remote stimulation of insulin transgene expression with RF or a magnet lowers blood glucose. This robust, repeatable method for remote regulation in vivo may ultimately have applications in basic science, technology and therapeutics. PMID:25501906

  19. Visualization of caspase-3-like activity in cells using a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor activated by protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Xin; Cui, Wenjing; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Huamei; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Zicheng; Li, Zheng; Ying, Guoguang; Zhang, Ning; Li, Binghui

    2013-01-01

    Cytosolic caspase-3-like proteases, such as caspase-3 and caspase-7, have a central role in mediating the progress of apoptosis. Here to conveniently monitor caspase-3-like activity in the multicellular environment, we have developed genetically encoded switch-on fluorescence-base indicators that are cyclized chimeras containing a caspase-3 cleavage site as a switch. When cleaved by caspase-3-like proteases, the non-fluorescent indicator rapidly becomes fluorescent, and thus detects in real-time the activation of such caspases. We generate cultured cells constitutively expressing these chimeras, and all the healthy cells are non-fluorescent. When these cells are exposed to apoptotic stimuli, dead cells show strong fluorescence depending on caspase activation. With these tools, we monitor in real-time caspase-3-like activity in each cell under various conditions, and show for the first time that the environment of cancer cells affects their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in a modified soft agar assay. These biosensors should enable better understanding of the biological relevance of caspase-3-like proteases.

  20. Unconventional ratiometric-enhanced optical sensing of oxygen by mixed-phase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettieri, S.; Pallotti, D. K.; Gesuele, F.; Maddalena, P.

    2016-07-01

    We show that mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be effectively employed as an unconventional, inorganic, dual-emitting, and ratiometric optical sensor of O2. Simultaneous availability of rutile and anatase TiO2 photoluminescence (PL) and their peculiar "anti-correlated" PL responses to O2 allow using their ratio as a measurement parameter associated with the O2 concentration, leading to an experimental responsivity being by construction larger than the one obtainable for single-phase PL detection. A proof of this concept is given, showing a two-fold enhancement of the optical responsivity provided by the ratiometric approach. Besides the peculiar ratiometric-enhanced responsivity, other characteristics of mixed phase TiO2 can be envisaged as favorable for O2 optical probing, namely (a) low production costs, (b) absence of heterogeneous components, and (c) self-supporting properties. These characteristics encourage experimenting with its use for applications requiring high indicator quantities at a competitive price, possibly also tackling the need to develop supporting matrixes that carry the luminescent probes and avoiding issues related to the use of different components for ratiometric sensing.

  1. Facile synthesis of a ratiometric oxygen nanosensor for cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sisi; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jinliang; Chen, Yiying; Xie, Lei; Yao, Qiuhong; Jiang, Yaqi; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2016-12-15

    A new type of cell-penetrating ratiometric fluorescence oxygen sensing nanoparticle was prepared through a facile co-precipitation method. Amphiphilic polymer poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) was firstly cooperated with polystyrene (PS) to envelop the highly photostable phosphorescent oxygen indicator, platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (PtTFPP, emission at 648nm), and the reference fluorophore, poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO, emission at 440nm ), via hydrophobic interaction in aqueous solution. To improve the sensor biocompatibility, the biomacromolecule poly-l-lysine (PLL) was selected to act as a shell via electrostatic forces. The as-prepared PtTFPP doped core-shell nanoparticles (called PPMA/PLL NPs) exhibited an excellent ratiometric luminescence response to O2 content with high quenching efficiency and full reversibility in the oxygen sensing. More importantly, these oxygen nanosensors passed across the cell membrane after co-incubation without external force. Labeled cells exhibited high brightness in the matching blue and red channels of a digital camera. And most nanosensors were found locating in cytoplasm rather than being trapped in endosomes. PMID:27372571

  2. A fully genetically encoded protein architecture for optical control of peptide ligand concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Tillberg, Paul W.; Chen, Fei; Boyden, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels are among the most important proteins in biology, regulating the activity of excitable cells and changing in diseases. Ideally it would be possible to actuate endogenous ion channels, in a temporally precise and reversible manner, and without requiring chemical cofactors. Here we present a modular protein architecture for fully genetically encoded, light-modulated control of ligands that modulate ion channels of a targeted cell. Our reagent, which we call a lumitoxin, combines a photoswitch and an ion channel-blocking peptide toxin. Illumination causes the photoswitch to unfold, lowering the toxin's local concentration near the cell surface, and enabling the ion channel to function. We explore lumitoxin modularity by showing operation with peptide toxins that target different voltage-dependent K+ channels. The lumitoxin architecture may represent a new kind of modular protein-engineering strategy for designing light-activated proteins, and thus may enable development of novel tools for modulating cellular physiology.

  3. Genetically Encoded Sender–Receiver System in 3D Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Engineering spatial patterning in mammalian cells, employing entirely genetically encoded components, requires solving several problems. These include how to code secreted activator or inhibitor molecules and how to send concentration-dependent signals to neighboring cells, to control gene expression. The Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line is a potential engineering scaffold as it forms hollow spheres (cysts) in 3D culture and tubulates in response to extracellular hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We first aimed to graft a synthetic patterning system onto single developing MDCK cysts. We therefore developed a new localized transfection method to engineer distinct sender and receiver regions. A stable reporter line enabled reversible EGFP activation by HGF and modulation by a secreted repressor (a truncated HGF variant, NK4). By expanding the scale to wide fields of cysts, we generated morphogen diffusion gradients, controlling reporter gene expression. Together, these components provide a toolkit for engineering cell–cell communication networks in 3D cell culture. PMID:24313393

  4. Use of genetically encoded sensors to monitor cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in living cells.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Andrei I; Rutter, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    ATP is not only recognized as the universal energy "currency" in most cells but also plays a less well-known role as an intracellular and extracellular messenger. Here, we review novel approaches for measuring free ATP (or ATP/ADP ratios) in living mammalian cells by using genetically encoded sensors. We also discuss the key technical aspects of routine real-time ATP/ADP monitoring using as a model one of the last-generation fluorescent probes, a fusion protein commonly known as "Perceval." Finally, we present detailed guidelines for the simultaneous measurement of cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios and Ca(2+) concentrations alongside electrical parameters in individual pancreatic β cells, in which energy metabolism is tightly linked to plasma membrane excitability to control the secretion of insulin. With appropriate variations, this approach can be adapted to the study of cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios and Ca(2+) concentrations in malignant cells, two important aspects of oncometabolism.

  5. Organoids and the genetically encoded self-assembly of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, David A; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of early embryonic patterning and the timely allocation of specific cells to embryonic regions and fates as well as their development into tissues and organs, is a fundamental problem in Developmental Biology. The classical explanation for this process had been built around the notion of positional information. Accordingly the programmed appearance of sources of Morphogens at localized positions within a field of cells directs their differentiation. Recently, the development of organs and tissues from unpatterned and initially identical stem cells (adult and embryonic) has challenged the need for positional information and even the integrity of the embryo, for pattern formation. Here we review the emerging area of organoid biology from the perspective of Developmental Biology. We argue that the events underlying the development of these systems are not purely linked to self-organization, as often suggested, but rather to a process of genetically encoded self-assembly where genetic programs encode and control the emergence of biological structures.

  6. Localization microscopy using noncovalent fluorogen activation by genetically encoded fluorogen activating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Suvrajit; Huang, Fang; Szent-Gyorgyi, Chris; Lidke, Diane S.; Lidke, Keith A.; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2014-01-01

    The noncovalent equilibrium activation of a fluorogenic malachite green dye and its cognate fluorogen activating protein has been exploited to produce a sparse labeling distribution of densely tagged genetically encoded proteins, enabling single molecule detection and superresolution imaging in fixed and living cells. These sparse labeling conditions are achieved by control of the dye concentration in the milieu, and do not require any photoswitching or photoactivation. The labeling is achieved using physiological buffers and cellular media, and does not require additives or switching buffer to obtain superresolution images. We evaluate superresolution properties and images obtained from a selected fluorogen activating protein clone fused to actin, and show that the photon counts per object fall between those typically reported for fluorescent proteins and switching dye-pairs, resulting in 10-30 nm localization precision per object. This labeling strategy complements existing approaches, and may simplify multicolor labeling of cellular structures. PMID:24194371

  7. A Genetically Encoded β-Lactamase Reporter for Ultrasensitive (129) Xe NMR in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Roose, Benjamin W; Palovcak, Eugene J; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2016-07-25

    Molecular imaging holds considerable promise for elucidating biological processes in normal physiology as well as disease states, but requires noninvasive methods for identifying analytes at sub-micromolar concentrations. Particularly useful are genetically encoded, single-protein reporters that harness the power of molecular biology to visualize specific molecular processes, but such reporters have been conspicuously lacking for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Herein, we report TEM-1 β-lactamase (bla) as a single-protein reporter for hyperpolarized (HP) (129) Xe NMR, with significant saturation contrast at 0.1 μm. Xenon chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) interactions with the primary allosteric site in bla give rise to a unique saturation peak at 255 ppm, well removed (≈60 ppm downfield) from the (129) Xe-H2 O peak. Useful saturation contrast was also observed for bla expressed in bacterial cells and mammalian cells. PMID:27305488

  8. Reversibly switchable photoacoustic tomography using a genetically encoded near-infrared phytochrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Kaberniuk, Andrii A.; Li, Lei; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lidai; Li, Guo; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical imaging of genetically encoded probes has revolutionized biomedical studies by providing valuable information about targeted biological processes. Here, we report a novel imaging technique, termed reversibly switchable photoacoustic tomography (RS-PAT), which exhibits large penetration depth, high detection sensitivity, and super-resolution. RS-PAT combines advanced photoacoustic imaging techniques with, for the first time, a nonfluorescent photoswitchable bacterial phytochrome. This bacterial phytochrome is the most near-infrared shifted genetically encoded probe reported so far. Moreover, this bacterial phytochrome is reversibly photoconvertible between its far-red and near-infrared light absorption states. Taking maximum advantage of the powerful imaging capability of PAT and the unique photochemical properties of the phytochrome, RS-PAT has broken through both the optical diffusion limit for deep-tissue imaging and the optical diffraction limit for super-resolution photoacoustic microscopy. Specifically, with RS-PAT we have achieved an unprecedented detection sensitivity of ~2 μM, or as few as ~20 tumor cells, at a centimeter depth. Such high sensitivity is fully demonstrated in our study by monitoring tumor growth and metastasis at whole-body level with ~100 μm resolution. Moreover, our microscopic implementation of RS-PAT is capable of imaging mammalian cells with a sub-diffraction lateral resolution of ~140 nm and axial resolution of ~400 nm, which are respectively ~2-fold and ~75-fold finer than those of our conventional photoacoustic microscopy. Overall, RS-PAT is a new and promising imaging technology for studying biological processes at different length scales.

  9. Controlling enzyme inhibition using an expanded set of genetically encoded amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun; Kwon, Inchan

    2013-09-01

    Enzyme inhibition plays an important role in drug development, metabolic pathway regulation, and biocatalysis with product inhibition. When an inhibitor has high structural similarities to the substrate of an enzyme, controlling inhibitor binding without affecting enzyme substrate binding is often challenging and requires fine-tuning of the active site. We hypothesize that an extended set of genetically encoded amino acids can be used to design an enzyme active site that reduces enzyme inhibitor binding without compromising substrate binding. As a model case, we chose murine dihydrofolate reductase (mDHFR), substrate dihydrofolate, and inhibitor methotrexate. Structural models of mDHFR variants containing non-natural amino acids complexed with each ligand were constructed to identify a key residue for inhibitor binding and non-natural amino acids to replace the key residue. Then, we discovered that replacing the key phenylalanine residue with two phenylalanine analogs (p-bromophenylalanine (pBrF) and L-2-naphthylalanine (2Nal)) enhances binding affinity toward the substrate dihydrofolate over the inhibitor by 4.0 and 5.8-fold, respectively. Such an enhanced selectivity is mainly due to a reduced inhibitor binding affinity by 2.1 and 4.3-fold, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of the mDHFR variant containing pBrF is comparable to that of wild-type mDHFR, whereas the mDHFR variant containing 2Nal exhibits a moderate decrease in the catalytic efficiency. The work described here clearly demonstrates the feasibility of selectively controlling enzyme inhibition using an expanded set of genetically encoded amino acids.

  10. Imaging of Fluoride Ion in Living Cells and Tissues with a Two-Photon Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinyue; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Jianjian; Chen, Zhenjie; Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    A reaction-based two-photon (TP) ratiometric fluorescence probe Z2 has been developed and successfully applied to detect and image fluoride ion in living cells and tissues. The Z2 probe was designed designed to utilize an ICT mechanism between n-butylnaphthalimide as a fluorophore and tert-butyldiphenylsilane (TBDPS) as a response group. Upon addition of fluoride ion, the Si-O bond in the Z2 would be cleaved, and then a stronger electron-donating group was released. The fluorescent changes at 450 and 540 nm, respectively, made it possible to achieve ratiometric fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the Z2 could ratiometrically detect and image fluoride ion in living cells and tissues in a depth of 250 μm by two-photon microscopy (TPM). PMID:25594597

  11. A ratiometric fluorescent formaldehyde probe for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    He, Longwei; Yang, Xueling; Liu, Yong; Kong, Xiuqi; Lin, Weiying

    2016-03-14

    We have described a ratiometric fluorescent formaldehyde probe (RFFP) based on the 6-hydroxy naphthalene chromophore for the first time. The probe is suitable for ratiometric detection of formaldehyde both in the solution and living biological samples with two distinct emission bands.

  12. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation. PMID:22164251

  13. Organoids and the genetically encoded self‐assembly of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Baillie‐Johnson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of early embryonic patterning and the timely allocation of specific cells to embryonic regions and fates as well as their development into tissues and organs, is a fundamental problem in Developmental Biology. The classical explanation for this process had been built around the notion of positional information. Accordingly the programmed appearance of sources of Morphogens at localized positions within a field of cells directs their differentiation. Recently, the development of organs and tissues from unpatterned and initially identical stem cells (adult and embryonic) has challenged the need for positional information and even the integrity of the embryo, for pattern formation. Here we review the emerging area of organoid biology from the perspective of Developmental Biology. We argue that the events underlying the development of these systems are not purely linked to “self‐organization,” as often suggested, but rather to a process of genetically encoded self‐assembly where genetic programs encode and control the emergence of biological structures. PMID:26666846

  14. Genetically Encoded Fragment-Based Discovery of Glycopeptide Ligands for Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Simon; Lin, Edith; Kitov, Pavel I.; Tjhung, Katrina F.; Gerlits, Oksana O.; Deng, Lu; Kasper, Brian; Sood, Amika; Paschal, Beth M.; Zhang, Ping; Ling, Chang-Chun; Klassen, John S.; Noren, Christopher J.; Mahal, Lara K.; Woods, Robert J.; Coates, Leighton; Derda, Ratmir

    2015-04-10

    Here we describe an approach to accelerate the search for competitive inhibitors for carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). Genetically encoded fragment-based-discovery (GE-FBD) uses selection of phagedisplayed glycopeptides to dock a glycan fragment at the CRD and guide selection of Synergistic peptide motifs adjacent to the CRD. Starting from concanavalin A (ConA), a mannose (Man)-binding protein, as a bait, we narrowed a library of 108 glycopeptides to 86 leads that share a consensus motif, Man-WYD. Validation of synthetic leads yielded Man-WYDLF that exhibited 40 50-fold enhancement in affinity over methyl α-D-mannopyranoside (MeMan). Lectin array Suggested specificity: Man-WYD derivative bound only to 3 out of 17 proteins-ConA, LcH, and PSA-that bind to Man. An X-ray structure of ConA.:Man-WYD proved that the trimannoside core and Man-WYD exhibit identical CRD docking; but their extra-CRD binding modes are significantly. different. Still, they have comparable affinity and selectivity for various Man-binding proteins. The intriguing observation provides new insight into functional mimicry :of carbohydrates by peptide ligands. GE-FBD may provide an alternative to rapidly search for competitive inhibitors for lectins.

  15. A genetically encoded biosensor for in vitro and in vivo detection of NADP(.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Chang; Zhang, Chen; Tang, Yun; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-03-15

    NADP(+), the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, plays an essential role as a coenzyme in cellular electron transfer reactions. The concentration of NADP(+) in cytoplasm or organelles is dynamic due to its conversion to many important derivatives. To track the NADP(+) concentration in single living cells, we developed a genetically encoded NADP(+) biosensor by inserting a reporter element, ketopantoate reductase (KPR), between the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). This recombinant sensor showed a NADP(+) concentration-dependent decrease in the fluorescence ratio in vitro assay. In order to optimize this biosensor, we performed peptide-length optimization and site-directed mutagenesis in the binding pocket of KPR guided by predictions from computational protein redesign. This modified biosensor showed a 70% Δratio increase compared to the wild type and was found to be highly specific to NADP(+), with a detection limit of 1 μM. The sensor also reported NADP(+) real-time cellular dynamics in Escherichia coli (E. coli) after the addition of its precursor, nicotinic acid (NA). Altogether, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the biosensor for visualizing NADP(+) both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Apollo-NADP(+): a spectrally tunable family of genetically encoded sensors for NADP(+).

    PubMed

    Cameron, William D; Bui, Cindy V; Hutchinson, Ashley; Loppnau, Peter; Gräslund, Susanne; Rocheleau, Jonathan V

    2016-04-01

    NADPH-dependent antioxidant pathways have a critical role in scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Inadequate scavenging results in H2O2 accumulation and can cause disease. To measure NADPH/NADP(+) redox states, we explored genetically encoded sensors based on steady-state fluorescence anisotropy due to FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between homologous fluorescent proteins (homoFRET); we refer to these sensors as Apollo sensors. We created an Apollo sensor for NADP(+) (Apollo-NADP(+)) that exploits NADP(+)-dependent homodimerization of enzymatically inactive glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). This sensor is reversible, responsive to glucose-stimulated metabolism and spectrally tunable for compatibility with many other sensors. We used Apollo-NADP(+) to study beta cells responding to oxidative stress and demonstrated that NADPH is significantly depleted before H2O2 accumulation by imaging a Cerulean-tagged version of Apollo-NADP(+) with the H2O2 sensor HyPer.

  17. Genetic encoding of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine in bacterial and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Uprety, Rajendra; Luo, Ji; Liu, Jihe; Naro, Yuta; Samanta, Subhas; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-08-18

    We report the genetic incorporation of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine into proteins in bacterial and mammalian cells. The genetic code of these cells was expanded with an engineered pyrrolysine tRNA/tRNA synthetase pair that accepts both light-activatable amino acids as substrates. Incorporation was validated by reporter assays, western blots, and mass spectrometry, and differences in incorporation efficiency were explained by molecular modeling of synthetase-amino acid interactions. As a proof-of-principle application, the genetic replacement of an active-site cysteine residue with a caged cysteine residue in Renilla luciferase led to a complete loss of enzyme activity; however, upon brief exposure to UV light, a >150-fold increase in enzymatic activity was observed, thus showcasing the applicability of the caged cysteine in live human cells. A simultaneously conducted genetic replacement with homocysteine yielded an enzyme with greatly reduced activity, thereby demonstrating the precise probing of a protein active site. These discoveries provide a new tool for the optochemical control of protein function in mammalian cells and expand the set of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids.

  18. Flow Cytometry Enables Multiplexed Measurements of Genetically Encoded Intramolecular FRET Sensors Suitable for Screening.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Jaimee; Zhao, Ziyan; Geyer, Rory J; Barra, Melanie M; Balunas, Marcy J; Zweifach, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Genetically encoded sensors based on intramolecular FRET between CFP and YFP are used extensively in cell biology research. Flow cytometry has been shown to offer a means to measure CFP-YFP FRET; we suspected it would provide a unique way to conduct multiplexed measurements from cells expressing different FRET sensors, which is difficult to do with microscopy, and that this could be used for screening. We confirmed that flow cytometry accurately measures FRET signals using cells transiently transfected with an ERK activity reporter, comparing responses measured with imaging and cytometry. We created polyclonal long-term transfectant lines, each expressing a different intramolecular FRET sensor, and devised a way to bar-code four distinct populations of cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of multiplexed measurements and determined that robust multiplexed measurements can be conducted in plate format. To validate the suitability of the method for screening, we measured responses from a plate of bacterial extracts that in unrelated experiments we had determined contained the protein kinase C (PKC)-activating compound teleocidin A-1. The multiplexed assay correctly identifying the teleocidin A-1-containing well. We propose that multiplexed cytometric FRET measurements will be useful for analyzing cellular function and for screening compound collections.

  19. Genetically Encoded Fragment-Based Discovery of Glycopeptide Ligands for Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Ng, Simon; Lin, Edith; Kitov, Pavel I.; Tjhung, Katrina F.; Gerlits, Oksana O.; Deng, Lu; Kasper, Brian; Sood, Amika; Paschal, Beth M.; Zhang, Ping; et al

    2015-04-10

    Here we describe an approach to accelerate the search for competitive inhibitors for carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). Genetically encoded fragment-based-discovery (GE-FBD) uses selection of phagedisplayed glycopeptides to dock a glycan fragment at the CRD and guide selection of Synergistic peptide motifs adjacent to the CRD. Starting from concanavalin A (ConA), a mannose (Man)-binding protein, as a bait, we narrowed a library of 108 glycopeptides to 86 leads that share a consensus motif, Man-WYD. Validation of synthetic leads yielded Man-WYDLF that exhibited 40 50-fold enhancement in affinity over methyl α-D-mannopyranoside (MeMan). Lectin array Suggested specificity: Man-WYD derivative bound only to 3 outmore » of 17 proteins-ConA, LcH, and PSA-that bind to Man. An X-ray structure of ConA.:Man-WYD proved that the trimannoside core and Man-WYD exhibit identical CRD docking; but their extra-CRD binding modes are significantly. different. Still, they have comparable affinity and selectivity for various Man-binding proteins. The intriguing observation provides new insight into functional mimicry :of carbohydrates by peptide ligands. GE-FBD may provide an alternative to rapidly search for competitive inhibitors for lectins.« less

  20. Genetically encoding a light switch in an ionotropic glutamate receptor reveals subunit-specific interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shujia; Riou, Morgane; Yao, C Andrea; Carvalho, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Pamela C; Bensaude, Olivier; Paoletti, Pierre; Ye, Shixin

    2014-04-22

    Reprogramming receptors to artificially respond to light has strong potential for molecular studies and interrogation of biological functions. Here, we design a light-controlled ionotropic glutamate receptor by genetically encoding a photoreactive unnatural amino acid (UAA). The photo-cross-linker p-azido-L-phenylalanine (AzF) was encoded in NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a class of glutamate-gated ion channels that play key roles in neuronal development and plasticity. AzF incorporation in the obligatory GluN1 subunit at the GluN1/GluN2B N-terminal domain (NTD) upper lobe dimer interface leads to an irreversible allosteric inhibition of channel activity upon UV illumination. In contrast, when pairing the UAA-containing GluN1 subunit with the GluN2A subunit, light-dependent inactivation is completely absent. By combining electrophysiological and biochemical analyses, we identify subunit-specific structural determinants at the GluN1/GluN2 NTD dimer interfaces that critically dictate UV-controlled inactivation. Our work reveals that the two major NMDAR subtypes differ in their ectodomain-subunit interactions, in particular their electrostatic contacts, resulting in GluN1 NTD coupling more tightly to the GluN2B NTD than to the GluN2A NTD. It also paves the way for engineering light-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels with subtype specificity through the genetic code expansion. PMID:24715733

  1. Allosteric regulation in NMDA receptors revealed by the genetically encoded photo-cross-linkers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Meilin; Ye, Shixin

    2016-01-01

    Allostery is essential to neuronal receptor function, but its transient nature poses a challenge for characterization. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) distinct from ligand binding domains are a major locus for allosteric regulation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), where different modulatory binding sites have been observed. The inhibitor ifenprodil, and related phenylethanoamine compounds specifically targeting GluN1/GluN2B NMDARs have neuroprotective activity. However, whether they use differential structural pathways than the endogenous inhibitor Zn2+ for regulation is unknown. We applied genetically encoded unnatural amino acids (Uaas) and monitored the functional changes in living cells with photo-cross-linkers specifically incorporated at the ifenprodil binding interface between GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. We report constraining the NTD domain movement, by a light induced crosslinking bond that introduces minimal perturbation to the ligand binding, specifically impedes the transduction of ifenprodil but not Zn2+ inhibition. Subtle distance changes reveal interfacial flexibility and NTD rearrangements in the presence of modulators. Our results present a much richer dynamic picture of allostery than conventional approaches targeting the same interface, and highlight key residues that determine functional and subtype specificity of NMDARs. The light-sensitive mutant neuronal receptors provide complementary tools to the photo-switchable ligands for opto-neuropharmacology. PMID:27713495

  2. EPR Distance Measurements in Native Proteins with Genetically Encoded Spin Labels.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Moritz J; Fedoseev, Artem; Bücker, Dennis; Borbas, Julia; Peter, Christine; Drescher, Malte; Summerer, Daniel

    2015-12-18

    The genetic encoding of nitroxide amino acids in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) distance measurements enables precise structural studies of native proteins, i.e. without the need for mutations to create unique reactive sites for chemical labeling and thus with minimal structural perturbation. We here report on in vitro DEER measurements in native E. coli thioredoxin (TRX) that establish the nitroxide amino acid SLK-1 as a spectroscopic probe that reports distances and conformational flexibilities in the enzyme with nonmutated catalytic centers that are not accessible by the use of the traditional methanethiosulfonate spin label (MTSSL). We generated a rotamer library for SLK-1 that in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation enables predictions of distance distributions between two SLK-1 labels incorporated into a target protein. Toward a routine use of SLK-1 for EPR distance measurements in proteins and the advancement of the approach to intracellular environments, we study the stability of SLK-1 in E. coli cultures and lysates and establish guidelines for protein expression and purification that offer maximal nitroxide stability. These advancements and insights provide new perspectives for facile structural studies of native, endogenous proteins by EPR distance measurements.

  3. Genetically encoded norbornene directs site-specific cellular protein labelling via a rapid bioorthogonal reaction

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Kolbus, Jessica; Chou, Chungjung; Deiters, Alexander; Chin, Jason W.

    2013-01-01

    The site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal groups via genetic code expansion provides a powerful general strategy for site-specifically labelling proteins with any probe. However, the slow reactivity of the bioorthogonal functional groups that can be encoded genetically limits the utility of this strategy. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a norbornene amino acid using the pyrrolysyl tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. We developed a series of tetrazine-based probes that exhibit `turn-on' fluorescence on their rapid reaction with norbornenes. We demonstrate that the labelling of an encoded norbornene is specific with respect to the entire soluble E. coli proteome and thousands of times faster than established encodable bioorthogonal reactions. We show explicitly the advantages of this approach over state-of-the-art bioorthogonal reactions for protein labelling in vitro and on mammalian cells, and demonstrate the rapid bioorthogonal site-specific labelling of a protein on the mammalian cell surface. PMID:22437715

  4. Inhibitory luminopsins: genetically-encoded bioluminescent opsins for versatile, scalable, and hardware-independent optogenetic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jack K.; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques provide an unprecedented ability to precisely manipulate neural activity in the context of complex neural circuitry. Although the toolbox of optogenetic probes continues to expand at a rapid pace with more efficient and responsive reagents, hardware-based light delivery is still a major hurdle that limits its practical use in vivo. We have bypassed the challenges of external light delivery by directly coupling a bioluminescent light source (a genetically encoded luciferase) to an inhibitory opsin, which we term an inhibitory luminopsin (iLMO). iLMO was shown to suppress action potential firing and synchronous bursting activity in vitro in response to both external light and luciferase substrate. iLMO was further shown to suppress single-unit firing rate and local field potentials in the hippocampus of anesthetized rats. Finally, expression of iLMO was scaled up to multiple structures of the basal ganglia to modulate rotational behavior of freely moving animals in a hardware-independent fashion. This novel class of optogenetic probes demonstrates how non-invasive inhibition of neural activity can be achieved, which adds to the versatility, scalability, and practicality of optogenetic applications in freely behaving animals. PMID:26399324

  5. Apollo-NADP(+): a spectrally tunable family of genetically encoded sensors for NADP(+).

    PubMed

    Cameron, William D; Bui, Cindy V; Hutchinson, Ashley; Loppnau, Peter; Gräslund, Susanne; Rocheleau, Jonathan V

    2016-04-01

    NADPH-dependent antioxidant pathways have a critical role in scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Inadequate scavenging results in H2O2 accumulation and can cause disease. To measure NADPH/NADP(+) redox states, we explored genetically encoded sensors based on steady-state fluorescence anisotropy due to FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between homologous fluorescent proteins (homoFRET); we refer to these sensors as Apollo sensors. We created an Apollo sensor for NADP(+) (Apollo-NADP(+)) that exploits NADP(+)-dependent homodimerization of enzymatically inactive glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). This sensor is reversible, responsive to glucose-stimulated metabolism and spectrally tunable for compatibility with many other sensors. We used Apollo-NADP(+) to study beta cells responding to oxidative stress and demonstrated that NADPH is significantly depleted before H2O2 accumulation by imaging a Cerulean-tagged version of Apollo-NADP(+) with the H2O2 sensor HyPer. PMID:26878383

  6. Flow Cytometry Enables Multiplexed Measurements of Genetically Encoded Intramolecular FRET Sensors Suitable for Screening.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Jaimee; Zhao, Ziyan; Geyer, Rory J; Barra, Melanie M; Balunas, Marcy J; Zweifach, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Genetically encoded sensors based on intramolecular FRET between CFP and YFP are used extensively in cell biology research. Flow cytometry has been shown to offer a means to measure CFP-YFP FRET; we suspected it would provide a unique way to conduct multiplexed measurements from cells expressing different FRET sensors, which is difficult to do with microscopy, and that this could be used for screening. We confirmed that flow cytometry accurately measures FRET signals using cells transiently transfected with an ERK activity reporter, comparing responses measured with imaging and cytometry. We created polyclonal long-term transfectant lines, each expressing a different intramolecular FRET sensor, and devised a way to bar-code four distinct populations of cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of multiplexed measurements and determined that robust multiplexed measurements can be conducted in plate format. To validate the suitability of the method for screening, we measured responses from a plate of bacterial extracts that in unrelated experiments we had determined contained the protein kinase C (PKC)-activating compound teleocidin A-1. The multiplexed assay correctly identifying the teleocidin A-1-containing well. We propose that multiplexed cytometric FRET measurements will be useful for analyzing cellular function and for screening compound collections. PMID:26908592

  7. A Genetically Encoded Tag for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Intact Cells, Tissues, and Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaokun; Lev-Ram, Varda; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Qi, Yingchuan; Ramko, Ericka B.; Davidson, Michael W.; Jin, Yishi; Ellisman, Mark H.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) achieves the highest spatial resolution in protein localization, but specific protein EM labeling has lacked generally applicable genetically encoded tags for in situ visualization in cells and tissues. Here we introduce “miniSOG” (for mini Singlet Oxygen Generator), a fluorescent flavoprotein engineered from Arabidopsis phototropin 2. MiniSOG contains 106 amino acids, less than half the size of Green Fluorescent Protein. Illumination of miniSOG generates sufficient singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by EM. MiniSOG fusions to many well-characterized proteins localize correctly in mammalian cells, intact nematodes, and rodents, enabling correlated fluorescence and EM from large volumes of tissue after strong aldehyde fixation, without the need for exogenous ligands, probes, or destructive permeabilizing detergents. MiniSOG permits high quality ultrastructural preservation and 3-dimensional protein localization via electron tomography or serial section block face scanning electron microscopy. EM shows that miniSOG-tagged SynCAM1 is presynaptic in cultured cortical neurons, whereas miniSOG-tagged SynCAM2 is postsynaptic in culture and in intact mice. Thus SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 could be heterophilic partners. MiniSOG may do for EM what Green Fluorescent Protein did for fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21483721

  8. Genetically encoding a light switch in an ionotropic glutamate receptor reveals subunit-specific interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shujia; Riou, Morgane; Yao, C. Andrea; Carvalho, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Pamela C.; Bensaude, Olivier; Paoletti, Pierre; Ye, Shixin

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming receptors to artificially respond to light has strong potential for molecular studies and interrogation of biological functions. Here, we design a light-controlled ionotropic glutamate receptor by genetically encoding a photoreactive unnatural amino acid (UAA). The photo–cross-linker p-azido-l-phenylalanine (AzF) was encoded in NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a class of glutamate-gated ion channels that play key roles in neuronal development and plasticity. AzF incorporation in the obligatory GluN1 subunit at the GluN1/GluN2B N-terminal domain (NTD) upper lobe dimer interface leads to an irreversible allosteric inhibition of channel activity upon UV illumination. In contrast, when pairing the UAA-containing GluN1 subunit with the GluN2A subunit, light-dependent inactivation is completely absent. By combining electrophysiological and biochemical analyses, we identify subunit-specific structural determinants at the GluN1/GluN2 NTD dimer interfaces that critically dictate UV-controlled inactivation. Our work reveals that the two major NMDAR subtypes differ in their ectodomain-subunit interactions, in particular their electrostatic contacts, resulting in GluN1 NTD coupling more tightly to the GluN2B NTD than to the GluN2A NTD. It also paves the way for engineering light-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels with subtype specificity through the genetic code expansion. PMID:24715733

  9. Genetic encoding of DNA nanostructures and their self-assembly in living bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Johann; Yin, Peng; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The field of DNA nanotechnology has harnessed the programmability of DNA base pairing to direct single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) to assemble into desired 3D structures. Here, we show the ability to express ssDNAs in Escherichia coli (32–205 nt), which can form structures in vivo or be purified for in vitro assembly. Each ssDNA is encoded by a gene that is transcribed into non-coding RNA containing a 3′-hairpin (HTBS). HTBS recruits HIV reverse transcriptase, which nucleates DNA synthesis and is aided in elongation by murine leukemia reverse transcriptase. Purified ssDNA that is produced in vivo is used to assemble large 1D wires (300 nm) and 2D sheets (5.8 μm2) in vitro. Intracellular assembly is demonstrated using a four-ssDNA crossover nanostructure that recruits split YFP when properly assembled. Genetically encoding DNA nanostructures provides a route for their production as well as applications in living cells. PMID:27091073

  10. Carbazole incorporated ratiometric chemosensor for Zn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2013-03-01

    An electron donating carbazole incorporated thiazole (3) based Zn2+ selective intrinsic chemosensor has been synthesized and investigated. It was found that electron donating substituents such as methyl and carbazole on chemosensor (1) produce remarkable red shift in emission upon complexation with Zn2+. The sensor shows a selective fluorescence response with Zn2+ over biologically relevant cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+) and biologically non-relevant cations (Cd2+, In3+ and Ga3+) in an aqueous ethanol system. It also produce an enhancement in the quantum yield and a longer emission wavelength shift on Zn2+ binding with the potential of a ratiometric assay.

  11. Genetically-encoded tools for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems

    PubMed Central

    Paramonov, Valeriy M.; Mamaeva, Veronika; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the principal second messengers downstream of a manifold of signal transduction pathways, including the ones triggered by G protein-coupled receptors. Not surprisingly, biochemical assays for cAMP have been instrumental for basic research and drug discovery for decades, providing insights into cellular physiology and guiding pharmaceutical industry. However, despite impressive track record, the majority of conventional biochemical tools for cAMP probing share the same fundamental shortcoming—all the measurements require sample disruption for cAMP liberation. This common bottleneck, together with inherently low spatial resolution of measurements (as cAMP is typically analyzed in lysates of thousands of cells), underpin the ensuing limitations of the conventional cAMP assays: (1) genuine kinetic measurements of cAMP levels over time in a single given sample are unfeasible; (2) inability to obtain precise information on cAMP spatial distribution and transfer at subcellular levels, let alone the attempts to pinpoint dynamic interactions of cAMP and its effectors. At the same time, tremendous progress in synthetic biology over the recent years culminated in drastic refinement of our toolbox, allowing us not only to bypass the limitations of conventional assays, but to put intracellular cAMP life-span under tight control—something, that seemed scarcely attainable before. In this review article we discuss the main classes of modern genetically-encoded tools tailored for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems. We examine the capabilities and weaknesses of these different tools in the context of their operational characteristics and applicability to various experimental set-ups involving living cells, providing the guidance for rational selection of the best tools for particular needs. PMID:26441653

  12. Genetically encoded molecular biosensors to image histone methylation in living animals.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Foygel, Kira; Gelovani, Juri G; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-01-20

    Post-translational addition of methyl groups to the amino terminal tails of histone proteins regulates cellular gene expression at various stages of development and the pathogenesis of cellular diseases, including cancer. Several enzymes that modulate these post-translational modifications of histones are promising targets for development of small molecule drugs. However, there is no promising real-time histone methylation detection tool currently available to screen and validate potential small molecule histone methylation modulators in small animal models. With this in mind, we developed genetically encoded molecular biosensors based on the split-enzyme complementation approach for in vitro and in vivo imaging of lysine 9 (H3-K9 sensor) and lysine 27 (H3-K27 sensor) methylation marks of histone 3. These methylation sensors were validated in vitro in HEK293T, HepG2, and HeLa cells. The efficiency of the histone methylation sensor was assessed by employing methyltransferase inhibitors (Bix01294 and UNC0638), demethylase inhibitor (JIB-04), and siRNA silencing at the endogenous histone K9-methyltransferase enzyme level. Furthermore, noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of histone methylation sensors confirmed the potential of these sensors in monitoring histone methylation status in response to histone methyltransferase inhibitors in living animals. Experimental results confirmed that the developed H3-K9 and H3-K27 sensors are specific and sensitive to image the drug-induced histone methylation changes in living animals. These novel histone methylation sensors can facilitate the in vitro screening and in vivo characterization of new histone methyltransferase inhibitors and accelerate the pace of introduction of epigenetic therapies into the clinic. PMID:25506787

  13. A cell-surface-anchored ratiometric fluorescent probe for extracellular pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Ke, Guoliang; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Wei; Zou, Yuan; Guan, Zhichao; Jia, Shasha; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Xuemeng; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-09-10

    Accurate sensing of the extracellular pH is a very important yet challenging task in biological and clinical applications. This paper describes the development of an amphiphilic lipid-DNA molecule as a simple yet useful cell-surface-anchored ratiometric fluorescent probe for extracellular pH sensing. The lipid-DNA probe, which consists of a hydrophobic diacyllipid tail and a hydrophilic DNA strand, is modified with two fluorescent dyes; one is pH-sensitive as pH indicator and the other is pH-insensitive as an internal reference. The lipid-DNA probe showed sensitive and reversible response to pH change in the range of 6.0-8.0, which is suitable for most extracellular studies. In addition, based on simple hydrophobic interactions with the cell membrane, the lipid-DNA probe can be easily anchored on the cell surface with negligible cytotoxicity, excellent stability, and unique ratiometric readout, thus ensuring its accurate sensing of extracellular pH. Finally, this lipid-DNA-based ratiometric pH indicator was successfully used for extracellular pH sensing of cells in 3D culture environment, demonstrating the potential applications of the sensor in biological and medical studies.

  14. Quantitative generalized ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy for turbid media based on probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Cui, Yin-Yin; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-05-19

    PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensor encapsulating an intensity-based fluorescence indicator and an inert reference fluorescence dye inside the pores of stable matrix can be used as a generalized wavelength-ratiometric probe. However, the lack of an efficient quantitative model render the choices of inert reference dyes and intensity-based fluorescence indicators used in PEBBLEs based generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes rather limited. In this contribution, an extended quantitative fluorescence model was derived specifically for generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes based on PEBBLE technique (QFMGRP) with a view to simplify the design of PEBBLEs and hence further extend their application potentials. The effectiveness of QFMGRP has been tested on the quantitative determination of free Ca(2+) in both simulated and real turbid media using a Ca(2+) sensitive PEBBLE nanosensor encapsulating Rhod-2 and eosin B inside the micropores of stable polyacrylamide matrix. Experimental results demonstrated that QFMGRP could realize precise and accurate quantification of free Ca(2+) in turbid samples, even though there is serious overlapping between the fluorescence excitation peaks of eosin B and Ca(2+) bound Rhod-2. The average relative predictive error value of QFMGRP for the test simulated turbid samples was 5.9%, about 2-4 times lower than the corresponding values of partial least squares calibration model and the empirical ratiometric model based on the ratio of fluorescence intensities at the excitation peaks of Ca(2+) bound Rhod-2 and eosin B. The recovery rates of QFMGRP for the real and spiked turbid samples varied from 93.1% to 101%, comparable to the corresponding results of atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:27126788

  15. Development of an automated fluorescence microscopy system for photomanipulation of genetically encoded photoactivatable proteins (optogenetics) in live cells.

    PubMed

    Araki, Nobukazu; Ikeda, Yuka; Kato, Takuma; Kawai, Katsuhisa; Egami, Youhei; Miyake, Katsuya; Tsurumaki, Nobuhide; Yamaguchi, Mitsunari

    2014-06-01

    Photomanipulation of genetically encoded light-sensitive protein activity, also known as optogenetics, is one of the most innovative recent microscopy techniques in the fields of cell biology and neurobiology. Although photomanipulation is usually performed by diverting the photobleaching mode of a confocal laser microscope, photobleaching by the laser scanning unit is not always suitable for photoactivation. We have developed a simple automated wide-field fluorescence microscopy system for the photomanipulation of genetically encoded photoactivatable proteins in live cells. An electrically automated fluorescence microscope can be controlled through MetaMorph imaging software, making it possible to acquire time-lapse, multiwavelength images of live cells. Using the journal (macro recording) function of MetaMorph, we wrote a macro program to change the excitation filter for photoactivation and illumination area during the intervals of image acquisition. When this program was run on the wide-field fluorescence microscope, cells expressing genetically encoded photoactivatable Rac1, which is activated under blue light, showed morphological changes such as lamellipodial extension and cell surface ruffling in the illuminated region. Using software-based development, we successfully constructed a fully automated photoactivation microscopy system for a mercury lamp-based fluorescence microscope.

  16. Studies of Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation with a Ratiometric and Reversible Sensor of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amandeep; Jankowska, Karolina; Pilgrim, Chelsea; Fraser, Stuart T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Chronic elevations in cellular redox state are known to result in the onset of various pathological conditions, but transient increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are necessary for signal transduction and various physiological functions. There is a distinct lack of reversible fluorescent tools that can aid in studying and unraveling the roles of ROS/RNS in physiology and pathology by monitoring the variations in cellular ROS levels over time. In this work, we report the development of ratiometric fluorescent sensors that reversibly respond to changes in mitochondrial redox state. Results: Photophysical studies of the developed flavin–rhodamine redox sensors, flavin–rhodamine redox sensor 1 (FRR1) and flavin–rhodamine redox sensor 2 (FRR2), confirmed the reversible response of the probes upon reduction and re-oxidation over more than five cycles. The ratiometric output of FRR1 and FRR2 remained unaltered in the presence of other possible cellular interferants (metals and pH). Microscopy studies indicated clear mitochondrial localization of both probes, and FRR2 was shown to report the time-dependent increase of mitochondrial ROS levels after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in macrophages. Moreover, it was used to study the variations in mitochondrial redox state in mouse hematopoietic cells at different stages of embryonic development and maturation. Innovation: This study provides the first ratiometric and reversible probes for ROS, targeted to the mitochondria, which reveal variations in mitochondrial ROS levels at different stages of embryonic and adult blood cell production. Conclusions: Our results suggest that with their ratiometric and reversible outputs, FRR1 and FRR2 are valuable tools for the future study of oxidative stress and its implications in physiology and pathology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 667–679. PMID:26865422

  17. A highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent probe for the detection of cytoplasmic and nuclear hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ying; Liu, Keyin; Yang, Huiran; Li, Yi; Lan, Haichuang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xinyu; Yi, Tao

    2014-10-01

    As a marker for oxidative stress and a second messenger in signal transduction, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in living systems. It is thus critical to monitor the changes in H2O2 in cells and tissues. Here, we developed a highly sensitive and versatile ratiometric H2O2 fluorescent probe (NP1) based on 1,8-naphthalimide and boric acid ester. In response to H2O2, the ratio of its fluorescent intensities at 555 and 403 nm changed 1020-fold within 200 min. The detecting limit of NP1 toward H2O2 is estimated as 0.17 μM. It was capable of imaging endogenous H2O2 generated in live RAW 264.7 macrophages as a cellular inflammation response, and especially, it was able to detect H2O2 produced as a signaling molecule in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells through stimulation by epidermal growth factor. This probe contains an azide group and thus has the potential to be linked to various molecules via the click reaction. After binding to a Nuclear Localization Signal peptide, the peptide-based combination probe (pep-NP1) was successfully targeted to nuclei and was capable of ratiometrically detecting nuclear H2O2 in living cells. These results indicated that NP1 was a highly sensitive ratiometric H2O2 dye with promising biological applications.

  18. A two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe enables spatial coordinates determination of intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Sun, Yuming; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Yong; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Ning

    2014-11-01

    We reported a two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe for detecting intracellular pH. When excited with 800 nm laser, an optimal output of laser as the routine equipment of two-photon fluorescence microscopy, the two-photon excited fluorescence of this probe showed distinct emission peak shift as large as 109 nm upon the change of pH values in vitro. Very importantly, the experiment results show that this probe has large two-photon absorption cross-section at pH 4.5 at 800 nm of 354 g, which ranks it as one of the best two-photon ratiometric fluorescent pH probes, and its working pH value is between 4.0 and 8.0 which could fit the intracellular pH range. Moreover, utilizing this probe, the two-photon ratiometric fluorescent images in living cells have been obtained, and the spatial coordinates of intracellular pH can be mapped. At the same time, the probe also exhibited selectivity, photostability and membrane permeability. And the photophysical properties of this probe in various solvents indicated that these photophysical properties variations are due to an intramolecular charge transfer process. At last, the imaging depth of the probe in liver biopsy slices was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated the maximum imaging depth can arrive 66 µm in living rat liver tissues.

  19. Targeted silver nanoparticles for ratiometric cell phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Anne-Mari A.; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Toome, Kadri; Paiste, Päärn; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Braun, Gary B.; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-01

    Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 +/- 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 +/- 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo.Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The

  20. Engineering of a Genetically Encodable Fluorescent Voltage Sensor Exploiting Fast Ci-VSP Voltage-Sensing Movements

    PubMed Central

    Lundby, Alicia; Mutoh, Hiroki; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Akemann, Walther; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Ci-VSP contains a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) homologous to that of voltage-gated potassium channels. Using charge displacement (‘gating’ current) measurements we show that voltage-sensing movements of this VSD can occur within 1 ms in mammalian membranes. Our analysis lead to development of a genetically encodable fluorescent protein voltage sensor (VSFP) in which the fast, voltage-dependent conformational changes of the Ci-VSP voltage sensor are transduced to similarly fast fluorescence read-outs. PMID:18575613

  1. Site-Specific Glycoconjugation of Protein via Bioorthogonal Tetrazine Cycloaddition with a Genetically Encoded trans-Cyclooctene or Bicyclononyne.

    PubMed

    Machida, Takuya; Lang, Kathrin; Xue, Lin; Chin, Jason W; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2015-05-20

    Efficient access to proteins modified site-specifically with glycans is important in glycobiology and for therapeutic applications. Herein, we report a biocompatible protein glycoconjugation by inverse demand Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and trans-cyclooctene. Tetrazine functionalized glycans were obtained in one step by CuAAC (Cu-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition) between glycosyl azide and an alkyne-tetrazine adduct. Site-specific glycoconjugation was performed chemoselectively on a target protein in which a trans-cyclooctene derivatized lysine was genetically encoded. Glycoconjugation proceeded to completion on purified protein and was shown to be selective for the target protein in E. coli.

  2. Cell Permeable Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensors for Imaging Phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samsuzzoha; Rakshit, Ananya; Pal, Suranjana; Datta, Ankona

    2016-07-15

    Phosphoinositides are critical cell-signal mediators present on the plasma membrane. The dynamic change of phosphoinositide concentrations on the membrane including clustering and declustering mediates signal transduction. The importance of phosphoinositides is scored by the fact that they participate in almost all cell-signaling events, and a defect in phosphoinositide metabolism is linked to multiple diseases including cancer, bipolar disorder, and type-2 diabetes. Optical sensors for visualizing phosphoinositide distribution can provide information on phosphoinositide dynamics. This exercise will ultimately afford a handle into understanding and manipulating cell-signaling processes. The major requirement in phosphoinositide sensor development is a selective, cell permeable probe that can quantify phosphoinositides. To address this requirement, we have developed short peptide-based ratiometric fluorescent sensors for imaging phosphoinositides. The sensors afford a selective response toward two crucial signaling phosphoinositides, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), over other anionic membrane phospholipids and soluble inositol phosphates. Dissociation constant values indicate up to 4 times higher probe affinity toward PI(4,5)P2 when compared to PI4P. Significantly, the sensors are readily cell-permeable and enter cells within 15 min of incubation as indicated by multiphoton excitation confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the sensors light up signaling phosphoinositides present both on the cell membrane and on organelle membranes near the perinuclear space, opening avenues for quantifying and monitoring phosphoinositide signaling.

  3. Molecular engineering of a dual emission near-infrared ratiometric fluorophore for the detection of pH at the organism level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo-Lin; Jiang, Chuang; Li, Kun; Liu, Yan-Hong; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-07-01

    A near-infrared ratiometric fluorophore (NIR-HBT) was rationally designed and constructed by expanding both the excitation and emission wavelength of the classical ratiometric fluorophore 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol (HBT) into the near-infrared region. The NIR-HBT was easily synthesized by incorporating the HBT module into the hemicyanine skeleton and showed evident NIR ratiometric fluorophore characteristics. Further application of the new fluorophore for pH detection demonstrated that NIR-HBT possesses superior overall analytical performance and NIR-HBT was successfully applied for detection of acidosis caused by inflammation in living animal tissue, which indicated the potential application value of NIR-HBT in biological imaging and sensing.

  4. A novel reaction-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for cyanide anion with a large emission shift and high selectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaodan; Fei, Xiaoliang; Guo, Jing; Yang, Qingbiao; Li, Yaoxian; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid carbazole-hemicyanine dye (Cac) has been developed as a novel colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for cyanide detection. Upon treatment with cyanide, Cac displayed a remarkable fluorescence ratiometric response, with the emission wavelength displaying a very large emission shift (214 nm). The detection of cyanide was performed via the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion to the indolium group of the sensor, which resulted in the blocking of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in the sensor, inducing a ratiometric fluorescence change and simultaneously an obvious color change. Furthermore, competitive anions did not showed any significant changes both in color and emission intensity ratio (I381/I595), indicating the high selectivity of the sensor to CN(-).

  5. Cu nanoclusters-based ratiometric fluorescence probe for ratiometric and visualization detection of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Chao; Qi, Jian-Wen; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Li; Song, Wei; Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2015-10-01

    Copper is a highly toxic environmental pollutant with bioaccumulative properties. Therefore, sensitive detection of Cu(2+) is very important to prevent over-ingestion, and visual detection is preferred for practical applications. In this work, we developed a simple and environmental friendly approach to synthesize hyperbranched polyethyleneimine-protected copper nanoclusters (hPEI-Cu NCs) with great stability against extreme pH, high ionic strength, thiols etching and light illumination, which were then conjugated to the surface of silica coated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to design a ratiometric fluorescence probe. In the presence of different amounts of Cu(2+) ions, the fluorescence of Cu NCs can be drastically quenched, while the emission from QDs stayed constant to serve as a reference signal and the color of the probe changed from yellow-green to red, resulting in ratiometric and visualization detection of Cu(2+) ion with high accuracy. The detection limit for Cu(2+) was estimated to be 8.9 nM, much lower than the allowable level of Cu(2+) in drinking water (∼20 μM) set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Additionally, this probe can be also applied for the determination of Cu(2+) ion in complex real water samples. PMID:26454464

  6. Ratiometric Fluorescent Polymeric Thermometer for Thermogenesis Investigation in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Juan; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Chen, Chuan-Fang; Qi, Li; Dong, Ping; Mu, Xiao-Yu; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2015-10-20

    Intracellular temperature has a fundamental effect on cellular events. Herein, a novel fluorescent polymer ratiometric nanothermometer has been developed based on transferrin protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters as the targeting and fluorescent ratiometric unit and the thermosensitve polymer as the temperature sensing unit. The resultant nanothermometer could feature a high and spontaneous uptake into the HeLa cells and the ratiometric temperature sensing over the physiological temperature range. Moreover, the precise temperature sensing for intracellular heat generation in HeLa cells following calcium ions stress has been achieved. This practical intracellular thermometry could eliminate the interference of the intracellular surrounding environment in cancer cells without a microinjection procedure, which is user-friendly. The prepared new nanothermometer can provide tools for unveiling the intrinsic relationship between the intracellular temperature and ion channel function.

  7. Ratiometric Fluorescent Polymeric Thermometer for Thermogenesis Investigation in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Juan; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Chen, Chuan-Fang; Qi, Li; Dong, Ping; Mu, Xiao-Yu; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2015-10-20

    Intracellular temperature has a fundamental effect on cellular events. Herein, a novel fluorescent polymer ratiometric nanothermometer has been developed based on transferrin protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters as the targeting and fluorescent ratiometric unit and the thermosensitve polymer as the temperature sensing unit. The resultant nanothermometer could feature a high and spontaneous uptake into the HeLa cells and the ratiometric temperature sensing over the physiological temperature range. Moreover, the precise temperature sensing for intracellular heat generation in HeLa cells following calcium ions stress has been achieved. This practical intracellular thermometry could eliminate the interference of the intracellular surrounding environment in cancer cells without a microinjection procedure, which is user-friendly. The prepared new nanothermometer can provide tools for unveiling the intrinsic relationship between the intracellular temperature and ion channel function. PMID:26393404

  8. Ribosomal Synthesis of Macrocyclic Peptides in Vitro and in Vivo Mediated by Genetically Encoded Amino-Thiol Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Frost, John R.; Jacob, Nicholas T.; Papa, Louis J.; Owens, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A versatile method for orchestrating the formation of side-chain-to-tail cyclic peptides from ribosomally derived polypeptide precursors is reported. Upon ribosomal incorporation into intein-containing precursor proteins, designer unnatural amino acids bearing side-chain 1,3- or 1,2-aminothiol functionalities are able to promote the cyclization of a downstream target peptide sequence via a C-terminal ligation/ring contraction mechanism. Using this approach, peptide macrocycles of variable size and composition could be generated in a pH-triggered manner in vitro, or directly in living bacterial cells. This methodology furnishes a new platform for the creation and screening of genetically encoded libraries of conformationally constrained peptides. This strategy was applied to identify and isolate a low micromolar streptavidin binder (KD = 1.1 µM) from a library of cyclic peptides produced in E. coli, thereby illustrating its potential toward aiding the discovery of functional peptide macrocycles. PMID:25933125

  9. Using Genetically Encodable Self-Assembling Gd(III) Spin Labels To Make In-Cell Nanometric Distance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mascali, Florencia C; Ching, H Y Vincent; Rasia, Rodolfo M; Un, Sun; Tabares, Leandro C

    2016-09-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) can be used to study the structure of a protein in its native cellular environment. Until now, this has required isolation, in vitro labeling, and reintroduction of the protein back into the cells. We describe a completely biosynthetic approach that avoids these steps. It exploits genetically encodable lanthanide-binding tags (LBT) to form self-assembling Gd(III) metal-based spin labels and enables direct in-cell measurements. This approach is demonstrated using a pair of LBTs encoded one at each end of a 3-helix bundle expressed in E. coli grown on Gd(III) -supplemented medium. DEER measurements directly on these cells produced readily detectable time traces from which the distance between the Gd(III) labels could be determined. This work is the first to use biosynthetically produced self-assembling metal-containing spin labels for non-disruptive in-cell structural measurements. PMID:27496179

  10. Using Genetically Encodable Self-Assembling Gd(III) Spin Labels To Make In-Cell Nanometric Distance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mascali, Florencia C; Ching, H Y Vincent; Rasia, Rodolfo M; Un, Sun; Tabares, Leandro C

    2016-09-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) can be used to study the structure of a protein in its native cellular environment. Until now, this has required isolation, in vitro labeling, and reintroduction of the protein back into the cells. We describe a completely biosynthetic approach that avoids these steps. It exploits genetically encodable lanthanide-binding tags (LBT) to form self-assembling Gd(III) metal-based spin labels and enables direct in-cell measurements. This approach is demonstrated using a pair of LBTs encoded one at each end of a 3-helix bundle expressed in E. coli grown on Gd(III) -supplemented medium. DEER measurements directly on these cells produced readily detectable time traces from which the distance between the Gd(III) labels could be determined. This work is the first to use biosynthetically produced self-assembling metal-containing spin labels for non-disruptive in-cell structural measurements.

  11. Genetically Encoded Spy Peptide Fusion System to Detect Plasma Membrane-Localized Proteins In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bedbrook, Claire N; Kato, Mihoko; Ravindra Kumar, Sripriya; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Nath, Ravi D; Sun, Fei; Sternberg, Paul W; Arnold, Frances H; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2015-08-20

    Membrane proteins are the main gatekeepers of cellular state, especially in neurons, serving either to maintain homeostasis or instruct response to synaptic input or other external signals. Visualization of membrane protein localization and trafficking in live cells facilitates understanding the molecular basis of cellular dynamics. We describe here a method for specifically labeling the plasma membrane-localized fraction of heterologous membrane protein expression using channelrhodopsins as a case study. We show that the genetically encoded, covalent binding SpyTag and SpyCatcher pair from the Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein FbaB can selectively label membrane-localized proteins in living cells in culture and in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. The SpyTag/SpyCatcher covalent labeling method is highly specific, modular, and stable in living cells. We have used the binding pair to develop a channelrhodopsin membrane localization assay that is amenable to high-throughput screening for opsin discovery and engineering. PMID:26211362

  12. Genetically Encoded Spy Peptide Fusion System to Detect Plasma Membrane-Localized Proteins In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bedbrook, Claire N; Kato, Mihoko; Ravindra Kumar, Sripriya; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Nath, Ravi D; Sun, Fei; Sternberg, Paul W; Arnold, Frances H; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2015-08-20

    Membrane proteins are the main gatekeepers of cellular state, especially in neurons, serving either to maintain homeostasis or instruct response to synaptic input or other external signals. Visualization of membrane protein localization and trafficking in live cells facilitates understanding the molecular basis of cellular dynamics. We describe here a method for specifically labeling the plasma membrane-localized fraction of heterologous membrane protein expression using channelrhodopsins as a case study. We show that the genetically encoded, covalent binding SpyTag and SpyCatcher pair from the Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein FbaB can selectively label membrane-localized proteins in living cells in culture and in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. The SpyTag/SpyCatcher covalent labeling method is highly specific, modular, and stable in living cells. We have used the binding pair to develop a channelrhodopsin membrane localization assay that is amenable to high-throughput screening for opsin discovery and engineering.

  13. Upconversion ratiometric fluorescence and colorimetric dual-readout assay for uric acid.

    PubMed

    Fang, Aijin; Wu, Qiongqiong; Lu, Qiujun; Chen, Hongyu; Li, Haitao; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-12-15

    A new upconversion colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence detection method for uric acid (UA) has been designed. Yb(3+), Er(3+) and Tm(3+) co-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles (UCNPs) was synthesized. The co-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles, emit upconversion fluorescence with four typical emission peaks centered at 490nm, 557nm, 670nm and 705nm under the 980nm near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. The ZnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possessing excellent peroxidase-like activity was prepared and used to catalyze oxidation the coupling of N-ethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-3-methylaniline sodium salt (TOPS) and 4-amino-antipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of H2O2 to form purple products (compound 1) which has a characteristic absorption peak located at 550nm. The upconversion fluorescence at 557nm was quenched by the compound 1 while the upconversion emission at 705nm was essentially unchanged, the fluorescence ratio ((I557/I705)0/(I557/I705)) is positively proportional to UA concentration in existence of uricase. More importantly, colorimetric signal can be easily observed and applied to directly distinguish the concentration of UA by the naked eye. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence sensing towards UA was 0.01-1mM, the detection limits were as low as 5.79μM and 2.86μM (S/N=3), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of UA in human serum. These results indicate that the colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual-readout assay method has great potential for applications in physiological and pathological diagnosis. PMID:27471157

  14. One-pot synthesis of two-sized clusters for ratiometric sensing of Hg2+.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Heng; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents a discussion of a one-pot approach for preparing lyszoyme type VI (Lys VI) stabilized clusters, including small (Au7Ag and Au8) and large (Au24Ag) clusters, for ratiometric fluorescence sensing of Hg(2+). Our previous study (Chen and Tseng, Small 8 (2012) 1912) showed the formation of intermediate Au8 clusters in the conversion of Au(+)-Lys VI protein complexes to Au25 clusters. The presence of Ag(+) in the precursor solution slowed this conversion, thereby forming two-sized clusters. With an increase in Ag(+) content, a systematic blue shift in the first exciton absorption and fluorescence peaks indicated the formation of Au-Ag bimetallic clusters. The prepared Ag(+)/Au(3+) molar ratio of 2:8 resulted in the formation of two-sized clusters, with dual emission bands centered at 471 and 613 nm. After these clusters are separated by a membrane filter, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of Au24Ag clusters. By monitoring the intensity ratio of the two emission wavelengths, the solution consisting of Hg(2+)-insensitive small clusters (Au7Ag and Au8) and Hg(2+)-sensitive Au24Ag clusters exhibited a ratiometric fluorescence response toward Hg(2+), and provided a built-in correction for photobleaching; the limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of three for Hg(2+) was estimated to be 1 nM. This probe was successfully applied to ratiometric fluorescence sensing of Hg(2+) in tap water. PMID:24209338

  15. Effect of Ca2+ on the Steady-State and Time-Resolved Emission Properties of the Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor CatchER

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We previously designed a calcium sensor CatchER (a GFP-based Calcium sensor for detecting high concentrations in the high calcium concentration environment such as ER) with a capability for monitoring calcium ion responses in various types of cells. Calcium binding to CatchER induces the ratiometric changes in the absorption spectra, as well as an increase in fluorescence emission at 510 nm upon excitation at both 395 and 488 nm. Here, we have applied the combination of the steady-state and time-resolved optical methods and Hydrogen/Deuterium isotope exchange to understand the origin of such calcium-induced optical property changes of CatchER. We first demonstrated that calcium binding results in a 44% mean fluorescence lifetime increase of the indirectly excited anionic chromophore. Thus, CatchER is the first protein-based calcium indicator with the single fluorescent moiety to show the direct correlation between the lifetime and calcium binding. Calcium exhibits a strong inhibition on the excited-state proton transfer nonadiabatic geminate recombination in protic (vs deuteric) medium. Analysis of CatchER crystal structures and the MD simulations reveal the proton transfer mechanism in which the disrupted proton migration path in CatchER is rescued by calcium binding. Our finding provides important insights for a strategy to design calcium sensors and suggests that CatchER could be a useful probe for FLIM imaging of calcium in situ. PMID:24836743

  16. Ratiometric luminescent detection of bacterial spores with terbium chelated semiconducting polymer dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Sun, Kai; Chang, Kaiwen; Yu, Jiangbo; Chiu, Daniel T; Wu, Changfeng; Qin, Weiping

    2013-10-01

    We report a ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on semiconducting polymer dots chelated with terbium ions to detect bacterial spores in aqueous solution. Fluorescent polyfluorene (PFO) dots serve as a scaffold to coordinate with lanthanide ions that can be sensitized by calcium dipicolinate (CaDPA), an important biomarker of bacterial spores. The absorption band of PFO dots extends to deep UV region, allowing both the reference and the sensitizer can be excited with a single wavelength (~275 nm). The fluorescence of PFO remains constant as a reference, while the Tb(3+) ions exhibit enhanced luminescence upon binding with DPA. The sharp fluorescence peaks of β-phase PFO dots and the narrow-band emissions of Tb(3+) ions enable ratiometric and sensitive CaDPA detection with a linear response over nanomolar concentration and a detection limit of ~0.2 nM. The Pdots based sensor also show excellent selectivity to CaDPA over other aromatic ligands. Our results indicate that the Tb(3+) chelated Pdots sensor is promising for sensitive and rapid detection of bacterial spores.

  17. Reassessing cellular glutathione homoeostasis: novel insights revealed by genetically encoded redox probes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant small molecule thiol in nearly all eukaryotes. Whole-cell levels of oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione are variable and responsive to genetic and chemical manipulations, which has led to their relative levels being widely used as a marker of the 'cellular redox state' and to indicate the level of 'oxidative stress' experienced by cells, tissues and organisms. However, the applicability of glutathione as a marker for a generalized 'cellular redox state' is questionable, especially in the light of recent observations in yeast cells. In yeast, whole-cell GSSG changes are almost completely dependent upon the activity of an ABC-C (ATP-binding cassette-C) transporter, Ycf1 (yeast cadmium factor 1), which mediates sequestration of GSSG to the vacuole. In the absence of Ycf1 whole-cell GSSG content is strongly decreased and extremely robust to perturbation. These observations are consistent with highly specific redox-sensitive GFP probe-based measurements of the cytosolic glutathione pool and indicate that cytosolic GSSG reductive systems are easily able to reduce nearly all GSSG formed, even following treatment with large concentrations of oxidant. In the present paper, I discuss the consequences of these new findings for our understanding of glutathione homoeostasis in the eukaryotic cell.

  18. Genetically Encoded FRET-Sensor Based on Terbium Chelate and Red Fluorescent Protein for Detection of Caspase-3 Activity.

    PubMed

    Goryashchenko, Alexander S; Khrenova, Maria G; Bochkova, Anna A; Ivashina, Tatiana V; Vinokurov, Leonid M; Savitsky, Alexander P

    2015-07-22

    This article describes the genetically encoded caspase-3 FRET-sensor based on the terbium-binding peptide, cleavable linker with caspase-3 recognition site, and red fluorescent protein TagRFP. The engineered construction performs two induction-resonance energy transfer processes: from tryptophan of the terbium-binding peptide to Tb(3+) and from sensitized Tb(3+) to acceptor--the chromophore of TagRFP. Long-lived terbium-sensitized emission (microseconds), pulse excitation source, and time-resolved detection were utilized to eliminate directly excited TagRFP fluorescence and background cellular autofluorescence, which lasts a fraction of nanosecond, and thus to improve sensitivity of analyses. Furthermore the technique facilitates selective detection of fluorescence, induced by uncleaved acceptor emission. For the first time it was shown that fluorescence resonance energy transfer between sensitized terbium and TagRFP in the engineered construction can be studied via detection of microsecond TagRFP fluorescence intensities. The lifetime and distance distribution between donor and acceptor were calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. Using this data, quantum yield of terbium ions with binding peptide was estimated.

  19. Molecular protein adaptor with genetically encoded interaction sites guiding the hierarchical assembly of plasmonically active nanoparticle architectures.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Andreas; Huber, Matthias C; Cölfen, Helmut; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    The control over the defined assembly of nano-objects with nm-precision is important to create systems and materials with enhanced properties, for example, metamaterials. In nature, the precise assembly of inorganic nano-objects with unique features, for example, magnetosomes, is accomplished by efficient and reliable recognition schemes involving protein effectors. Here we present a molecular approach using protein-based 'adaptors/connectors' with genetically encoded interaction sites to guide the assembly and functionality of different plasmonically active gold nanoparticle architectures (AuNP). The interaction of the defined geometricaly shaped protein adaptors with the AuNP induces the self-assembly of nanoarchitectures ranging from AuNP encapsulation to one-dimensional chain-like structures, complex networks and stars. Synthetic biology and bionanotechnology are applied to co-translationally encode unnatural amino acids as additional site-specific modification sites to generate functionalized biohybrid nanoarchitectures. This protein adaptor-based nano-object assembly approach might be expanded to other inorganic nano-objects creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, photonic, plasmonic and magnetic properties. PMID:25813537

  20. Molecular protein adaptor with genetically encoded interaction sites guiding the hierarchical assembly of plasmonically active nanoparticle architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Andreas; Huber, Matthias C.; Cölfen, Helmut; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-03-01

    The control over the defined assembly of nano-objects with nm-precision is important to create systems and materials with enhanced properties, for example, metamaterials. In nature, the precise assembly of inorganic nano-objects with unique features, for example, magnetosomes, is accomplished by efficient and reliable recognition schemes involving protein effectors. Here we present a molecular approach using protein-based ‘adaptors/connectors’ with genetically encoded interaction sites to guide the assembly and functionality of different plasmonically active gold nanoparticle architectures (AuNP). The interaction of the defined geometricaly shaped protein adaptors with the AuNP induces the self-assembly of nanoarchitectures ranging from AuNP encapsulation to one-dimensional chain-like structures, complex networks and stars. Synthetic biology and bionanotechnology are applied to co-translationally encode unnatural amino acids as additional site-specific modification sites to generate functionalized biohybrid nanoarchitectures. This protein adaptor-based nano-object assembly approach might be expanded to other inorganic nano-objects creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, photonic, plasmonic and magnetic properties.

  1. Genetically encoded photoswitching of actin assembly through the Cdc42-WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Daisy W.; Otomo, Chinatsu; Chory, Joanne; Rosen, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    General methods to engineer genetically encoded, reversible, light-mediated control over protein function would be useful in many areas of biomedical research and technology. We describe a system that yields such photo-control over actin assembly. We fused the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 in its GDP-bound form to the photosensory domain of phytochrome B (PhyB) and fused the Cdc42 effector, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), to the light-dependent PhyB-binding domain of phytochrome interacting factor 3 (Pif3). Upon red light illumination, the fusion proteins bind each other, activating WASP, and consequently stimulating actin assembly by the WASP target, the Arp2/3 complex. Binding and WASP activation are reversed by far-red illumination. Our approach, in which the biochemical specificity of the nucleotide switch in Cdc42 is overridden by the light-dependent PhyB-Pif3 interaction, should be generally applicable to other GTPase-effector pairs. PMID:18728185

  2. Imaging neuronal responses in slice preparations of vomeronasal organ expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Limei; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Yu, Qingfeng Elden; Qiu, Qiang; Kim, Sangseong; Yu, C Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects chemosensory signals that carry information about the social, sexual and reproductive status of the individuals within the same species. These intraspecies signals, the pheromones, as well as signals from some predators, activate the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) with high levels of specificity and sensitivity. At least three distinct families of G-protein coupled receptors, V1R, V2R and FPR, are expressed in VNO neurons to mediate the detection of the chemosensory cues. To understand how pheromone information is encoded by the VNO, it is critical to analyze the response profiles of individual VSNs to various stimuli and identify the specific receptors that mediate these responses. The neuroepithelia of VNO are enclosed in a pair of vomer bones. The semi-blind tubular structure of VNO has one open end (the vomeronasal duct) connecting to the nasal cavity. VSNs extend their dendrites to the lumen part of the VNO, where the pheromone cues are in contact with the receptors expressed at the dendritic knobs. The cell bodies of the VSNs form pseudo-stratified layers with V1R and V2R expressed in the apical and basal layers respectively. Several techniques have been utilized to monitor responses of VSNs to sensory stimuli. Among these techniques, acute slice preparation offers several advantages. First, compared to dissociated VSNs, slice preparations maintain the neurons in their native morphology and the dendrites of the cells stay relatively intact. Second, the cell bodies of the VSNs are easily accessible in coronal slice of the VNO to allow electrophysiology studies and imaging experiments as compared to whole epithelium and whole-mount preparations. Third, this method can be combined with molecular cloning techniques to allow receptor identification. Sensory stimulation elicits strong Ca2+ influx in VSNs that is indicative of receptor activation. We thus develop transgenic mice that express G-CaMP2 in the olfactory sensory

  3. Ratiometric Fluorescent pH Probes Based on Glycopolymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyun; Zhang, Pengshan; Lu, Wei; Peng, Lun; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Gaojian

    2016-09-01

    Effectively detecting pH changes plays a critical role in exploring cellular functions and determining physiological and pathological processes. A novel ratiometric pH probe based on a glycopolymer, armored with properties of serum-stability, tumor-targeting, and pH monitoring, is designed. Random copolymers of 2-(methacrylamido) glucopyranose and fluorescein O-methacrylate are first synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Acryloxyethyl thiocarbamoyl rhodamine B is then attached to the polymer chain to prepare ratiometric fluorescent pH probes via a thiol-ene reaction. The synthesized polymeric probes are characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography, UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and the fluorescence responses are examined in phosphate buffer at different pHs. The cytotoxicity and confocal imaging experiments of the probes are detected using HeLa cells, demonstrating a low toxicity and superior biocompatibility for detecting pH changes in bioapplications. PMID:27439338

  4. Ratiometric Fluorescent pH Probes Based on Glycopolymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyun; Zhang, Pengshan; Lu, Wei; Peng, Lun; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Gaojian

    2016-09-01

    Effectively detecting pH changes plays a critical role in exploring cellular functions and determining physiological and pathological processes. A novel ratiometric pH probe based on a glycopolymer, armored with properties of serum-stability, tumor-targeting, and pH monitoring, is designed. Random copolymers of 2-(methacrylamido) glucopyranose and fluorescein O-methacrylate are first synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Acryloxyethyl thiocarbamoyl rhodamine B is then attached to the polymer chain to prepare ratiometric fluorescent pH probes via a thiol-ene reaction. The synthesized polymeric probes are characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography, UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and the fluorescence responses are examined in phosphate buffer at different pHs. The cytotoxicity and confocal imaging experiments of the probes are detected using HeLa cells, demonstrating a low toxicity and superior biocompatibility for detecting pH changes in bioapplications.

  5. A ratiometric fluorescent sensor for the mitochondrial copper pool.

    PubMed

    Shen, Clara; Kolanowski, Jacek L; Tran, Carmen M-N; Kaur, Amandeep; Akerfeldt, Mia C; Rahme, Matthew S; Hambley, Trevor W; New, Elizabeth J

    2016-09-01

    Copper plays a key role in the modulation of cellular function, defence, and growth. Here we present InCCu1, a ratiometric fluorescent sensor for mitochondrial copper, which changes from red to blue emission in the presence of Cu(i). Employing this probe in microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that cisplatin-treated cells have an impaired ability to accumulate copper in the mitochondria. PMID:27550322

  6. Harnessing a ratiometric fluorescence output from a sensor array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Palacios, Manuel A; Zyryanov, Grigory; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Ratiometric fluorescence-based sensors are widely sought after because they can effectively convert even relatively small changes in optical output into a strong and easy-to-read signal. However, ratiometric sensor molecules are usually difficult to make. We present a proof-of-principle experiment that shows that efficient ratiometric sensing may be achieved by an array of two chromophores, one providing an on-to-off response and the second yielding an off-to-on response in a complementary fashion. In the case that both chromophores emit light of different color, the result is a switching of colors that may be utilized in the same way as from a true ratiometric probe. The chromophore array comprises two sensor elements: i) a polyurethane membrane with embedded N-anthracen-9-yl-methyl-N-7-nitrobenzoxa-[1,2,5]diazo-4-yl-N',N'-dimethylethylenediamine hydrochloride and ii) a membrane with N,N-dimethyl-N'-(9-methylanthracenyl)ethylenediamine. A combination of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) allows for green-to-blue emission switching in the presence of Zn(II) ions. The sensing experiments carried out with different Zn(II) salts at controlled pH revealed that the degree of color switching in the individual sensor elements depends on both the presence of Zn(II) ions and the counter anion. These results suggest that sensing of both cations and anions may perhaps be extended to different cation-anion pairs. PMID:18688830

  7. Fluorescent Peptide Beacons for the Selective Ratiometric Detection of Heparin.

    PubMed

    Maity, Debabrata; Schmuck, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Heparin is extensively used as an anticoagulant drug during surgery. Two fluorophore-functionalized cationic oligopeptides HS 1 and HS 2 were developed to monitor heparin ratiometrically in aqueous media. Upon binding to heparin, HS 1 and HS 2 undergo a conformational change from an open form to a folded form, which leads to a distinct change in the fluorescence properties. HS 1 switches from pyrene monomer emission to an excimer emission. For HS 2, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process is enabled between a naphthalene donor and a dansyl acceptor. This method is highly selective for heparin relative to other similar biological analytes such as hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfate. HS 1 and HS 2 could also detect heparin ratiometrically in diluted bovine serum. The strong ratiometric emission color change can also be observed by the naked eye. Addition of the polycationic protein protamine releases both HS 1 and HS 2 from their heparin complex, which simultaneously restores pyrene monomer emission for the first case and decreases the FRET process for the latter case, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and AFM studies confirm aggregate formation of heparin with HS 1 and HS 2. PMID:27534383

  8. Fluorescent Peptide Beacons for the Selective Ratiometric Detection of Heparin.

    PubMed

    Maity, Debabrata; Schmuck, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Heparin is extensively used as an anticoagulant drug during surgery. Two fluorophore-functionalized cationic oligopeptides HS 1 and HS 2 were developed to monitor heparin ratiometrically in aqueous media. Upon binding to heparin, HS 1 and HS 2 undergo a conformational change from an open form to a folded form, which leads to a distinct change in the fluorescence properties. HS 1 switches from pyrene monomer emission to an excimer emission. For HS 2, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process is enabled between a naphthalene donor and a dansyl acceptor. This method is highly selective for heparin relative to other similar biological analytes such as hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfate. HS 1 and HS 2 could also detect heparin ratiometrically in diluted bovine serum. The strong ratiometric emission color change can also be observed by the naked eye. Addition of the polycationic protein protamine releases both HS 1 and HS 2 from their heparin complex, which simultaneously restores pyrene monomer emission for the first case and decreases the FRET process for the latter case, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and AFM studies confirm aggregate formation of heparin with HS 1 and HS 2.

  9. Ion-Switchable Quantum Dot Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Rates in Ratiometric Potassium Sensors.

    PubMed

    Ruckh, Timothy T; Skipwith, Christopher G; Chang, Wendi; Senko, Alexander W; Bulovic, Vladimir; Anikeeva, Polina O; Clark, Heather A

    2016-04-26

    The tools for optically imaging cellular potassium concentrations in real-time are currently limited to a small set of molecular indicator dyes. Quantum dot-based nanosensors are more photostable and tunable than organic indicators, but previous designs have fallen short in size, sensitivity, and selectivity. Here, we introduce a small, sensitive, and selective nanosensor for potassium measurements. A dynamic quencher modulates the fluorescence emitted by two different quantum dot species to produce a ratiometric signal. We characterized the potassium-modulated sensor properties and investigated the photonic interactions within the sensors. The quencher's protonation changes in response to potassium, which modulates its Förster radiative energy transfer rate and the corresponding interaction radii with each quantum dot species. The nanosensors respond to changes in potassium concentrations typical of the cellular environment and thus provide a promising tool for imaging potassium fluxes during biological events.

  10. eZinCh-2: A Versatile, Genetically Encoded FRET Sensor for Cytosolic and Intraorganelle Zn2+ Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zn2+ plays essential and diverse roles in numerous cellular processes. To get a better understanding of intracellular Zn2+ homeostasis and the putative signaling role of Zn2+, various fluorescent sensors have been developed that allow monitoring of Zn2+ concentrations in single living cells in real time. Thus far, two families of genetically encoded FRET-based Zn2+ sensors have been most widely applied, the eCALWY sensors developed by our group and the ZapCY sensors developed by Palmer and co-workers. Both have been successfully used to measure cytosolic free Zn2+, but distinctly different concentrations have been reported when using these sensors to measure Zn2+ concentrations in the ER and mitochondria. Here, we report the development of a versatile alternative FRET sensor containing a de novo Cys2His2 binding pocket that was created on the surface of the donor and acceptor fluorescent domains. This eZinCh-2 sensor binds Zn2+ with a high affinity that is similar to that of eCALWY-4 (Kd = 1 nM at pH 7.1), while displaying a substantially larger change in emission ratio. eZinCh-2 not only provides an attractive alternative for measuring Zn2+ in the cytosol but was also successfully used for measuring Zn2+ in the ER, mitochondria, and secretory vesicles. Moreover, organelle-targeted eZinCh-2 can also be used in combination with the previously reported redCALWY sensors to allow multicolor imaging of intracellular Zn2+ simultaneously in the cytosol and the ER or mitochondria. PMID:26151333

  11. Visual and fluorescent detection of tyrosinase activity by using a dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Zheng, Weishi; Su, Xingguang

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we designed a dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe by hybridizing two differently colored quantum dots (QDs), which possess a built-in correction that eliminates the environmental effects and increases sensor accuracy. Red emissive QDs were embedded in the silica nanoparticle as reference while the green emissive QDs were covalently linked to the silica nanoparticle surface to form ratiometric fluorescence probes (RF-QDs). Dopamine (DA) was then conjugated to the surface of RF-QDs via covalent bonding. The ratiometric fluorescence probe functionalized with dopamine (DA) was highly reactive toward tyrosinase (TYR), which can catalyze the oxidization of DA to dopamine quinine and therefore quenched the fluorescence of the green QDs on the surface of ratiometric fluorescence probe. With the addition of different amounts of TYR, the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of the probe continually varied, leading to color changes from yellow-green to red. So the ratiometric fluorescence probe could be utilized for sensitive and selective detection of TYR activity. There was a good linear relationship between the ratiometric fluorescence intensity and TYR concentration in the range of 0.05-5.0 μg mL(-1), with the detection limit of 0.02 μg mL(-1). Significantly, the ratiometric fluorescence probe has been used to fabricate paper-based test strips for visual detection of TYR activity, which validates the potential on-site application.

  12. Ratiometric optical oxygen sensing: a review in respect of material design.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Cheng, Jinghui; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Xiangge; Xiang, Haifeng

    2012-11-01

    The quantitative determination of oxygen concentration is essential for a variety of applications ranging from life sciences to environmental sciences. Optical oxygen sensing allows non-invasive measurements with biological objects, parallel monitoring of multiple samples, and imaging. In general, ratiometric optical oxygen sensing is more desirable, due to its advantages of selectivity, insensitivity to ambient or scattered light, and elimination of instrumental fluctuation. Moreover, it can provide the perceived colour change, which would be useful not only for the ratiometric method of detection but also for rapid visual sensing. Mainly focusing on material design for ratiometric measurement, this review describes the overall progress made in the past ten years on ratiometric optical ground-state triplet oxygen sensing and offers a critical comparison of various methods reported in the literature. It also provides a development blueprint for ratiometric optical oxygen sensing.

  13. Measuring Phagosome pH by Ratiometric Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paula; Guido, Daniele; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental process through which innate immune cells engulf bacteria, apoptotic cells or other foreign particles in order to kill or neutralize the ingested material, or to present it as antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. The pH of phagosomes is a critical parameter regulating fission or fusion with endomembranes and activation of proteolytic enzymes, events that allow the phagocytic vacuole to mature into a degradative organelle. In addition, translocation of H(+) is required for the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are essential for efficient killing and signaling to other host tissues. Many intracellular pathogens subvert phagocytic killing by limiting phagosomal acidification, highlighting the importance of pH in phagosome biology. Here we describe a ratiometric method for measuring phagosomal pH in neutrophils using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled zymosan as phagocytic targets, and live-cell imaging. The assay is based on the fluorescence properties of FITC, which is quenched by acidic pH when excited at 490 nm but not when excited at 440 nm, allowing quantification of a pH-dependent ratio, rather than absolute fluorescence, of a single dye. A detailed protocol for performing in situ dye calibration and conversion of ratio to real pH values is also provided. Single-dye ratiometric methods are generally considered superior to single wavelength or dual-dye pseudo-ratiometric protocols, as they are less sensitive to perturbations such as bleaching, focus changes, laser variations, and uneven labeling, which distort the measured signal. This method can be easily modified to measure pH in other phagocytic cell types, and zymosan can be replaced by any other amine-containing particle, from inert beads to living microorganisms. Finally, this method can be adapted to make use of other fluorescent probes sensitive to different pH ranges or other phagosomal activities, making it a generalized

  14. Measuring Phagosome pH by Ratiometric Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paula; Guido, Daniele; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2015-12-07

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental process through which innate immune cells engulf bacteria, apoptotic cells or other foreign particles in order to kill or neutralize the ingested material, or to present it as antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. The pH of phagosomes is a critical parameter regulating fission or fusion with endomembranes and activation of proteolytic enzymes, events that allow the phagocytic vacuole to mature into a degradative organelle. In addition, translocation of H(+) is required for the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are essential for efficient killing and signaling to other host tissues. Many intracellular pathogens subvert phagocytic killing by limiting phagosomal acidification, highlighting the importance of pH in phagosome biology. Here we describe a ratiometric method for measuring phagosomal pH in neutrophils using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled zymosan as phagocytic targets, and live-cell imaging. The assay is based on the fluorescence properties of FITC, which is quenched by acidic pH when excited at 490 nm but not when excited at 440 nm, allowing quantification of a pH-dependent ratio, rather than absolute fluorescence, of a single dye. A detailed protocol for performing in situ dye calibration and conversion of ratio to real pH values is also provided. Single-dye ratiometric methods are generally considered superior to single wavelength or dual-dye pseudo-ratiometric protocols, as they are less sensitive to perturbations such as bleaching, focus changes, laser variations, and uneven labeling, which distort the measured signal. This method can be easily modified to measure pH in other phagocytic cell types, and zymosan can be replaced by any other amine-containing particle, from inert beads to living microorganisms. Finally, this method can be adapted to make use of other fluorescent probes sensitive to different pH ranges or other phagosomal activities, making it a generalized

  15. A ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for fluoride ion imaging in living cells and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Wang, Yanying; Liu, Zhihong; Ye, Xiaoxue; Li, Chunya

    2016-09-21

    Using 6-hydroxyl-quinoline-2-benzothiazole (HQB) as a two-photon fluorophore and tert-butyldiphenylsilyl as a recognition domain for F(-), a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent fluoride probe, QF, was synthesized and fully characterized. QF displays both one- and two-photon ratiometric responses towards fluoride ions in aqueous solution. QF was enabled to detect exogenous fluoride ions in living cells by a ratiometric method. Two-photon microscopic imaging of fluoride ions in living HeLa cells and zebrafish has also been achieved. QF has been demonstrated to be an excellent fluorescent probe with high selectivity, low cytotoxicity and good photostability.

  16. A luminescence lifetime assisted ratiometric fluorimeter for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hung; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2009-12-01

    In general, the most difficult task in developing devices for fluorescence ratiometric sensing is the isolation of signals from overlapping emission wavelengths. Wavelength discrimination can be achieved by using monochromators or bandpass filters, which often lead to decreased signal intensities. The result is a device that is both complex and expensive. Here we present an alternative system--a low-cost standalone optical fluorimeter based on luminescence lifetime assisted ratiometric sensing (LARS). This paper describes the principle of this technique and the overall design of the sensor device. The most significant innovation of LARS is the ability to discriminate between two overlapping luminescence signals based on differences in their luminescence decay rates. Thus, minimal filtering is required and the two signals can be isolated despite significant overlap of luminescence spectra. The result is a device that is both simple and inexpensive. The electronic circuit employs the lock-in amplification technique for the signal processing and the system is controlled by an onboard microcontroller. In addition, the system is designed to communicate with external devices via Bluetooth.

  17. A mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe to monitor endogenously generated sulfur dioxide derivatives in living cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang; Teoh, Chai Lean; Peng, Juanjuan; Su, Dongdong; Yuan, Lin; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can be endogenously produced by enzymes in mitochondria during oxidation of H2S or sulphur-containing amino acids, and plays important roles in several physiological processes. However, the design and synthesis of fluorescent probes which can detect mitochondrial SO2 and its derivatives in living cells still remain unresolved. Herein, we report the preparation of a lipophilic cationic dye 1 (Mito-Ratio-SO2), which targets the mitochondria in living cells and is sensitive to the presence of SO2 derivatives. The ratiometric probe Mito-Ratio-SO2 displays a 170 nm blue-shift in emission with two well-resolved emission bands upon addition of sulfite. Mechanistic studies indicate that three probe-SO2 adducts coexist after reaction, as supported by liquid chromatography and density function theory investigations. Importantly, the ratiometric probe is highly selective for sulfite over other bio-species including H2S. Fluorescence co-localization studies indicate that the probe localizes solely in the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Last but not least, fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells successfully demonstrates the detection of intrinsically generated intracellular SO2 derivatives in living cells.

  18. A mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of biological SO2 derivatives in living cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junchao; Pan, Jian; Jiang, Xiaoming; Qin, Caiqin; Zeng, Lintao; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Jun Feng

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we report a ratiometric fluorescent probe (CZBI) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) derivatives based on the conjugate of carbazole and benzo[e]indolium, which displays colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual response to HSO3(-). The probe can quantitatively detect HSO3(-) with high specificity, fast response (within 40s) as well as low detection limit (10nM). A 1,4-nucleophilic addition reaction was proposed for the sensing mechanism of this probe, which was confirmed by (1)H NMR and HR-MS spectra. Fluorescence co-localization studies demonstrated that CZBI was a specific mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe for SO2 derivatives with excellent cell membrane permeability. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells indicated that CZBI could be used for monitoring the intrinsically generated intracellular SO2 derivatives in living cells by ratiometric fluorescence imaging. Thus, CZBI has a great potential application for exploring the role played by SO2 derivatives in biology.

  19. Chemical Calcium Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, R. Madelaine; Etzler, Julie C.; Watts, Lora Talley; Lechleiter, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling as well as our appreciation for its ubiquitous role in cellular processes and has been rapidly advanced, in large part, due to the development of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators. In this chapter, we discuss some of the most common chemical Ca2+ indicators that are widely used for the investigation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Advantages, limitations and relevant procedures will be presented for each dye including their spectral qualities, dissociation constants, chemical forms, loading methods and equipment for optimal imaging. Chemical indicators that are now available allow for intracellular Ca2+ detection over a very large range (<50 nM to >50 μM). Higher affinity indicators can be used to quantify Ca2+ levels in the cytosol while lower affinity indicators can be optimized for measuring Ca2+ in subcellular compartments with higher concentrations. Indicators can be classified into either single wavelength or ratiometric dyes. Both classes require specific lasers, filters, and/or detection methods that are dependent upon their spectral properties and both classes have advantages and limitations. Single wavelength indicators are generally very bright and optimal for Ca2+ detection when more than one fluorophore is being imaging. Ratiometric indicators can be calibrated very precisely and they minimize the most common problems associated with chemical Ca2+ indicators including uneven dye loading, leakage, photobleaching and changes in cell volume. Recent technical advances that permit in vivo Ca2+ measurements will also be discussed. PMID:18929663

  20. A Simple and Effective Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe for the Selective Detection of Cysteine and Homocysteine in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Na, Risong; Zhu, Meiqing; Fan, Shisuo; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yi; Hua, Rimao

    2016-01-01

    Biothiols such as cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy) are essential biomolecules participating in molecular and physiological processes in an organism. However, their selective detection remains challenging. In this study, ethyl 2-(3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylate (NL) was synthesized as a ratiometric fluorescent probe for the rapid and selective detection of Cys and Hcy over glutathione (GSH) and other amino acids. The fluorescence intensity of the probe in the presence of Cys/Hcy increased about 3-fold at a concentration of 20 equiv. of the probe, compared with that in the absence of these chemicals in aqueous media. The limits of detection of the fluorescent assay were 0.911 μM and 0.828 μM of Cys and Hcy, respectively. ¹H-NMR and MS analyses indicated that an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer is the mechanism of fluorescence sensing. This ratiometric probe is structurally simple and highly selective. The results suggest that it has useful applications in analytical chemistry and diagnostics. PMID:27527138

  1. Efficient ratiometric fluorescence probe based on dual-emission quantum dots hybrid for on-site determination of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianlei; Zhang, Kui; Zhu, Houjuan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Sun, Jian; Wang, Suhua

    2013-07-01

    Of various chemosensory protocols, the color change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein designed a ratiometric fluorescence probe by hybridizing dual-emission quantum dots (QDs) and demonstrated its efficiency for on-site visual determination of copper ions. The hybrid probe comprises two sizes of cadmium telluride QDs emitting red and green fluorescence, respectively, in which the red-emitting ones are embedded in silica nanoparticles and the green-emitting ones are covalently linked onto the surface. The fluorescence of the embedded QDs is insensitive to the analyte, whereas the green emissive QDs are functionalized to be selectively quenched by the analyte. Upon exposure to different amounts of copper ions, the variations of the dual emission intensity ratios display continuous color changes from green to red, which can be clearly observed by the naked eye. The limit of detection for copper is estimated to be 1.1 nM, much lower than the allowable level of copper (~20 μM) in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The probe is demonstrated for the determination of copper ions in lake water and mineral water samples, especially for visually monitoring copper residues on herb leaves. This prototype ratiometric probe is simple, fully self-contained, and thus potentially attractive for visual identification without the need for elaborate equipment.

  2. FRET ratiometric probes reveal the chiral-sensitive cysteine-dependent H2S production and regulation in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lv; Yi, Long; Song, Fanbo; Wei, Chao; Wang, Bai-Fan; Xi, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous signalling molecule with multiple biological functions. In order to visualize and quantify the endogenous in situ production of H2S in living cells, here we developed two new sulphide ratiometric probes (SR400 and SR550) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy for live capture of H2S. The FRET-based probes show excellent selectivity toward H2S in a high thiol background under physiological buffer. The probe can be used to in situ visualize cysteine-dependent H2S production in a chiral-sensitive manner in living cells. The ratiometric imaging studies indicated that D-Cys induces more H2S production than that of L-Cys in mitochondria of human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293). The cysteine mimics propargylglycine (PPG) has also been found to inhibit the cysteine-dependent endogenous H2S production in a chiral-sensitive manner in living cells. D-PPG inhibited D-Cys-dependent H2S production more efficiently than L-PPG, while, L-PPG inhibited L-Cys-dependent H2S production more efficiently than D-PPG. Our bioimaging studies support Kimura's discovery of H2S production from D-cysteine in mammalian cells and further highlight the potential of D-cysteine and its derivatives as an alternative strategy for classical H2S-releasing drugs.

  3. Towards PDT with Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer KillerRed: A Comparison of Continuous and Pulsed Laser Regimens in an Animal Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Shirmanova, Marina; Yuzhakova, Diana; Snopova, Ludmila; Perelman, Gregory; Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina; Lukyanov, Konstantin; Turchin, Ilya; Subochev, Pavel; Lukyanov, Sergey; Kamensky, Vladislav; Zagaynova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The strong phototoxicity of the red fluorescent protein KillerRed allows it to be considered as a potential genetically encoded photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The advantages of KillerRed over chemical photosensitizers are its expression in tumor cells transduced with the appropriate gene and direct killing of cells through precise damage to any desired cell compartment. The ability of KillerRed to affect cell division and to induce cell death has already been demonstrated in cancer cell lines in vitro and HeLa tumor xenografts in vivo. However, the further development of this approach for PDT requires optimization of the method of treatment. In this study we tested the continuous wave (593 nm) and pulsed laser (584 nm, 10 Hz, 18 ns) modes to achieve an antitumor effect. The research was implemented on CT26 subcutaneous mouse tumors expressing KillerRed in fusion with histone H2B. The results showed that the pulsed mode provided a higher rate of photobleaching of KillerRed without any temperature increase on the tumor surface. PDT with the continuous wave laser was ineffective against CT26 tumors in mice, whereas the pulsed laser induced pronounced histopathological changes and inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, we selected an effective regimen for PDT when using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed and pulsed laser irradiation. PMID:26657001

  4. Single-trial imaging of spikes and synaptic potentials in single neurons in brain slices with genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Ma, Yihe

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded voltage sensors expand the optogenetics toolkit into the important realm of electrical recording, enabling researchers to study the dynamic activity of complex neural circuits in real time. However, these probes have thus far performed poorly when tested in intact neural circuits. Hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) enable the imaging of voltage by harnessing the resonant energy transfer that occurs between a genetically encoded component, a membrane-tethered fluorescent protein that serves as a donor, and a small charged molecule, dipicrylamine, which serves as an acceptor. hVOS generates optical signals as a result of voltage-induced changes in donor-acceptor distance. We expressed the hVOS probe in mouse brain by in utero electroporation and in transgenic mice with a neuronal promoter. Under conditions favoring sparse labeling we could visualize single-labeled neurons. hVOS imaging reported electrically evoked fluorescence changes from individual neurons in slices from entorhinal cortex, somatosensory cortex, and hippocampus. These fluorescence signals tracked action potentials in individual neurons in a single trial with excellent temporal fidelity, producing changes that exceeded background noise by as much as 16-fold. Subthreshold synaptic potentials were detected in single trials in multiple distinct cells simultaneously. We followed signal propagation between different cells within one field of view and between dendrites and somata of the same cell. hVOS imaging thus provides a tool for high-resolution recording of electrical activity from genetically targeted cells in intact neuronal circuits. PMID:25411462

  5. Towards PDT with Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer KillerRed: A Comparison of Continuous and Pulsed Laser Regimens in an Animal Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Shirmanova, Marina; Yuzhakova, Diana; Snopova, Ludmila; Perelman, Gregory; Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina; Lukyanov, Konstantin; Turchin, Ilya; Subochev, Pavel; Lukyanov, Sergey; Kamensky, Vladislav; Zagaynova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The strong phototoxicity of the red fluorescent protein KillerRed allows it to be considered as a potential genetically encoded photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The advantages of KillerRed over chemical photosensitizers are its expression in tumor cells transduced with the appropriate gene and direct killing of cells through precise damage to any desired cell compartment. The ability of KillerRed to affect cell division and to induce cell death has already been demonstrated in cancer cell lines in vitro and HeLa tumor xenografts in vivo. However, the further development of this approach for PDT requires optimization of the method of treatment. In this study we tested the continuous wave (593 nm) and pulsed laser (584 nm, 10 Hz, 18 ns) modes to achieve an antitumor effect. The research was implemented on CT26 subcutaneous mouse tumors expressing KillerRed in fusion with histone H2B. The results showed that the pulsed mode provided a higher rate of photobleaching of KillerRed without any temperature increase on the tumor surface. PDT with the continuous wave laser was ineffective against CT26 tumors in mice, whereas the pulsed laser induced pronounced histopathological changes and inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, we selected an effective regimen for PDT when using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed and pulsed laser irradiation.

  6. Single-trial imaging of spikes and synaptic potentials in single neurons in brain slices with genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O; Ma, Yihe; Jackson, Meyer B

    2015-02-15

    Genetically encoded voltage sensors expand the optogenetics toolkit into the important realm of electrical recording, enabling researchers to study the dynamic activity of complex neural circuits in real time. However, these probes have thus far performed poorly when tested in intact neural circuits. Hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) enable the imaging of voltage by harnessing the resonant energy transfer that occurs between a genetically encoded component, a membrane-tethered fluorescent protein that serves as a donor, and a small charged molecule, dipicrylamine, which serves as an acceptor. hVOS generates optical signals as a result of voltage-induced changes in donor-acceptor distance. We expressed the hVOS probe in mouse brain by in utero electroporation and in transgenic mice with a neuronal promoter. Under conditions favoring sparse labeling we could visualize single-labeled neurons. hVOS imaging reported electrically evoked fluorescence changes from individual neurons in slices from entorhinal cortex, somatosensory cortex, and hippocampus. These fluorescence signals tracked action potentials in individual neurons in a single trial with excellent temporal fidelity, producing changes that exceeded background noise by as much as 16-fold. Subthreshold synaptic potentials were detected in single trials in multiple distinct cells simultaneously. We followed signal propagation between different cells within one field of view and between dendrites and somata of the same cell. hVOS imaging thus provides a tool for high-resolution recording of electrical activity from genetically targeted cells in intact neuronal circuits. PMID:25411462

  7. Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu “Winston”; Khan, Altaz; Som, Madhura; Wang, Danni; Chen, Ye; Leigh, Steven Y.; Meza, Daphne; McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Wilson, Brian C.; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) offer the potential for rapid molecular phenotyping of tissues, thereby enabling accurate disease detection as well as patient stratification to guide personalized therapies or to monitor treatment outcomes. The clinical success of molecular diagnostics based on SERS NPs would be facilitated by the ability to accurately identify tissue biomarkers under time-constrained staining and detection conditions with a portable device. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed to optimize the technology and protocols for the rapid detection (0.1-s integration time) of multiple cell-surface biomarkers with a miniature fiber-optic spectral-detection probe following a brief (5 min) topical application of SERS NPs on tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simultaneous detection and ratiometric quantification of targeted and nontargeted NPs allows for an unambiguous assessment of molecular expression that is insensitive to nonspecific variations in NP concentrations. PMID:25045721

  8. Quantitative description of radiofrequency (RF) power-based ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) pH imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Renhua; Longo, Dario Livio; Aime, Silvio; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2015-05-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI holds great promise for the imaging of pH. However, routine CEST measurement varies not only with the pH-dependent chemical exchange rate, but also with CEST agent concentration, providing pH-weighted information. Conventional ratiometric CEST imaging normalizes the confounding concentration factor by analyzing the relative CEST effect from different exchangeable groups, requiring CEST agents with multiple chemically distinguishable labile proton sites. Recently, a radiofrequency (RF) power-based ratiometric CEST MRI approach has been developed for concentration-independent pH MRI using CEST agents with a single exchangeable group. To facilitate quantification and optimization of the new ratiometric analysis, we quantified the RF power-based ratiometric CEST ratio (rCESTR) and derived its signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. Using creatine as a representative CEST agent containing a single exchangeable site, our study demonstrated that optimized RF power-based ratiometric analysis provides good pH sensitivity. We showed that rCESTR follows a base-catalyzed exchange relationship with pH independent of creatine concentration. The pH accuracy of RF power-based ratiometric MRI was within 0.15-0.20 pH units. Furthermore, the absolute exchange rate can be obtained from the proposed ratiometric analysis. To summarize, RF power-based ratiometric CEST analysis provides concentration-independent pH-sensitive imaging and complements conventional multiple labile proton group-based ratiometric CEST analysis.

  9. Ratiometric Imaging of Extracellular pH in Dental Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Dige, Irene

    2016-03-09

    The pH in bacterial biofilms on teeth is of central importance for dental caries, a disease with a high worldwide prevalence. Nutrients and metabolites are not distributed evenly in dental biofilms. A complex interplay of sorption to and reaction with organic matter in the biofilm reduces the diffusion paths of solutes and creates steep gradients of reactive molecules, including organic acids, across the biofilm. Quantitative fluorescent microscopic methods, such as fluorescence life time imaging or pH ratiometry, can be employed to visualize pH in different microenvironments of dental biofilms. pH ratiometry exploits a pH-dependent shift in the fluorescent emission of pH-sensitive dyes. Calculation of the emission ratio at two different wavelengths allows determining local pH in microscopic images, irrespective of the concentration of the dye. Contrary to microelectrodes the technique allows monitoring both vertical and horizontal pH gradients in real-time without mechanically disturbing the biofilm. However, care must be taken to differentiate accurately between extra- and intracellular compartments of the biofilm. Here, the ratiometric dye, seminaphthorhodafluor-4F 5-(and-6) carboxylic acid (C-SNARF-4) is employed to monitor extracellular pH in in vivo grown dental biofilms of unknown species composition. Upon exposure to glucose the dye is up-concentrated inside all bacterial cells in the biofilms; it is thus used both as a universal bacterial stain and as a marker of extracellular pH. After confocal microscopic image acquisition, the bacterial biomass is removed from all pictures using digital image analysis software, which permits to exclusively calculate extracellular pH. pH ratiometry with the ratiometric dye is well-suited to study extracellular pH in thin biofilms of up to 75 µm thickness, but is limited to the pH range between 4.5 and 7.0.

  10. Noninvasive High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of the Intracellular pH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen, Mari; Mojzita, Dominik; Penttilä, Merja

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to maintain pH homeostasis in response to environmental changes has elicited interest in basic and applied research and has prompted the development of methods for intracellular pH measurements. Many traditional methods provide information at population level and thus the average values of the studied cell physiological phenomena, excluding the fact that cell cultures are very heterogeneous. Single-cell analysis, on the other hand, offers more detailed insight into population variability, thereby facilitating a considerably deeper understanding of cell physiology. Although microscopy methods can address this issue, they suffer from limitations in terms of the small number of individual cells that can be studied and complicated image processing. We developed a noninvasive high-throughput method that employs flow cytometry to analyze large populations of cells that express pHluorin, a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent probe that is sensitive to pH. The method described here enables measurement of the intracellular pH of single cells with high sensitivity and speed, which is a clear improvement compared to previously published methods that either require pretreatment of the cells, measure cell populations, or require complex data analysis. The ratios of fluorescence intensities, which correlate to the intracellular pH, are independent of the expression levels of the pH probe, making the use of transiently or extrachromosomally expressed probes possible. We conducted an experiment on the kinetics of the pH homeostasis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures grown to a stationary phase after ethanol or glucose addition and after exposure to weak acid stress and glucose pulse. Minor populations with pH homeostasis behaving differently upon treatments were identified. PMID:24038689

  11. In vivo ratiometric Zn2+ imaging in zebrafish larvae using a new visible light excitable fluorescent sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changli; Chen, Yuncong; Qian, Fang; Bai, Yang; He, Weijiang; Guo, Zijian

    2014-02-01

    A visible light excitable ratiometric Zn(2+) sensor was developed by integrating a Zn(2+) chelator as the ICT donor of the fluorophore sulfamoylbenzoxadiazole, which displays the Zn(2+)-induced hypsochromic emission shift (40 nm) and favors the in vivo ratiometric Zn(2+) imaging in zebrafish larvae.

  12. Highly Selective Two-Photon Fluorescent Probe for Ratiometric Sensing and Imaging Cysteine in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Guo, Lei; Li, Yinhui; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Wong, Man Shing

    2016-02-01

    A novel ratiometric mitochondrial cysteine (Cys)-selective two-photon fluorescence probe has been developed on the basis of a merocyanine as the fluorophore and an acrylate moiety as the biothiol reaction site. The biocompatible and photostable acrylate-functionalized merocyanine probe shows not only a mitochondria-targeting property but also highly selective detection and monitoring of Cys over other biothiols such as homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in live cells. In addition, this probe exhibits ratiometric fluorescence emission characteristics (F518/F452), which are linearly proportional to Cys concentrations in the range of 0.5-40 μM. More importantly, the probe and its released fluorophore, merocyanine, exhibit strong two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) with two-photon action cross-section (Φσmax) of 65.2 GM at 740 nm and 72.6 GM at 760 nm in aqueous medium, respectively, which is highly desirable for high contrast and brightness ratiometric two-photon fluorescence imaging of the living samples. The probe has been successfully applied to ratiometrically image and detect mitochondrial Cys in live cells and intact tissues down to a depth of 150 μm by two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Thus, this ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe is practically useful for an investigation of Cys in living biological systems. PMID:26717855

  13. Ratiometric fluorescence, electrochemiluminescence, and photoelectrochemical chemo/biosensing based on semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Ratiometric fluorescent sensors, which can provide built-in self-calibration for correction of a variety of analyte-independent factors, have attracted particular attention for analytical sensing and optical imaging with the potential to provide a precise and quantitative analysis. A wide variety of ratiometric sensing probes using small fluorescent molecules have been developed. Compared with organic dyes, exploiting semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in ratiometric fluorescence sensing is even more intriguing, owing to their unique optical and photophysical properties that offer significant advantages over organic dyes. In this review, the main photophysical mechanism for generating dual-emission from QDs for ratiometry is discussed and categorized in detail. Typically, dual-emission can be obtained either with energy transfer from QDs to dyes or with independent dual fluorophores of QDs and dye/QDs. The recent discovery of intrinsic dual-emission from Mn-doped QDs offers new opportunities for ratiometric sensing. Particularly, the signal transduction of QDs is not restricted to fluorescence, and electrochemiluminescence and photoelectrochemistry from QDs are also promising for sensing, which can be made ratiometric for correction of interferences typically encountered in electrochemistry. All these unique photophysical properties of QDs lead to a new avenue of ratiometry, and the recent progress in this area is addressed and summarized here. Several interesting applications of QD-based ratiometry are presented for the determination of metal ions, temperature, and biomolecules, with specific emphasis on the design principles and photophysical mechanisms of these probes.

  14. Ratiometric optical fiber sensor for dual sensing of copper ion and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Chuang, Chih-Yung

    2015-12-20

    This paper develops a new ratiometric optical dual sensor for Cu2+ ions and dissolved oxygen (DO) incorporating a sol-gel matrix doped with palladium tetrakis pentafluorophenyl porphine as the oxygen-sensitive material, CdSe quantum dots as the Cu2+ ion-sensing material, and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin as the Cu2+ /DO practically independent fluorescent dye. The feasibility of coating an optical fiber with the sensing film to fabricate a ratiometric optical fiber dual sensor is investigated. Using an LED with a central wavelength of 405 nm as an excitation source, it is shown that the emission wavelengths of the Cu2+ ion-sensitive, DO-sensitive dye and the reference dye have no spectral overlap and therefore permit Cu2+ ion and DO concentration to be measured using a ratiometric-based method. The ratiometric optical fiber dual sensor has been tested with regard to monitoring different Cu2+ ion (0-10 μM) and DO concentrations (0-38 mg/L). The results show that the luminescence properties of the Cu2+ ion sensor are independent of the presence of the oxygen sensor and have a uniquely good linear response in the 0-10 μM range. The proposed ratiometric sensing approach presented in this study has the advantage of suppressing spurious fluctuations in the intensity of the excitation source. PMID:26837033

  15. Highly Selective Two-Photon Fluorescent Probe for Ratiometric Sensing and Imaging Cysteine in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Guo, Lei; Li, Yinhui; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Wong, Man Shing

    2016-02-01

    A novel ratiometric mitochondrial cysteine (Cys)-selective two-photon fluorescence probe has been developed on the basis of a merocyanine as the fluorophore and an acrylate moiety as the biothiol reaction site. The biocompatible and photostable acrylate-functionalized merocyanine probe shows not only a mitochondria-targeting property but also highly selective detection and monitoring of Cys over other biothiols such as homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in live cells. In addition, this probe exhibits ratiometric fluorescence emission characteristics (F518/F452), which are linearly proportional to Cys concentrations in the range of 0.5-40 μM. More importantly, the probe and its released fluorophore, merocyanine, exhibit strong two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) with two-photon action cross-section (Φσmax) of 65.2 GM at 740 nm and 72.6 GM at 760 nm in aqueous medium, respectively, which is highly desirable for high contrast and brightness ratiometric two-photon fluorescence imaging of the living samples. The probe has been successfully applied to ratiometrically image and detect mitochondrial Cys in live cells and intact tissues down to a depth of 150 μm by two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Thus, this ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe is practically useful for an investigation of Cys in living biological systems.

  16. Ratiometric Signaling of Hypochlorite by the Oxidative Cleavage of Sulfonhydrazide-Based Rhodamine-Dansyl Dyad.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-09-01

    A reaction-based probe 1 for hypochlorite signaling was designed by the conjugation of two fluorophores, rhodamine and dansyl moieties, by the reaction of rhodamine B base with dansylhydrazine. Probe 1 exhibited pronounced hypochlorite-selective chromogenic and fluorescent signaling behavior over other oxidants used in practical applications, such as hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and ammonium persulfate, as well as commonly encountered metal ions and anions. Signaling was attributed to the hypochlorite-induced oxidative cleavage of the sulfonhydrazide linkage of the probe. In particular, favorable ratiometric fluorescence signaling was possible by utilizing the emissions of the two fluorophores. A detection limit of 1.13 × 10(-6) M (0.058 ppm) was estimated for the determination of hypochlorite. A paper-based test strip was prepared and was used as a semiquantitative indicator for the presence of hypochlorite in aqueous solutions. The probe was also successfully applied for the determination of hypochlorite in practical tap water samples. PMID:26313428

  17. 2D ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor for tracking of cells proliferation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Ding, Changqin; Zhou, Jie; Tian, Yang

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular pH plays a vital role no matter in physiological or pathological studies. In this work, a hydrogel, CD@Nile-FITC@Gel (Gel sensor), entrapping the ratiometric fluorescent probe CD@Nile-FITC was developed. The Gel sensor was successfully used for real-time extracellular pH monitoring. In the case of CD@Nile-FITC, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was chosen as the response signal for H(+) and Nile blue chloride (Nile) as the reference signal. The developed fluorescent probe exhibited high selectivity for pH over other metal ions and amino acids. Meanwhile, the carbon-dots-based inorganic-organic probe demonstrated excellent photostability against long-term light illumination. In order to study the extracellular pH change in processes of cell proliferation and metabolism, CD@Nile-FITC probe was entrapped in sodium alginate gel and consequently formed CD@Nile-FITC@Gel. The MTT assay showed low cytotoxicity of the Gel and the pH titration indicated that it could monitor the pH fluctuations linearly and rapidly within the pH range of 6.0-9.0, which is valuable for physiological pH determination. As expected, the real-time bioimaging of the probe was successfully achieved.

  18. Ratiometric ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongxue; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we presented a ratiometric electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe. Carboxymethyl cellulose-Au-Pb2+ (CMC-Au-Pb2+) and carbon-Au-Cu2+ (C-Au-Cu2+) nanocomposites were firstly synthesized and implemented as redox substrate and immunoprobe with strong current signals at −0.45 V and 0.15 V, respectively. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a model analyte to examine the analytical performance of the proposed method. The current signals of CMC-Au-Pb2+ (Isubstrate) and C-Au-Cu2+ (Iprobe) were monitored. The effect of redox substrate and immunoprobe behaved as a better linear relationship between Iprobe/Isubstrate and Lg CIgG (ng mL−1). By measuring the signal ratio Iprobe/Isubstrate, the sandwich immunosensor for IgG exhibited a wide linear range from 1 fg mL−1 to 100 ng mL−1, which was two orders of magnitude higher than other previous works. The limit of detection reached 0.26 fg mL−1. Furthermore, for human serum samples, the results from this method were consistent with those of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that the proposed immunoassay was of great potential in clinical diagnosis. PMID:27739493

  19. Economical wireless optical ratiometric pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppu, Sandeep; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2009-04-01

    The development and application of a portable, wireless fluorescence-based optical pH sensor is presented. The design incorporates the MSP430 microcontroller as the control unit, an RF transceiver for wireless communication, digital filters and amplifiers and a USB-based communication module for data transmission. The pH sensor is based on ratiometric fluorescence detection from pH sensitive dye incorporated in a peel-and-stick patch. The ability of the instrument to detect the pH of the solution with contact only between the sensor patch and the solution makes it partially non-invasive. The instrument also has the ability to transmit data wirelessly, enabling its use in processes that entail stringent temperature control and sterility. The use of the microcontroller makes it a reliable, low-cost and low-power device. The luminous intensity of the light source can be digitally controlled to maximize the sensitivity of the instrument. It has a resolution of 0.05 pH. The sensor is accurate and reversible over the pH range of 6.5-9.

  20. Ratiometric ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongxue; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we presented a ratiometric electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe. Carboxymethyl cellulose-Au-Pb2+ (CMC-Au-Pb2+) and carbon-Au-Cu2+ (C-Au-Cu2+) nanocomposites were firstly synthesized and implemented as redox substrate and immunoprobe with strong current signals at ‑0.45 V and 0.15 V, respectively. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a model analyte to examine the analytical performance of the proposed method. The current signals of CMC-Au-Pb2+ (Isubstrate) and C-Au-Cu2+ (Iprobe) were monitored. The effect of redox substrate and immunoprobe behaved as a better linear relationship between Iprobe/Isubstrate and Lg CIgG (ng mL‑1). By measuring the signal ratio Iprobe/Isubstrate, the sandwich immunosensor for IgG exhibited a wide linear range from 1 fg mL‑1 to 100 ng mL‑1, which was two orders of magnitude higher than other previous works. The limit of detection reached 0.26 fg mL‑1. Furthermore, for human serum samples, the results from this method were consistent with those of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that the proposed immunoassay was of great potential in clinical diagnosis.

  1. Ratiometric spectral imaging for fast tumor detection and chemotherapy monitoring in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2011-06-01

    We report a novel in vivo spectral imaging approach to cancer detection and chemotherapy assessment. We describe and characterize a ratiometric spectral imaging and analysis method and evaluate its performance for tumor detection and delineation by quantitatively monitoring the specific accumulation of targeted gallium corrole (HerGa) into HER2-positive (HER2 +) breast tumors. HerGa temporal accumulation in nude mice bearing HER2 + breast tumors was monitored comparatively by a. this new ratiometric imaging and analysis method; b. established (reflectance and fluorescence) spectral imaging; c. more commonly used fluorescence intensity imaging. We also tested the feasibility of HerGa imaging in vivo using the ratiometric spectral imaging method for tumor detection and delineation. Our results show that the new method not only provides better quantitative information than typical spectral imaging, but also better specificity than standard fluorescence intensity imaging, thus allowing enhanced in vivo outlining of tumors and dynamic, quantitative monitoring of targeted chemotherapy agent accumulation into them.

  2. A Ratiometric Wavelength Measurement Based on a Silicon-on-Insulator Directional Coupler Integrated Device

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Zhao, Haoyu; Zheng, Jie; Farrell, Gerald; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    A ratiometric wavelength measurement based on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) integrated device is proposed and designed, which consists of directional couplers acting as two edge filters with opposite spectral responses. The optimal separation distance between two parallel silicon waveguides and the interaction length of the directional coupler are designed to meet the desired spectral response by using local supermodes. The wavelength discrimination ability of the designed ratiometric structure is demonstrated by a beam propagation method numerically and then is verified experimentally. The experimental results have shown a general agreement with the theoretical models. The ratiometric wavelength system demonstrates a resolution of better than 50 pm at a wavelength around 1550 nm with ease of assembly and calibration. PMID:26343668

  3. Small molecule-based ratiometric fluorescence probes for cations, anions, and biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Hee

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of specific analytes is essential for a variety of applications ranging from life sciences to environmental monitoring. Optical sensing allows non-invasive measurements within biological milieus, parallel monitoring of multiple samples, and less invasive imaging. Among the optical sensing methods currently being explored, ratiometric fluorescence sensing has received particular attention as a technique with the potential to provide precise and quantitative analyses. Among its advantages are high sensitivity and inherent reliability, which reflect the self-calibration provided by monitoring two (or more) emissions. A wide variety of ratiometric sensing probes using small fluorescent molecules have been developed for sensing, imaging, and biomedical applications. In this research highlight, we provide an overview of the design principles underlying small fluorescent probes that have been applied to the ratiometric detection of various analytes, including cations, anions, and biomolecules in solution and in biological samples. This highlight is designed to be illustrative, not comprehensive. PMID:25286013

  4. Colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent detection of bisulfite by a new HBT-hemicyanine hybrid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Huang, Zijun; Feng, Guoqiang

    2016-05-12

    A novel HBT-hemicyanine hybrid was prepared. This hybrid not only displays a large red-shifted (Δλ = 125 nm) emission compared to the well known ESIPT dye HBT, but also can be used as a new probe for rapid, colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent detection of bisulfite with high selectivity and sensitivity in aqueous solution. The detection limit of this probe for HSO3(-) was calculated to be about 56 nM with a linear range of 0-25 μM. The potential application of this probe was exampled by detection of bisulfite in real food samples and living cells. Overall, this work not only provided a new ratiometric sensing platform, but also provided a new promising colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for bisulfite. PMID:27114225

  5. A boron-dipyrromethene-based fluorescent probe for colorimetric and ratiometric detection of sulfite.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xianfeng; Liu, Chunhua; Zhu, Yi-Chun; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-11-23

    BODIPY-Le, a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe based on boron-dipyrromethene for selective detection sulfite ion, was investigated. Boron-dipyrromethene levulinyl ester (BODIPY-Le) is composed of an indole-based BODIPY dye and the levulinyl protective group, which could be easily and selectively deprotected by sulfites. As a result, the absorption and emission spectra show a dramatic red shift, and the development of a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sulfite probe could be achieved. Besides, BODIPY-Le also exhibited prominent turn-on or turn-off type fluorogenic signaling toward sulfite ions once excited at 510 and 620 nm, respectively.

  6. Genetically encoded optical activation of DNA recombination in human cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental protocols. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc03934k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J.; Arbely, E.; Zhang, J.; Chou, C.; Uprety, R.; Chin, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    We developed two tightly regulated, light-activated Cre recombinase enzymes through site-specific incorporation of two genetically-encoded photocaged amino acids in human cells. Excellent optical off to on switching of DNA recombination was achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrated precise spatial control of Cre recombinase through patterned illumination. PMID:27277957

  7. Monitoring cytosolic and ER Zn2+ in stimulated breast cancer cells using genetically encoded FRET sensors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mt00257e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hessels, Anne M.; Taylor, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    The Zn2+-specific ion channel ZIP7 has been implicated to play an important role in releasing Zn2+ from the ER. External stimulation of breast cancer cells has been proposed to induce phosphorylation of ZIP7 by CK2α, resulting in ZIP7-mediated Zn2+ release from the ER into the cytosol. Here, we examined whether changes in cytosolic and ER Zn2+ concentrations can be detected upon such external stimuli. Two previously developed FRET sensors for Zn2+, eZinCh-2 (K d = 1 nM at pH 7.1) and eCALWY-4 (K d = 0.63 nM at pH 7.1), were expressed in both the cytosol and the ER of wild-type MCF-7 and TamR cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and TamR cells with external Zn2+ and pyrithione, one of the previously used triggers, resulted in an immediate increase in free Zn2+ in both cytosol and ER, suggesting that Zn2+ was directly transferred across the cellular membranes by pyrithione. Cells treated with a second trigger, EGF/ionomycin, showed no changes in intracellular Zn2+ levels, neither in multicolor imaging experiments that allowed simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and ER Zn2+, nor in experiments in which cytosolic and ER Zn2+ were monitored separately. In contrast to previous work using small-molecule fluorescent dyes, these results indicate that EGF–ionomycin treatment does not result in significant changes in cytosolic Zn2+ levels as a result from Zn2+ release from the ER. These results underline the importance of using genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to complement and verify intracellular imaging experiments with synthetic fluorescent Zn2+ dyes. PMID:26739447

  8. Engineering a genetically encoded competitive inhibitor of the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction via structure-based design and phage display.

    PubMed

    Guntas, Gurkan; Lewis, Steven M; Mulvaney, Kathleen M; Cloer, Erica W; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Lane, Thomas R; Major, Michael B; Kuhlman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In its basal state, KEAP1 binds the transcription factor NRF2 (Kd = 5 nM) and promotes its degradation by ubiquitylation. Changes in the redox environment lead to modification of key cysteines within KEAP1, resulting in NRF2 protein accumulation and the transcription of genes important for restoring the cellular redox state. Using phage display and a computational loop grafting protocol, we engineered a monobody (R1) that is a potent competitive inhibitor of the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction. R1 bound to KEAP1 with a Kd of 300 pM and in human cells freed NRF2 from KEAP1 resulting in activation of the NRF2 promoter. Unlike cysteine-reactive small molecules that lack protein specificity, R1 is a genetically encoded, reversible inhibitor designed specifically for KEAP1. R1 should prove useful for studying the role of the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction in several disease states. The structure-based phage display strategy employed here is a general approach for engineering high-affinity binders that compete with naturally occurring interactions.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of dioxygen pathways through mini singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG), a genetically encoded marker and killer protein.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the permeation of proteins by small gases of biological significance have been extended from gas carrier, sensor, and enzymatic proteins to genetically encoded tags and killer proteins. To this end, miniSOG was taken as an example of current high interest, using a biased form of MD, called random-acceleration MD. Various egress gates and binding pockets for dioxygen, as an indistinguishable mimic of singlet dioxygen, were found on both above and below the isoalloxazine plane of the flavin mononucleotide cofactor in miniSOG. Of such gates and binding pockets, those lying within two opposite cones, coaxial with a line normal to the isoalloxazine plane, and with the vertex at the center of such a plane are those most visited by the escaping gas molecule. Out of residues most capable of quenching (1) O2 , Y30, lying near the base of one such a cone, and H85, near the base of the opposite cone, are held to be most responsible for the reduced quantum yield of (1) O2 with folded miniSOG with respect to free flavin mononucleotide in solution.

  10. The Use of Mn(II) Bound to His-tags as Genetically Encodable Spin-Label for Nanometric Distance Determination in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, H Y Vincent; Mascali, Florencia C; Bertrand, Hélène C; Bruch, Eduardo M; Demay-Drouhard, Paul; Rasia, Rodolfo M; Policar, Clotilde; Tabares, Leandro C; Un, Sun

    2016-03-17

    A genetically encodable paramagnetic spin-label capable of self-assembly from naturally available components would offer a means for studying the in-cell structure and interactions of a protein by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Here, we demonstrate pulse electron-electron double resonance (DEER) measurements on spin-labels consisting of Mn(II) ions coordinated to a sequence of histidines, so-called His-tags, that are ubiquitously added by genetic engineering to facilitate protein purification. Although the affinity of His-tags for Mn(II) was low (800 μM), Mn(II)-bound His-tags yielded readily detectable DEER time traces even at concentrations expected in cells. We were able to determine accurately the distance between two His-tag Mn(II) spin-labels at the ends of a rigid helical polyproline peptide of known structure, as well as at the ends of a completely cell-synthesized 3-helix bundle. This approach not only greatly simplifies the labeling procedure but also represents a first step towards using self-assembling metal spin-labels for in-cell distance measurements.

  11. Structural analysis of the PSD-95 cluster by electron tomography and CEMOVIS: a proposal for the application of the genetically encoded metallothionein tag.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Ai; Fukunaga, Yuko; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2014-06-01

    Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) accumulates at excitatory postsynapses and plays important roles in the clustering and anchoring of numerous proteins at the PSD. However, a detailed ultrastructural analysis of clusters exclusively consisting of PSD-95 has never been performed. Here, we employed a genetically encoded tag, three tandem repeats of metallothionein (3MT), to study the structure of PSD-95 clusters in cells by electron tomography and cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections. We also performed conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cultured hippocampal neurons expressing a fusion protein of PSD-95 coupled to 3MT (PDS-95-3MT) were incubated with CdCl2 to result in the formation of Cd-bound PSD-95-3MT. Two types of electron-dense deposits composed of Cd-bound PSD-95-3MT were observed in these cells by TEM, as reported previously. Electron tomography revealed the presence of membrane-shaped structures representing PSD-95 clusters at the PSD and an ellipsoidal structure located in the non-synaptic cytoplasm. By TEM, the PSD-95 clusters appeared to be composed of a number of dense cores. In frozen hydrated sections, these dense cores were also found beneath the postsynaptic membrane. Taken together, our findings suggest that dense cores of PSD-95 aggregate to form the larger clusters present in the PSD and the non-synaptic cytoplasm.

  12. Design of modular "plug-and-play" expression platforms derived from natural riboswitches for engineering novel genetically encodable RNA regulatory devices.

    PubMed

    Trausch, Jeremiah J; Batey, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encodable RNA devices that directly detect small molecules in the cellular environment are of increasing interest for a variety of applications including live cell imaging and synthetic biology. Riboswitches are naturally occurring sensors of intracellular metabolites, primarily found in the bacterial mRNA leaders and regulating their expression. These regulatory elements are generally composed of two domains: an aptamer that binds a specific effector molecule and an expression platform that informs the transcriptional or translational machinery. While it was long established that riboswitch aptamers are modular and portable, capable of directing different output domains including ribozymes, switches, and fluorophore-binding modules, the same has not been demonstrated until recently for expression platforms. We have engineered and validated a set of expression platforms that regulate transcription through a secondary structural switch that can host a variety of different aptamers, including those derived through in vitro selection methods, to create novel chimeric riboswitches. These synthetic switches are capable of a highly specific regulatory response both in vitro and in vivo. Here we present the methodology for the design and engineering of chimeric switches using biological expression platforms. PMID:25605380

  13. Magnetic and fluorescent core-shell nanoparticles for ratiometric pH sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapresta-Fernández, Alejandro; Doussineau, Tristan; Dutz, Silvio; Steiniger, Frank; Moro, Artur J.; Mohr, Gerhard J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the preparation of nanoparticles composed of a magnetic core surrounded by two successive silica shells embedding two fluorophores, showing uniform nanoparticle size (50-60 nm in diameter) and shape, which allow ratiometric pH measurements in the pH range 5-8. Uncoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (~10 nm in diameter) were formed by the coprecipitation reaction of ferrous and ferric salts. Then, they were added to a water-in-oil microemulsion where the hydrophilic silica shells were obtained through hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxyorthosilicate together with the corresponding silylated dye derivatives—a sulforhodamine was embedded in the inner silica shell and used as the reference dye while a pH-sensitive fluorescein was incorporated in the outer shell as the pH indicator. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The relationship between the analytical parameter, that is, the ratio of fluorescence between the sensing and reference dyes versus the pH was adjusted to a sigmoidal fit using a Boltzmann type equation giving an apparent pKa value of 6.8. The fluorescence intensity of the reference dye did not change significantly (~3.0%) on modifying the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion. Finally, the proposed method was statistically validated against a reference procedure using samples of water and physiological buffer with 2% of horse serum, indicating that there are no significant statistical differences at a 95% confidence level.

  14. Ratiometric electrochemiluminescent strategy regulated by electrocatalysis of palladium nanocluster for immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin; Lei, Jianping; Cheng, Yan; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work designed a novel ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensing approach based on two different ECL emitters: CdS quantum dots (QDs) as cathodic emitter and luminol as anodic emitter. The ECL immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer modification of CdS QDs, Au nanoparticles and capture antibody on a glassy carbon electrode. With hydrogen peroxide as ECL coreactant, the immunosensor showed a cathodic ECL emission of CdS QDs at -1.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in air-saturated pH 8.0 buffer. Upon the formation of sandwich immunoassay, the lumiol/palladium nanoclusters (Pd NCs)@graphene oxide probe was introduced to the electrode. Therefore, the cathodic ECL intensity decreased and luminol anodic ECL emission was appeared at +0.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl) owing to the competition of the coreactant of hydrogen peroxide. Using carcino-embryonic antigen as model, this ratiometric ECL strategy could be used for immunoassay with a linear range of 1.0-100 pg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.62 pg mL(-1). The enhanced ratiometric ECL signal resulted from the high density and excellent electrocatalysis of the loaded Pd NCs. The immunosensor exhibited good stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility and accuracy, showing a great promising for clinical application. This electrocatalysis-regulated ratiometric ECL provides a new concept for ECL measurement, and could be conveniently extended for detection of other protein biomarkers. PMID:26499869

  15. Ratiometric electrochemiluminescent strategy regulated by electrocatalysis of palladium nanocluster for immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin; Lei, Jianping; Cheng, Yan; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work designed a novel ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensing approach based on two different ECL emitters: CdS quantum dots (QDs) as cathodic emitter and luminol as anodic emitter. The ECL immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer modification of CdS QDs, Au nanoparticles and capture antibody on a glassy carbon electrode. With hydrogen peroxide as ECL coreactant, the immunosensor showed a cathodic ECL emission of CdS QDs at -1.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in air-saturated pH 8.0 buffer. Upon the formation of sandwich immunoassay, the lumiol/palladium nanoclusters (Pd NCs)@graphene oxide probe was introduced to the electrode. Therefore, the cathodic ECL intensity decreased and luminol anodic ECL emission was appeared at +0.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl) owing to the competition of the coreactant of hydrogen peroxide. Using carcino-embryonic antigen as model, this ratiometric ECL strategy could be used for immunoassay with a linear range of 1.0-100 pg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.62 pg mL(-1). The enhanced ratiometric ECL signal resulted from the high density and excellent electrocatalysis of the loaded Pd NCs. The immunosensor exhibited good stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility and accuracy, showing a great promising for clinical application. This electrocatalysis-regulated ratiometric ECL provides a new concept for ECL measurement, and could be conveniently extended for detection of other protein biomarkers.

  16. Croconaine rotaxane for acid activated photothermal heating and ratiometric photoacoustic imaging of acidic pH†

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Gillian Karen; Mitcham, Trevor M.; Bouchard, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Absorption of 808 nm laser light by liposomes containing a pH sensitive, near-infrared croconaine rotaxane dye increases dramatically in weak acid. A stealth liposome composition permits acid activated, photothermal heating and also acts as an effective nanoparticle probe for ratiometric photoacoustic imaging of acidic pH in deep sample locations, including a living mouse. PMID:26502996

  17. Ratiometric imaging of gastrodermal lipid bodies in coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Peng, S.-E.; Tzen, J. T.-C.; Hsiao, Y.-Y.; Huang, H.-J.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2009-03-01

    Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis is the phenomenon of autotrophic symbionts living inside the gastrodermal cells of their animal hosts. The molecular mechanism that regulates this association remains unclear. Using quantitative microscopy, we now provide evidence that the dynamic lipid changes in gastrodermal “lipid bodies” (LBs) reflect the symbiotic status of the host cell and its symbiont in the hermatypic coral Euphyllia glabrescens. By dual-emission ratiometric imaging with a solvatochromic fluorescent probe, Nile red (9-diethylamino-5H-benzo[α]phenoxazine-5-one), we showed that the in situ distribution of polar versus neutral lipids in LBs in living gastrodermal cells and symbionts can be analyzed. The ratio of Nile red fluorescence at red (R) versus green (G) wavelength region (i.e., R/G ratio) correlated with the relative molar ratio of polar (P) versus neutral (NP) lipids (i.e., P/NP ratio). The R/G ratio in host LBs increased after bleaching, indicating a decrease in neutral lipid accumulation in gastrodermal cells. On the other hand, neutral lipid accumulation inside the symbiont LBs resulted in gradual decreases of the R/G ratio as a result of bleaching. In comparison with the bleaching event, there was no relative lipid concentration change in host LBs under continual light or dark treatments as shown by insignificant R/G ratio shift. Patterns of R/G ratio shift in symbiont LBs were also different between corals undergoing bleaching and continual light/dark treatment. In the latter, there was little lipid accumulation in symbionts, with no resulting R/G ratio decrease. These results, demonstrating that the symbiotic status positively correlated with morphological and compositional changes of lipid bodies, not only highlight the pivotal role of LBs, but also implicate an involvement of lipid trafficking in regulating the endosymbiosis.

  18. Fluorescence ratiometric sensor for trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Han, Ji-Min; Wang, Chen; Yang, Xiaomei; Pei, Jian; Zang, Ling

    2014-06-11

    Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) represents a practical approach to nondestructive detection of peroxide-based explosives, including liquid mixtures of H2O2 and fuels and energetic peroxide derivatives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). Development of a simple chemical sensor system that responds to H2O2 vapor with high reliability and sufficient sensitivity (reactivity) remains a challenge. We report a fluorescence ratiometric sensor molecule, diethyl 2,5-bis((((4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzyl)oxy)carbonyl)amino)terephthalate (DAT-B), for H2O2 that can be fabricated into an expedient, reliable, and sensitive sensor system suitable for trace vapor detection of H2O2. DAT-B is fluorescent in the blue region, with an emission maximum at 500 nm in the solid state. Upon reaction with H2O2, DAT-B is converted to an electronic "push-pull" structure, diethyl 2,5-diaminoterephthalate (DAT-N), which has an emission peak at a longer wavelength centered at 574 nm. Such H2O2-mediated oxidation of aryl boronates can be accelerated through the addition of an organic base such as tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), resulting in a response time of less than 0.5 s under 1 ppm of H2O2 vapor. The strong overlap between the absorption band of DAT-N and the emission band of DAT-B enables efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), thus allowing further enhancement of the sensing efficiency of H2O2 vapor. The detection limit of a drop-cast DAT-B/TBAH film was projected to be 7.7 ppb. By combining high sensitivity and selectivity, the reported sensor system may find broad application in vapor detection of peroxide-based explosives and relevant chemical reagents through its fabrication into easy-to-use, cost-effective kits. PMID:24801730

  19. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2014-06-01

    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  20. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grünberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.

  1. Cd(II)-terpyridine-based complex as a ratiometric fluorescent probe for pyrophosphate detection in solution and as an imaging agent in living cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shu-Yan; Li, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yan-Hong; Huang, Zeng; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-21

    The terpyridine anthracene ligand was synthesized and characterized. is a ratiometric fluorescent probe for Cd(2+) with a recognition mechanism based on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). An complex was isolated, and its structure was established using single-crystal XRD. The complex was able to serve as a novel reversible chemosensing ensemble to allow ratiometric response to pyrophosphate (PPi) in aqueous media. Moreover, the fluorescence imaging in living cells from these two emission channels suggested that was a ratiometric probe for Cd(2+), and the in situ generated complex was also a ratiometric ensemble for PPi detection in living cells. PMID:25421139

  2. A near-Infrared Fluorescent Chemodosimeter for Ratiometric Detecting Fluoride Based on Desilylation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Puhui; Guo, Fengqi; Gao, Guangqin; Fan, Wei; Yang, Guoyu; Xie, Lixia

    2016-09-01

    A new chemodosimeter based on dicyanomethylene-4H-chromene chromophore (probe 1) was developed as a ratiometric fluorescent probe in near-infrared range for F(-) with good selectivity in acetonitrile. Probe 1 could be used to directly visualize F(-) by the naked eye and showed more than 621-fold fluorescence enhancement at 715 nm upon reaction with F(-) upon excitation at 625 nm. The recognition of probe 1 to fluoride was featured by F(-)-induced red-shifts of both absorption (185 nm) and fluorescence peaks (132 nm) based on internal charge transfer (ICT) in acetonitrile. The desilylation reaction of 1 by F(-) was proposed for its dual absorption and emission ratiometric detection of fluoride. PMID:27365125

  3. Fluorescence Ratiometric Properties Induced by Nanoparticle Plasmonics and Nanoscale Dye Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale transport of merocyanine 540 within/near the plasmon field of gold nanoparticles was recognized as an effective inducer of single-excitation dual-emission ratiometric properties. With a high concentration of the signal transducer (ammonium), a 700% increase in fluorescence was observed at the new red-shifted emission maximum, compared to a nanoparticle free sensor membrane. A previously nonrecognized isosbestic point is demonstrated at 581.4 ± 0.1 nm. The mechanism can be utilized for enhanced and simplified ratiometric optical chemical sensors and potentially for thin film engineering to make solar cells more effective and stable by a broader and more regulated absorption. PMID:23781159

  4. Ratiometric emission fluorescent pH probe for imaging of living cells in extreme acidity.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Fan, Li; Nan, Ming; Li, Zengbo; Lu, Dongtao; Wong, Man Shing; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan

    2015-03-01

    A novel ratiometric emission fluorescent probe, 1,1-dimethyl-2-[2-(quinolin-4-yl)vinyl]-1H-benzo[e]indole (QVBI), is facilely synthesized via ethylene bridging of benzoindole and quinoline. The probe exhibits ratiometric fluorescence emission (F(522nm)/F(630nm)) characteristics with pKa 3.27 and linear response to extreme-acidity range of 3.8-2.0. Also, its high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.89) and large Stokes shift (110 nm) are favorable. Moreover, QVBI possesses highly selective response to H(+) over metal ions and some bioactive molecules, good photostability, and excellent reversibility. The probe has excellent cell membrane permeability and is further applied successfully to monitor pH fluctuations in live cells and imaging extreme acidity in Escherichia coli cells without influence of autofluorescence and native cellular species in biological systems. PMID:25664606

  5. An integrated high-performance ratio-metric wavelength measurement device on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gencheng; Yang, Bing; Shen, Ao; Pei, Chongyang; Yang, Longzhi; Yu, Hui; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Hao, Yinlei; Yang, Jianyi

    2015-10-01

    The measurable wavelength range and the resolution of the ratio-metric wavelength monitor are limited by each other in a conventional structure. To solve this problem we designed and fabricated a high-performance integrated double ratio-metric wavelength measurement device on glass by the method of ion-exchange. It consists of four unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) to form a rough wavelength measurement with a wide range and a fine wavelength measurement with high resolution. The highest measured resolution can reach 10 pm in a 1.6 nm-wide wavelength range for the fine wavelength measurement together with a 45 nm-wide wavelength range for the rough measurement. By heating the unbalanced MZI, the performance of the fine wavelength monitor can be improved.

  6. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide based on a coumarin-benzopyrylium platform.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhong, Yaogang; Guo, Yuan; Li, Zheng; Li, Hua

    2015-02-15

    A ratiometric fluorescent probe for H2S was developed based on a coumarin- benzopyrylium platform. The ratiometric sensing is realized by a selective conversion of acyl azide to the corresponding amide, which subsequently undergoes an intramolecular spirocyclization to alter the large π-conjugated system of CB fluorophore. Compared with the traditional azide-based H2S probes, the proposed probe utilizes the acyl azide as the recognition moiety and exhibits a rapid response (∼1min) towards H2S, which is superior to most of the azide-based H2S probes. Preliminary fluorescence imaging experiments show that probe 1 has potential to track H2S in living cells.

  7. Ratiometric Ca²+ measurements using the FlexStation® Scanning Fluorometer.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Ian C B; Boyfield, Izzy; McNulty, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    Many commercial organizations currently use the Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR®: Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) to conduct high-throughput measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (see Chapter 7 ), taking advantage of its rapid kinetics, reliability, and compatibility for automation. For the majority of industrial applications, the primary limitation of FLIPR (i.e., its requirement for single wavelength fluorescent probes using visible light excitation) is not a significant issue. Indeed, visible light probes offer certain benefits over their ultraviolet (UV)-excited ratiometric counterparts, such as reduced sample autofluorescence and higher absorbance, thereby allowing relatively low concentrations of dye to be used. However, under certain circumstances researchers may prefer to conduct high-throughput experiments with ratiometric dyes, particularly when issues of dye leakage, photobleaching, or signal-to-noise ratio become a concern.

  8. A simple levulinate-based ratiometric fluorescent probe for sulfite with a large emission shift.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caiyun; Wu, Huifang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    A simple 4-hydroxynaphthalimide-derived colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe (1) containing a receptor of levulinate moiety was designed and synthesized to monitor sulfite. Probe 1 could quantificationally detect sulfite by a ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy method with high selectivity and sensitivity. Specially, probe 1 exhibited a 100 nm red-shifted absorption spectrum along with the color changes from colorless to yellow, and 103 nm red-shifted emission spectra upon the addition of sulfite. Thus, 1 can serve as a "naked-eye" probe for sulfite. Further, the recognition mechanism of probe 1 for sulfite was confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Also, the preliminary practical application demonstrated that our proposed probe provided a promising method for the determination of sulfite. PMID:24813958

  9. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Bimodal Ratiometric Probes for pH Sensing of Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Ming; Zhu, Li-Na; Feng, Xi-Zeng; Kong, De-Ming

    2015-06-01

    pH measurement is widely used in many fields. Ratiometric pH sensing is an important way to improve the detection accuracy. Herein, five water-soluble cationic porphyrin derivatives were synthesized and their optical property changes with pH value were investigated. Their pH-dependent assembly/disassembly behaviors caused significant changes in both absorption and fluorescence spectra, thus making them promising bimodal ratiometric probes for both colorimetric and fluorescent pH sensing. Different substituent identity and position confer these probes with different sensitive pH-sensing ranges, and the substituent position gives a larger effect. By selecting different porphyrins, different signal intensity ratios and different fluorescence excitation wavelengths, sensitive pH sensing can be achieved in the range of 2.1-8.0. Having demonstrated the excellent reversibility, good accuracy and low cytotoxicity of the probes, they were successfully applied in pH sensing inside living cells.

  10. An effective colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe based FRET with a large Stokes shift for bisulfite

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Li; Wang, Zhao-Yang; Dai, Xi; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Bisulfite plays crucial roles in diverse physiological processes. Therefore, the efficient detection of bisulfite is very important. In this study, we report a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe (CPT) with a large Stokes shift (162 nm) for bisulfite (HSO3−) based FRET mechanism. The probe can quantitatively detect HSO3− with low detection limit (45 nM) and high specificity over other common anions and biothiols. A nucleophilic addition reaction was proposed for the sensing mechanism, which was confirmed by HRMS spectra. The test strips of the probe were made and used easily. Moreover, probe CPT was used to ratiometric fluorescent imaging of exogenous and endogenous HSO3− in living cells. PMID:27137791

  11. Ratiometric and near-infrared molecular probes for the detection and imaging of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Carol, Priya; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2007-03-01

    The detection and imaging of Zn2+ in biological samples are of paramount interest owing to the role of this cation in physiological functions. This is possible only with molecular probes that specifically bind to Zn2+ and result in changes in emission properties. A "turn-on" emission or shift in the emission color upon binding to Zn2+ should be ideal for in vivo imaging. In this context, ratiometric and near-IR probes are of particular interest. Therefore, in the area of chemosensors or molecular probes, the design of fluorophores that allow ratiometric sensing or imaging in the near-IR region is attracting the attention of chemists. The purpose of this Focus Review is to highlight recent developments in this area and stress the importance of further research for future applications.

  12. Ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on inhibition of resonance for detection of cadmium in aqueous solution and living cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lin; Li, Guoping; Liu, Qing; Wang, Huanhuan; Liu, Chun; Ding, Xunlei; He, Shenggui; Jiang, Hua

    2011-04-18

    Although cadmium has been recognized as a highly toxic heavy metal and poses many detrimental effects on human health, the Cd(2+)-uptake and nosogenesis mechanisms are still insufficiently understood, mainly because of the lack of facile analytical methods for monitoring changes in the environmental and intracellular Cd(2+) concentrations with high spatial and temporal reliability. To this end, we present the design, synthesis, and photophysical properties of a cadmium sensor, DQCd1 based on the fluorophore 4-isobutoxy-6-(dimethylamino)-8-methoxyquinaldine (model compound 1). Preliminary investigations indicate that 1 could be protonated under neutral media and yield a resonance process over the quinoline fluorophore. Upon excitation at 405 nm, 1 shows a strong fluorescence emission at 554 nm with a quantum yield of 0.17. Similarly, DQCd1 bears properties comparable to its precursor. It exhibits fluorescence emission at 558 nm (Φ(f) = 0.15) originating from the monocationic species under physiological conditions. Coordination with Cd(2+) causes quenching of the emission at 558 nm and simultaneously yields a significant hypsochromic shift of the emission maximum to 495 nm (Φ(f) = 0.11) due to inhibition of the resonance process. Thus, a single-excitation, dual-emission ratiometric measurement with a large blue shift in emission (Δλ = 63 nm) and remarkable changes in the ratio (F(495 nm)/F(558 nm)) of the emission intensity (R/R(0) up to 15-fold) is established. Moreover, the sensor DQCd1 exhibits very high sensitivity for Cd(2+) (K(d) = 41 pM) and excellent selectivity response for Cd(2+) over other heavy- and transition-metal ions and Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) at the millimolar level. Therefore, DQCd1 can act as a ratiometric fluorescent sensor for Cd(2+) through inhibition of the resonance process. Confocal microscopy and cytotoxicity experiments indicate that DQCd1 is cell-permeable and noncytotoxic under our experimental conditions. It can indeed

  13. A Ratiometric Luminescent Thermometer Co-doped with Lanthanide and Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Hou, Zhaohui; Ha, Denghui; Li, Huanrong

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a sensitive ratiometric and colorimetric luminescent thermometer with a wide operating-temperature range, from cryogenic temperatures up to high temperatures, through the combination of lanthanide and transition metal complexes. Benefiting from the transition metal complex as a self-reference, the lanthanide content in the mixed-coordination complex, Eu0.05(Mebip-mim bromine)0.15Zn0.95(Mebip-mim bromine)1.9, was lowered to 5%.

  14. Stimulus and network dynamics collide in a ratiometric model of the antennal lobe macroglomerular complex.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kwok Ying; Capurro, Alberto; Karout, Salah; Pearce, Timothy Charles

    2012-01-01

    Time is considered to be an important encoding dimension in olfaction, as neural populations generate odour-specific spatiotemporal responses to constant stimuli. However, during pheromone mediated anemotactic search insects must discriminate specific ratios of blend components from rapidly time varying input. The dynamics intrinsic to olfactory processing and those of naturalistic stimuli can therefore potentially collide, thereby confounding ratiometric information. In this paper we use a computational model of the macroglomerular complex of the insect antennal lobe to study the impact on ratiometric information of this potential collision between network and stimulus dynamics. We show that the model exhibits two different dynamical regimes depending upon the connectivity pattern between inhibitory interneurons (that we refer to as fixed point attractor and limit cycle attractor), which both generate ratio-specific trajectories in the projection neuron output population that are reminiscent of temporal patterning and periodic hyperpolarisation observed in olfactory antennal lobe neurons. We compare the performance of the two corresponding population codes for reporting ratiometric blend information to higher centres of the insect brain. Our key finding is that whilst the dynamically rich limit cycle attractor spatiotemporal code is faster and more efficient in transmitting blend information under certain conditions it is also more prone to interference between network and stimulus dynamics, thus degrading ratiometric information under naturalistic input conditions. Our results suggest that rich intrinsically generated network dynamics can provide a powerful means of encoding multidimensional stimuli with high accuracy and efficiency, but only when isolated from stimulus dynamics. This interference between temporal dynamics of the stimulus and temporal patterns of neural activity constitutes a real challenge that must be successfully solved by the nervous system

  15. A simple ratiometric and colorimetric chemosensor for the selective detection of fluoride in DMSO buffered solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hu; Shu, Qinghai; Jin, Shaohua; Li, Bingjun; Zhu, Jiaping; Li, Lijie; Chen, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    A derivative of squaramide (cyclobuta[b]quinoxaline-1, 2(3H, 8H)-dione) has been synthesized for the ratiometric and colorimetric sensing of F- in aqueous solution in competitive fashion. With F-, probe 1 showed a highly selective naked-eye detectable color change along with a characteristic UV-Vis absorbance over other tested ions, which probably originates from the deprotonation occurred between 1 and F-, as proved by the 1H NMR titration experiments and DFT calculations.

  16. A Highly Selective Ratiometric Two-Photon Fluorescent Probe for Human Cytochrome P450 1A.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zi-Ru; Ge, Guang-Bo; Feng, Lei; Ning, Jing; Hu, Liang-Hai; Jin, Qiang; Wang, Dan-Dan; Lv, Xia; Dou, Tong-Yi; Cui, Jing-Nan; Yang, Ling

    2015-11-18

    Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), one of the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans, plays a crucial role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogenic compounds to their ultimate carcinogens. Herein, we reported the development of a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe NCMN that allowed for selective and sensitive detection of CYP1A for the first time. The probe was designed on the basis of substrate preference of CYP1A and its high capacity for O-dealkylation, while 1,8-naphthalimide was selected as fluorophore because of its two-photon absorption properties. To achieve a highly selective probe for CYP1A, a series of 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and used to explore the potential structure-selectivity relationship, by using a panel of human CYP isoforms for selectivity screening. After screening and optimization, NCMN displayed the best combination of selectivity, sensitivity and ratiometric fluorescence response following CYP1A-catalyzed O-demetylation. Furthermore, the probe can be used to real-time monitor the enzyme activity of CYP1A in complex biological systems, and it has the potential for rapid screening of CYP1A modulators using tissue preparation as enzyme sources. NCMN has also been successfully used for two-photon imaging of intracellular CYP1A in living cells and tissues, and showed high ratiometric imaging resolution and deep-tissue imaging depth. In summary, a two-photon excited ratiometric fluorescent probe NCMN has been developed and well-characterized for sensitive and selective detection of CYP1A, which holds great promise for bioimaging of endogenous CYP1A in living cells and for further investigation on CYP1A associated biological functions in complex biological systems.

  17. Stimulus and Network Dynamics Collide in a Ratiometric Model of the Antennal Lobe Macroglomerular Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Kwok Ying; Capurro, Alberto; Karout, Salah; Pearce, Timothy Charles

    2012-01-01

    Time is considered to be an important encoding dimension in olfaction, as neural populations generate odour-specific spatiotemporal responses to constant stimuli. However, during pheromone mediated anemotactic search insects must discriminate specific ratios of blend components from rapidly time varying input. The dynamics intrinsic to olfactory processing and those of naturalistic stimuli can therefore potentially collide, thereby confounding ratiometric information. In this paper we use a computational model of the macroglomerular complex of the insect antennal lobe to study the impact on ratiometric information of this potential collision between network and stimulus dynamics. We show that the model exhibits two different dynamical regimes depending upon the connectivity pattern between inhibitory interneurons (that we refer to as fixed point attractor and limit cycle attractor), which both generate ratio-specific trajectories in the projection neuron output population that are reminiscent of temporal patterning and periodic hyperpolarisation observed in olfactory antennal lobe neurons. We compare the performance of the two corresponding population codes for reporting ratiometric blend information to higher centres of the insect brain. Our key finding is that whilst the dynamically rich limit cycle attractor spatiotemporal code is faster and more efficient in transmitting blend information under certain conditions it is also more prone to interference between network and stimulus dynamics, thus degrading ratiometric information under naturalistic input conditions. Our results suggest that rich intrinsically generated network dynamics can provide a powerful means of encoding multidimensional stimuli with high accuracy and efficiency, but only when isolated from stimulus dynamics. This interference between temporal dynamics of the stimulus and temporal patterns of neural activity constitutes a real challenge that must be successfully solved by the nervous system

  18. Energy transfer cassettes based on organic fluorophores: construction and applications in ratiometric sensing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiangli; Hu, Mingming; Zhan, Peng; Peng, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial review presents some recent developments in the construction and applications of cassettes based on resonance energy transfer between fluorescent dyes in the visible and infrared region. We focused on the contributions of different connections between the energy donor and acceptor according to the "through-space" and "through-bond" methods, and emphasised their applications in ratiometric sensing for the detection of ions and small molecules. PMID:23059554

  19. An FITC-BODIPY FRET couple: application to selective, ratiometric detection and bioimaging of cysteine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong Hee; Kim, Dokyoung; Akisawa, Takuya; Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2015-04-01

    A novel FRET couple of fluorescein is disclosed, and it was readily constructed by conjugating an amino-BODIPY dye, a new FRET donor, with fluorescein isocyanate. Its potential was demonstrated by a fluorescence sensing system for cysteine, which was prepared by introducing acryloyl groups to the fluorescein moiety. The FRET probe exhibited promising ratiometric response to cysteine with high selectivity and sensitivity in a buffer solution containing acetonitrile at a physiological pH of 7.4, but showed slow reactivity. This slow response was solved by addition of a surfactant, thus allowing ratiometric imaging and determination of the endogenous level of cysteine in cells in HEPES buffer, by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Imaging experiments toward various cells suggested that such aryl acrylate type probes are vulnerable to the ubiquitous esterase activity. For the selected C6 cell line, in which the esterase activity was minimal, the ratiometric quantification of cysteine level was demonstrated. The FRET probe was also applied to determine the level of cysteine in human blood plasma.

  20. Ratiometric fluorescence imaging of cellular polarity: decrease in mitochondrial polarity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Na; Fan, Jiangli; Xu, Feng; Peng, Xiaojun; Mu, Huiying; Wang, Jingyun; Xiong, Xiaoqing

    2015-02-16

    Mitochondrial polarity strongly influences the intracellular transportation of proteins and interactions between biomacromolecules. The first fluorescent probe capable of the ratiometric imaging of mitochondrial polarity is reported. The probe, termed BOB, has two absorption maxima (λabs = 426 and 561 nm) and two emission maxima--a strong green emission (λem = 467 nm) and a weak red emission (642 nm in methanol)--when excited at 405 nm. However, only the green emission is markedly sensitive to polarity changes, thus providing a ratiometric fluorescence response with a good linear relationship in both extensive and narrow ranges of solution polarity. BOB possesses high specificity to mitochondria (Rr =0.96) that is independent of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial polarity in cancer cells was found to be lower than that of normal cells by ratiometric fluorescence imaging with BOB. The difference in mitochondrial polarity might be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells.

  1. Protein-gold nanoclusters for identification of amino acids by metal ions modulated ratiometric fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Mei, Qingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Zhongping

    2012-04-01

    Here we report that the dual fluorescence emissions from protein-gold (Au) nanoclusters can greatly be modulated by metal ions and the resultant fluorescence ratiometric responses provide a novel sensory method for the identification of amino acids. The protein-gold (Au) nanoclusters were simply synthesized by the reduction of chloroauric acid with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which exhibit dual emissions: the blue at 425 nm from the oxides of BSA, and the red at 635 nm from Au nanoclusters. It has been demonstrated that different metal ions react with BSA-Au nanoclusters and thus greatly affect the two emissions in different ways by fluorescence enhancement or quenching. Interestingly, the addition of amino acids leads to fluorescence ratiometric changes through the interactions with the bound metal ions. When BSA-Au nanocluster probes modulated by four different metal ions were used together to construct a sensor array, different amino acids were clearly discriminated by the distinctive patterns of four ratiometric fluorescence responses. Results and methods reported here provide a unique strategy for the determination of amino acids.

  2. Ratiometric Tension Probes for Mapping Receptor Forces and Clustering at Intermembrane Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Victor Pui-Yan; Liu, Yang; Blanchfield, Lori; Su, Hanquan; Evavold, Brian D; Salaita, Khalid

    2016-07-13

    Short-range communication between cells is required for the survival of multicellular organisms. One mechanism of chemical signaling between adjacent cells employs surface displayed ligands and receptors that only bind when two cells make physical contact. Ligand-receptor complexes that form at the cell-cell junction and physically bridge two cells likely experience mechanical forces. A fundamental challenge in this area pertains to mapping the mechanical forces experienced by ligand-receptor complexes within such a fluid intermembrane junction. Herein, we describe the development of ratiometric tension probes for direct imaging of receptor tension, clustering, and lateral transport within a model cell-cell junction. These probes employ two fluorescent reporters that quantify both the ligand density and the ligand tension and thus generate a tension signal independent of clustering. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the ratiometric tension probes to map the forces experienced by the T-cell receptor (TCR) during activation and showed the first direct evidence that the TCR-ligand complex experiences sustained pN forces within a fluid membrane junction. We envision that the ratiometric tension probes will be broadly useful for investigating mechanotransduction in juxtacrine signaling pathways.

  3. A novel, cell-permeable, fluorescent probe for ratiometric imaging of zinc ion.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Satoko; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Hirano, Tomoya; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2002-09-11

    Zn(2+) plays important roles in various biological systems; as a result, the development of tools that can visualize chelatable Zn(2+) has attracted much attention recently. We report here newly synthesized fluorescent sensors for Zn(2+), ZnAF-Rs, whose excitation maximum is shifted by Zn(2+) under physiological conditions. Thus, these sensors enable ratiometric imaging, which is a technique to reduce artifacts by minimizing the influence of extraneous factors on the fluorescence of a probe. Ratiometric measurement can provide precise data, and some probes allow quantitative detection. ZnAF-Rs are the first ratiometric fluorescent sensors for Zn(2+) that enable quantitative analysis under physiological conditions. ZnAF-Rs also possess suitable K(d) for applications, and high selectivity against other biologically relevant cations, especially Ca(2+). Using these probes, changes of intracellular Zn(2+) concentration in cultured cells were monitored successfully. We believe that these probes will be extremely useful in studies on the biological functions of Zn(2+).

  4. Development of FRET-based dual-excitation ratiometric fluorescent pH probes and their photocaged derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Lin, Weiying; Cao, Zengmei; Wang, Jiaoliang; Chen, Bin

    2012-01-23

    Dual-excitation ratiometric fluorescent probes allow the measurement of fluorescence intensities at two excitation wavelengths, which should provide a built-in correction for environmental effects. However, most of the small-molecule dual-excitation ratiometric probes that have been reported thus far have shown rather limited separation between the excitation wavelengths (20-70 nm) and/or a very small molar absorption coefficient at one of the excitation wavelengths. These shortcomings can lead to cross-excitation and thus to errors in the measurement of fluorescence intensities and ratios. Herein, we report a FRET-based molecular strategy for the construction of small-molecule dual-excitation ratiometric probes in which the donor and acceptor excitation bands exhibit large separations between the excitation wavelengths and comparable excitation intensities, which is highly desirable for determining the fluorescence intensities and signal ratios with high accuracy. Based on this strategy, we created a coumarin-rhodamine FRET platform that was then employed to develop the first class of FRET-based dual-excitation ratiometric pH probes that have two well-resolved excitation bands (excitation separations>160 nm) and comparable excitation intensities. In addition, these pH probes may be considered as in a kind of "secured ratioing mode". As a further application of these pH probes, the dual-excitation ratiometric pH probes were transformed into the first examples of photocaged dual-excitation ratiometric pH probes to improve the spatiotemporal resolution. It is expected that the modular nature of our FRET-based molecular strategy should render it applicable to other small-molecule dual-dye energy-transfer systems based on diverse fluorescent dyes for the development of a wide range of dual-excitation ratiometric probes with outstanding spectral features, including large separations between the excitation wavelengths and comparable excitation intensities.

  5. Sensitive and Selective Ratiometric Fluorescence Probes for Detection of Intracellular Endogenous Monoamine Oxidase A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Li, Lihong; Shi, Wen; Gong, Qiuyu; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2016-01-19

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is known to widely exist in most cell lines in the body, and its dysfunction (unusually high or low levels of MAO-A) is thought to be responsible for several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Thus, a sensitive and selective method for evaluating the relative MAO-A levels in different live cells is urgently needed to better understand the function of MAO-A, but to our knowledge such a method is still lacking. Herein, we rationally design two new ratiometric fluorescence probes (1 and 2) that can sensitively and selectively detect MAO-A. The probes are constructed by incorporating a recognition group of propylamine into the fluorescent skeleton of 1,8-naphthalimide, and the detection mechanism is based on amine oxidation and β-elimination to release the fluorophore (4-hydroxy-N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide), which is verified by HPLC analysis. Reaction of the probes with MAO-A produces a remarkable fluorescence change from blue to green, and the ratio of fluorescence intensity at 550 and 454 nm is directly proportional to the concentration of MAO-A in the ranges of 0.5-1.5 and 0.5-2.5 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.1 and 10 ng/mL (k = 3) for probes 1 and 2, respectively. Surprisingly, these probes show strong fluorescence responses to MAO-A but almost none to MAO-B (one of two isoforms of MAO), indicating superior ability to distinguish MAO-A from MAO-B. The high specificity of the probes for MAO-A over MAO-B is further supported by different inhibitor experiments. Moreover, probe 1 displays higher sensitivity than probe 2 and is thus investigated to image the relative MAO-A levels in different live cells, such as HeLa and NIH-3T3 cells. It is found that the concentration of endogenous MAO-A in HeLa cells is approximately 1.8 times higher than that in NIH-3T3 cells, which is validated by the result from an ELISA kit. Additionally, the proposed probes may find more uses in the specific detection of MAO-A between the two isoforms of MAO

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic-electrochemical properties of novel ratiometric Hg (II) chemosensor containing Bodipy and the N-phenylaza-15-crown-5 moiety

    PubMed Central

    Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri; Deveci, Pervin; Guler, Ersin

    2013-01-01

    The aryl-amine containing azacrown ether ring and alkyl-chloro boradiazaindacene (Bodipy) were synthesized by Schiff base condensation. The absorption and emission of a novel Schiff base derivative (based on azacrown-Bodipy ) were performed in presence of different cations such as Zn2+, Ga3+, Pb2+, Hg2+, NH4+ Ca2+, Cu2+, Na+, Ni2+, Cd2+ and Cr3+. The complexation property of the Schiff base was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) by interacting azacrown-ether group and transition metal nitrates-ammonium chloride. The electrochemical behavior of the Schiff base has also been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. All experimental results indicated that the new compound act as a selective ratiometric chemosensor for Hg2+. PMID:24496245

  7. A novel ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for imaging of Pd2 + ions in living cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liyi; Hu, Shunqin; Wang, Haifei; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2016-09-01

    Ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probes can not only eliminate interferences from environmental factors but also achieve deep-tissue imaging with improved spatial localization. To quantitatively track Pd2 + in biosystems, herein, we reported a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe, termed as Np-Pd, which based on a D-π-A-structure two-photon fluorophore of the naphthalimide derivative and deprotection of aryl propargyl ethers by palladium species. The probe Np-Pd displayed a more than 25-fold enhancement towards palladium species with high sensitivity and selectivity. Additionally, the probe Np-Pd was further used for fluorescence imaging of Pd2 + ions in living cells and tissues under two-photon excitation (820 nm), which showed large tissue-imaging depth (19.6-184.6 μm), and a high resolution for ratiometric imaging.

  8. Water-soluble colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for selective imaging of palladium species in living cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Jie; Chen, Chunyang; Tang, Xiaoliang; Shi, Jinmin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Kaiming; Li, Zhiqi; Dou, Wei; Yang, Lizi; Liu, Weisheng

    2014-12-01

    A novel water-soluble colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe was synthesized and applied to imaging palladium species under physiological conditions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing less than 1% organic cosolvent without adding any additional reagents. Based on palladium triggered terminal propargyl ethers cleavage reaction, the probe exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity for palladium species of all the typical oxidation states (0, +2, +4), with a low detection limit (25 nM, 2.7 μg/L) and an obvious color change. Furthermore, the probe was successfully used for ratiometric fluorescence imaging of palladium in living cells.

  9. Ratiometric fluorescence probe for monitoring hydroxyl radical in live cells based on gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mei; Ding, Changqin; Zhu, Anwei; Tian, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Determination of hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) with high sensitivity and accuracy in live cells is a challenge for evaluating the role that (•)OH plays in the physiological and pathological processes. In this work, a ratiometric fluorescence biosensor for (•)OH was developed, in which gold nanocluster (AuNC) protected by bovine serum albumin was employed as a reference fluorophore and the organic molecule 2-[6-(4'-hydroxy)phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl]benzoic acid (HPF) acted as both the response signal and specific recognition element for (•)OH. In the absence of (•)OH, only one emission peak at 637 nm ascribed to AuNCs was observed, because HPF was almost nonfluorescent. However, fluorescence emission at 515 nm attributed to the HPF product after reaction with (•)OH--dianionic fluorescein--gradually increased with the continuous addition of (•)OH, while the emission at 637 nm stays constant, resulting in a ratiometric determination of (•)OH. The developed fluorescent sensor exhibited high selectivity for (•)OH over other reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), metal ions, and other biological species, as well as high accuracy and sensitivity with low detection limit to ∼0.68 μM, which fulfills the requirements for detection of (•)OH in a biological system. In addition, the AuNC-based inorganic-organic probe showed long-term stability against light illumination and pH, good cell permeability, and low cytotoxicity. As a result, the present ratiometric sensor was successfully used for bioimaging and monitoring of (•)OH changes in live cells upon oxidative stress.

  10. Monitoring Kinase and Phosphatase Activities Through the Cell Cycle by Ratiometric FRET

    PubMed Central

    Hukasova, Elvira; Silva Cascales, Helena; Kumar, Shravan R.; Lindqvist, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporters1 allow the assessment of endogenous kinase and phosphatase activities in living cells. Such probes typically consist of variants of CFP and YFP, intervened by a phosphorylatable sequence and a phospho-binding domain. Upon phosphorylation, the probe changes conformation, which results in a change of the distance or orientation between CFP and YFP, leading to a change in FRET efficiency (Fig 1). Several probes have been published during the last decade, monitoring the activity balance of multiple kinases and phosphatases, including reporters of PKA2, PKB3, PKC4, PKD5, ERK6, JNK7, Cdk18, Aurora B9 and Plk19. Given the modular design, additional probes are likely to emerge in the near future10. Progression through the cell cycle is affected by stress signaling pathways 11. Notably, the cell cycle is regulated differently during unperturbed growth compared to when cells are recovering from stress12.Time-lapse imaging of cells through the cell cycle therefore requires particular caution. This becomes a problem particularly when employing ratiometric imaging, since two images with a high signal to noise ratio are required to correctly interpret the results. Ratiometric FRET imaging of cell cycle dependent changes in kinase and phosphatase activities has predominately been restricted to sub-sections of the cell cycle8,9,13,14. Here, we discuss a method to monitor FRET-based probes using ratiometric imaging throughout the human cell cycle. The method relies on equipment that is available to many researchers in life sciences and does not require expert knowledge of microscopy or image processing. PMID:22314640

  11. A cationic fluorescent polymeric thermometer for the ratiometric sensing of intracellular temperature.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Seiichi; Tsuji, Toshikazu; Ikado, Kumiko; Yoshida, Aruto; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Inada, Noriko

    2015-07-01

    We developed new cationic fluorescent polymeric thermometers containing both benzothiadiazole and BODIPY units as an environment-sensitive fluorophore and as a reference fluorophore, respectively. The temperature-dependent fluorescence spectra of the thermometers enabled us to perform highly sensitive and practical ratiometric temperature sensing inside living mammalian cells. Intracellular temperatures of non-adherent MOLT-4 (human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and adherent HEK293T (human embryonic kidney) cells could be monitored with high temperature resolutions (0.01-1.0 °C) using the new cationic fluorescent polymeric thermometer.

  12. Dual core quantum dots for highly quantitative ratiometric detection of trypsin activity in cystic fibrosis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló Serrano, Iván; Stoica, Georgiana; Matas Adams, Alba; Palomares, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. Current detection methods for cystic fibrosis diagnosis are slow, costly and suffer from false positives. The 2nanoSi proved to be a highly sensitive, fast (minutes), and single-step approach nanosensor for the screening and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range relevant for clinical applications (25-350 μg L-1). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis (CF), different human genotypes, i.e. CF homozygotic, CF heterozygotic, and unaffected, respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres. We anticipate the 2nanoSi system to be a starting point for non-invasive, easy-to-use and cost effective ratiometric fluorescent biomarkers for recessive genetic diseases like human cystic fibrosis. In a screening program in which the goal is to detect disease and also the carrier status, early diagnosis could be of great help.We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. Current detection methods for cystic fibrosis diagnosis are slow, costly and suffer from false positives. The 2nanoSi proved to be a highly sensitive, fast (minutes), and single-step approach nanosensor for the screening and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range relevant for clinical applications (25-350 μg L-1). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis (CF), different human genotypes, i.e. CF homozygotic, CF heterozygotic, and unaffected, respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres. We anticipate the 2nanoSi system to be a starting point for non-invasive, easy-to-use and cost effective ratiometric fluorescent biomarkers for

  13. Small quinolinium-based enzymatic probes via blue-to-red ratiometric fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Du, Jiajun; Liu, Huijing; Bi, Guoqiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-02-21

    A small fluorescence ratiometric probe consisting of a single dye species, N-methyl-6-hydroxyquinolinium (MHQ), and coupled enzymatic substrates, exhibits a dramatic colour change (deep blue to red) and possesses a huge response ratio (over 2000 fold) upon specific recognition of target enzymes. Such dramatic responses are attributed to the excited-state proton transfer processes of MHQ molecules in water. Here the detection of β-galactosidase and porcine pancreatic lipase is successfully demonstrated and this class of molecules has the potential to be developed as a "naked-eye" probe in vitro. PMID:26788553

  14. Terbium(III)/gold nanocluster conjugates: the development of a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe for mercury(II) and a paper-based visual sensor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-08-21

    In this work, a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe was developed for rapid, highly accurate, sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)) based on terbium(III)/gold nanocluster conjugates (Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNCs), in which bovine serum albumin capped gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) acted as the signal indicator and terbium(III) (Tb(3+)) was used as the build-in reference. Our proposed ratiometric fluorescent probe exhibited unique specificity toward Hg(2+) against other common environmentally and biologically important metal ions, and had high accuracy and sensitivity with a low detection limit of 1 nM. In addition, our proposed probe was effectively employed to detect Hg(2+) in the biological samples from the artificial Hg(2+)-infected rats. More significantly, an appealing paper-based visual sensor for Hg(2+) was designed by using filter paper embedded with Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNC conjugates, and we have further demonstrated its feasibility for facile fluorescent sensing of Hg(2+) in a visual format, in which only a handheld UV lamp is used. In the presence of Hg(2+), the paper-based visual sensor, illuminated by a handheld UV lamp, would undergo a distinct fluorescence color change from red to green, which can be readily observed with naked eyes even in trace Hg(2+) concentrations. The Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNC-derived paper-based visual sensor is cost-effective, portable, disposable and easy-to-use. This work unveiled a facile approach for accurate, sensitive and selective measuring of Hg(2+) with self-calibration.

  15. A Ratiometric Sensor Using Single Chirality Near-Infrared Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes: Application to In Vivo Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Juan P; Landry, Markita P; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Jain, Rishabh M; Wong, Min Hao; Iverson, Nicole M; Ben-Naim, Micha; Strano, Michael S

    2015-08-26

    Advances in the separation and functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by their electronic type have enabled the development of ratiometric fluorescent SWCNT sensors for the first time. Herein, single chirality SWCNT are independently functionalized to recognize either nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), or no analyte (remaining invariant) to create optical sensor responses from the ratio of distinct emission peaks. This ratiometric approach provides a measure of analyte concentration, invariant to the absolute intensity emitted from the sensors and hence, more stable to external noise and detection geometry. Two distinct ratiometric sensors are demonstrated: one version for H(2)O(2), the other for NO, each using 7,6 emission, and each containing an invariant 6,5 emission wavelength. To functionalize these sensors from SWCNT isolated from the gel separation technique, a method for rapid and efficient coating exchange of single chirality sodium dodecyl sulfate-SWCNT is introduced. As a proof of concept, spatial and temporal patterns of the ratio sensor response to H(2)O(2) and, separately, NO, are monitored in leaves of living plants in real time. This ratiometric optical sensing platform can enable the detection of trace analytes in complex environments such as strongly scattering media and biological tissues. PMID:25981520

  16. A ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe based on terbium functionalized carbon dots for highly sensitive detection of an anthrax biomarker.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Xie, Yujie; Kirillov, Alexander M; Liu, Liangliang; Yu, Minghui; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2015-03-25

    A ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe based on terbium functionalized carbon dots (CDs) was designed to detect dipicolinic acid (DPA) as an anthrax biomarker with high selectivity and sensitivity. CDs were generated by one-step synthesis using an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid precursor, and served as a scaffold for coordination with Tb(3+) and a fluorescence reference.

  17. Molecular engineering of a TBET-based two-photon fluorescent probe for ratiometric imaging of living cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liyi; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Qianqian; Lv, Yifan; Mao, Guojiang; Luo, Aili; Wu, Yongxiang; Wu, Yuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-07-16

    In contrast to one-photon microscopy, two-photon probe-based fluorescent imaging can provide improved three-dimensional spatial localization and increased imaging depth. Consequently, it has become one of the most attractive techniques for studying biological events in living cells and tissues. However, the quantitation of these probes is primarily based on single-emission intensity change, which tends to be affected by a variety of environmental factors. Ratiometric probes, on the other hand, can eliminate these interferences by the built-in correction of the dual emission bands, resulting in a more favorable system for imaging living cells and tissues. Herein, for the first time, we adopted a through-bond energy transfer (TBET) strategy to design and synthesize a small molecular ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for imaging living cells and tissues in real time. Specifically, a two-photon fluorophore (D-π-A-structured naphthalene derivative) and a rhodamine B fluorophore are directly connected by electronically conjugated bond to form a TBET probe, or Np-Rh, which shows a target-modulated ratiometric two-photon fluorescence response with highly efficient energy transfer (93.7%) and two well-resolved emission peaks separated by 100 nm. This novel probe was then applied for two-photon imaging of living cells and tissues and showed high ratiometric imaging resolution and deep-tissue imaging depth of 180 μm, thus demonstrating its practical application in biological systems.

  18. Rapid and ratiometric detection of hypochlorite with real application in tap water: molecules to low cost devices (TLC sticks).

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Manna, Abhishek; Paul, Sima; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-12-25

    We have designed a chemodosimeter DPNO (weak fluorescence) which can be oxidized to HPNO (strong blue fluorescence) by OCl(-) with high selectivity and sensitivity in a ratiometric approach with a noticeably lower detection limit. The sensor could be useful for the detection of hypochlorites in tap water. PMID:24185489

  19. Label-Free Carbon-Dots-Based Ratiometric Fluorescence pH Nanoprobes for Intracellular pH Sensing.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Jingfang; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Liu, Jinquan; Tang, Jinlu; Yang, Xue; Huang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Measuring pH in living cells is of great importance for better understanding cellular functions as well as providing pivotal assistance for early diagnosis of diseases. In this work, we report the first use of a novel kind of label-free carbon dots for intracellular ratiometric fluorescence pH sensing. By simple one-pot hydrothermal treatment of citric acid and basic fuchsin, the carbon dots showing dual emission bands at 475 and 545 nm under single-wavelength excitation were synthesized. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence intensities of the as-synthesized carbon dots at the two emissions are pH-sensitive simultaneously. The intensity ratio (I475 nm/I545 nm) is linear against pH values from 5.2 to 8.8 in buffer solution, affording the capability as ratiometric probes for intracellular pH sensing. It also displays that the carbon dots show excellent reversibility and photostability in pH measurements. With this nanoprobe, quantitative fluorescence imaging using the ratio of two emissions (I475 nm/I545 nm) for the detection of intracellular pH were successfully applied in HeLa cells. In contrast to most of the reported nanomaterials-based ratiometric pH sensors which rely on the attachment of additional dyes, these carbon-dots-based ratiometric probes are low in toxicity, easy to synthesize, and free from labels. PMID:27334762

  20. Polymeric Nanoparticles with Precise Ratiometric Control over Drug Loading for Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Santosh; Hu, Che-Ming Jack; Zhang, Liangfang

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel approach for nanoparticle-based combination chemotherapy by concurrently incorporating two different types of drugs into a single polymeric nanoparticle with ratiometric control over the loading of the two drugs. By adapting metal alkoxide chemistry, we synthesize highly hydrophobic drug-poly-l-lactide (drug-PLA) conjugates, of which the polymer has the same chain length while the drug may differ. These drug-polymer conjugates are then encapsulated into lipid-coated polymeric nanoparticles through a single-step nanoprecipication method. Using doxorubicin (DOX) and camptothecin (CPT) as two model chemotherapy drugs, various ratios of DOX-PLA and CPT-PLA conjugates are loaded into the nanoparticles with over 90% loading efficiency. The resulting nanoparticles are uniform in size, size distribution and surface charge. The loading yield of DOX and CPT in the particles can be precisely controlled by simply adjusting the DOX-PLA:CPT-PLA molar ratio. Cellular cytotoxicity results show that the dual-drug loaded nanoparticles are superior to the corresponding cocktail mixtures of single-drug loaded nanoparticles. This dual-drug delivery approach offers a solution to the long-standing challenge in ratiometric control over the loading of different types of drugs onto the same drug delivery vehicle. We expect that this approach can be exploited for many types of chemotherapeutic agents containing hydroxyl groups and thus enable co-delivery of various drug combinations for combinatorial treatments of diseases. PMID:21696189

  1. A Two-Photon Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe for Imaging Carboxylesterase 2 in Living Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiang; Feng, Lei; Wang, Dan-Dan; Dai, Zi-Ru; Wang, Ping; Zou, Li-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Jia-Yue; Yu, Yang; Ge, Guang-Bo; Cui, Jing-Nan; Yang, Ling

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe NCEN has been designed and developed for highly selective and sensitive sensing of human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2) based on the catalytic properties and substrate preference of hCE2. Upon addition of hCE2, the probe could be readily hydrolyzed to release 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide (NAH), which brings remarkable red-shift in fluorescence (90 nm) spectrum. The newly developed probe exhibits good specificity, ultrahigh sensitivity, and has been successfully applied to determine the real activities of hCE2 in complex biological samples such as cell and tissue preparations. NCEN has also been used for two-photon imaging of intracellular hCE2 in living cells as well as in deep-tissues for the first time, and the results showed that the probe exhibited high ratiometric imaging resolution and deep-tissue imaging depth. All these findings suggested that this probe holds great promise for applications in bioimaging of endogenous hCE2 in living cells and in exploring the biological functions of hCE2 in complex biological systems.

  2. Ratiometric fluorescence detection of tyrosinase activity and dopamine using thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ye; Jia, Xiaofang; Li, Jing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a sensitive and selective ratiometric fluorescence sensing platform was built for the detection of tyrosinase (TYR) activity and dopamine (DA) using glutathione (GSH) protected gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) as probes. Upon excitation at 350 nm, Au NCs displayed an intense red emission, which could be effectively quenched by quinones. TYR, a typical polyphenol oxidase, can catalyze the oxidization of DA to o-quinone and therefore quenched the fluorescence of Au NCs. Moreover, the reaction of TYR and DA gave rise to an emission band at 400 nm, which increased in a TYR/DA-concentration-dependent manner. The ratiometric signal variations were utilized for facile, sensitive, and selective detection of TYR activity and DA. A linear range was obtained from 0.006-3.6 unit mL(-1) of TYR activity, while the linear range for detection of DA was 1.0 nM to 1.0 mM. Additionally, it constructed a useful platform for TYR inhibitor screening in biomedical research. PMID:25846058

  3. Ratiometric electrochemical proximity assay for sensitive one-step protein detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kewei; Wu, Jie; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-03-01

    This work proposes the concept of ratiometric electrochemical proximity assay (REPA), which can be used for one-step, highly sensitive and selective detection of protein. The assay strategy was achieved on a sensing interface that was formed by hybridization of methylene blue (MB)-labeled antibody-DNA probe (MB-DNA1-Ab1) with ferrocene (Fc)-labeled DNA capture probe (Fc-P) modified gold electrode. On the interface the target protein could trigger the formation of immunocomplex between MB-DNA1-Ab1 and detection antibody-DNA probe (Ab2-DNA2) and subsequently the proximity hybridization of DNA1-DNA2, which led to the departure of MB-DNA1-Ab1 from the interface. The remained Fc-P could form a hairpin structure to take Fc group to electrode surface. Therefore, the recognition of target protein to Ab1 and Ab2 resulted in both the ``signal-off'' of MB and the ``signal-on'' of Fc for dual-signal electrochemical ratiometric readout. The proposed REPA could be carried out in one-step with 40-min duration and showed a wide detection range from 0.05 to 100 ng/mL with pg/mL limit of detection, displaying great potential for convenient point-of-care testing and commercial application.

  4. Near-infrared-light mediated ratiometric luminescent sensor for multimode visualized assays of explosives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Wei, Ting; Wang, Jie; Liu, Zi-En; Li, Xinyang; Zhang, Binhao; Li, Zhihao; Li, Lele; Yuan, Quan

    2014-10-21

    The development of a portable and easy-to-use device for the detection of explosives with high sensitivity and selectivity is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this study, we demonstrate miniaturized devices depending on the upconversion ratiometric luminescent probe for point-of-care (POC) assay of explosives with the naked-eye. When the PEI-coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) selectively bonded to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives by the formation of Meisenheimer complex, the formed of UCNP-Meisenheimer complexes show turned visible multicolor upconversion luminescence (UCL) on account of TNT-modulating Förster resonance energy transfer process under near-infrared excitation. With UCL emission at 808 nm as internal standard and ratiometric UCL at 477 nm to that at 808 nm (I477/I808) as output signal, the probe can simultaneously meet the accuracy for TNT explosives quantitative analysis. In addition, this easy-to-use visual technique provides a powerful tool for convenient POC assay of rapid explosives identification.

  5. Low-Cost Optical Lifetime Assisted Ratiometric Glutamine Sensor Based on Glutamine Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hung; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2008-01-01

    Here we report a reagentless fluorescence sensing technique for glutamine in the submicromolar range based on the glutamine binding protein (QBP). The S179C mutant is labeled with the short-lived acrylodan (lifetime<5ns) and the long-lived tris(dibenzoylmethane) mono(5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)europium(III) (lifetime>300µs) at the –SH and the N-terminal positions, respectively. In the presence of glutamine the fluorescence of acrylodan is quenched, while the fluorescence of europium complex remains constant. In this report we describe an innovative technique, the so called lifetime assisted ratiometric sensing to discriminate the two fluorescence signals using minimal optics and power requirements. This method exploits the large difference between the fluorescence lifetimes of the two fluorophores to isolate the individual fluorescence from each other by alternating the modulation frequency of the excitation light between 300 Hz and 10 kHz. The result is a ratiometric optical method that does not require expensive and highly attenuating band pass filters for each of the dyes, but only one long pass filter for both. Thus, the signal to noise ratio is enhanced, and at the same time, the optical setup is simplified. The end product is a simple sensing device suitable for low-cost applications such as point-of-care diagnostics or in-the-field analysis. PMID:18786501

  6. Quantum dot-DNA aptamer conjugates coupled with capillary electrophoresis: A universal strategy for ratiometric detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tingting; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the highly sensitivity and stable-fluorescence of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with broad-specificity DNA aptamers, a novel ratiometric detection strategy was proposed for the sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). The as-prepared QDs were first conjugated with the amino-modified oligonucleotide (AMO) by amidation reaction, which is partial complementary to the DNA aptamer of organophosphorus pesticides. Then QD-labeled AMO (QD-AMO) was incubated with the DNA aptamer to form QD-AMO-aptamer duplex. When the target organophosphorus pesticides were added, they could specifically bind the DNA aptamer, leading to the cleavage of QD-AMO-aptamer duplex, accompany with the release of QD-AMO. As a result, the ratio of peak height between QD-AMO and QD-AMO-aptamer duplex changed in the detection process of CE-LIF. This strategy was subsequently applied for the detection of phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate with the detection limits of 0.20, 0.10, 0.17, and 0.23μM, respectively. This is the first report about using QDs as the signal indicators for organophosphorus pesticides detection based on broad-specificity DNA aptamers by CE-LIF, thus contributing to extend the scope of application of QDs in different fields. The proposed method has great potential to be a universal strategy for rapid detection of aptamer-specific small molecule targets by simply changing the types of aptamer sequences.

  7. Quantum dot-DNA aptamer conjugates coupled with capillary electrophoresis: A universal strategy for ratiometric detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tingting; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the highly sensitivity and stable-fluorescence of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with broad-specificity DNA aptamers, a novel ratiometric detection strategy was proposed for the sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). The as-prepared QDs were first conjugated with the amino-modified oligonucleotide (AMO) by amidation reaction, which is partial complementary to the DNA aptamer of organophosphorus pesticides. Then QD-labeled AMO (QD-AMO) was incubated with the DNA aptamer to form QD-AMO-aptamer duplex. When the target organophosphorus pesticides were added, they could specifically bind the DNA aptamer, leading to the cleavage of QD-AMO-aptamer duplex, accompany with the release of QD-AMO. As a result, the ratio of peak height between QD-AMO and QD-AMO-aptamer duplex changed in the detection process of CE-LIF. This strategy was subsequently applied for the detection of phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate with the detection limits of 0.20, 0.10, 0.17, and 0.23μM, respectively. This is the first report about using QDs as the signal indicators for organophosphorus pesticides detection based on broad-specificity DNA aptamers by CE-LIF, thus contributing to extend the scope of application of QDs in different fields. The proposed method has great potential to be a universal strategy for rapid detection of aptamer-specific small molecule targets by simply changing the types of aptamer sequences. PMID:26695234

  8. A cyclization-induced emission enhancement (CIEE)-based ratiometric fluorogenic and chromogenic probe for the facile detection of a nerve agent simulant DCP.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Ajit Kumar; Maiti, Kalipada; Manna, Saikat Kumar; Maji, Rajkishor; Mondal, Sanchita; Das Mukhopadhyay, Chitrangada; Sahoo, Prithidipa; Mandal, Debasish

    2015-06-14

    The first ratiometric fluorescent probe for the detection of a nerve agent simulant was developed based on tandem phosphorylation and intramolecular cyclization, by which high sensitivity as well as large emission shift could be achieved.

  9. A Fiber Optic Ammonia Sensor Using a Universal pH Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Matías, Ignacio R.; Arregui, Francisco. J.; Domínguez Cruz, Rene F.; May-Arrioja, Daniel. A.

    2014-01-01

    A universal pH indicator is used to fabricate a fiber optic ammonia sensor. The advantage of this pH indicator is that it exhibits sensitivity to ammonia over a broad wavelength range. This provides a differential response, with a valley around 500 nm and a peak around 650 nm, which allows us to perform ratiometric measurements. The ratiometric measurements provide not only an enhanced signal, but can also eliminate any external disturbance due to humidity or temperature fluctuations. In addition, the indicator is embedded in a hydrophobic and gas permeable polyurethane film named Tecoflex®. The film provides additional advantages to the sensor, such as operation in dry environments, efficient transport of the element to be measured to the sensitive area of the sensor, and prevent leakage or detachment of the indicator. The combination of the universal pH indicator and Tecoflex® film provides a reliable and robust fiber optic ammonia sensor. PMID:24583969

  10. Novel pH-sensitive probes with a ratiometric detection for intracellular pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipuy, Martin; Billon, Cyrielle; Micouin, Guillaume; Samarut, Jacques; Andraud, Chantal; Bretonnière, Yann

    2014-08-01

    The development of new pH-sensitive fluorescent probes based on a push-pull architecture is presented with a 2- dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofurane as strong electron acceptor group. With a small structural change, it is possible to obtain a large range of phenolic pKa from 4.8 to 8.6 with some close to neutrality, underlining the role of the electron density modulation on the acidic properties. Remarkable changes in the optical properties (both absorption and fluorescence) were observed as a function of the pH. Ratiometric imaging of intracellular pH was carried out with the most promising probes and highlighted the possibility to distinguish near-neutral minor pH fluctuations in cells.

  11. Ratiometric Biosensor for Aggregation-Induced Emission-Guided Precise Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Kai; Wang, Shi-Bo; Lei, Qi; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-10-27

    Photodynamic therapy faces the barrier of choosing the appropriate irradiation region and time. In this paper, a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) responsive ratiometric biosensor was designed and synthesized for aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-guided precise photodynamic therapy. It was found that the biosensor presented the MMP-2 responsive AIE behavior. Most importantly, it could accurately differentiate the tumor cells from the healthy cells by the fluorescence ratio between freed tetraphenylethylene and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, internal reference). In vivo study demonstrated that the biosensor could preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue with a relative long blood retention time. Note that the intrinsic fluorescence of PpIX and MMP-2-triggered AIE fluorescence provided a real-time feedback which guided precise photodynamic therapy in vivo efficiently. This strategy demonstrated here opens a window in the precise medicine, especially for phototherapy.

  12. A colorimetric and absorption ratiometric anion sensor based on indole & hydrazide binding units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Linbo; Yan, Boren; Pan, Dingwu; Tan, Zan; Bao, Xiaoping

    2015-09-01

    A colorimetric and absorption ratiometric anion sensor (L) based on indole and hydrazide binding units was designed and synthesized, and its recognition & sensing properties towards different anions were studied by naked-eye observations, UV-vis and 1H NMR titration spectra. Sensor L could selectively recognize biologically important F-, AcO- and H2PO4- in DMSO over other anions, along with a significant change in its color and absorption spectrum, resulting from the formation of corresponding 1:2 (L/F-) and 1:1 (L/AcO- and L/H2PO4-) complexes. The 1H NMR titration experiments proved that sensor L experienced deprotonation of NH fragment and produced [HF2]- species, whereas a stable H-bonding complex was formed in the presence of AcO- and H2PO4-.

  13. Ratiometric Chemical Blend Processing with a Neuromorphic Model of the Insect Macroglomerular Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karout, Salah; Rácz, Zoltán; Capurro, Alberto; Cole, Marina; Gardner, Julian W.; Pearce, Tim C.

    2011-09-01

    We present a dynamical spiking neuromorphic model constrained by the known biology of the insect antennal lobe (AL) macroglomerular complex (MGC) implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). When driven by polymer coated quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) chemosensors at its input, the dynamical trajectories of the model's projection neuron (PN) output population activity encode the concentration ratios of binary odour mixtures. We demonstrate that it is possible to recover blend ratio information from the early transient phase of QCM responses that would otherwise be difficult to separate directly from chemosensor data using classical approaches. Our results demonstrate the potential of insect-based neuromorphic signal processing methods for the rapid and efficient classification of ratiometrically encoded chemical blends.

  14. Synthesis of an azido-tagged low affinity ratiometric calcium sensor

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Stuart T.; Cairns, Andrew G.; Olson, Marnie; Chalmers, Susan; Sandison, Mairi; Mullen, William; McCarron, John G.; Hartley, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in high localised concentrations of Ca2+ ions are fundamental to cell signalling. The synthesis of a dual excitation, ratiometric calcium ion sensor with a Kd of 90 μM, is described. It is tagged with an azido group for bioconjugation, and absorbs in the blue/green and emits in the red region of the visible spectrum with a large Stokes shift. The binding modulating nitro group is introduced to the BAPTA core prior to construction of a benzofuran-2-yl carboxaldehyde by an allylation–oxidation–cyclisation sequence, which is followed by condensation with an azido-tagged thiohydantoin. The thiohydantoin unit has to be protected with an acetoxymethyl (AM) caging group to allow CuAAC click reaction and incorporation of the KDEL peptide endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence. PMID:26709317

  15. A colorimetric and absorption ratiometric anion sensor based on indole & hydrazide binding units.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linbo; Yan, Boren; Pan, Dingwu; Tan, Zan; Bao, Xiaoping

    2015-09-01

    A colorimetric and absorption ratiometric anion sensor (L) based on indole and hydrazide binding units was designed and synthesized, and its recognition & sensing properties towards different anions were studied by naked-eye observations, UV-vis and (1)H NMR titration spectra. Sensor L could selectively recognize biologically important F(-), AcO(-) and H2PO4(-) in DMSO over other anions, along with a significant change in its color and absorption spectrum, resulting from the formation of corresponding 1:2 (L/F(-)) and 1:1 (L/AcO(-) and L/H2PO4(-)) complexes. The (1)H NMR titration experiments proved that sensor L experienced deprotonation of NH fragment and produced [HF2](-) species, whereas a stable H-bonding complex was formed in the presence of AcO(-) and H2PO4(-). PMID:25875028

  16. Proteomic mapping of the human mitochondrial intermembrane space in live cells via ratiometric APEX tagging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Victoria; Zou, Peng; Rhee, Hyun-Woo; Udeshi, Namrata D.; Cracan, Valentin; Svinkina, Tanya; Carr, Steven A.; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Ting, Alice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Obtaining complete protein inventories for subcellular regions is a challenge that often limits our understanding of cellular function, especially for regions that are impossible to purify and are therefore inaccessible to traditional proteomic analysis. We recently developed a method to map proteomes in living cells with an engineered peroxidase (APEX) that bypasses the need for organellar purification when applied to membrane-bound compartments; however, it lacked specificity when applied to unbounded regions that allow APEX-generated radicals to escape. Here, we combine APEX technology with a SILAC-based ratiometric tagging strategy to substantially reduce unwanted background and achieve nanometer spatial resolution. This is applied to map the proteome of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS), which can freely exchange small molecules with the cytosol. Our IMS proteome of 127 proteins has >94% specificity and includes nine novel mitochondrial proteins. This approach will enable scientists to map proteomes of cellular regions that were previously inaccessible. PMID:25002142

  17. Molecular beacon mediated circular strand displacement strategy for constructing a ratiometric electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid sensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fenglei; Du, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Daoquan; Du, Yan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ratiometric electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) had been developed based on signal-on and signal-off strategy. The target DNA hybridized with the loop portion of ferrocene (Fc) labeled hairpin probe immobilized on the gold electrode (GE), the Fc away from the surface of GE and the methylene blue (MB) was attached to an electrode surface by hybridization between hairpin probe and MB labeled primer. Such conformational changes resulted in the oxidation peak current of Fc decreased and that of MB increased, and the changes of dual signals are linear with the concentration of DNA. Furthermore, with the help of strand-displacement polymerization, polymerase catalyzed the extension of the primer and the sequential displacement of the target DNA, which led to the release of target and another polymerization cycle. Thus the circular strand displacement produced the multiplication of the MB confined near the GE surface and Fc got away from the GE surface. Therefore, the recognition of target DNA resulted in both the "signal-off" of Fc and the "signal-on" of MB for dual-signal electrochemical ratiometric readout. The dual signal strategy offered a dramatic enhancement of the stripping response. The dynamic range of the target DNA detection was from 10(-13) to 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a detection limit down to 28 fM level. Compared with the single signaling electrochemical sensor, the dual-signaling electrochemical sensing strategy developed in this paper was more selective. It would have important applications in the sensitive and selective electrochemical determination of other small molecules and proteins.

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy incorporating a ratiometric approach for the diagnosis and classification of urothelial carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Crisci, Alfonso; Nesi, Gabriella; Carini, Marco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-02-01

    The current most popular clinical method for the screening of urothelial carcinoma is white light cystoscopy. This method has inherent disadvantages making a strong genesis towards developing more powerful diagnostic techniques. Laser induced intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as an adjunct to current methods for the detection of tumors. This technique allows real time results based on the changes in spectral profile between normal and tumor tissues. We conducted a pilot study based on fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths 378 and 445 nm excitation for the differentiation of urothelial carcinoma. At both the excitation wavelengths, the measured fluorescence signal showed an increased intensity at wavelengths greater than 520 nm. In addition, the emission profile showed modulation at 580 nm which is due to the reabsorption of emitted fluo- rescence due to hemoglobin. Additionally, we developed a tissue characterizing algorithm, based on fluorescence intensity ratios, F510/F600 and F520/F580 at 378 and 445 nm excitation wavelengths respectively. Further, the results were correlated with the pathologists assessment of urothelial carcinoma. This ratiometric classification algorithm yielded 81% sensitivity and 83% specificity at 378 nm and while at 445 nm excitation we achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 86% for classifying normal and tumor bladder tissues. In this study we have demonstrated the potential of a simple ratiometric algorithm based on fluorescence spectroscopy could be an alternative tool to tissue biopsy. Furthermore, this technique based fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy could be integrated into an endoscopy system for use in the operating room.

  19. A benzo-15-crown-5-modifying ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON chemosensor for Cu2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuting; Wang, Xinxin; Wang, Kaili; Zhang, Xiuling

    2016-05-01

    One new benzo-15-crown-5-modifying fluorene Schiff base (FBC), together with the Cdbnd N-linked fluorene-3,4-dimethoxybenzene (FBDMO) and fluorene-benzene (FB) references, has been designed and facilely synthesized. The binding of Cu2 + with nitrogen atom of Cdbnd N moiety in these three compounds can inhibit the photo-induced electronic transition process and induce the ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON response to Cu2 +. Whereas the employment of benzo-15-crown-5 moiety in FBC as additional binding platform for Cu2 + not only amplifies the fluorescent enhancement of FBCvia preventing the isomerization of Cdbnd N moiety, but also endows this compound high selectivity and rapid response towards Cu2 + over the references FB and FBDMO. These results render FBC highly sensitive ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON detecting potential for Cu2 + with the detection limit of 3.91 × 10- 6 M.

  20. Ratiometric Fluorescence Live Imaging Analysis of Membrane Lipid Order in Arabidopsis Mitotic Cells Using a Lipid Order-Sensitive Probe.

    PubMed

    Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Der, Christophe; Grebe, Markus; Stanislas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain membranes exhibiting different levels of lipid order mostly related to their relative amount of sterol-rich domains, thought to mediate temporal and spatial organization of cellular processes. We previously provided evidence in Arabidopsis thaliana that sterols are crucial for execution of cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division. Recently, we used di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a fluorescent probe sensitive to order of lipid phases, to quantify the level of membrane order of the cell plate, the membrane structure separating daughter cells during somatic cytokinesis of higher plant cells. By employing quantitative, ratiometric fluorescence microscopy for mapping localized lipid order levels, we revealed that the Arabidopsis cell plate represents a high-lipid-order domain of the plasma membrane. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols and troubleshooting for ratiometric live imaging procedures employing the di-4-ANEPPDHQ fluorescent probe for quantification of membrane lipid order during plant cell division in suspension cell cultures and roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. A FRET-enabled molecular peptide beacon with a significant red shift for the ratiometric detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Maity, Debabrata; Jiang, Juanjuan; Ehlers, Martin; Wu, Junchen; Schmuck, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    A cationic molecular peptide beacon NAP1 functionalized with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-pair at its ends allows the ratiometric detection of ds-DNA with a preference for AT rich sequences. NAP1 most likely binds in a folded form into the minor groove of ds-DNA, which results in a remarkable change in its fluorescence properties. As NAP1 exhibits quite low cytotoxicity, it can also be used for imaging of nuclear DNA in cells. PMID:27071707

  2. A FRET-enabled molecular peptide beacon with a significant red shift for the ratiometric detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Maity, Debabrata; Jiang, Juanjuan; Ehlers, Martin; Wu, Junchen; Schmuck, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    A cationic molecular peptide beacon NAP1 functionalized with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-pair at its ends allows the ratiometric detection of ds-DNA with a preference for AT rich sequences. NAP1 most likely binds in a folded form into the minor groove of ds-DNA, which results in a remarkable change in its fluorescence properties. As NAP1 exhibits quite low cytotoxicity, it can also be used for imaging of nuclear DNA in cells.

  3. A FRET-based ratiometric fluorescent and colorimetric probe for the facile detection of organophosphonate nerve agent mimic DCP.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Weimin; Cao, Yanting; Zhou, Jiahong; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-18

    A FRET ratiometric fluorescent probe enabling a fast and highly sensitive response to OP nerve agent mimic DCP within 1 min and with as low as 0.17 ppm concentration detection limit has been developed. Moreover, the probe exhibits noticeable color changes under UV light and even with the naked eye. It is also demonstrated that it can detect both liquid and gas nerve agents.

  4. Dual mode ratiometric recognition of zinc acetate: nanomolar detection with in vitro tracking of endophytic bacteria in rice root tissue.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Ta, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Milan; Karmakar, Subhajit; Banik, Avishek; Dangar, Tushar Kanti; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti; Das, Debasis

    2016-01-14

    Several naphthalene-based aldazine derivatives were developed as efficient colorimetric and fluorescence probes for selective ratiometric recognition of traces of zinc acetate. The derivative structures were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The probes were used for in vitro tracking of zinc acetate in endophytic bacteria within rice root tissue and to image zinc acetate in human breast cancer cells (MCF7) by normal and fluorescence microscopy. Density functional theoretical studies were in close agreement with the experimental findings.

  5. A tautomeric zinc sensor for ratiometric fluorescence imaging: application to nitric oxide-induced release of intracellular zinc.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher J; Jaworski, Jacek; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Sheng, Morgan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2004-02-01

    Zinc is an essential metal ion for human growth and development, the disruption of cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis being implicated in several major disorders including Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer. The molecular mechanisms of Zn(2+) physiology and pathology are insufficiently understood, however, owing in part to the lack of tools for measuring changes in intracellular Zn(2+) concentrations with high spatial and temporal fidelity. To address this critical need, we have synthesized, characterized, and applied an intracellular fluorescent probe for the ratiometric imaging of Zn(2+) based on a tautomeric seminaphthofluorescein platform. Zin-naphthopyr 1 (ZNP1) affords single-excitation, dual-emission ratiometric detection of intracellular Zn(2+) through Zn(2+)-controlled switching between fluorescein and naphthofluorescein tautomeric forms. The probe features visible excitation and emission profiles, excellent selectivity responses for Zn(2+) over competing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions at intracellular concentrations, a dissociation constant (K(d)) for Zn(2+) of <1 nM, and an 18-fold increase in fluorescence emission intensity ratio (lambda(624)/lambda(528)) upon zinc binding. We demonstrate the value of the ZNP1 platform for biological applications by imaging changes in intracellular [Zn(2+)] in living mammalian cells. Included is the ratiometric detection of endogenous pools of intracellular Zn(2+) after NO-induced release of Zn(2+) from cellular metalloproteins. We anticipate that ZNP1 and related probes should find utility for interrogating the biology of Zn(2+).

  6. Construction of single fluorophore ratiometric pH sensors using dual-emission Mn(2+)-doped quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Pratiwi, Feby Wijaya; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Yang, Shun-Min; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Chen, Peilin

    2016-10-15

    We present a novel ratiometric pH sensor design using water-soluble, dual-emission, Mn(2+)-doped quantum dots (Qdots) decorated with D-penicillamine (DPA-MnQdots). In contrast to more commonly used ratiometric pH sensors that rely on the coupling of two fluorophores, our design uses only a single emitter, which simplifies ratiometric sensing and broadens the applications of the sensor. Our single-emitter DPA-MnQdots exhibit two emission bands, at 510nm (green) and 610nm (red), which are, respectively, attributable to exciton recombination and emission of the Mn(2+) dopants. The emission intensity ratio (I510/I610) of the DPA-MnQdots depends linearly on surrounding pH values within physiological conditions (from pH 4.5 to 8.5). Moreover, the biocompatible DPA-MnQdots were used for long-term monitoring of local pH values in HeLa cells.

  7. Novel application of pH-sensitive firefly luciferases as dual reporter genes for simultaneous ratiometric analysis of intracellular pH and gene expression/location.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Gabriele V M; Viviani, Vadim R

    2014-12-01

    Firefly luciferases are widely used as bioluminescent reporter genes for bioimaging and biosensors. Aiming at simultaneous analyses of different gene expression and cellular events, luciferases and GFPs that exhibit distinct bioluminescence and fluorescence colors have been coupled with each promoter, making dual and multicolor reporter systems. Despite their wide use, firefly luciferase bioluminescence spectra are pH-sensitive, resulting in a typical large red shift at acidic pH, a side-effect that may affect some bioanalytical purposes. Although some intracellular pH-indicators employ dual color and fluorescent dyes, none has been considered to benefit from the characteristic spectral pH-sensitivity of firefly luciferases to monitor intracellular pH-associated stress, an important indicator of cell homeostasis. Here we demonstrate a linear relationship between the ratio of intensities in the green and red regions of the bioluminescence spectra and pH using firefly luciferases cloned in our laboratory (Macrolampis sp2 and Cratomorphus distinctus), allowing estimation of E. coli intracellular pH, thus providing a new analytical method for ratiometric intracellular pH-sensing. This is the first dual reporter system that employs a single luciferase gene to simultaneously monitor intracellular pH using spectral changes, and gene expression and/or ATP concentration using the bioluminescence intensity, showing great potential for real time bioanalysis of intracellular processes associated with metabolic changes such as apoptosis, cell death, inflammation and tissue acidification, among the other physiological changes.

  8. A universal design for a DNA probe providing ratiometric fluorescence detection by generation of silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Vong, Daniel; Pennathur, Sumita; Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    2016-07-01

    DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the presence of Ag+ ions. The utility of AgNC-MBs has been limited, however, because changing the target binding sequence unpredictably alters cluster fluorescence. Here we show that the original AgNC-MB design depends on bases in the target-binding (loop) domain to stabilize its AgNC. We then rationally alter the design to overcome this limitation. By separating and lengthening the AgNC-stabilizing domain, we create an AgNC-hairpin probe with consistent performance for arbitrary target sequence. This new design supports ratiometric fluorescence measurements of DNA target concentration, thereby providing a more sensitive, responsive and stable signal compared to turn-on AgNC probes. Using the new design, we demonstrate AgNC-MBs with nanomolar sensitivity and singe-nucleotide specificity, expanding the breadth of applicability of these cost-effective probes for biomolecular detection.DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the

  9. Highly-sensitive Eu3+ ratiometric thermometers based on excited state absorption with predictable calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Adelmo S.; Nunes, Luiz A. O.; Silva, Ivan G. N.; Oliveira, Fernando A. M.; da Luz, Leonis L.; Brito, Hermi F.; Felinto, Maria C. F. C.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.; Júnior, Severino A.; Carlos, Luís D.; Malta, Oscar L.

    2016-02-01

    Temperature measurements ranging from a few degrees to a few hundreds of Kelvin are of great interest in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Here, we report a new ratiometric luminescent thermometer using thermally excited state absorption of the Eu3+ ion. The thermometer is based on the simple Eu3+ energy level structure and can operate between 180 and 323 K with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.7 to 1.7% K-1. The thermometric parameter is defined as the ratio between the emission intensities of the 5D0 --> 7F4 transition when the 5D0 emitting level is excited through the 7F2 (physiological range) or 7F1 (down to 180 K) level. Nano and microcrystals of Y2O3:Eu3+ were chosen as a proof of concept of the operational principles in which both excitation and detection are within the first biological transparent window. A novel and of paramount importance aspect is that the calibration factor can be calculated from the Eu3+ emission spectrum avoiding the need for new calibration procedures whenever the thermometer operates in different media.Temperature measurements ranging from a few degrees to a few hundreds of Kelvin are of great interest in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Here, we report a new ratiometric luminescent thermometer using thermally excited state absorption of the Eu3+ ion. The thermometer is based on the simple Eu3+ energy level structure and can operate between 180 and 323 K with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.7 to 1.7% K-1. The thermometric parameter is defined as the ratio between the emission intensities of the 5D0 --> 7F4 transition when the 5D0 emitting level is excited through the 7F2 (physiological range) or 7F1 (down to 180 K) level. Nano and microcrystals of Y2O3:Eu3+ were chosen as a proof of concept of the operational principles in which both excitation and detection are within the first biological transparent window. A novel and of paramount importance aspect is that the calibration factor can be

  10. Ratiometric Nanothermometer Based on Rhodamine Dye-Incorporated F127-Melamine-Formaldehyde Polymer Nanoparticle: Preparation, Characterization, Wide-Range Temperature Sensing, and Precise Intracellular Thermometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youshen; Liu, Jiajun; Ma, Jingwen; Liu, Yongchun; Wang, Ya; Wu, Daocheng

    2016-06-15

    A series of fluorescent nanothermometers (FTs) was prepared with Rhodamine dye-incorporated Pluronic F-127-melamine-formaldehyde composite polymer nanoparticles (R-F127-MF NPs). The highly soluble Rhodamine dye molecules were bound with Pluronic F127 micelles and subsequently incorporated in the cross-linked MF resin NPs during high-temperature cross-link treatment. The morphology and chemical structure of R-F127-MF NPs were characterized with dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Fluorescence properties and thermoresponsivities were analyzed using fluorescence spectra. R-F127-MF NPs are found to be monodispersed, presenting a size range of 88-105 nm, and have bright fluorescence and high stability in severe treatments such as autoclave sterilization and lyophilization. By simultaneously incorporating Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 110 (as reference) dyes at a doping ratio of 1:400 in the NPs, ratiometric FTs with a high sensibility of 7.6%·°C(-1) and a wide temperature sensing range from -20 to 110 °C were obtained. The FTs exhibit good stability in solutions with varied pH, ionic strengths, and viscosities and have similar working curves in both intracellular and extracellular environments. Cellular temperature variations in Hela cells during microwave exposure were successfully monitored using the FTs, indicating their considerable potential applications in the biomedical field.

  11. Ratiometric Nanothermometer Based on Rhodamine Dye-Incorporated F127-Melamine-Formaldehyde Polymer Nanoparticle: Preparation, Characterization, Wide-Range Temperature Sensing, and Precise Intracellular Thermometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youshen; Liu, Jiajun; Ma, Jingwen; Liu, Yongchun; Wang, Ya; Wu, Daocheng

    2016-06-15

    A series of fluorescent nanothermometers (FTs) was prepared with Rhodamine dye-incorporated Pluronic F-127-melamine-formaldehyde composite polymer nanoparticles (R-F127-MF NPs). The highly soluble Rhodamine dye molecules were bound with Pluronic F127 micelles and subsequently incorporated in the cross-linked MF resin NPs during high-temperature cross-link treatment. The morphology and chemical structure of R-F127-MF NPs were characterized with dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Fluorescence properties and thermoresponsivities were analyzed using fluorescence spectra. R-F127-MF NPs are found to be monodispersed, presenting a size range of 88-105 nm, and have bright fluorescence and high stability in severe treatments such as autoclave sterilization and lyophilization. By simultaneously incorporating Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 110 (as reference) dyes at a doping ratio of 1:400 in the NPs, ratiometric FTs with a high sensibility of 7.6%·°C(-1) and a wide temperature sensing range from -20 to 110 °C were obtained. The FTs exhibit good stability in solutions with varied pH, ionic strengths, and viscosities and have similar working curves in both intracellular and extracellular environments. Cellular temperature variations in Hela cells during microwave exposure were successfully monitored using the FTs, indicating their considerable potential applications in the biomedical field. PMID:27197838

  12. A direct, ratiometric, and quantitative MALDI–MS assay for protein methyltransferases and acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Hanjra, Pahul; Zhang, Gang; Mackie, Brianna D.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Protein methylation and acetylation play important roles in biological processes, and misregulation of these modifications is involved in various diseases. Therefore, it is critical to understand the activities of the enzymes responsible for these modifications. Herein we describe a sensitive method for ratiometric quantification of methylated and acetylated peptides via MALDI-MS by direct spotting of enzymatic methylation and acetylation reaction mixtures without tedious purification procedures. The quantifiable detection limit for peptides with our method is approximately 10 fmol. This is achieved by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio through the addition of NH4H2PO4 to the matrix solution and reduction of the matrix α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid concentration to 2 mg/ml. We have demonstrated the application of this method in enzyme kinetic analysis and inhibition studies. The unique feature of this method is the simultaneous quantification of multiple peptide species for investigation of processivity mechanisms. Its wide buffer compatibility makes it possible to be adapted to investigate the activity of any protein methyltransferase or acetyltransferase. PMID:25778392

  13. A two-photon ratiometric fluorescence probe for Cupric Ions in Live Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Anwei; Ding, Changqin; Tian, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Development of sensitive and selective probes for cupric ions (Cu2+) at cell and tissue level is a challenging work for progress in understanding the biological effects of Cu2+. Here, we report a ratiometric two-photon probe for Cu2+ based on the organic-inorganic hybrids of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and Nile Blue dye. Meanwhile, Cu-free derivative of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) – E2Zn2SOD is designed as the unique receptor for Cu2+ and conjugated on the surface of GQDs. This probe shows a blue-to-yellow color change in repose to Cu2+, good selectivity, low cytotoxicity, long-term photostability, and insensitivity to pH over the biologically relevant pH range. The developed probe allows the direct visualization of Cu2+ levels in live cells as well as in deep-tissues at 90–180 μm depth through the use of two-photon microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of ascorbic acid is also evaluated on intracellular Cu2+ binding to E2Zn2SOD by this probe. PMID:24121717

  14. Sorting cells for basal and induced autophagic flux by quantitative ratiometric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Jacob M; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We detail here a protocol using tandem-tagged mCherry-EGFP-LC3 (C-G-LC3) to quantify autophagic flux in single cells by ratiometric flow cytometry and to isolate subpopulations of cells based on their relative levels of autophagic flux. This robust and sensitive method measures autophagic flux rather than autophagosome number and is an important addition to the autophagy researcher’s array of tools for measuring autophagy. Two crucial steps in this protocol are i) generate cells constitutively expressing C-G-LC3 with low to medium fluorescence and low fluorescence variability, and ii) correctly set up gates and voltage/gain on a properly equipped flow cytometer. We have used this method to measure autophagic flux in a variety of cell types and experimental systems using many different autophagy stimuli. On a sorting flow cytometer, this technique can be used to isolate cells with different levels of basal autophagic flux, or cells with variable induction of flux in response to a given stimulus for further analysis or experimentation. We have also combined quantification of autophagic flux with methods to measure apoptosis and cell surface proteins, demonstrating the usefulness of this protocol in combination with other flow cytometry labels and markers. PMID:24915460

  15. Three-Dimensional Spot Detection in Ratiometric Fluorescence Imaging For Measurement of Subcellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Lau, William W.; Johnson, Calvin A.; Lioi, Sara; Mindell, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are subcellular organelles playing a vital role in the endocytosis process of the cell. Lysosomal acidity is an important factor in assuring proper functioning of the enzymes within the organelle, and can be assessed by labeling the lysosomes with pH-sensitive fluorescence probes. To enhance our understanding of the acidification mechanisms, the goal of this work is to develop a method that can accurately detect and characterize the acidity of each lysosome captured in ratiometric fluorescence images. We present an algorithm that utilizes the h-dome transformation and reconciles spots detected independently from two wavelength channels. We evaluated our algorithm using simulated images for which the exact locations were known. The h-dome algorithm achieved an f-score as high as 0.890. We also computed the fluorescence ratios from lysosomes in live HeLa cell images with known lysosomal pHs. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we demonstrated that the new algorithm was able to achieve much better pH prediction accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:25621319

  16. A universal design for a DNA probe providing ratiometric fluorescence detection by generation of silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Vong, Daniel; Pennathur, Sumita; Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    2016-08-14

    DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the presence of Ag(+) ions. The utility of AgNC-MBs has been limited, however, because changing the target binding sequence unpredictably alters cluster fluorescence. Here we show that the original AgNC-MB design depends on bases in the target-binding (loop) domain to stabilize its AgNC. We then rationally alter the design to overcome this limitation. By separating and lengthening the AgNC-stabilizing domain, we create an AgNC-hairpin probe with consistent performance for arbitrary target sequence. This new design supports ratiometric fluorescence measurements of DNA target concentration, thereby providing a more sensitive, responsive and stable signal compared to turn-on AgNC probes. Using the new design, we demonstrate AgNC-MBs with nanomolar sensitivity and singe-nucleotide specificity, expanding the breadth of applicability of these cost-effective probes for biomolecular detection. PMID:27406901

  17. A Highly Sensitive ESIPT-Based Ratiometric Fluorescence Sensor for Selective Detection of Al(3.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanghamitra; Chowdhury, Bijit; Ghosh, Pradyut

    2016-09-19

    An excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT)-based highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescence sensor, 1H was developed for selective detection of aluminum (Al(3+)) in acetonitrile as well as in 90% aqueous system. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals almost planar and conjugated structure of 1H. Photophysical properties of the sensor as well as its selectivity toward Al(3+) are explored using UV-visible, steady-state, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The bright cyan (λem = 445 nm) fluorescence of 1H in acetonitrile turns into deep blue (λem = 412 nm) with ∼2.3-fold enhancement in emission intensity, in the presence of parts per billion level Al(3+) (detection limit = 0.5 nM). Interestingly, the probe 1H exhibits increased selectivity toward Al(3+) in H2O/acetonitrile (9:1 v/v) solvent system with a change in fluorescence color from pale green to deep blue associated with ca. sixfold enhancement in emission intensity. Density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations provide the ground- and excited-state energy optimized structures and properties of the proposed aluminum complex [Al(1) (OH)]2(2+), which is in harmony with the solution-state experimental findings and also supports the occurrence of ESIPT process in 1H. The ESIPT mechanism was also ascertained by comparing the basic photophysical properties of 1H with a similar O-methylated analogue, 1'Me. PMID:27571218

  18. A universal design for a DNA probe providing ratiometric fluorescence detection by generation of silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Vong, Daniel; Pennathur, Sumita; Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    2016-08-14

    DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the presence of Ag(+) ions. The utility of AgNC-MBs has been limited, however, because changing the target binding sequence unpredictably alters cluster fluorescence. Here we show that the original AgNC-MB design depends on bases in the target-binding (loop) domain to stabilize its AgNC. We then rationally alter the design to overcome this limitation. By separating and lengthening the AgNC-stabilizing domain, we create an AgNC-hairpin probe with consistent performance for arbitrary target sequence. This new design supports ratiometric fluorescence measurements of DNA target concentration, thereby providing a more sensitive, responsive and stable signal compared to turn-on AgNC probes. Using the new design, we demonstrate AgNC-MBs with nanomolar sensitivity and singe-nucleotide specificity, expanding the breadth of applicability of these cost-effective probes for biomolecular detection.

  19. Ratiometric coumarin-neutral red (CONER) nanoprobe for detection of hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Ganea, Gabriela M; Kolic, Paulina E; El-Zahab, Bilal; Warner, Isiah M

    2011-04-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species can lead to alteration of cellular functions responsible for many diseases including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. Hydroxyl radical is a short-lived radical which is considered very aggressive due to its high reactivity toward biological molecules. In this study, a COumarin-NEutral Red (CONER) nanoprobe was developed for detection of hydroxyl radical based on the ratiometric fluorescence signal between 7-hydroxy coumarin 3-carboxylic acid and neutral red dyes. Biocompatible poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles containing encapsulated neutral red were produced using a coumarin 3-carboxylic acid conjugated poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-Nε-lysinate) (C3C-poly-Nε-SUK) as moiety reactive to hydroxyl radicals. The response of the CONER nanoprobe was dependent on various parameters such as reaction time and nanoparticle concentration. The probe was selective for hydroxyl radicals as compared with other reactive oxygen species including O(2)(•-), H(2)O(2), (1)O(2), and OCl(-). Furthermore, the CONER nanoprobe was used to detect hydroxyl radicals in vitro using viable breast cancer cells exposed to oxidative stress. The results suggest that this nanoprobe represents a promising approach for detection of hydroxyl radicals in biological systems.

  20. A ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots based biosensor for organophosphorus pesticides detection by inner-filter effect.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Han, Xiaosong; Su, Xingguang

    2015-12-15

    In this work, we develop a novel and sensitive sensor for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides based on the inner-filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots (RF-QDs). The RF-QDs has been designed by hybridizing two differently colored CdTe QDs, in which the red emissive QDs entrapped in the silica sphere acting as the reference signal, and the green emissive QDs covalently attached on the silica surface serving as the response signal.The fluorescence of RF-QDs could be quenched by AuNPs based on IFE. Protamine could effectively turn on the fluorescence due to the electrostatic attraction between protamine and AuNPs. Trypsin can easily hydrolyze protamine, leading to the quench of the fluorescence. Then, the fluorescence could be recovered again by the addition of parathion-methyl (PM) which could inhibit the activity of trypsin. By measuring the fluorescence of RF-QDs, the inhibition efficiency of PM to trypsin activity was evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the inhibition efficiency was proportional to the logarithm of PM concentration in the range of 0.04-400 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.018 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the simple and convenient method had been used for PM detection in environmental and agricultural samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26143468

  1. Highly-sensitive Eu(3+) ratiometric thermometers based on excited state absorption with predictable calibration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Adelmo S; Nunes, Luiz A O; Silva, Ivan G N; Oliveira, Fernando A M; da Luz, Leonis L; Brito, Hermi F; Felinto, Maria C F C; Ferreira, Rute A S; Júnior, Severino A; Carlos, Luís D; Malta, Oscar L

    2016-03-01

    Temperature measurements ranging from a few degrees to a few hundreds of Kelvin are of great interest in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Here, we report a new ratiometric luminescent thermometer using thermally excited state absorption of the Eu(3+) ion. The thermometer is based on the simple Eu(3+) energy level structure and can operate between 180 and 323 K with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.7 to 1.7% K(-1). The thermometric parameter is defined as the ratio between the emission intensities of the (5)D0 → (7)F4 transition when the (5)D0 emitting level is excited through the (7)F2 (physiological range) or (7)F1 (down to 180 K) level. Nano and microcrystals of Y2O3:Eu(3+) were chosen as a proof of concept of the operational principles in which both excitation and detection are within the first biological transparent window. A novel and of paramount importance aspect is that the calibration factor can be calculated from the Eu(3+) emission spectrum avoiding the need for new calibration procedures whenever the thermometer operates in different media.

  2. A ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots based biosensor for organophosphorus pesticides detection by inner-filter effect.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Han, Xiaosong; Su, Xingguang

    2015-12-15

    In this work, we develop a novel and sensitive sensor for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides based on the inner-filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots (RF-QDs). The RF-QDs has been designed by hybridizing two differently colored CdTe QDs, in which the red emissive QDs entrapped in the silica sphere acting as the reference signal, and the green emissive QDs covalently attached on the silica surface serving as the response signal.The fluorescence of RF-QDs could be quenched by AuNPs based on IFE. Protamine could effectively turn on the fluorescence due to the electrostatic attraction between protamine and AuNPs. Trypsin can easily hydrolyze protamine, leading to the quench of the fluorescence. Then, the fluorescence could be recovered again by the addition of parathion-methyl (PM) which could inhibit the activity of trypsin. By measuring the fluorescence of RF-QDs, the inhibition efficiency of PM to trypsin activity was evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the inhibition efficiency was proportional to the logarithm of PM concentration in the range of 0.04-400 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.018 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the simple and convenient method had been used for PM detection in environmental and agricultural samples with satisfactory results.

  3. UV-Vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy for Determination of Nanoparticle and Molecular Optical Cross Sections.

    PubMed

    Nettles, Charles B; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-03-01

    Demonstrated herein is a UV-vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopic (R2S2, pronounced as "R-two-S-two" for simplicity) technique where the R2S2 spectrum is obtained by dividing the resonance synchronous spectrum of a NP-containing solution by the solvent resonance synchronous spectrum. Combined with conventional UV-vis measurements, this R2S2 method enables experimental quantification of the absolute optical cross sections for a wide range of molecular and nanoparticle (NP) materials that range optically from pure photon absorbers or scatterers to simultaneous photon absorbers and scatterers, simultaneous photon absorbers and emitters, and all the way to simultaneous photon absorbers, scatterers, and emitters in the UV-vis wavelength region. Example applications of this R2S2 method were demonstrated for quantifying the Rayleigh scattering cross sections of solvents including water and toluene, absorption and resonance light scattering cross sections for plasmonic gold nanoparticles, and absorption, scattering, and on-resonance fluorescence cross sections for semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). On-resonance fluorescence quantum yields were quantified for the model molecular fluorophore Eosin Y and fluorescent Qdots CdSe and CdSe/ZnS. The insights and methodology presented in this work should be of broad significance in physical and biological science research that involves photon/matter interactions.

  4. A ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of selenite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linfeng; Tian, Xike; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Yong; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Zhaoxin; Liu, Xiangwen

    2016-08-01

    The instant and on-site detection of selenium still remains a challenge for environmental monitoring and medical prevention. We herein developed a ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor for accurate and on-site sensing of SeO3(2-) by linking the recognition molecule 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) onto the surface of carboxyl group modified CdTe@SiO2. The fluorescence of DAB on the surface of silica nanospheres could be selectively and efficiently enhanced by SeO3(2-) through a surface chelating reaction between DAB and SeO3(2-). Thus, in the presence of SeO3(2-), the nanosensor would show two characteristic fluorescence emissions of Se-DAB and CdTe QDs under a single excitation wavelength. The selectivity and the optimal conditions for the detection of SeO3(2-) were carefully investigated. The ratio of F530/F635 linearly increased with increasing SeO3(2-) concentration in the range of 0 to 2.5 μM and the detection limit reaches as low as 6.68 nM (0.53 ppb). This developed nanosensor has the capability of on-site detection in an aqueous system without any separation step. The Se concentrations in selenium-rich food were detected and the results were consistent with the values determined by ICP-AES. PMID:27241591

  5. Ratiometric near-infrared chemosensor for trivalent chromium ion based on tricarboyanine in living cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Kong, Xue-Fei; Li, Yong-Fei; Weng, Chao; Tang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2014-05-01

    A tricarboyanine derivative (IRPP) is applied as a ratiometric near-infrared chemosensor for detecting trivalent chromium ions (Cr(3+)) in living cells. Upon the addition of Cr(3+) to a solution of IRPP, large-scale shifts in the emission spectrum (from 755 nm to 561 nm) are observed. In the newly developed sensing system, these well-resolved emission peaks yield a sensing system that covers a linear range from 1.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-5) M with a detection limit of 2.5×10(-8) M. The experimental results show the response behavior of IRPP towards Cr(3+) is pH independent under neutral conditions (6.0-7.5). Most importantly, the fast response time (less than 3 min) and selectivity for Cr(3+) over other common metal ions provide a strong argument for the use of this sensor in real world applications. As a proof of concept, the proposed chemosensor has been used to detect and quantify Cr(3+) in river water samples and to image Cr(3+) in living cells with encouraging results. PMID:24759750

  6. The synthesis of new fluorescent bichromophoric compounds as ratiometric pH probes for intracellular measurements.

    PubMed

    Saura, A Vanessa; Marín, María J; Burguete, M Isabel; Russell, David A; Galindo, Francisco; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-07-28

    Three different bichromophoric compounds (1-3) containing an aminomethyl anthracene moiety linked to a second chromophore (pyrene, 4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) and dansyl) through a valine-derived pseudopeptidic spacer have been prepared and their fluorescent properties studied. The results obtained show that upon irradiation the photophysical behavior of these probes involves electronic energy transfer from the excited anthracene to the second chromophore and also intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. The X-ray structure obtained for 3 reveals that the folding associated with the pseudopeptidic spacer favours a close proximity of the two chromophores. The emissive response of 3 is clearly dependent on the pH of the medium, hence this bichromophoric compound was shown to be an excellent ratiometric pH fluorescent sensor. The emission intensity due to the anthracene moiety exhibits a decrease at neutral-basic pH values that is concomitant with an increase in the intensity arising from the dansyl fluorophore. These properties make this compound a good candidate for biological pH sensing as has been confirmed by preliminary studies with RAW 264.7 macrophage cells imaged by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy with an average pH estimation of 5.4-5.8 for acidic organelles.

  7. Real-time Imaging of Single Engineered RNA Transcripts in Living Cells Using Ratiometric Bimolecular Beacons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lingyan; Behlke, Mark A.; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The growing realization that both the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression can have important consequences on cell function has led to the development of diverse techniques to visualize individual RNA transcripts in single living cells. One promising technique that has recently been described utilizes an oligonucleotide-based optical probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), to detect RNA transcripts that were engineered to contain at least four tandem repeats of the RBMB target sequence in the 3’-untranslated region. RBMBs are specifically designed to emit a bright fluorescent signal upon hybridization to complementary RNA, but otherwise remain quenched. The use of a synthetic probe in this approach allows photostable, red-shifted, and highly emissive organic dyes to be used for imaging. Binding of multiple RBMBs to the engineered RNA transcripts results in discrete fluorescence spots when viewed under a wide-field fluorescent microscope. Consequently, the movement of individual RNA transcripts can be readily visualized in real-time by taking a time series of fluorescent images. Here we describe the preparation and purification of RBMBs, delivery into cells by microporation and live-cell imaging of single RNA transcripts. PMID:25146531

  8. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  9. Peptide-Based, Two-Fluorophore, Ratiometric Probe for Quantifying Mobile Zinc in Biological Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule fluorescent sensors are versatile agents for detecting mobile zinc in biology. Capitalizing on the abundance of validated mobile zinc probes, we devised a strategy for repurposing existing intensity-based sensors for quantitative applications. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis, we conjugated a zinc-sensitive Zinpyr-1 derivative and a zinc-insensitive 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative onto opposite ends of a rigid P9K peptide scaffold to create HcZ9, a ratiometric fluorescent probe for mobile zinc. A plate reader-based assay using HcZ9 was developed, the accuracy of which is comparable to that of atomic absorption spectroscopy. We investigated zinc accumulation in prostatic cells and zinc levels in human seminal fluid. When normal and tumorigenic cells are bathed in zinc-enriched media, cellular mobile zinc is buffered and changes slightly, but total zinc levels increase significantly. Quantification of mobile and total zinc levels in human seminal plasma revealed that the two are positively correlated with a Pearson’s coefficient of 0.73. PMID:25382858

  10. Ratiometric bimolecular beacons for the sensitive detection of RNA in single living cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antony K; Davydenko, Olga; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Numerous studies have utilized molecular beacons (MBs) to image RNA expression in living cells; however, there is growing evidence that the sensitivity of RNA detection is significantly hampered by their propensity to emit false-positive signals. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new RNA imaging probe called ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), which combines functional elements of both conventional MBs and siRNA. Analogous to MBs, RBMBs elicit a fluorescent reporter signal upon hybridization to complementary RNA. In addition, an siRNA-like double-stranded domain is used to facilitate nuclear export. Accordingly, live-cell fluorescent imaging showed that RBMBs are localized predominantly in the cytoplasm, whereas MBs are sequestered into the nucleus. The retention of RBMBs within the cytoplasmic compartment led to >15-fold reduction in false-positive signals and a significantly higher signal-to-background compared with MBs. The RBMBs were also designed to possess an optically distinct reference fluorophore that remains unquenched regardless of probe confirmation. This reference dye not only provided a means to track RBMB localization, but also allowed single cell measurements of RBMB fluorescence to be corrected for variations in probe delivery. Combined, these attributes enabled RBMBs to exhibit an improved sensitivity for RNA detection in living cells.

  11. In vitro selection of a new lanthanide-dependent DNAzyme for ratiometric sensing lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2014-10-01

    Developing biosensors for lanthanides is an important but challenging analytical task. To address this problem, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes was carried out using a library containing a region of 35 random nucleotides in the presence of Lu(3+), since Lu(3+) was reported to be the most efficient lanthanide for RNA cleavage. The resulting DNA sequences can be aligned to a single family with two conserved stretches of nucleotides. One of the representative DNAzymes (named Lu12) was further studied. Lu12 is more active with smaller lanthanides and has the lowest activity in the presence of the largest lanthanide (lutetium). Its cleavage rate is 0.12 min(-1) in the presence of 10 μM Nd(3+) at pH 6.0. This is a new DNAzyme, and a catalytic beacon sensor is designed by attaching a fluorophore/quencher pair, detecting Nd(3+) down to 0.4 nM (72 parts-per-trillion). This DNAzyme is highly selective for lanthanides as well, showing cleavage only with two nonlanthanide ions: Y(3+) and Pb(2+). We previously reported a DNAzyme named Ce13d, which has similar responses to all the trivalent lanthanides. Combining these two allows for a ratiometric assay that identifies a few large lanthanides.

  12. Real-time imaging of single engineered RNA transcripts in living cells using ratiometric bimolecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Xuemei; Huang, Lingyan; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The growing realization that both the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression can have important consequences on cell function has led to the development of diverse techniques to visualize individual RNA transcripts in single living cells. One promising technique that has recently been described utilizes an oligonucleotide-based optical probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), to detect RNA transcripts that were engineered to contain at least four tandem repeats of the RBMB target sequence in the 3'-untranslated region. RBMBs are specifically designed to emit a bright fluorescent signal upon hybridization to complementary RNA, but otherwise remain quenched. The use of a synthetic probe in this approach allows photostable, red-shifted, and highly emissive organic dyes to be used for imaging. Binding of multiple RBMBs to the engineered RNA transcripts results in discrete fluorescence spots when viewed under a wide-field fluorescent microscope. Consequently, the movement of individual RNA transcripts can be readily visualized in real-time by taking a time series of fluorescent images. Here we describe the preparation and purification of RBMBs, delivery into cells by microporation and live-cell imaging of single RNA transcripts.

  13. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 nM within 6 min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. PMID:26485176

  14. A real-time single sperm tracking, laser trapping, and ratiometric fluorescent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Linda Z.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Nascimento, Jaclyn; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2006-08-01

    Sperm cells from a domestic dog were treated with oxacarbocyanine DiOC II(3), a ratiometrically-encoded membrane potential fluorescent probe in order to monitor the mitochondria stored in an individual sperm's midpiece. This dye normally emits a red fluorescence near 610 nm as well as a green fluorescence near 515 nm. The ratio of red to green fluorescence provides a substantially accurate and precise measurement of sperm midpiece membrane potential. A two-level computer system has been developed to quantify the motility and energetics of sperm using video rate tracking, automated laser trapping (done by the upper-level system) and fluorescent imaging (done by the lower-level system). The communication between these two systems is achieved by a networked gigabit TCP/IP cat5e crossover connection. This allows for the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and ratio of the red to green fluorescent images of individual sperm to be written to the hard drive at video rates. This two-level automatic system has increased experimental throughput over our previous single-level system (Mei et al., 2005) by an order of magnitude.

  15. Peptide-based, two-fluorophore, ratiometric probe for quantifying mobile zinc in biological solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daniel Y; Azrad, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frederickson, Christopher J; Lippard, Stephen J; Radford, Robert J

    2015-02-20

    Small-molecule fluorescent sensors are versatile agents for detecting mobile zinc in biology. Capitalizing on the abundance of validated mobile zinc probes, we devised a strategy for repurposing existing intensity-based sensors for quantitative applications. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis, we conjugated a zinc-sensitive Zinpyr-1 derivative and a zinc-insensitive 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative onto opposite ends of a rigid P9K peptide scaffold to create HcZ9, a ratiometric fluorescent probe for mobile zinc. A plate reader-based assay using HcZ9 was developed, the accuracy of which is comparable to that of atomic absorption spectroscopy. We investigated zinc accumulation in prostatic cells and zinc levels in human seminal fluid. When normal and tumorigenic cells are bathed in zinc-enriched media, cellular mobile zinc is buffered and changes slightly, but total zinc levels increase significantly. Quantification of mobile and total zinc levels in human seminal plasma revealed that the two are positively correlated with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.73.

  16. A ratiometric chemodosimeter for highly selective naked-eye and fluorogenic detection of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Hu, Jiun-Wei; Chen, Kew-Yu

    2015-09-17

    A simple indole-based chemosensor (1) with a very low molecular weight of 207 g mol(-1) has been synthesized for the highly reactive and selective detection of CN(-) in aqueous media, even in the presence of other anions, such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), AcO(-), [Formula: see text] , SCN(-), [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , BzO(-), [Formula: see text] , and [Formula: see text] . The sensor achieves rapid detection of cyanide anion in 2 min, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant is estimated as 1.576 min(-1). The colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent response of the sensor to CN(-) is attributable to the addition of CN(-) to the electron-deficient dicyanovinyl group of 1, which prevents intramolecular charge transfer. The sensing mechanism is supported by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Moreover, sensor 1 exhibits both high accuracy in determining the concentration of CN(-) in real samples and 1-based test strips can conveniently detect CN(-) without any additional equipment. The detection limit of the sensor 1 (1.1 μM) for cyanide is lower than the maximum permissible level of CN(-) (1.9 μM) in drinking water.

  17. Highly stable and sensitive LnMOF ratiometric thermometers constructed with mixed ligands.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongqin; Sa, Rongjian; Li, Qiaohong; Wu, Kechen

    2015-02-21

    The mixed-lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (M'LnMOFs) applied for accurate, non-invasive and self-reference temperature measurements have been only recently recognized. It is a great challenge for chemists to fulfil the requirements of a thermostable structure, intense luminescence and high temperature sensitivity on one LnMOF ratiometric thermometer for thermometric applications. By choosing 2,4-(2,2':6',2''-terpyridin-4'-yl)-benzenedisulfonic acid (H2DSTP) as the first ligand and changing the ancillary ligand to oxalic acid (OA) or 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDC), we have successfully developed two types of highly stable and sensitive thermometers [Tb1-xEux(OA)0.5(DSTP)]·3H2O and [Tb1-xEux(BDC)0.5(DSTP)]·2H2O (x = 0.01, 0.02) that in addition exhibit brilliant luminescence over a wide temperature range, providing a new strategy to explore luminescence-based M'LnMOF thermometers.

  18. Polycation-induced benzoperylene probe excimer formation and the ratiometric detection of heparin and heparinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meiding; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Huipeng; Li, Wenying; Wang, Yan; Li, Juanmin; Zhang, Cuiyun; Zhou, Chuibei; Yu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    A benzoperylene probe excimer emission in an aqueous buffer solution is observed for the first time, and a novel ratiometric fluorescence method based on the probe excimer emission for the sensitive detection of heparin and heparinase is demonstrated. A negatively charged benzoperylene derivative, 6-(benzo[ghi]perylene-1,2-dicarboxylic imide-yl)hexanoic acid (BPDI), was employed. A polycation, poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (poly-DDA), could induce aggregation of BPDI through noncovalent interactions. A decrease of BPDI monomer emission and a simultaneous increase of BPDI excimer emission were observed. Upon the addition of heparin, the strong binding between heparin and poly-DDA caused release of BPDI monomer molecules, and an excimer-monomer emission signal transition was detected. However, after the enzymatic hydrolysis of heparin by heparinase, heparin was hydrolyzed into small fragments, which weakened the competitive binding of heparin to poly-DDA. Poly-DDA induced aggregation of BPDI, and a monomer-excimer emission signal transition was detected. Our assay is simple, rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and selective, which could facilitate the heparin and heparinase related biochemical and biomedical research.

  19. Polycation-induced benzoperylene probe excimer formation and the ratiometric detection of heparin and heparinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meiding; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Huipeng; Li, Wenying; Wang, Yan; Li, Juanmin; Zhang, Cuiyun; Zhou, Chuibei; Yu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    A benzoperylene probe excimer emission in an aqueous buffer solution is observed for the first time, and a novel ratiometric fluorescence method based on the probe excimer emission for the sensitive detection of heparin and heparinase is demonstrated. A negatively charged benzoperylene derivative, 6-(benzo[ghi]perylene-1,2-dicarboxylic imide-yl)hexanoic acid (BPDI), was employed. A polycation, poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (poly-DDA), could induce aggregation of BPDI through noncovalent interactions. A decrease of BPDI monomer emission and a simultaneous increase of BPDI excimer emission were observed. Upon the addition of heparin, the strong binding between heparin and poly-DDA caused release of BPDI monomer molecules, and an excimer-monomer emission signal transition was detected. However, after the enzymatic hydrolysis of heparin by heparinase, heparin was hydrolyzed into small fragments, which weakened the competitive binding of heparin to poly-DDA. Poly-DDA induced aggregation of BPDI, and a monomer-excimer emission signal transition was detected. Our assay is simple, rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and selective, which could facilitate the heparin and heparinase related biochemical and biomedical research. PMID:26344903

  20. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2012-06-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  1. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  2. Imaging the nanomolar range of nitric oxide with an amplifier-coupled fluorescent indicator in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Moritoshi; Hida, Naoki; Umezawa, Yoshio

    2005-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small uncharged free radical that is involved in diverse physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. NO is generated by three isoforms of NO synthase, endothelial, neuronal, and inducible ones. When generated in vascular endothelial cells, NO plays a key role in vascular tone regulation, in particular. Here, we describe an amplifier-coupled fluorescent indicator for NO to visualize physiological nanomolar dynamics of NO in living cells (detection limit of 0.1 nM). This genetically encoded high-sensitive indicator revealed that 1 nM of NO, which is enough to relax blood vessels, is generated in vascular endothelial cells even in the absence of shear stress. The nanomolar range of basal endothelial NO thus revealed appears to be fundamental to vascular homeostasis. fluorescence resonance energy transfer | genetic encoding

  3. Dual-Modal Colorimetric/Fluorescence Molecular Probe for Ratiometric Sensing of pH and Its Application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Luling; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-08-16

    As traditional pH meters cannot work well for minute regions (such as subcellular organelles) and in harsh media, molecular pH-sensitive devices for monitoring pH changes in diverse local heterogeneous environments are urgently needed. Here, we report a new dual-modal colorimetric/fluorescence merocyanine-based molecular probe (CPH) for ratiometric sensing of pH. Compared with previously reported pH probes, CPH bearing the benzyl group at the nitrogen position of the indolium group and the phenol, which is used as the acceptor for proton, could respond to pH changes immediately through both the ratiometric fluorescence signal readout and naked-eye colorimetric observation. The sensing process was highly stable and reversible. Most importantly, the suitable pKa value (6.44) allows CPH to presumably accumulate in lysosomes and become a lysosome-target fluorescent probe. By using CPH, the intralysosomal pH fluctuation stimulated by antimalaria drug chloroquine was successfully tracked in live cells through the ratiometric fluorescence images. Additionally, CPH could be immobilized on test papers, which exhibited a rapid and reversible colorimetric response to acid/base vapor through the naked-eye colorimetric analysis. This proof-of-concept study presents the potential application of CPH as a molecular tool for monitoring intralysosomal pH fluctuation in live cells, as well as paves the way for developing the economic, reusable, and fast-response optical pH meters for colorimetric sensing acid/base vapor with direct naked-eye observation. PMID:27431089

  4. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for sensitive, selective and reversible detection of copper (II) based on riboflavin-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Jiang, Xiao-Qin; Guo, Su-Miao; Yu, Hai-Jun; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-12-15

    Most of the copper (II) fluorescent probes are based on the measurement of fluorescence at a single wavelength, which may be influenced by variations in the sample environment. To the end, the ratiometric fluorescent measurement, which involves the simultaneous measurement of two fluorescence signals at different wavelengths followed by calculation of their intensity ratio, can effectively eliminate the adverse effects on fluorescence signals and give greater precision to the data analysis relative to single-channel detection. In this work, we prepared novel luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) utilizing vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as stabilizer by a simple, rapid and one-pot green (low-toxicity materials use) procedure. The as-prepared riboflavin-AuNCs (Ri-AuNCs) solution can be luminescent exhibiting two fluorescence emission peaks at 530 nm and around 840 nm with excitation at 375 nm, however, in the presence of Cu(2+), the fluorescence of the Ri-AuNCs was found to be quenched at around 840 nm and enhanced at 530 nm by Cu(2+). The resultant ratiometric fluorescent response can provide a novel sensory probe for the determination of Cu(2+). The present probe had excellent selectivity in the presence of several cations. The probe revealed a detection limit of 0.9 μM of Cu(2+). Moreover, our proposed probe can reversibly switch between the "on" and "off" states through the addition of Cu(2+) and EDTA, which is reusable in practical application. Results and method reported here provide a unique strategy for performance of ratiometric assays demonstrated with a AuNCs-based fluorescent probe, which expands the application of AuNCs. PMID:24209359

  5. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu2+ has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu2+, while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu2+. Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu2+ in real samples.A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu2+ has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu2+, while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a

  6. One-pot synthesis of fluorescent BSA-Ce/Au nanoclusters as ratiometric pH probes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Na; Chen, Po-Cheng; Wang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Yu-Shen; Ou, Chung-Mao; Ho, Lin-Chen; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-08-11

    A facile, one-pot synthetic approach has been developed for the preparation of BSA-Ce/Au NCs. The fluorescence intensities of BSA-Ce/Au NCs at 410 and 650 nm are pH dependent and independent, respectively. The fluorescence intensity ratio (I410/I650) is linear against pH values from 6.0 to 9.0. These stable and biocompatible BSA-Ce/Au NCs have been used as ratiometric probes for monitoring local pH values inside HeLa cells.

  7. Fluorescent push-pull pH-responsive probes for ratiometric detection of intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Ipuy, Martin; Billon, Cyrielle; Micouin, Guillaume; Samarut, Jacques; Andraud, Chantal; Bretonnière, Yann

    2014-06-14

    A family of fluorescent push-pull pH-responsive probes based on 2-dicyanomethylidene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran as a strong electron acceptor group is described. Small structural variations allow obtaining pK(a) ranging from 4.8 to 8.6, underlining the role of the substituent in modulating the acidic properties. Remarkable changes in the optical properties (in particular the fluorescence intensity ratios) were observed as a function of pH. The most interesting probes with pK(a) close to neutrality were used for ratiometric imaging of intracellular pH.

  8. An Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphor modified with a cyanine dye for the ratiometric upconversion luminescence bioimaging of hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xianmei; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Xingjun; Chen, Min; Yao, Liming; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2015-02-01

    Excessive or misplaced production of ClO- in living systems is usually associated with many human diseases. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop an effective and sensitive method to detect ClO- in living systems. Herein, we designed an 808 nm excited upconversion luminescence nanosystem, composed of the Nd3+-sensitized core-shell upconversion nanophosphor NaYF4:30%Yb,1%Nd,0.5%Er@NaYF4:20%Nd, which serves as an energy donor, and the ClO--responsive cyanine dye hCy3, which acts as an energy acceptor, for ratiometric upconversion luminescence (UCL) monitoring of ClO-. The detection limit of ClO- for this nanoprobe in aqueous solution is 27 ppb and the nanoprobe was successfully used to detect the ClO- in the living cells by ratiometric upconversion luminescence. Importantly, the nanoprobe realized the detection of ClO- in a mouse model of arthritis, which produced an excess of ROS, under 808 nm irradiation in vivo. The excitation laser efficiently reduced the heating effect, compared to the commonly used 980 nm laser for upconversion systems.Excessive or misplaced production of ClO- in living systems is usually associated with many human diseases. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop an effective and sensitive method to detect ClO- in living systems. Herein, we designed an 808 nm excited upconversion luminescence nanosystem, composed of the Nd3+-sensitized core-shell upconversion nanophosphor NaYF4:30%Yb,1%Nd,0.5%Er@NaYF4:20%Nd, which serves as an energy donor, and the ClO--responsive cyanine dye hCy3, which acts as an energy acceptor, for ratiometric upconversion luminescence (UCL) monitoring of ClO-. The detection limit of ClO- for this nanoprobe in aqueous solution is 27 ppb and the nanoprobe was successfully used to detect the ClO- in the living cells by ratiometric upconversion luminescence. Importantly, the nanoprobe realized the detection of ClO- in a mouse model of arthritis, which produced an excess of ROS, under 808 nm irradiation in

  9. Ratiometric fluorescent probe for rapid detection of bisulfite through 1,4-addition reaction in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Zhao, Dong; Fan, Shanwei; Duan, Lian; Li, Ruifeng

    2014-04-16

    A ratiometric fluorescent probe based on a positively charged benzo[e]indolium moiety for bisulfite is reported. The bisulfite underwent a 1,4-addition reaction with the C-4 atom in the ethylene group. This reaction resulted in a large emission wavelength shift (Δλ = 106 nm) and an observable fluorescent color change from orange to cyan. The reaction could be completed in 90 s in a PBS buffer solution and displayed high selectivity and sensitivity for bisulfite. A simple paper test strip system was developed to detect bisulfite rapidly. Probe 1 was used to detect bisulfite in real samples with good recovery.

  10. Ratiometric Imaging of Extracellular pH in Bacterial Biofilms with C-SNARF-4

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Javier E.; Greve, Matilde; Raarup, Merete K.; Nyvad, Bente; Dige, Irene

    2014-01-01

    pH in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms is of central importance for microbial metabolism. Biofilms possess a complex three-dimensional architecture characterized by chemically different microenvironments in close proximity. For decades, pH measurements in biofilms have been limited to monitoring bulk pH with electrodes. Although pH microelectrodes with a better spatial resolution have been developed, they do not permit the monitoring of horizontal pH gradients in biofilms in real time. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy can overcome these problems, but none of the hitherto employed methods differentiated accurately between extracellular and intracellular microbial pH and visualized extracellular pH in all areas of the biofilms. Here, we developed a method to reliably monitor extracellular biofilm pH microscopically with the ratiometric pH-sensitive dye C-SNARF-4, choosing dental biofilms as an example. Fluorescent emissions of C-SNARF-4 can be used to calculate extracellular pH irrespective of the dye concentration. We showed that at pH values of <6, C-SNARF-4 stained 15 bacterial species frequently isolated from dental biofilm and visualized the entire bacterial biomass in in vivo-grown dental biofilms with unknown species composition. We then employed digital image analysis to remove the bacterial biomass from the microscopic images and adequately calculate extracellular pH values. As a proof of concept, we monitored the extracellular pH drop in in vivo-grown dental biofilms fermenting glucose. The combination of pH ratiometry with C-SNARF-4 and digital image analysis allows the accurate monitoring of extracellular pH in bacterial biofilms in three dimensions in real time and represents a significant improvement to previously employed methods of biofilm pH measurement. PMID:25501477

  11. Intracellular cascade FRET for temperature imaging of living cells with polymeric ratiometric fluorescent thermometers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianglong; Li, Yang; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Guoying; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-07-22

    Intracellular temperature plays a prominent role in cellular functions and biochemical activities inside living cells, but effective intracellular temperature sensing and imaging is still in its infancy. Herein, thermoresponsive double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs)-based fluorescent thermometers were fabricated to investigate their application in intracellular temperature imaging. Blue-emitting coumarin monomer, CMA, green-emitting 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD) monomer, NBDAE, and red-emitting rhodamine B monomer, RhBEA, were copolymerized separately with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) to afford dye-labeled PEG-b-P(NIPAM-co-CMA), PEG-b-P(NIPAM-co-NBDAE), and PEG-b-P(NIPAM-co-RhBEA). Because of the favorable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) potentials between CMA and NBDAE, NBDAE and RhBEA, as well as the slight tendency between CMA and RhBEA fluorophore pairs, three polymeric thermometers based on traditional one-step FRET were fabricated by facile mixing two of these three fluorescent DHBCs, whereas exhibiting limited advantages. Thus, two-step cascade FRET among three polymeric fluorophores was further interrogated, in which NBD acted as a bridging dye by transferring energy from CMA to RhBEA. Through the delicate optimization of the molar contents of three polymeric components, a ∼8.4-fold ratio change occurred in the temperature range of 20-44 °C, and the detection sensitivity improved significantly, reached as low as ∼0.4 °C, which definitely outperformed other one-step FRET thermometers in the intracellular temperature imaging of living cells. To our knowledge, this work represents the first example of polymeric ratiometric thermometer employing thermoresponsive polymer-based cascade FRET mechanism.

  12. A new 3,5-bisporphyrinylpyridine derivative as a fluorescent ratiometric probe for zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Moura, Nuno M M; Núñez, Cristina; Santos, Sérgio M; Faustino, M Amparo F; Cavaleiro, José A S; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Neves, M Graça P M S; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2014-05-26

    A new 3,5-disubstituted pyridine with two porphyrin moieties was prepared through an efficient synthetic approach involving 2-formyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (1), piperidine, and catalytic amounts of [La(OTf)3]. 3,5-Bis(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin-2-ylmethyl)pyridine (2) was fully characterized and its sensing ability towards Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Ag(+) was evaluated in solution by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and in gas phase by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF mass spectrometry. Strong changes in the ground and excited state were detected in the case of the soft metal ions Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+). A three-metal-per-ligand molar ratio was obtained in all cases and a significant ratiometric behavior was observed in the presence of Zn(2+) with the appearance of a new band at 608 nm, which can be assigned to a metal-to-ligand charge transfer. The system was able to quantify 79 ppb of Zn(2+) and the theoretical calculations are in accordance with the stoichiometry observed in solution. The gas-phase sensorial ability of compound 2 towards all metal ions was confirmed by using MALDI-TOF MS and in solid state by using polymeric films of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) doped with ligand 2. The results showed that compound 2 can be analytically used to develop new colorimetric molecular devices that are able to discriminate between Hg(2+) and Zn(2+) in solid phase. The crystal structure of Zn(II) complex of 3,5-bisporphyrinylpyridine was unequivocally elucidated by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:24782336

  13. Monitoring lipid peroxidation within foam cells by lysosome-targetable and ratiometric probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfu; Wang, Benlei; Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingcheng; Xiao, Yi

    2015-08-18

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in lysosomes is a valuable analyte because it is close associated with the evolutions of some major diseases. As a typical example, in the start-up phase of atherosclerosis, lysosomes get as swollen as foams, by accumulating a large amount of lipoproteins, which facilitates the free-radical chain propagation of LPO. Despite the existences of several fluorescent LPO probes, they are not appropriate for reporting the local extents of lysosomal LPO, for their unspecific intracellular localizations. Here, Foam-LPO, the first fluorescent LPO probe specifically targeting lysosomes, has been developed through straightforward synthesis using low-cost reagents. A basic tertiary amine group enables it to selectively localize in acidic lysosomes; and the conjugated diene moiety within the BODIPY fluorophore will degrade in response to lipid peroxidation, which results in fluorescence maximum shifting from 586 to 512 nm. Thus, under a confocal fluorescence microscope, Foam-LPO is able not only to visualize dynamic morphological changes of lysosomes during the evolution of foam cells, but also to relatively quantify local LPO extents in single lysosomes through ratiometric imaging. In addition, Foam-LPO proves applicable for two-color flow cytometry (FCM) analysis to make quantitative and high-throughput evaluation of LPO levels in large quantity of cells at different stages during the induction to form foam cells. Also importantly, with the aid of this new probe, the different roles played by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its oxidized form (ox-LDL) for the LPO processes of foam cells are distinguished and clarified, which benefits the understanding in the initiation and control factors of atherosclerosis.

  14. Ratiometric imaging of extracellular pH in bacterial biofilms with C-SNARF-4.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Garcia, Javier E; Greve, Matilde; Raarup, Merete K; Nyvad, Bente; Dige, Irene

    2015-02-01

    pH in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms is of central importance for microbial metabolism. Biofilms possess a complex three-dimensional architecture characterized by chemically different microenvironments in close proximity. For decades, pH measurements in biofilms have been limited to monitoring bulk pH with electrodes. Although pH microelectrodes with a better spatial resolution have been developed, they do not permit the monitoring of horizontal pH gradients in biofilms in real time. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy can overcome these problems, but none of the hitherto employed methods differentiated accurately between extracellular and intracellular microbial pH and visualized extracellular pH in all areas of the biofilms. Here, we developed a method to reliably monitor extracellular biofilm pH microscopically with the ratiometric pH-sensitive dye C-SNARF-4, choosing dental biofilms as an example. Fluorescent emissions of C-SNARF-4 can be used to calculate extracellular pH irrespective of the dye concentration. We showed that at pH values of <6, C-SNARF-4 stained 15 bacterial species frequently isolated from dental biofilm and visualized the entire bacterial biomass in in vivo-grown dental biofilms with unknown species composition. We then employed digital image analysis to remove the bacterial biomass from the microscopic images and adequately calculate extracellular pH values. As a proof of concept, we monitored the extracellular pH drop in in vivo-grown dental biofilms fermenting glucose. The combination of pH ratiometry with C-SNARF-4 and digital image analysis allows the accurate monitoring of extracellular pH in bacterial biofilms in three dimensions in real time and represents a significant improvement to previously employed methods of biofilm pH measurement.

  15. Real-Time Tracking and In Vivo Visualization of β-Galactosidase Activity in Colorectal Tumor with a Ratiometric Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaizhi; Xu, Yisheng; Li, Hui; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhu, Shaojia; Zhu, Shiqin; Shi, Ping; James, Tony D; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2016-04-27

    Development of "smart" noninvasive bioimaging probes for trapping specific enzyme activities is highly desirable for cancer therapy in vivo. Given that β-galactosidase (β-gal) is an important biomarker for cell senescence and primary ovarian cancers, we design an enzyme-activatable ratiometric near-infrared (NIR) probe (DCM-βgal) for the real-time fluorescent quantification and trapping of β-gal activity in vivo and in situ. DCM-βgal manifests significantly ratiometric and turn-on NIR fluorescent signals simultaneously in response to β-gal concentration, which makes it favorable for monitoring dynamic β-gal activity in vivo with self-calibration in fluorescent mode. We exemplify DCM-βgal for the ratiometric tracking of endogenously overexpressed β-gal distribution in living 293T cells via the lacZ gene transfection method and OVCAR-3 cells, and further realize real-time in vivo bioimaging of β-gal activity in colorectal tumor-bearing nude mice. Advantages of our system include light-up ratiometric NIR fluorescence with large Stokes shift, high photostability, and pH independency under the physiological range, allowing for the in vivo real-time evaluation of β-gal activity at the tumor site with high-resolution three-dimensional bioimaging for the first time. Our work provides a potential tool for in vivo real-time tracking enzyme activity in preclinical applications. PMID:27054782

  16. A BODIPY-based fluorescent probe for ratiometric detection of gold ions: utilization of Z-enynol as the reactive unit.

    PubMed

    Üçüncü, Muhammed; Karakuş, Erman; Emrullahoğlu, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    Using an irreversible intramolecular cyclisation pathway triggered by gold ions, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) based fluorescent probe integrated with a reactive Z-enynol motif responds selectively to gold ions. With the addition of gold(iii), the probe displays ratiometric fluorescence behaviour clearly observable to the naked eye under both visible and UV light. PMID:27284598

  17. A water-soluble and fast-response mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe for colorimetric and ratiometric sensing of endogenously generated SO2 derivatives in living cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Kun; Xie, Ke-Xin; Li, Ling-Ling; Yu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2016-02-25

    A novel water-soluble mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe (Cl-2) is presented. Cl-2 can respond selectively to SO2 derivatives within 1 min. Notably, Cl-2 can be used to monitor successfully the concentration change of endogenously generated SO2 derivatives in living cells.

  18. Real-Time Tracking and In Vivo Visualization of β-Galactosidase Activity in Colorectal Tumor with a Ratiometric Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaizhi; Xu, Yisheng; Li, Hui; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhu, Shaojia; Zhu, Shiqin; Shi, Ping; James, Tony D; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2016-04-27

    Development of "smart" noninvasive bioimaging probes for trapping specific enzyme activities is highly desirable for cancer therapy in vivo. Given that β-galactosidase (β-gal) is an important biomarker for cell senescence and primary ovarian cancers, we design an enzyme-activatable ratiometric near-infrared (NIR) probe (DCM-βgal) for the real-time fluorescent quantification and trapping of β-gal activity in vivo and in situ. DCM-βgal manifests significantly ratiometric and turn-on NIR fluorescent signals simultaneously in response to β-gal concentration, which makes it favorable for monitoring dynamic β-gal activity in vivo with self-calibration in fluorescent mode. We exemplify DCM-βgal for the ratiometric tracking of endogenously overexpressed β-gal distribution in living 293T cells via the lacZ gene transfection method and OVCAR-3 cells, and further realize real-time in vivo bioimaging of β-gal activity in colorectal tumor-bearing nude mice. Advantages of our system include light-up ratiometric NIR fluorescence with large Stokes shift, high photostability, and pH independency under the physiological range, allowing for the in vivo real-time evaluation of β-gal activity at the tumor site with high-resolution three-dimensional bioimaging for the first time. Our work provides a potential tool for in vivo real-time tracking enzyme activity in preclinical applications.

  19. Ratiometric Molecular Probes Based on Dual Emission of a Blue Fluorescent Coumarin and a Red Phosphorescent Cationic Iridium(III) Complex for Intracellular Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Toshitada; Murayama, Saori; Tobita, Seiji

    2015-06-09

    Ratiometric molecular probes RP1 and RP2 consisting of a blue fluorescent coumarin and a red phosphorescent cationic iridium complex connected by a tetra- or octaproline linker, respectively, were designed and synthesized for sensing oxygen levels in living cells. These probes exhibited dual emission with good spectral separation in acetonitrile. The photorelaxation processes, including intramolecular energy transfer, were revealed by emission quantum yield and lifetime measurements. The ratios (R(I) = (I(p)/I(f))) between the phosphorescence (I(p)) and fluorescence (I(f)) intensities showed excellent oxygen responses; the ratio of R(I) under degassed and aerated conditions ( R(I)(0) was 20.3 and 19.6 for RP1 and RP2. The introduction of the cationic Ir (III) complex improved the cellular uptake efficiency compared to that of a neutral analogue with a tetraproline linker. The emission spectra of the ratiometric probes internalized into living HeLa or MCF-7 cells could be obtained using a conventional microplate reader. The complex RP2 with an octaproline linker provided ratios comparable to the ratiometric measurements obtained using a microplate reader: the ratio of the R(I)) value of RP2 under hypoxia (2.5% O2) to that under normoxia (21% O2) was 1.5 and 1.7 for HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Thus, the intracellular oxygen levels of MCF-7 cells could be imaged by ratiometric emission measurements using the complex RP2.

  20. A high-resolution mitochondria-targeting ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of the endogenous hypochlorous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liyi; Lu, Dan-Qing; Wang, Qianqian; Hu, Shunqin; Wang, Haifei; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2016-09-01

    Hypochlorite anion, one of the biologically important reactive oxygen species, plays an essential role in diverse normal biochemical functions and abnormal pathological processes. Herein, an efficient high-resolution mitochondria-targeting ratiometric fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid detection has been designed, synthesized and characterized. It is easily synthesized by the condensation reaction (Cdbnd C) of a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one fluorophore and a cyanine group (mitochondria-targeting), which made the whole molecular a large Stokes shift (210 nm) and the two well-resolved emission peaks separated by 140 nm. As a result, it is considered as a good candidate for high resolution hypochlorous acid imaging in live cells. The ratiometric fluorescent probe exhibited outstanding features of high sensitivity, high selectivity, rapid response time (within 50 s), and excellent mitochondria-targeting ability. Moreover, the probe can also be successfully applied to imaging endogenously hypochlorous acid in the mitochondria of living cells with low cytotoxicity, and high resolution.

  1. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-21

    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu(2+) has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu(2+), while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu(2+). Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples. PMID:26928045

  2. Carbon-dot-based ratiometric fluorescent probe for imaging and biosensing of superoxide anion in live cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Ding, Changqin; Zhu, Anwei; Tian, Yang

    2014-07-15

    In this article, a ratiometric fluorescent biosensor for O2(•-) was developed, by employing carbon dots (C-Dots) as the reference fluorophore and hydroethidine (HE), a specific organic molecule toward O2(•-), playing the role as both specific recognition element and response signal. The hybrid fluorescent probe CD-HE only emitted at 525 nm is ascribed to C-Dots, while HE was almost nonfluorescent, upon excitation at 488 nm. However, after reaction with O2(•-), a new emission peak ascribed to the reaction products of HE and O2(•-) was clearly observed at 610 nm. Meanwhile, this peak gradually increased with the increasing concentration of O2(•-) but the emission peak at 525 nm stayed constant, leading to a ratiometric detection of O2(•-). The inorganic-organic fluorescent sensor exhibited high sensitivity, a broad dynamic linear range of ~5 × 10(-7)-1.4 × 10(-4) M, and low detection limit down to 100 nM. The present probe also showed high accuracy and excellent selectivity for O2(•-) over other reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal ions, and so on. Moreover, the C-Dot-based inorganic-organic probe demonstrated long-term stability against pH changes and continuous light illumination, good cell-permeability, and low cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the developed fluorescent biosensor was eventually applied for intracellular bioimaging and biosensing of O2(•-) changes upon oxidative stress.

  3. Rapid and facile ratiometric detection of an anthrax biomarker by regulating energy transfer process in bio-metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihe; Li, Bin; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Liming; Zheng, Youxuan

    2016-11-15

    A ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on luminescent bio-metal-organic framework was prepared by exchanging both Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) cations into anionic bio-MOF-1. Due to a highly efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) (>89%), emission color of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 was orange-red even though Tb(3+) was the dominant content in this Tb/Eu co-doping material. More interestingly, this energy transfer process could be modulated by dipicolinic acid (DPA), an unique biomarker for bacillus spores. With DPA addition, corresponding DPA-to-Tb(3+) energy transfer was gradually enhanced while the energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) was significantly weakened. By regulating the energy transfer process in Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1, visual colorimetric sensing of DPA in porous MOF was realized for the first time. Detection limit of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 for DPA was 34nM, which was much lower than an infectious dosage of Bacillus anthracis spores (60μM) for human being. Besides, Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 showed a remarkable selectivity over other aromatic ligands and amino acids. More importantly, this porous ratiometric sensor worked equally well in human serum. These particularly attractive features of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 made the direct, rapid and naked-eye detection of DPA for practical application possible. PMID:27183278

  4. Selective detection of endogenous H2S in living cells and the mouse hippocampus using a ratiometric fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Meng, Wen-Qi; Lu, Liang; Xue, Yun-Sheng; Li, Cheng; Zou, Fang; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Jing

    2014-07-01

    As one of three gasotransmitters, the fundamental signalling roles of hydrogen sulphide are receiving increasing attention. New tools for the accurate detection of hydrogen sulphide in cells and tissues are in demand to probe its biological functions. We report the p-nitrobenzyl-based ratiometric fluorescent probe RHP-2, which features a low detection limit, high selectivity and good photostability. The emission intensity ratios had a good linear relationship with the sulphide concentrations in PBS buffer and bovine serum. Our probe was applied to the ratiometric determination and imaging of endogenous H2S in living cells. Furthermore, RHP-2 was used as an effective tool to measure endogenous H2S in the mouse hippocampus. We observed a significant reduction in sulphide concentrations and downregulated expression of cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) mRNA and CBS protein in the mouse hippocampus in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression model. These data suggested that decreased concentrations of endogenous H2S may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic stress depression.

  5. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted carbon dot grafted YVO4:Eu(3+) for the ratiometric fluorescent determination of paranitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Haoran; Chen, Shi; Liu, Yingliang; Zhuang, Jianle; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-12-15

    A facilely prepared ratiometric fluorescent molecularly imprinted sensor has been constructed for highly sensitive and selective detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using carbon dots (CDs) as the target sensitive fluorophore and YVO4: Eu(3+) nanoparticles (NPs) as the reference fluorophore. Through the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the silica precursor, CDs and YVO4 Eu(3+) NPs can be incorporated into silica networks through silylation reaction by one pot synthesis procedure. The as-prepared fluorescent molecularly imprinted sensor shows characteristic fluorescence emissions of CDs (blue) and YVO4:Eu(3+) (red) under a single excitation wavelength. With the addition of 4-NP, the fluorescence of CDs is selectively quenched, resulting in the ratiometric fluorescence response. Under optimum conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits a high sensitivity with a linear range from 0 to 12.0μM and shows the limit of detection as low as 0.15μM in the determination of 4-NP, which is probably benefits from the tailor-made imprinted cavities for binding 4-NP. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples and human urine samples with great potentials for monitoring of 4-NP in environmental application. PMID:27474968

  6. Rapid and facile ratiometric detection of an anthrax biomarker by regulating energy transfer process in bio-metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihe; Li, Bin; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Liming; Zheng, Youxuan

    2016-11-15

    A ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on luminescent bio-metal-organic framework was prepared by exchanging both Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) cations into anionic bio-MOF-1. Due to a highly efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) (>89%), emission color of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 was orange-red even though Tb(3+) was the dominant content in this Tb/Eu co-doping material. More interestingly, this energy transfer process could be modulated by dipicolinic acid (DPA), an unique biomarker for bacillus spores. With DPA addition, corresponding DPA-to-Tb(3+) energy transfer was gradually enhanced while the energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) was significantly weakened. By regulating the energy transfer process in Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1, visual colorimetric sensing of DPA in porous MOF was realized for the first time. Detection limit of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 for DPA was 34nM, which was much lower than an infectious dosage of Bacillus anthracis spores (60μM) for human being. Besides, Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 showed a remarkable selectivity over other aromatic ligands and amino acids. More importantly, this porous ratiometric sensor worked equally well in human serum. These particularly attractive features of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 made the direct, rapid and naked-eye detection of DPA for practical application possible.

  7. Rhodamine-modified upconversion nanophosphors for ratiometric detection of hypochlorous acid in aqueous solution and living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Pei, Wenbo; Wang, Chenyuan; Zhu, Jixin; Wu, Jiansheng; Yan, Qinyu; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei; Yao, Cheng; Loo, Joachim Say Chye; Zhang, Qichun

    2014-09-10

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, acts as a key microbicidal agent in immune systems. However, misregulated production of HOCl could damage host tissues and cause many inflammation-related diseases. Due to its biological importance, many efforts have been focused on developing fluorescent probes to image HOCl in living system. Compared with those conventional fluorescent probes, up-conversion luminescence (UCL) detection system has been proven to exhibit a lot of advantages including no photo-bleaching, higher light penetration depth, no autofluorescence and less damage to biosamples. Herein, we report a novel water-soluble organic-nano detection system based on rhodamine-modified UCNPs for UCL-sensing HOCl. Upon the interaction with HOCl, the green UCL emission intensity in the detection system were gradually decreased, but the emissions in the NIR region almost have no change, which is very important for the ratiometric UCL detection of HOCl in aqueous solution. More importantly, RBH1-UCNPs could be used for the ratiometric UCL visualization of HOCl released by MPO-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions in living cells. This organic-nano system could be further developed into a novel next-generation imaging technique for bio-imaging HOCl in living system without background noise. PMID:24497481

  8. Visual & reversible sensing of cyanide in real samples by an effective ratiometric colorimetric probe & logic gate application.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Shubhrajyotsna; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-15

    A novel anion probe 3 (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazono) methyl) phenol) has been unveiled as an effective ratiometric and colorimetric sensor for selective and rapid detection of cyanide. The sensing behavior was demonstrated by UV-vis experiments and NMR studies. This sensory system exhibited prominent visual color change toward cyanide ion over other testing anions in DMSO (90%) solvent, with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and a detection limit down to 3.6×10(-8) mol L(-1). Sensor reveals specific anti-jamming activity and reversible in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. This concept has been applied to design a logic gate circuit at the molecular level. Further we developed coated graphite electrode using probe 3 as ionophore and studied the performance characteristics of electrode. The sensitivity of ratiometric-based colorimetric assay is below the 1.9 μM, accepted by the World Health Organization as the highest permissible cyanide concentration in drinking water. So it can be applied for both quantitative determination and qualitative supervising of cyanide concentrations in real samples.

  9. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for hyaluronidase detection via hyaluronan-induced formation of red-light emitting excimers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghua; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Shuizhu

    2016-05-15

    Hyaluronidase (HAase), which is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, can selectively degrade hyaluronan (HA) into small fragments, and it has been reported as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for bladder cancer. Herein, a facile ratiometric fluorescent sensing system for HAase has been developed, which is based on hyaluronan-induced formation of red-light emitting excimers and can realize sensitive detection of HAase with a detection limit of 0.007 U/mL. A positively-charged pyrene analog (N-Py) has been synthesized and then mixed with the negatively-charged HA, due to electrostatic interaction between the two components, aggregation along with the N-Py excimers readily form which emits red light. While in the presence of HAase, the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of HA into small fragments, which in turn triggers disassembly of excimers; consequently the N-Py excimer emission turns into monomer emission. The emission ratio resulted from the excimer-monomer transition can be used as the sensing signal for detecting HAase. The probe features visible-light excitation and red light emission (excimer), which is conducive to reducing possible interference from autofluorescence of biological samples. Furthermore, the assay system can be successfully used to determine HAase in human urine samples with satisfactory accuracy. This strategy may provide a suitable sensitive and accurate assay for HAase as well as an effective approach for developing fluorescent ratiometric assays for other enzymes. PMID:26774093

  10. Combined SERS biotags (SBTs) and microfluidic platform for the quantitative ratiometric discrimination between noncancerous and cancerous cells in flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallaoro, Alessia; Hoonejani, Mehran R.; Braun, Gary B.; Meinhart, Carl; Moskovits, Martin

    2012-10-01

    SERS biotags are made from polymer-encapsulated silver nanoparticle dimers infused with unique Raman reporter molecules, and carry peptides as cell recognition moieties. We demonstrate their potential use for early and rapid identification of malignant cells, a central goal in cancer research. SERS biotags (SBTs) can be routinely synthesized and simultaneously excited with a single, low intensity laser source, making the determination of the relative contribution of the individual SBTs to the overall spectrum tractable. Importantly for biomedical applications, SERS employs tissuepenetrating lasers in the red to near-infrared range resulting in low autofluorescence. We have previously described a multiplexed, ratiometric method that can confidently distinguish between cancerous and noncancerous epithelial prostate cells in vitro based on receptor overexpression. Here we present the progress towards the application of this quantitative methodology for the identification of cancer cells in a microfluidic flow-focusing device. Beads are used as cell mimics to characterize the devices. Cells (and beads) are simultaneously incubated with two sets of SBTs while in suspension (simulating cells' capture from blood), then injected into the device for laser interrogation under flow. Each cell event is characterized by a composite Raman spectrum, deconvoluted into its single components to ultimately determine their relative contribution. We show that using SBTs ratiometrically can provide cell identification insensitive to normal causes of uncertainty in optical measurements such as variations in focal plane, cell concentration, autofluorescence, and turbidity.

  11. A colorimetric, ratiometric and water-soluble fluorescent probe for simultaneously sensing glutathione and cysteine/homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xi; Wang, Zhao-Yang; Du, Zhi-Fang; Cui, Jie; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A chlorinated coumarin-aldehyde was developed as a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for distinguishing glutathione (GSH), cystenine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy). The GSH-induced substitution-cyclization and Cys/Hcy-induced substitution-rearrangement cascades lead to the corresponding thiol-coumarin-iminium cation and amino-coumarin-aldehyde with distinct photophysical properties. The probe can be used to simultaneously detect GSH and Cys/Hcy by visual determination based on distinct different colors - red and pale-yellow in PBS buffer solution by two reaction sites. From the linear relationship of fluorescence intensity and biothiols concentrations, it was determined that the limits of detection for GSH, Hcy and Cys are 0.08, 0.09 and 0.18 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the probe was successfully used in living cell imaging with low cell toxicity. PMID:26572845

  12. A ratiometric solvent polarity sensing Schiff base molecule for estimating the interfacial polarity of versatile amphiphilic self-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Rini; Sarkar, Yeasmin; Das, Sanju; Jewrajka, Suresh K; Ray, Ambarish; Parui, Partha Pratim

    2016-05-23

    A newly synthesised Schiff base molecule (PMP) existing in equilibrium between non-ionic and zwitterionic forms displays solvent polarity induced ratiometric interconversion from one form to another, such novelty being useful to detect the medium polarity. The specific interface localisation of PMP in versatile amphiphilic self-assembled systems has been exploited to monitor their interfacial polarity by evaluating such interconversion equilibrium with simple UV-Vis spectroscopy. In spite of the large differences in pH and/or viscosity between the bulk and interface, the unchanged equilibrium between the two molecular forms on varying the medium pH or viscosity provides a huge advantage for the exclusive detection of interfacial polarity.

  13. Ratiometric and turn-on monitoring for heavy and transition metal ions in aqueous solution with a fluorescent peptide sensor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bishnu Prasad; Park, Junwon; Lee, Wan In; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2009-05-15

    A novel fluorescent peptide sensor containing tryptophan (donor) and dansyl fluorophore (acceptor) was synthesized for monitoring heavy and transition metal (HTM) ions on the basis of metal ion binding motif (Cys-X-X-X-Cys). The peptide probe successfully exhibited a turn on and ratiometric response for several heavy metal ions such as Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), and Ag(+) in aqueous solution. The enhancements of emission intensity were achieved in the presence of the HTM ions by fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) and chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effects. The detection limits of the sensor for Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), and Ag(+) were lower than the EPA's drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCL). We described the fluorescent enhancement, binding affinity, and detection limit of the peptide probe for HTM ions.

  14. Ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for quantitative detection of β-galactosidase activity in senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Won; Heo, Cheol Ho; Sen, Debabrata; Byun, Hae-Ok; Kwak, In Hae; Yoon, Gyesoon; Kim, Hwan Myung

    2014-10-21

    We reported a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe (SG1) for β-galactosidase (β-gal) and its application to quantitative detection of β-gal activity during cellular senescence in live cells and in aged tissues. This probe is characterized by a significant two-photon excited fluorescence, a marked blue-to-yellow emission color change in response to β-gal, easy loading, insensitivity to pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS), high photostability, and low cytotoxicity. In addition, we show that SG1 labeling is an effective tool for quantitative detection of senescence-associated β-gal activity at the subcellular level in situ. This finding demonstrates that SG1 will find useful applications in biomedical research, including studies of cell aging.

  15. Facile and high spatial resolution ratio-metric luminescence thermal mapping in microfluidics by near infrared excited upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia

    2016-02-01

    A local area temperature monitor is important for precise control of chemical and biological processes in microfluidics. In this work, we developed a facile method to realize micron spatial resolution of temperature mapping in a microfluidic channel quickly and cost effectively. Based on the temperature dependent fluorescence emission of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) under near-infrared irradiation, ratio-metric imaging of UCNPs doped polydimethylsiloxane can map detailed temperature distribution in the channel. Unlike some reported strategies that utilize temperature sensitive organic dye (such as Rhodamine) to achieve thermal sensing, our method is highly chemically inert and physically stable without any performance degradation in long term operation. Moreover, this method can be easily scaled up or down, since the spatial and temperature resolution is determined by an optical imaging system. Our method supplied a simple and efficient solution for temperature mapping on a heterogeneous surface where usage of an infrared thermal camera was limited.

  16. A ratiometric solvent polarity sensing Schiff base molecule for estimating the interfacial polarity of versatile amphiphilic self-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Rini; Sarkar, Yeasmin; Das, Sanju; Jewrajka, Suresh K; Ray, Ambarish; Parui, Partha Pratim

    2016-05-23

    A newly synthesised Schiff base molecule (PMP) existing in equilibrium between non-ionic and zwitterionic forms displays solvent polarity induced ratiometric interconversion from one form to another, such novelty being useful to detect the medium polarity. The specific interface localisation of PMP in versatile amphiphilic self-assembled systems has been exploited to monitor their interfacial polarity by evaluating such interconversion equilibrium with simple UV-Vis spectroscopy. In spite of the large differences in pH and/or viscosity between the bulk and interface, the unchanged equilibrium between the two molecular forms on varying the medium pH or viscosity provides a huge advantage for the exclusive detection of interfacial polarity. PMID:27174234

  17. Theoretical investigation on ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for Zn2+ detection based on ICT mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuang; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Ren, Ai-Min

    2016-06-01

    OPA (one-photon absorption), TPA (two-photon absorption) and fluorescence properties of a free ligand L upon coordination with Zn2+, and the regeneration with CN- were investigated in theory. According to our research, OPA spectra of ligand L show red-shift binding with Zn2+ while blue-shift with CN-. The fluorescence spectra and TPA wavelength are shifted in the same situation as those of OPA spectra. The value of TPA cross-section decreased at first, and then increased to 1813 GM for [L-Zn(CN)4]2-. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism was investigated by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. It demonstrates that L is hopeful to be a good ratiometric fluorescent probe for zinc ion detection in solution, and it can regenerate after CN- was introduced.

  18. Integrity of lipid nanocarriers in bloodstream and tumor quantified by near-infrared ratiometric FRET imaging in living mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchaala, Redouane; Mercier, Luc; Andreiuk, Bohdan; Mély, Yves; Vandamme, Thierry; Anton, Nicolas; Goetz, Jacky G; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2016-08-28

    Lipid nanocarriers are considered as promising candidates for drug delivery and cancer targeting because of their low toxicity, biodegradability and capacity to encapsulate drugs and/or contrasting agents. However, their biomedical applications are currently limited because of a poor understanding of their integrity in vivo. To address this problem, we report on fluorescent nano-emulsion droplets of 100nm size encapsulating lipophilic near-infrared cyanine 5.5 and 7.5 dyes with a help of bulky hydrophobic counterion tetraphenylborate. Excellent brightness and efficient Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) inside lipid NCs enabled for the first time quantitative fluorescence ratiometric imaging of NCs integrity directly in the blood circulation, liver and tumor xenografts of living mice using a whole-animal imaging set-up. This unique methodology revealed that the integrity of our FRET NCs in the blood circulation of healthy mice is preserved at 93% at 6h of post-administration, while it drops to 66% in the liver (half-life is 8.2h). Moreover, these NCs show fast and efficient accumulation in tumors, where they enter in nearly intact form (77% integrity at 2h) before losing their integrity to 40% at 6h (half-life is 4.4h). Thus, we propose a simple and robust methodology based on ratiometric FRET imaging in vivo to evaluate quantitatively nanocarrier integrity in small animals. We also demonstrate that nano-emulsion droplets are remarkably stable nano-objects that remain nearly intact in the blood circulation and release their content mainly after entering tumors. PMID:27327767

  19. Rational design of ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent pH probes with various pKa values, based on aminocyanine.

    PubMed

    Myochin, Takuya; Kiyose, Kazuki; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2011-03-16

    Novel ratiometric, near-infrared fluorescent pH probes with various pK(a) values have been designed and synthesized on the basis of aminocyanine bearing a diamine moiety, and their photochemical properties were evaluated. Under acidic conditions, these pH probes showed a 46- to 83-nm red shift of the absorption maximum. This change is sufficiently large to permit their use as ratiometric pH probes, and is reversible, whereas monoamine-substituted aminocyanines showed irreversible changes because of their instability under acidic conditions. Furthermore, the pK(a) values of these probes can be predicted from the calculated pK(a) values of the diamine moieties, obtained from the SciFinder database. This design strategy is very simple and flexible, and should be applicable to develop NIR pH probes for various applications.

  20. Ratiometric and colorimetric near-infrared sensors for multi-channel detection of cyanide ion and their application to measure β-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Panfei; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Shuhui; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    A near-infrared sensor for cyanide ion (CN−) was developed via internal charge transfer (ICT). This sensor can selectively detect CN− either through dual-ratiometric fluorescence (logarithm of I414/I564 and I803/I564) or under various absorption (356 and 440 nm) and emission (414, 564 and 803 nm) channels. Especially, the proposed method can be employed to measure β-glucosidase by detecting CN− traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:26549546

  1. A twisted-intramolecular-charge-transfer (TICT) based ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with a mega-Stokes shift and a positive temperature coefficient.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng; Liu, Xiaogang; Qiao, Qinglong; Zhao, Miao; Yin, Wenting; Mao, Deqi; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-12-25

    The fluorescence intensity of N,N-dimethyl-4-((2-methylquinolin-6-yl)ethynyl)aniline exhibits an unusual intensification with increasing temperature, by activating more vibrational bands and leading to stronger TICT emissions upon heating in dimethyl sulfoxide. Based on the different temperature dependence at various wavelengths, as shown in the TICT fluorescence spectrum, this dye can be employed to ratiometrically detect temperature.

  2. Signal-Amplified Near-Infrared Ratiometric Electrochemiluminescence Aptasensor Based on Multiple Quenching and Enhancement Effect of Graphene/Gold Nanorods/G-Quadruplex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kang; Wang, Biru; Ye, Shiyi; Zuo, Yunpeng; Wu, Long; Li, Qin; Lu, Zhicheng; Tan, XueCai; Han, Heyou

    2016-08-16

    Dual-signaling ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology has attracted particular attention in analytical science due to its precise measurement to normalize variation in environmental changes. Creating new mated ECL report units with two emitting states and improving the detection sensitivity are major challenges for ratiometric ECL measurement. Here, we fabricate an ultrasensitive near-infrared ratiometric ECL aptasensor based on a dual-potential signal amplification strategy triggered by the quencher/enhancer [graphene/hemin/gold nanorods/G-quadruplex-hemin (rGO-H-AuNRs-G4H) composite]. The composite was initially prepared through three consecutive steps: the π-π stacking interaction between hemin and graphene, in-site growth of AuNRs, and surface ligand exchange. Dual ECL quenching of quantum dots (QDs) and multiple signal enhancement of luminol can be achieved simultaneously by the fabrication of the sandwich "thrombin aptamer I (TBA1)-TB-TBA2 (rGO-H-AuNRs-G4H)" mode: (i) the formation of three-dimensional G-quadruplex between aptamer and thrombin not only shortens the distance between the donor (QDs) and receptor (rGO-H and AuNRs) to trigger electrochemiluminescence energy transfer but also provides the place for intercalating hemin; (ii) the hemin intercalated into G4 structure and hemin connected onto rGO together with AuNRs/rGO nanomaterials can achieve the multiple peroxidase-like catalysis of H2O2 to greatly enhance the ECL of luminol. The ratiometric ECL aptasensor self-calibrated by the internal reference (luminol or QDs) exhibits ultrasensitive and accurate analytical performance toward thrombin (TB) with a linear detection range from 100 ng/mL to 0.5 pg/mL and a detection limit of 4.2 fg/mL [defined as signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3]. PMID:27435830

  3. A new highly selective, ratiometric and colorimetric fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+) with a remarkable red shift in absorption and emission spectra based on internal charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Sen, Debabrata; Das, Nirmal Kumar

    2010-02-19

    A new 1,8-diaminonaphthalene based ratiometric and highly selective colorimetric "off-on" type of fluorescent probe, receptor 2 has been designed and synthesized that senses only Cu(2+) among the other heavy and transition metal ions examined on the basis of internal charge transfer (ICT). The visual sensitivity of the receptor 2 is remarkable, showing dual color changes from colorless (receptor) to purple followed by blue and a large red shift in emission upon Cu(2+) complexation.

  4. Ratiometric and colorimetric near-infrared sensors for multi-channel detection of cyanide ion and their application to measure β-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Xing, Panfei; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Shuhui; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-11-09

    A near-infrared sensor for cyanide ion (CN(-)) was developed via internal charge transfer (ICT). This sensor can selectively detect CN(-) either through dual-ratiometric fluorescence (logarithm of I414/I564 and I803/I564) or under various absorption (356 and 440 nm) and emission (414, 564 and 803 nm) channels. Especially, the proposed method can be employed to measure β-glucosidase by detecting CN(-) traces in commercial amygdalin samples.

  5. A Novel Ratiometric Probe Based on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots and Rhodamine B Isothiocyanate for Detection of Fe3+ in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Lu; Liang, Jiangong; Liu, Lingzhi; Han, Heyou

    2016-01-01

    A ratiometric probe for determining ferric ions (Fe3+) was developed based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RhB), which was then applied to selective detection of Fe3+ in PB buffer solution, lake water, and tap water. In the sensing system, FePO4 particles deposit on the surface of CDs, resulting in larger particles and surface passivation. The fluorescence (FL) intensity and the light scattering (LS) intensity of CDs can be gradually enhanced with the addition of Fe3+, while the FL intensity of RhB remains constant. The ratiometric light intensity of CDs LS and RhB FL was quantitatively in response to Fe3+ concentrations in a dynamic range of 0.01–1.2 μM, with a detection limit as low as 6 nM. Other metal ions, such as Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, and Co2+, had no significant interference on the determination of Fe3+. Compared with traditional probes based on single-signal probe for Fe3+ detection, this dual-signal-based ratiometric probe exhibits a more reliable and stable response on target concentration and is characterized by easy operation in a simple fluorescence spectrophotometer. PMID:27119042

  6. Ratiometric analysis in hyperpolarized NMR (I): test of the two-site exchange model and the quantification of reaction rate constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin Z; Kadlececk, Stephen; Xu, He N; Daye, Dania; Pullinger, Benjamin; Profka, Harrilla; Chodosh, Lewis; Rizi, Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Conventional methods for the analysis of in vivo hyperpolarized (13) C NMR data from the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction usually make assumptions on the stability of rate constants and/or the validity of the two-site exchange model. In this study, we developed a framework to test the validity of the assumption of stable reaction rate constants and the two-site exchange model in vivo via ratiometric fitting of the time courses of the signal ratio L(t)/P(t). Our analysis provided evidence that the LDH enzymatic kinetics observed by hyperpolarized NMR are in near-equilibrium and satisfy the two-site exchange model for only a specific time window. In addition, we quantified both the forward and reverse exchange rate constants of the LDH reaction for the transgenic and mouse xenograft models of breast cancer using the ratio fitting method developed, which includes only two modeling parameters and is less sensitive to the influence of instrument settings/protocols, such as flip angles, degree of polarization and tracer dosage. We further compared the ratio fitting method with a conventional two-site exchange modeling method, i.e. the differential equation fitting method, using both the experimental and simulated hyperpolarized NMR data. The ratio fitting method appeared to fit better than the differential equation fitting method for the reverse rate constant on the mouse tumor data, with less relative errors on average, whereas the differential equation fitting method also resulted in a negative reverse rate constant for one tumor. The simulation results indicated that the accuracy of both methods depends on the width of the transport function, noise level and rate constant ratio; one method may be more accurate than the other based on the experimental/biological conditions aforementioned. We were able to categorize our tumor models into specific conditions of the computer simulation and to estimate the errors of rate quantification. We also discussed possible

  7. Cu-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as a Catalyst To Construct a Ratiometric Electrochemical Aptasensor for Sensitive Lipopolysaccharide Detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-11-17

    In this work, we developed a sensitive and efficient ratiometric electrochemical method for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection using Cu-based metal-organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) as a catalyst and target-triggered quadratic cycles for signal amplification. First, in the presence of target LPS, the conformation change of the specifically designed hairpin probes 1 (HP1) triggered the target cyclic-induced polymerization to produce the output DNA with the aid of phi29 DNA polymerase (phi29). Then, the obtained output DNA hybridized with ferrocene-labeled hairpin probes 2 (Fc-HP2, which were immobilized on the electrode) to generate a nicking endonuclease (N.BstNBI) cleavage site. Thus, with N.BstNBI, the original signal molecules of Fc left from the electrode, and the single-stranded capture-probe-modified sensing interface was obtained. At this time, signal probes conducted by Au-nanoparticles-functionalized Cu-MOFs and labeled hairpin probes 3 (HP3/AuNPs/Cu-MOFs) were hybridized with capture probes for hairpin assembly. Herein, AuNPs/Cu-MOFs were not only used as nanocarriers for immobilizing HP3 but also acted as electroactive materials for signal reporting. With the proposed target-triggered quadratic cycles, the cleavage sites of Fc-HP2 were cut, and capture probes were obtained to hybridize with HP3/AuNPs/Cu-MOFs, which caused the signal decrease of Fc. Then Cu-MOFs were closed to the electrode for the signal increase of Cu-MOFs. Furthermore, when glucose was present in the detection solution, AuNPs/Cu-MOFs catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to realize the enzyme-free signal amplification. By measuring the peak currents ratio of the Cu-MOFs and Fc, the proposed aptasenor for LPS detection showed a low detection limit (0.33 fg/mL) and a wide linear range from 1.0 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL with high accuracy and sensitivity. This ratiometric electrochemical approach is expected to be a valuable strategy for detection of other analytes. PMID:26465256

  8. Cu-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as a Catalyst To Construct a Ratiometric Electrochemical Aptasensor for Sensitive Lipopolysaccharide Detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-11-17

    In this work, we developed a sensitive and efficient ratiometric electrochemical method for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection using Cu-based metal-organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) as a catalyst and target-triggered quadratic cycles for signal amplification. First, in the presence of target LPS, the conformation change of the specifically designed hairpin probes 1 (HP1) triggered the target cyclic-induced polymerization to produce the output DNA with the aid of phi29 DNA polymerase (phi29). Then, the obtained output DNA hybridized with ferrocene-labeled hairpin probes 2 (Fc-HP2, which were immobilized on the electrode) to generate a nicking endonuclease (N.BstNBI) cleavage site. Thus, with N.BstNBI, the original signal molecules of Fc left from the electrode, and the single-stranded capture-probe-modified sensing interface was obtained. At this time, signal probes conducted by Au-nanoparticles-functionalized Cu-MOFs and labeled hairpin probes 3 (HP3/AuNPs/Cu-MOFs) were hybridized with capture probes for hairpin assembly. Herein, AuNPs/Cu-MOFs were not only used as nanocarriers for immobilizing HP3 but also acted as electroactive materials for signal reporting. With the proposed target-triggered quadratic cycles, the cleavage sites of Fc-HP2 were cut, and capture probes were obtained to hybridize with HP3/AuNPs/Cu-MOFs, which caused the signal decrease of Fc. Then Cu-MOFs were closed to the electrode for the signal increase of Cu-MOFs. Furthermore, when glucose was present in the detection solution, AuNPs/Cu-MOFs catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to realize the enzyme-free signal amplification. By measuring the peak currents ratio of the Cu-MOFs and Fc, the proposed aptasenor for LPS detection showed a low detection limit (0.33 fg/mL) and a wide linear range from 1.0 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL with high accuracy and sensitivity. This ratiometric electrochemical approach is expected to be a valuable strategy for detection of other analytes.

  9. Revisiting Mitochondrial pH with an Improved Algorithm for Calibration of the Ratiometric 5(6)-carboxy-SNARF-1 Probe Reveals Anticooperative Reaction with H+ Ions and Warrants Further Studies of Organellar pH.

    PubMed

    Żurawik, Tomasz Michał; Pomorski, Adam; Belczyk-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Goch, Grażyna; Niedźwiedzka, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Róża; Krężel, Artur; Bal, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence measurements of pH and other analytes in the cell rely on accurate calibrations, but these have routinely used algorithms that inadequately describe the properties of indicators. Here, we have established a more accurate method for calibrating and analyzing data obtained using the ratiometric probe 5(6)-carboxy-SNARF-1. We tested the implications of novel approach to measurements of pH in yeast mitochondria, a compartment containing a small number of free H+ ions. Our findings demonstrate that 5(6)-carboxy-SNARF-1 interacts with H+ ions inside the mitochondria in an anticooperative manner (Hill coefficient n of 0.5) and the apparent pH inside the mitochondria is ~0.5 unit lower than had been generally assumed. This result, at odds with the current consensus on the mechanism of energy generation in the mitochondria, is in better agreement with theoretical considerations and warrants further studies of organellar pH. PMID:27557123

  10. Revisiting Mitochondrial pH with an Improved Algorithm for Calibration of the Ratiometric 5(6)-carboxy-SNARF-1 Probe Reveals Anticooperative Reaction with H+ Ions and Warrants Further Studies of Organellar pH

    PubMed Central

    Żurawik, Tomasz Michał; Pomorski, Adam; Belczyk-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Goch, Grażyna; Niedźwiedzka, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Róża; Krężel, Artur; Bal, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence measurements of pH and other analytes in the cell rely on accurate calibrations, but these have routinely used algorithms that inadequately describe the properties of indicators. Here, we have established a more accurate method for calibrating and analyzing data obtained using the ratiometric probe 5(6)-carboxy-SNARF-1. We tested the implications of novel approach to measurements of pH in yeast mitochondria, a compartment containing a small number of free H+ ions. Our findings demonstrate that 5(6)-carboxy-SNARF-1 interacts with H+ ions inside the mitochondria in an anticooperative manner (Hill coefficient n of 0.5) and the apparent pH inside the mitochondria is ~0.5 unit lower than had been generally assumed. This result, at odds with the current consensus on the mechanism of energy generation in the mitochondria, is in better agreement with theoretical considerations and warrants further studies of organellar pH. PMID:27557123

  11. Fluorescence Ratiometric Assay Strategy for Chemical Transmitter of Living Cells Using H2O2-Sensitive Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunxia; Li, Shengliang; Feng, Liheng; Nie, Chenyao; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    A new water-soluble conjugated poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) derivative (PFP-FB) modified with boronate-protected fluorescein (peroxyfluor-1) via PEG linker has been designed and synthesized. In the presence of H2O2, the peroxyfluor-1 group can transform into green fluorescent fluorescein by deprotecting the boronate protecting groups. In this case, upon selective excitation of PFP-FB backbone at 380 nm, efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PFP-FB backbone to fluorescein occurs, and accordingly, the fluorescence color of PFP-FB changes from blue to green. Furthermore, the emission color of PFP-FB and the FRET ratio change in a concentration-dependent manner. By taking advantage of PFP-FB, ratiometric detection of choline and acetylcholine (ACh) through cascade enzymatic reactions and further dynamic monitoring of the choline consumption process of cancer cells have been successfully realized. Thus, this new polymer probe promotes the development of enzymatic biosensors and provides a simpler and more effective way for detecting the chemical transmitter of living cells.

  12. Construction of near-infrared photonic crystal glucose-sensing materials for ratiometric sensing of glucose in tears.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yumei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Laiying; Fan, Jiao; Wu, Weitai

    2013-10-15

    Noninvasive monitoring of glucose in tears is highly desirable in tight glucose control. The polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) that can be incorporated into contact lens represents one of the most promising materials for noninvasive monitoring of glucose in tears. However, low sensitivity and slow time response of the PCCA reported in previous arts has limited its clinical utility. This paper presents a new PCCA, denoted as NIR-PCCA, comprising a CCA of glucose-responsive sub-micrometered poly(styrene-co-acrylamide-co-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) microgels embedded within a slightly positive charged hydrogel matrix of poly(acrylamide-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate). This newly designed NIR-PCCA can reflect near-infrared (NIR) light, whose intensity (at 1722 nm) would decrease evidently with increasing glucose concentration over the physiologically relevant range in tears. The lowest glucose concentration reliably detectable was as low as ca. 6.1 μg/dL. The characteristic response time τ(sensing) was 22.1±0.2s when adding glucose to 7.5 mg/dL, and the higher the glucose concentration is, the faster the time response. Such a rationally designed NIR-PCCA is well suited for ratiometric NIR sensing of tear glucose under physiological conditions, thereby likely to bring this promising glucose-sensing material to the forefront of analytical devices for diabetes.

  13. A porphyrin derivative containing 2-(oxymethyl)pyridine units showing unexpected ratiometric fluorescent recognition of Zn2+ with high selectivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Dong, Yan-Yan; Ma, Qiu-Juan; Han, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Yan; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2008-06-01

    A porphyrin derivative (1), containing two 2-(oxymethyl)pyridine units has been designed and synthesized as chemosensor for recognition of metal ions. Unlike many common porphyrin derivatives that show response to different heavy metal ions, compound 1 exhibits unexpected ratiometric fluorescence response to Zn(2+) with high selectivity. The response of the novel chemosensor to zinc was based on the porphyrin metallation with cooperating effect of 2-(oxymethyl)pyridine units. The change of fluorescence of 1 was attributed to the formation of an inclusion complex between porphyrin ring and Zn(2+) by 1:1 complex ratio (K=1.04x10(5)), which has been utilized as the basis of the fabrication of the Zn(2+)-sensitive fluorescent chemosensor. The analytical performance characteristics of the proposed Zn(2+)-sensitive chemosensor were investigated. The sensor can be applied to the quantification of Zn(2+) with a linear range covering from 3.2x10(-7) to 1.8x10(-4) M and a detection limit of 5.5x10(-8) M. The experiment results show that the response behavior of 1 to Zn(2+) is pH-independent in medium condition (pH 4.0-8.0) and show excellent selectivity for Zn(2+) over transition metal cations. PMID:18482606

  14. Ratiometric measurement of hydrogen sulfide and cysteine/homocysteine ratios using a dual-fluorophore fragmentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Hammers, Matthew D; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-07-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an integral signaling molecule in biology with complex generation, translocation, and metabolism processes that are intertwined with cellular thiols. Differentiating the complex interplay between H2S and biological thiols, however, remains challenging due to the difficulty of monitoring H2S and thiol levels simultaneously in complex redox environments. As a step toward unraveling the complexities of H2S and thiols in sulfur redox homeostasis, we present a dual-fluorophore fragmentation strategy that allows for the ratiometric determination of relative H2S and cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, two important metabolites in H2S biosynthesis. The key design principle is based on a nitrobenzofurazan-coumarin (NBD-Coum) construct, which fragments into spectroscopically differentiable products upon nucleophilic aromatic substitution with either H2S or Cys/Hcy. Measurement of the ratio of fluorescence intensities from coumarin and the NBD-Cys or NBD-Hcy adducts generates a sigmoidal response with a dynamic range of 3 orders of magnitude. The developed scaffold displays a rapid response (<1 min) and is selective for sulfhydryl-containing nucleophiles over other reactive sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen species, including alcohol- and amine-functionalized amino acids, polyatomic anionic sulfur species, NO, and HNO. Additionally, NBD-Coum is demonstrated to differentiate and report on different oxidative stress stimuli in simulated sulfur pools containing H2S, Cys, and cystine.

  15. A pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate portraying aggregation induced emission, a ratiometric detection and live cell visualization of HSO3(.).

    PubMed

    Diwan, Uzra; Kumar, Virendra; Mishra, Rakesh K; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Manish Kumar; Upadhyay, K K

    2016-07-27

    The present study deals with the photophysical property of a pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate R1, as a strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe exhibiting long wavelength emission in the red region. Unlike traditional planar polyaromatic hydrocarbons whose aggregation generally quenches the light emission, the pyrene based R1 was found to display aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property along with simultaneous increase in its quantum yield upon increasing the water content of the medium. The R1 exhibits high specificity towards HSO3(-)/SO3(2-) by interrupting its own ICT producing there upon a large ratiometric blue shift of ∼220 nm in its emission spectrum. The lowest detection limit for the above measurement was found to be 8.90 × 10(-8) M. The fluorescent detection of HSO3(-) was also demonstrated excellently by test paper strip and silica coated TLC plate incorporating R1. The live cell imaging of HSO3(─) through R1 in HeLa cells was studied using fluorescence microscopic studies. The particle size and morphological features of R1 and R1-HSO3(-) aggregates in aqueous solution were characterized by DLS along with SEM analysis. PMID:27251947

  16. Visual and fluorescent detection of acetamiprid based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on ratiometric fluorescence quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Li, Yang; Su, Xingguang

    2014-12-10

    In this work, we develop a simple and rapid sensing method for the visual and fluorescent detection of acetamiprid (AC) based on the inner-filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots (RF-QDs). The RF-QDs based dual-emission nanosensor was fabricated by assembling green emissive QDs (QDs539nm, λem=539 nm) on the surface of red emissive QDs (QDs661nm, λem=661 nm)-doped silica microspheres. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of RF-QDs could be quenched by AuNPs based on IFE. Acetamiprid can adsorb on the surface of AuNPs due to its cyano group that has good affinity with gold, which could induce the aggregation of AuNPs accompanying color change from red to blue. Thus, the IFE of AuNPs on RF-QDs was weakened and the PL intensity of RF-QDs was recovered accordingly. Under the optimized conditions, the PL intensity of the RF-QDs/AuNPs system was proportional to the concentration of AC in the range of 0.025-5.0 μg mL(-1), with a detection limit of 16.8 μg L(-1). The established method had been used for AC detection in environmental and agricultural samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25441897

  17. Reaction-Driven Self-Assembled Micellar Nanoprobes for Ratiometric Fluorescence Detection of CS2 with High Selectivity and Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Zhenzhong; Gu, Jincui; Zhang, Jiawei; Huang, Youju; Huang, Qing; Chen, Tao

    2016-08-10

    The detection of highly toxic CS2, which is known as a notorious occupational hazard in various industrial processes, is important from both environmental and public safety perspectives. We describe here a robust type of chemical-reaction-based supramolecular fluorescent nanoprobes for ratiometric determination of CS2 with high selectivity and sensitivity in water medium. The micellar nanoprobes self-assemble from amphiphilic pyrene-modified hyperbranched polyethylenimine (Py-HPEI) polymers with intense pyrene excimer emission. Selective sensing is based on a CS2-specific reaction with hydrophilic amino groups to produce hydrophobic dithiocarbamate moieties, which can strongly quench the pyrene excimer emission via a known photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. Therefore, the developed micellar nanoprobes are free of the H2S interference problem often encountered in the widely used colorimetric assays and proved to show high selectivity over many potentially competing chemical species. Importantly, the developed approach is capable of CS2 sensing even in complex tap and river water samples. In addition, in view of the modular design principle of these powerful micellar nanoprobes, the sensing strategy used here is expected to be applicable to the development of various sensory systems for other environmentally important guest species. PMID:27419849

  18. Benzimidazole-based ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probes for acidic pH in live cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung

    2013-11-27

    Many aspects of cell metabolism are controlled by acidic pH. We report a new family of small molecule and ratiometric two photon (TP) probes derived from benzimidazole (BH1-3 and BH1L) for monitoring acidic pH values. These probes are characterized by a strong two-photon excited fluorescence, a marked blue-to-green emission color change in response to pH, pKa values ranging from 4.9 to 6.1, a distinctive isoemissive point, negligible cytotoxicity, and high photostability, thereby allowing quantitative analysis of acidic pH. Moreover, we show that BH1L optimized as a lysosomal-targeted probe allows for direct, real-time estimation of the pH values inside lysosomal compartments in live cells as well as in living mouse brain tissues through the use of two-photon microscopy. These findings demonstrate that these probes will find useful applications in biomedical research.

  19. Imaging the directed transport of single engineered RNA transcripts in real-time using ratiometric bimolecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Zajac, Allison L; Huang, Lingyan; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between RNA expression and cell function can often be difficult to decipher due to the presence of both temporal and sub-cellular processing of RNA. These intricacies of RNA regulation can often be overlooked when only acquiring global measurements of RNA expression. This has led to development of several tools that allow for the real-time imaging of individual engineered RNA transcripts in living cells. Here, we describe a new technique that utilizes an oligonucleotide-based probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), to image RNA transcripts that were engineered to contain 96-tandem repeats of the RBMB target sequence in the 3'-untranslated region. Binding of RBMBs to the target RNA resulted in discrete bright fluorescent spots, representing individual transcripts, that could be imaged in real-time. Since RBMBs are a synthetic probe, the use of photostable, bright, and red-shifted fluorophores led to a high signal-to-background. RNA motion was readily characterized by both mean squared displacement and moment scaling spectrum analyses. These analyses revealed clear examples of directed, Brownian, and subdiffusive movements.

  20. Zinc(II)-selective ratiometric fluorescent sensors based on inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Henary, Maged M; Wu, Yonggang; Fahrni, Christoph J

    2004-06-21

    To develop a zinc(II)-selective emission ratiometric probe suitable for biological applications, we explored the cation-induced inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) with a series of 2-(2'-benzenesulfonamidophenyl)benzimidazole derivatives. In the absence of Zn(II) at neutral pH, the fluorophores undergo ESIPT to yield a highly Stokes' shifted emission from the proton-transfer tautomer. Coordination of Zn(II) inhibits the ESIPT process and yields a significant hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence emission maximum. Whereas the paramagnetic metal cations Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) result in fluorescence quenching, the emission response is not altered by millimolar concentrations of Ca(II) or Mg(II), rendering the sensors selective for Zn(II) among all biologically important metal cations. Due to the modular architecture of the fluorophore, the Zn(II) binding affinity can be readily tuned by implementing simple structural modifications. The synthesized probes are suitable to gauge free Zn(II) concentrations in the micromolar to picomolar range under physiological conditions.

  1. A Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe Based on a Through-Bond Energy Transfer (TBET) System for Imaging HOCl in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ru; Meng, Ning; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-12-21

    A simple ratiometric probe (Naph-Rh) has been designed and synthesized based on a through-bond energy transfer (TBET) system for sensing HOCl. In this probe, rhodamine thiohydrazide and naphthalene formyl were connected by simple synthesis methods to construct a structure of monothio-bishydrazide. Free probe Naph-Rh showed only the emission of naphthalene. When probe Naph-Rh reacted with HOCl, monothio-bishydrazide could be converted into 1,2,4-oxadiazole, which not only ensured that the donor and the acceptor were connected with electronically conjugated bonds, but also resulted in the spiro-ring opening and the emission of rhodamine. Therefore, a typical TBET process took place. The probe possessed high-energy transfer efficiency and large pseudo-Stokes shifts. As the first TBET probe for HOCl, Naph-Rh showed excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward HOCl over other reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and could respond fast to a low concentration of HOCl in the real sample. In addition, the probe was suitable for imaging HOCl in living cells due to its real-time response, excellent resolution, and reduced cytotoxicity. PMID:26568524

  2. Fluorescent peptide-based sensors for the ratiometric detection of nanomolar concentration of heparin in aqueous solutions and in serum.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi, Ponnaboina; Neupane, Lok Nath; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2015-05-11

    New fluorescent peptide-based sensors (1-3) for monitoring heparin in serum sample were synthesized using short peptides (1∼3mer) as a receptor. The peptide-based sensors (2 and 3) showed a sensitive ratiometric response to heparin both in aqueous buffered solution (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4) and in 2% human serum sample by increase of excimer emission of pyrene at 480 nm and concomitant decrease of monomer emission of pyrene at 376 nm, whereas the peptide-based sensor 1 showed a turn off response only by decrease of monomer emission at 376 nm. 2 and 3 exhibited excellent selectivity toward heparin among various anions and competitors of heparin including chondroitin 4-sulfate (ChS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). Peptide-based sensor 3 showed a more sensitive response to heparin than 2. The detection limit of 3 was determined as 36 pM (R(2) = 0.998) for heparin in aqueous solution and 204 pM (R(2) = 0.999) for heparin in aqueous solutions containing 2% human serum. The peptide-based sensors, 2 and 3 provided a practical and potential tool for the detection and quantification of heparin in real biological samples.

  3. A low cytotoxic and ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon-dots for intracellular pH sensing and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangkai; Ming, Yunhao; Zeng, Fang; Yu, Changmin; Wu, Shuizhu

    2013-09-01

    Intracellular pH plays a critical role in the function of cells, and its regulation is essential for most cellular processes. In this study, we demonstrate a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ratiometric pH nanosensor with carbon-dot (CD) as the carrier. The sensor was prepared by covalently linking a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC) onto carbon-dot. As the FRET donor, the carbon-dot exhibits bright fluorescence emission as well as λex-dependent photoluminescence emission, and a suitable excitation wavelength for the donor (CD) can be chosen to match the energy acceptor (fluorescein moiety). The fluorescein moieties on a CD undergo structural and spectral conversion as the pH changes, affording the nanoplatform a FRET-based pH sensor. The CD-based system exhibits a significant change in fluorescence intensity ratio between pH 4 and 8 with a pKa value of 5.69. It also displays excellent water dispersibility, good spectral reversibility, satisfactory cell permeability and low cytotoxicity. Following the living cell uptake, this nanoplatform with dual-chromatic emissions can facilitate real-time visualization of the pH evolution involved in the endocytic pathway of the nanosensor. This reversible and low cytotoxic fluorescent nanoplatform may be highly valuable in a variety of biological studies, such as endocytic trafficking, endosome/lysosome maturation, and pH regulation in subcellular organelles.

  4. Ratiometric highly sensitive luminescent nanothermometers working in the room temperature range. Applications to heat propagation in nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carlos D S; Lima, Patrícia P; Silva, Nuno J O; Millán, Angel; Amaral, Vitor S; Palacio, Fernando; Carlos, Luís D

    2013-08-21

    There is an increasing demand for accurate, non-invasive and self-reference temperature measurements as technology progresses into the nanoscale. This is particularly so in micro- and nanofluidics where the comprehension of heat transfer and thermal conductivity mechanisms can play a crucial role in areas as diverse as energy transfer and cell physiology. Here we present two luminescent ratiometric nanothermometers based on a magnetic core coated with an organosilica shell co-doped with Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) chelates. The design of the hybrid host and chelate ligands permits the working of the nanothermometers in a nanofluid at 293-320 K with an emission quantum yield of 0.38 ± 0.04, a maximum relative sensitivity of 1.5% K(-1) at 293 K and a spatio-temporal resolution (constrained by the experimental setup) of 64 × 10(-6) m/150 × 10(-3) s (to move out of 0.4 K--the temperature uncertainty). The heat propagation velocity in the nanofluid, (2.2 ± 0.1) × 10(-3) m s(-1), was determined at 294 K using the nanothermometers' Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) steady-state spectra. There is no precedent of such an experimental measurement in a thermographic nanofluid, where the propagation velocity is measured from the same nanoparticles used to measure the temperature. PMID:23835484

  5. Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yiyang; Li, Jin Zhong; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    A longstanding goal in neuroscience has been to develop techniques for imaging the voltage dynamics of genetically defined subsets of neurons. Optical sensors of transmembrane voltage would enhance studies of neural activity in contexts ranging from individual neurons cultured in vitro to neuronal populations in awake-behaving animals. Recent progress has identified Archaerhodopsin (Arch) based sensors as a promising, genetically encoded class of fluorescent voltage indicators that can report single action potentials. Wild-type Arch exhibits sub-millisecond fluorescence responses to trans-membrane voltage, but its light-activated proton pump also responds to the imaging illumination. An Arch mutant (Arch-D95N) exhibits no photocurrent, but has a slower, ~40 ms response to voltage transients. Here we present Arch-derived voltage sensors with trafficking signals that enhance their localization to the neural membrane. We also describe Arch mutant sensors (Arch-EEN and -EEQ) that exhibit faster kinetics and greater fluorescence dynamic range than Arch-D95N, and no photocurrent at the illumination intensities normally used for imaging. We benchmarked these voltage sensors regarding their spike detection fidelity by using a signal detection theoretic framework that takes into account the experimentally measured photon shot noise and optical waveforms for single action potentials. This analysis revealed that by combining the sequence mutations and enhanced trafficking sequences, the new sensors improved the fidelity of spike detection by nearly three-fold in comparison to Arch-D95N. PMID:23840563

  6. Carbon-Dot and Quantum-Dot-Coated Dual-Emission Core-Satellite Silica Nanoparticles for Ratiometric Intracellular Cu(2+) Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chenchen; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Tan, Xuecai; Shao, Kang; Wu, Long; Lu, Zhicheng; Bahlol, Hagar Shendy; Han, Heyou

    2016-07-19

    Copper (Cu(2+)) is physiologically essential, but excessive Cu(2+) may cause potential risk to plants and animals due to the bioaccumulative properties. Hence, sensitive recognition is crucial to avoid overintake of Cu(2+), and visual recognition is more favored for practical application. In this work, a dual-emission ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe was developed possessing the required intensity ratio, which can facilitate the sensitive identification of Cu(2+) by the naked eye. The probe hybridizes two fluorescence nanodots (quantum dots (QDs) and carbon dots (CDs)). Although both of them can be viable fluorescence probes for metal ion detection, rarely research has coupled this two different kinds of fluorescence material in one nanosensor to fabricate a selectively ratiometric fluorescence probe for intracellular imaging. The red emitting CdTe/CdS QDs were capped around the silica microsphere to serve as the response signal label, and the blue-emitting CDs, which is insensitive to the analyte, were covalently attached to the QDs surface to act as the reference signal. This core-satellite hybrid sphere not only improves the stability and brightness of QDs significantly but also decreases the cytotoxicity toward HeLa cells tremendously. Moreover, the Cu(2+) could quench the QDs emission effectively but have no ability for reduction of the CDs emission. Accordingly, a simple, efficient, and precise method for tracing Cu(2+) was proposed. The increase of Cu(2+) concentration in the series of 0-3 × 10(-6) M was in accordance with linearly decrease of the F650/F425 ratio. As for practical application, this nanosensor was utilized to the ratiometric fluorescence imaging of copper ions in HeLa cells. PMID:27347813

  7. UV-Light-Induced Improvement of Fluorescence Quantum Yield of DNA-Templated Gold Nanoclusters: Application to Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensing of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Yu; Wu, Yun-Tse; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-10-28

    The use of DNA as a template has been demonstrated as an effective method for synthesizing different-sized silver nanoclusters. Although DNA-templated silver nanoclusters show outstanding performance as fluorescent probes for chemical sensing and cellular imaging, the synthesis of DNA-stabilized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with high fluorescence intensity remains a challenge. Here a facile, reproducible, scalable, NaBH4-free, UV-light-assisted method was developed to prepare AuNCs using repeats of 30 adenosine nucleotides (A30). The maximal fluorescence of A30-stabilized AuNCs appeared at 475 nm with moderate quantum yield, two fluorescence lifetimes, and a small amount of Au(+) on the surface of the Au core. Results of size-exclusion chromatography revealed that A30-stabilized AuNCs were more compact than A30. A series of control experiments showed that UV light played a dual role in the reduction of gold-ion precursors and the decomposition of citrate ions. A30 also acted as a stabilizer to prevent the aggregation of AuNCs. In addition, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) consisting of an AuNC-nucleation sequence and a hybridization sequence was utilized to develop a AuNC-based ratiometric fluorescent probe in the presence of the double-strand-chelating dye SYBR Green I (SG). Under conditions of single-wavelength excitation, the combination of AuNC/SG-bearing ssDNA and perfectly matched DNA emitted fluorescence at 475 and 525 nm, respectively. The formed AuNC/SG-bearing ssDNA enabled the sensitive, selective, and ratiometric detection of specific nucleic acid targets. Finally, the AuNC-based ratiometric probes were successfully applied to determine specific nucleic acid targets in human serum.

  8. Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-conjugated protein-directed synthesis of gold nanoclusters for fluorescent ratiometric sensing of an enzyme-substrate system.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chen-Yi; Wu, Yun-Tse; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the synthesis of a dual emission probe for the fluorescent ratiometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), enzyme activity, and environmental pH change. Green-emitting fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) was conjugated to the amino groups of bovine serum albumin (BSA). This FITC-conjugated BSA acted as a template for the synthesis of red-emitting gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) under alkaline conditions. Under single wavelength excitation, FITC/BSA-stabilized AuNCs (FITC/BSA-AuNCs) emitted fluorescence at 525 and 670nm, which are sensitive to changes in solution pH and H2O2 concentration, respectively. The effective fluorescence quenching of AuNCs by H2O2 enabled FITC/BSA-AuNCs to ratiometrically detect the H2O2 product-related enzyme system and its inhibition, including glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of glucose, acetylcholinesterase/choline oxidase-mediated hydrolysis and oxidation of acetylcholine, and paraoxon-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. When pH-insensitive AuNCs were used as an internal standard, FITC/BSA-AuNCs offered a sensitive and reversible ratiometric sensing of a 0.1-pH unit change in the pH range 5.0-8.5. The pH-induced change in FITC fluorescence enabled FITC/BSA-AuNCs to detect an ammonia product-related enzyme system. This was exemplified with the determination of urea in plasma by urease-mediated hydrolysis of urea.

  9. Ratiometric fluorescence transduction by hybridization after isothermal amplification for determination of zeptomole quantities of oligonucleotide biomarkers with a paper-based platform and camera-based detection.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Hrovat, David; Moazami-Goudarzi, Maryam; Espie, George S; Krull, Ulrich J

    2015-07-23

    Paper is a promising platform for the development of decentralized diagnostic assays owing to the low cost and ease of use of paper-based analytical devices (PADs). It can be challenging to detect on PADs very low concentrations of nucleic acid biomarkers of lengths as used in clinical assays. Herein we report the use of thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) in combination with a paper-based platform for fluorescence detection of probe-target hybridization. Paper substrates were patterned using wax printing. The cellulosic fibers were chemically derivatized with imidazole groups for the assembly of the transduction interface that consisted of immobilized quantum dot (QD)-probe oligonucleotide conjugates. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) served as donors with Cy3 as the acceptor dye in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based transduction method. After probe-target hybridization, a further hybridization event with a reporter sequence brought the Cy3 acceptor dye in close proximity to the surface of immobilized gQDs, triggering a FRET sensitized emission that served as an analytical signal. Ratiometric detection was evaluated using both an epifluorescence microscope and a low-cost iPad camera as detectors. Addition of the tHDA method for target amplification to produce sequences of ∼100 base length allowed for the detection of zmol quantities of nucleic acid targets using the two detection platforms. The ratiometric QD-FRET transduction method not only offered improved assay precision, but also lowered the limit of detection of the assay when compared with the non-ratiometric QD-FRET transduction method. The selectivity of the hybridization assays was demonstrated by the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism.

  10. An Ion-insensitive cAMP Biosensor for Long Term Quantitative Ratiometric Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Measurements under Variable Physiological Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Salonikidis, Petrus S.; Niebert, Marcus; Ullrich, Tim; Bao, Guobin; Zeug, Andre; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2011-01-01

    Ratiometric measurements with FRET-based biosensors in living cells using a single fluorescence excitation wavelength are often affected by a significant ion sensitivity and the aggregation behavior of the FRET pair. This is an important problem for quantitative approaches. Here we report on the influence of physiological ion concentration changes on quantitative ratiometric measurements by comparing different FRET pairs for a cAMP-detecting biosensor. We exchanged the enhanced CFP/enhanced YFP FRET pair of an established Epac1-based biosensor by the fluorophores mCerulean/mCitrine. In the case of enhanced CFP/enhanced YFP, we showed that changes in proton, and (to a lesser extent) chloride ion concentrations result in incorrect ratiometric FRET signals, which may exceed the dynamic range of the biosensor. Calcium ions have no direct, but an indirect pH-driven effect by mobilizing protons. These ion dependences were greatly eliminated when mCerulean/mCitrine fluorophores were used. For such advanced FRET pairs the biosensor is less sensitive to changes in ion concentration and allows consistent cAMP concentration measurements under different physiological conditions, as occur in metabolically active cells. In addition, we verified that the described FRET pair exchange increased the dynamic range of the FRET efficiency response. The time window for stable experimental conditions was also prolonged by a faster biosensor expression rate in transfected cells and a greatly reduced tendency to aggregate, which reduces cytotoxicity. These properties were verified in functional tests in single cells co-expressing the biosensor and the 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:21454618

  11. Ratiometric two-photon excited photoluminescence of quantum dots triggered by near-infrared-light for real-time detection of nitric oxide release in situ.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yanfeng

    2016-05-30

    Probe-donor integrated nanocomposites were developed from conjugating silica-coated Mn(2+):ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with MoS2 QDs and photosensitive nitric oxide (NO) donors (Fe4S3(NO)7(-), RBS). Under excitation with near-infrared (NIR) light at 808 nm, the Mn(2+):ZnS@SiO2/MoS2-RBS nanocomposites showed the dual-emissive two-photon excited photoluminescence (TPEPL) that induced RBS photolysis to release NO in situ. NO caused TPEPL quenching of Mn(2+):ZnS QDs, but it produced almost no impact on the TPEPL of MoS2 QDs. Hence, the nanocomposites were developed as a novel QDs-based ratiometric TPEPL probe for real-time detection of NO release in situ. The ratiometric TPEPL intensity is nearly linear (R(2) = 0.9901) with NO concentration in the range of 0.01∼0.8 μM, which corresponds to the range of NO release time (0∼15 min). The detection limit was calculated to be approximately 4 nM of NO. Experimental results confirmed that this novel ratiometric TPEPL probe possessed high selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of NO against potential competitors, and especially showed high detection performance for NIR-light triggered NO release in tumor intracellular microenvironments. These results would promote the development of versatile probe-donor integrated systems, also providing a facile and efficient strategy to real-time detect the highly controllable drug release in situ, especially in physiological microenvironments. PMID:27154831

  12. rFRET: A comprehensive, Matlab-based program for analyzing intensity-based ratiometric microscopic FRET experiments.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Szabó, Ágnes; Váradi, Tímea; Kovács, Tamás; Batta, Gyula; Szöllősi, János

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) remains one of the most widely used methods for assessing protein clustering and conformation. Although it is a method with solid physical foundations, many applications of FRET fall short of providing quantitative results due to inappropriate calibration and controls. This shortcoming is especially valid for microscopy where currently available tools have limited or no capability at all to display parameter distributions or to perform gating. Since users of multiparameter flow cytometry usually apply these tools, the absence of these features in applications developed for microscopic FRET analysis is a significant limitation. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface-controlled Matlab application for the evaluation of ratiometric, intensity-based microscopic FRET measurements. The program can calculate all the necessary overspill and spectroscopic correction factors and the FRET efficiency and it displays the results on histograms and dot plots. Gating on plots and mask images can be used to limit the calculation to certain parts of the image. It is an important feature of the program that the calculated parameters can be determined by regression methods, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and from summed intensities in addition to pixel-by-pixel evaluation. The confidence interval of calculated parameters can be estimated using parameter simulations if the approximate average number of detected photons is known. The program is not only user-friendly, but it provides rich output, it gives the user freedom to choose from different calculation modes and it gives insight into the reliability and distribution of the calculated parameters. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  13. On-Resonance Fluorescence, Resonance Rayleigh Scattering, and Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy of Molecular- and Quantum Dot-Fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Siriwardana, Kumudu; Nettles, Charles B; Vithanage, Buddhini C N; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-09-20

    Existing studies on molecular fluorescence have almost exclusively been focused on Stokes-shifted fluorescence spectroscopy (SSF) in which the emitted photon is detected at the wavelengths longer than that for the excitation photons. Information on fluorophore on-resonance fluorescence (ORF) and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) is limited and often problematic due to the complex interplay of the fluorophore photon absorption, ORF emission, RRS, and solvent Rayleigh scattering. Reported herein is a relatively large-scale systematic study on fluorophore ORF and RRS using the conventional UV-vis extinction and SSF measurements in combination with the recently reported ratiometric resonance synchronous spectroscopic (R2S2, pronounced as "R-Two-S-Two") method. A series of fundamental parameters including fluorophore ORF cross sections and quantum yields have been quantified for the first time for a total of 12 molecular and 6 semiconductor quantum dot (QD) fluorophores. All fluorophore spectra comprise a well-defined Gaussian peak with a full width at half-maximum ranging from 4 to 30 nm. However, the RRS features of fluorophores differ drastically. The effect of fluorophore aggregation on its RRS, UV-vis, R2S2, and SSF spectra was also discussed. This work highlights the critical importance of the combined UV-vis extinction, SSF, and R2S2 spectroscopic measurements for material characterizations. The method and insights described in this work can be directly used for improving the reliability of RRS spectroscopic methods in chemical analysis. In addition, it should pave the way for developing novel R2S2-based analytical applications.

  14. Wavelength-ratiometric near-physiological pH sensors based on 6-aminoquinolinium boronic acid probes.

    PubMed

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Geddes, Chris D

    2005-04-30

    We describe the pH response of a set of isomeric water-soluble fluorescent probes based on both the 6-aminoquinolinium and boronic acid moieties. These probes show spectral shifts and intensity changes with pH, in a wavelength-ratiometric and colorimetric manner. Subsequently, changes in pH can readily be determined around the physiological level. Although boronic acid containing probes are known to exhibit pH sensitivity along with an ability for saccharide binding/chelating, the new probes reported here are considered to be unique and show an unperturbed pH response, even in the presence of high concentrations of background saccharide, such as with glucose and fructose, allowing for the predominant pH sensitivity. The response of the probes is based on the ability of the boronic acid group to interact with strong bases like OH(-), changing from the neutral form of the boronic acid group, R-B(OH)(2), to the anionic ester, R-B(-)(OH)(3), form, which is an electron donating group. The presence of an electron deficient quaternary heterocyclic nitrogen center and a strong electron donating amino group in the 6-position of the quinolinium backbone, provides for the spectral changes observed upon OH(-) complexation. In addition, by comparing the results obtained with systems separately incorporating 6-methoxy or 6-methyl substituents, the suppressed response towards monosaccharides, such as with glucose and fructose, can clearly be observed for these systems. Finally we compare our results to those of a control compound, BAQ, which does not contain the boronic acid group, allowing a rationale of the spectral changes to be made.

  15. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  16. Preparation of graphene quantum dots based core-satellite hybrid spheres and their use as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for visual determination of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Mengjuan; Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kan; Yang, Zhenting; Liu, Qian; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-08-12

    We herein proposed a simple and effective strategy for preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-based core-satellite hybrid spheres and further explored the feasibility of using such spheres as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for the visual determination of Hg(2+). The red-emitting CdTe QDs were firstly entrapped in the silica nanosphere to reduce their toxicity and improve their photo and chemical stabilities, thus providing a built-in correction for environmental effects, while the GQDs possessing good biocompatibility and low toxicity were electrostatic self-assembly on the silica surface acting as reaction sites. Upon exposure to the increasing contents of Hg(2+), the blue fluorescence of GQDs can be gradually quenched presumably due to facilitating nonradiative electron/hole recombination annihilation. With the embedded CdTe QDs as the internal standard, the variations of the tested solution display continuous fluorescence color changes from blue to red, which can be easily observed by the naked eye without any sophisticated instrumentations and specially equipped laboratories. This sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg(2+) in a broad linear range of 10 nM-22 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM (S/N = 3), much lower than the allowable Hg(2+) contents in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This prototype ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, excellent stabilities, and thus potentially attractive for Hg(2+) quantification related biological systems. PMID:26320973

  17. A ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe reveals reduction in mitochondrial H2S production in Parkinson's disease gene knockout astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung Keun; Heo, Cheol Ho; Choi, Dong Joo; Sen, Debabrata; Joe, Eun-Hye; Cho, Bong Rae; Kim, Hwan Myung

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a multifunctional signaling molecule that exerts neuroprotective effects in oxidative stress. In this article, we report a mitochondria-localized two-photon probe, SHS-M2, that can be excited by 750 nm femtosecond pulses and employed for ratiometric detection of H2S in live astrocytes and living brain slices using two-photon microscopy (TPM). SHS-M2 shows bright two-photon-excited fluorescence and a marked change in emission color from blue to yellow in response to H2S, low cytotoxicity, easy loading, and minimum interference from other biologically relevant species including reactive sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen species, thereby allowing quantitative analysis of H2S levels. Molecular TPM imaging with SHS-M2 in astrocytes revealed that there is a correlation between the ratiometric analysis and expression levels of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), the major enzyme that catalyzes H2S production. In studies involving DJ-1, a Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, attenuated H2S production in comparison with wild-type controls was observed in DJ-1-knockout astrocytes and brain slices, where CBS expression was decreased. These findings demonstrate that reduced H2S levels in astrocytes may contribute to the development of PD and that SHS-M2 may be useful as a marker to detect a risk of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD.

  18. Label-free and ratiometric detection of nuclei acids based on graphene quantum dots utilizing cascade amplification by nicking endonuclease and catalytic G-quadruplex DNAzyme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Fang, Xin; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Hu, Xue-Lian; Li, Zai-Jun

    2016-07-15

    Herein, we report a ratiometric fluorescence assay based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the ultrasensitive DNA detection by coupling the nicking endonuclease assisted target recycling and the G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme biocatalysis for cascade signal amplifications. With o-phenylenediamine acted as the substrate of G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme, whose oxidization product (that is, 2,3-diaminophenazine, DAP) quenched the fluorescence intensity of GQDs (at 460nm) obviously, accompanied with the emergence of a new emission of DAP (at 564nm). The ratiometric signal variations at the emission wavelengths of 564 and 460nm (I564/I460) were utilized for label-free, sensitive, and selective detection of target DNA. Utilizing the nicking endonuclease assisted target recycling and the G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme biocatalysis for amplified cascade generation of DAP, the proposed bioassay exhibited high sensitivity toward target DNA with a detection limit of 30fM. The method also had additional advantages such as facile preparation and easy operation.

  19. Monitoring of the proton electrochemical gradient in reconstituted vesicles: quantitative measurements of both transmembrane potential and intravesicular pH by ratiometric fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, Ales; Vecer, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel

    2007-03-01

    Proteoliposomes carrying reconstituted yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in their lipid membrane or plasma membrane vesicles are model systems convenient for studying basic electrochemical processes involved in formation of the proton electrochemical gradient (Deltamicro(H) (+)) across the microbial or plant cell membrane. Deltapsi- and pH-sensitive fluorescent probes were used to monitor the gradients formed between inner and outer volume of the reconstituted vesicles. The Deltapsi-sensitive fluorescent ratiometric probe oxonol VI is suitable for quantitative measurements of inside-positive Deltapsi generated by the reconstituted H(+)-ATPase. Its Deltapsi response can be calibrated by the K(+)/valinomycin method and ratiometric mode of fluorescence measurements reduces undesirable artefacts. In situ pH-sensitive fluorescent probe pyranine was used for quantitative measurements of pH inside the proteoliposomes. Calibration of pH-sensitive fluorescence response of pyranine entrapped inside proteoliposomes was performed with several ionophores combined in order to deplete the gradients passively formed across the membrane. Presented model system offers a suitable tool for simultaneous monitoring of both components of the proton electrochemical gradient, Deltapsi and DeltapH. This approach should help in further understanding how their formation is interconnected on biomembranes and even how transport of other ions is combined to it.

  20. A regenerative ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for selective detecting Hg²⁺ based on Y-shaped/hairpin DNA transformation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Chen, Hong Guo; Feng, Ji; Lei, Jing Lei; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-02-18

    Inspired by dual-signaling ratiometric mechanism which could reduce the influence of the environmental change, a novel, convenient, and reliable method for the detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)) based on Y-shaped DNA (Y-DNA) was developed. Firstly, the Y-DNA was formed via the simple annealing way of using two different redox probes simultaneously, omitting the multiple operation steps on the electrode. The Y-DNA was immobilized on the gold electrode surface and then an obvious ferrocene (Fc) signal and a weak methylene blue (MB) signal were observed. Upon addition of Hg(2+), the Y-DNA structure was transformed to hairpin structure based on the formation of T-Hg(2+)-T complex. During the transformation, the redox MB gets close to and the redox Fc gets far away from the electrode surface, respectively. This special design allows a reliable Hg(2+) detection with a detection range from 1 nM to 5 μM and a low detection limit down to 0.094 nM. Furthermore, this biosensor exhibits good selectivity and repeatability, and can be easily regenerated by using L-cysteine. This study offers a simple and effective method for designing ratiometric biosensors for detecting other ions and biomolecules.

  1. High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device

    PubMed Central

    Garai, Ellis; Sensarn, Steven; Zavaleta, Cristina L.; Van de Sompel, Dominique; Loewke, Nathan O.; Mandella, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Topical application and quantification of targeted, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles offer a new technique that has the potential for early detection of epithelial cancers of hollow organs. Although less toxic than intravenous delivery, the additional washing required to remove unbound nanoparticles cannot necessarily eliminate nonspecific pooling. Therefore, we developed a real-time, ratiometric imaging technique to determine the relative concentrations of at least two spectrally unique nanoparticle types, where one serves as a nontargeted control. This approach improves the specific detection of bound, targeted nanoparticles by adjusting for working distance and for any nonspecific accumulation following washing. We engineered hardware and software to acquire SERS signals and ratios in real time and display them via a graphical user interface. We report quantitative, ratiometric imaging with nanoparticles at pM and sub-pM concentrations and at varying working distances, up to 50 mm. Additionally, we discuss optimization of a Raman endoscope by evaluating the effects of lens material and fiber coating on background noise, and theoretically modeling and simulating collection efficiency at various working distances. This work will enable the development of a clinically translatable, noncontact Raman endoscope capable of rapidly scanning large, topographically complex tissue surfaces for small and otherwise hard to detect lesions. PMID:24008818

  2. Combined surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy biotags and microfluidic platform for quantitative ratiometric discrimination between noncancerous and cancerous cells in flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallaoro, Alessia; Hoonejani, Mehran R.; Braun, Gary B.; Meinhart, Carl; Moskovits, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) biotags (SBTs) that carry peptides as cell recognition moieties were made from polymer-encapsulated silver nanoparticle dimers, infused with unique Raman reporter molecules. We previously demonstrated their potential use for identification of malignant cells, a central goal in cancer research, through a multiplexed, ratiometric method that can confidently distinguish between cancerous and noncancerous epithelial prostate cells in vitro based on receptor overexpression. Progress has been made toward the application of this quantitative methodology for the identification of cancer cells in a microfluidic flow-focusing device. Beads are used as cell mimics to evaluate the devices. Cells (and beads) are simultaneously incubated with two sets of SBTs while in suspension, then injected into the device for laser interrogation under flow. Each cell event is characterized by a composite Raman spectrum, deconvoluted into its single components to ultimately determine their relative contribution. We have found that using SBTs ratiometrically can provide cell identification in flow, insensitive to normal causes of uncertainty in optical measurements such as variations in focal plane, cell concentration, autofluorescence, and turbidity.

  3. Exploring 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone as long-range emissive ratiometric fluorescent probe for signaling Zn(2+)/PO4(3-): Ensemble utilization for live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sougata; Gaur, Pankaj; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Mukhopadhyay, Subhrakanti; Ghosh, Subrata

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescent 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone 1 was found to demonstrate its ratiometric signaling property upon interaction with divalent zinc (Zn(2+)). While the probe itself exhibited fluorescence emission in the yellow region (λem=544 nm and 567 nm), binding with Zn(2+) induced strong emission in the orange region (λem=600 nm) which was mainly due to a combination of CHEF and ICT mechanism. The probe was found to be highly sensitive toward the detection of zinc and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 9×10(-7) M. The possibility of using this probe for real-time analysis was strongly supported by the striking stability of fluorescence signal for more than five days with similar fluorescence intensity as observed during instant signaling. The present probe works within physiological pH range and is devoid of any interference caused by the same group elements such as Cd(2+)/Hg(2+). The probe possesses excellent excitation/emission wavelength profile and can penetrate cell membrane to image low concentration of zing inside living system. The in situ formed zinc-probe ensemble was further explored as ratiometric sensing platform for detecting another bio-relevant analyte phosphate anion through a zinc-displacement approach.

  4. RBC indices

    MedlinePlus

    ... corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); Red blood cell indices ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 158. Goljan EF. Red blood cell disorders. In: Goljan E, ed. Rapid ...

  5. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  6. Label-free discrimination of normal and pulmonary cancer tissues using multiphoton fluorescence ratiometric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Yang-Fang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    We performed multiphoton excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for the distinction of normal, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens. In addition to morphological distinction, we derived quantitative metrics of cellular redox ratios for cancer discrimination. Specifically, the redox ratios of paired normal/SCC and normal/LAC specimens were found to be 0.53±0.05/0.41±0.06 and 0.56±0.02/0.35±0.06, respectively. The lower redox ratios in cancer specimens, indicating an increase in metabolic activity. These results show that the combination of morphological multiphoton imaging along with redox ratio indices can be used for the discrimination of normal and pulmonary cancer tissues.

  7. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  8. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  9. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  10. Ratiometric near infrared luminescent thermometer based on lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Dian; Lian, Xiusheng; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    A near infrared luminescent MOFs thermometer (Nd0.676Yb0.324BTC) was prepared via a simple solvothermal method using Ln3+ (Ln=Nd, Yb) ions and 1, 3, 5-benznenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC), and characterized by PXRD, TGA, ICP, and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. These results indicate that the Nd0.676Yb0.324BTC displays high relative sensitivity and excellent repeatability in the physiological temperature range (288-323 K), and the maximum relative sensitivity is determined to be 1.187% K-1 at 323 K. These NIR luminescent MOFs may have potential applications in physiological temperature sensing.

  11. Monitoring sperm mitochondrial respiration response in a laser trap using ratiometric fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Adrian; Botvinick, Elliot; Berns, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Sperm motility is an important area in understanding male infertility. Various techniques, such as the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA), have been used to understand sperm motility. Sperm motility is related to the energy (ATP) production of sperm. ATP is produced by the depolarization of the membrane potential of the inner membrane of the mitochondria. In this study, a mitochondrial dye, JC-1, has been used to monitor the energetics of the mitochondria. This fluorescent dye can emit at two different wavelengths, depending on the membrane potential of the mitochondria. It can fluoresce green at low membrane potential and red at high membrane potential. The ratio of the two colors (red/green) allows for an accurate measurement of the change of membrane potential. Various experiments were conducted to quantify the behavior of the dye within the sperm and the reaction of the sperm to trap. Sperm were trapped using laser tweezers. Results have shown that the ratio drops dramatically when sperm are trapped, indicating a depolarization of the membrane. The physiological response to this depolarization is yet to be determined, but the studies indicate that the sperm could have been slightly damaged by the laser. However, knowing that sperm depolarizes their membrane when trapped can help understand how sperm react to their environment and consequently help treat male infertility.

  12. Inactivation of the Carney complex gene 1 (PRKAR1A) alters spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase: a study using genetically encoded FRET-based reporters.

    PubMed

    Cazabat, Laure; Ragazzon, Bruno; Varin, Audrey; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Vandier, Christophe; Vezzosi, Delphine; Risk-Rabin, Marthe; Guellich, Aziz; Schittl, Julia; Lechêne, Patrick; Richter, Wito; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Zhang, Jin; Bertherat, Jérôme; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-03-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a hereditary disease associating cardiac myxoma, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity. CNC is caused by inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene encoding PKA type I alpha regulatory subunit (RIα). Although PKA activity is enhanced in CNC, the mechanisms linking PKA dysregulation to endocrine tumorigenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensors for cAMP and PKA activity to define the role of RIα in the spatiotemporal organization of the cAMP/PKA pathway. RIα knockdown in HEK293 cells increased basal as well as forskolin or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-stimulated total cellular PKA activity as reported by western blots of endogenous PKA targets and the FRET-based global PKA activity reporter, AKAR3. Using variants of AKAR3 targeted to subcellular compartments, we identified similar increases in the response to PGE1 in the cytoplasm and at the outer mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, at the plasma membrane, the response to PGE1 was decreased along with an increase in basal FRET ratio. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis of basal and PGE1-induced phosphorylation of membrane-associated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Similar differences were observed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in human adrenal cells carrying a RIα inactivating mutation. RIα inactivation also increased cAMP in the cytoplasm, at the outer mitochondrial membrane and at the plasma membrane, as reported by targeted versions of the cAMP indicator Epac1-camps. These results show that RIα inactivation leads to multiple, compartment-specific alterations of the cAMP/PKA pathway revealing new aspects of signaling dysregulation in tumorigenesis. PMID:24122441

  13. Efficient On-Off Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe for Cyanide Ion Based on Perturbation of the Interaction between Gold Nanoclusters and a Copper(II)-Phthalocyanine Complex.

    PubMed

    Shojaeifard, Zahra; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-06-22

    A new ratiometric fluorescent sensor was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of cyanide ion (CN(-)) in aqueous media. The ratiometric sensing system is based on CN(-) modulated recovery of copper(II) phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) fluorescence signal at the expense of diminished fluorescence intensity of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Preliminary experiments revealed that the AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) possess a turn-off effect on each other, the interaction of which being verified through studying their interactions by principle component analysis (PCA) and multivariate cure resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods. In the presence of CN(-) anion, the AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) interaction was perturbed, so that the fluorescence of Cu (PcTs), already quenched by AuNCs, was found to be efficiently recovered, while the fluorescence intensity of AuNCs was quenched via the formation of a stable [Au(CN)2](-) species. The ratiometric variation of AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) fluorescence intensities leads to designing a highly sensitive probe for CN(-) ion detection. Under the optimal conditions, CN(-) anion was detected without needing any etching time, over the concentration range of 100 nM-220 μM, with a detection limit of 75 nM, which is much lower than the allowable level of CN(-) in water permitted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the detection of CN(-) was developed based on the CN(-) effects on the blue and red florescent colors of Cu(PcTs) and AuNCs, respectively. The designed probe displays a continuous color change from red to blue by addition of CN(-), which can be clearly observed by the naked eye in the range of 7-350 μM, under UV lamp. The prepared AuNCs/Cu(PcTs) probe was successfully utilized for the selective and sensitive determination of CN(-) anion in two different types of natural water (Rodbal dam and rainwater) and also in blood serum as a biological sample.

  14. Efficient On-Off Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe for Cyanide Ion Based on Perturbation of the Interaction between Gold Nanoclusters and a Copper(II)-Phthalocyanine Complex.

    PubMed

    Shojaeifard, Zahra; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-06-22

    A new ratiometric fluorescent sensor was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of cyanide ion (CN(-)) in aqueous media. The ratiometric sensing system is based on CN(-) modulated recovery of copper(II) phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) fluorescence signal at the expense of diminished fluorescence intensity of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Preliminary experiments revealed that the AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) possess a turn-off effect on each other, the interaction of which being verified through studying their interactions by principle component analysis (PCA) and multivariate cure resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods. In the presence of CN(-) anion, the AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) interaction was perturbed, so that the fluorescence of Cu (PcTs), already quenched by AuNCs, was found to be efficiently recovered, while the fluorescence intensity of AuNCs was quenched via the formation of a stable [Au(CN)2](-) species. The ratiometric variation of AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) fluorescence intensities leads to designing a highly sensitive probe for CN(-) ion detection. Under the optimal conditions, CN(-) anion was detected without needing any etching time, over the concentration range of 100 nM-220 μM, with a detection limit of 75 nM, which is much lower than the allowable level of CN(-) in water permitted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the detection of CN(-) was developed based on the CN(-) effects on the blue and red florescent colors of Cu(PcTs) and AuNCs, respectively. The designed probe displays a continuous color change from red to blue by addition of CN(-), which can be clearly observed by the naked eye in the range of 7-350 μM, under UV lamp. The prepared AuNCs/Cu(PcTs) probe was successfully utilized for the selective and sensitive determination of CN(-) anion in two different types of natural water (Rodbal dam and rainwater) and also in blood serum as a biological sample. PMID:27211049

  15. Camera-based ratiometric fluorescence transduction of nucleic acid hybridization with reagentless signal amplification on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots as donors.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2014-10-21

    Paper-based diagnostic assays are gaining increasing popularity for their potential application in resource-limited settings and for point-of-care screening. Achievement of high sensitivity with precision and accuracy can be challenging when using paper substrates. Herein, we implement the red-green-blue color palette of a digital camera for quantitative ratiometric transduction of nucleic acid hybridization on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A nonenzymatic and reagentless means of signal enhancement for QD-FRET assays on paper substrates is based on the use of dry paper substrates for data acquisition. This approach offered at least a 10-fold higher assay sensitivity and at least a 10-fold lower limit of detection (LOD) as compared to hydrated paper substrates. The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to assemble a transduction interface that consisted of immobilized QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) served as donors with Cy3 as an acceptor. A hybridization event that brought the Cy3 acceptor dye in close proximity to the surface of immobilized gQDs was responsible for a FRET-sensitized emission from the acceptor dye, which served as an analytical signal. A hand-held UV lamp was used as an excitation source and ratiometric analysis using an iPad camera was possible by a relative intensity analysis of the red (Cy3 photoluminescence (PL)) and green (gQD PL) color channels of the digital camera. For digital imaging using an iPad camera, the LOD of the assay in a sandwich format was 450 fmol with a dynamic range spanning 2 orders of magnitude, while an epifluorescence microscope detection platform offered a LOD of 30 fmol and a dynamic range spanning 3 orders of magnitude. The selectivity of the hybridization assay was demonstrated by detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism at a contrast ratio of 60:1. This work provides an

  16. Social indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  17. A Sensitive Ratiometric Long-Wavelength Fluorescent Probe for Selective Determination of Cysteine/Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Manibalan, Kesavan; Chen, Sin-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Huang, Tsung-Tao; Huang, Sheng-Tung

    2016-07-01

    The development of sensitive fluorescence probes to detect biothiols such as cysteine and homocysteine has attracted great attention in recent times. Herein, we described the design and synthesis of coumarin based long-wavelength fluorescence probe, Bromo-2-benzothiazolyl-3-cyano-7-hydroxy coumarin (BBCH, 2) for selective detections of cysteine and homocysteine. The probe is rationally designed in such a way that both sulfhydryl and adjacent amino groups of thiols are involved in sensing process. Only cysteine/homocysteine able to react with BBCH to release fluorescence reporter (BCH, 1); while, glutathione and other amino acids unable to react with BBCH due to the absence of adjacent amino groups. In presence of cysteine, the color of BBCH is turns from colorless to red and thus BBCH is a naked eye fluorescence indicator for cysteine. Besides, BBCH can discriminate cysteine and homocysteine based on color changes and different reaction rates. The described sensing platform showed good sensing performances to detect cysteine and homocysteine with detection limits of 0.87 and 0.19 μM, respectively. Practical applicability was verified in biological and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:27290640

  18. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of membrane lipid order with a ratiometric fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Kilin, Vasyl; Glushonkov, Oleksandr; Herdly, Lucas; Klymchenko, Andrey; Richert, Ludovic; Mely, Yves

    2015-05-19

    To monitor the lateral segregation of lipids into liquid-ordered (Lo) and -disordered (Ld) phases in lipid membranes, environment-sensitive dyes that partition in both phases but stain them differently have been developed. Of particular interest is the dual-color F2N12S probe, which can discriminate the two phases through the ratio of its two emission bands. These bands are associated with the normal (N(∗)) and tautomer (T(∗)) excited-state species that result from an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer. In this work, we investigated the potency of the time-resolved fluorescence parameters of F2N12S to discriminate lipid phases in model and cell membranes. Both the long and mean lifetime values of the T(∗) form of F2N12S were found to differ by twofold between Ld and Lo phases as a result of the restriction in the relative motions of the two aromatic moieties of F2N12S imposed by the highly packed Lo phase. This differed from the changes in the ratio of the two emission bands between the two phases, which mainly resulted from the decreased hydration of the N(∗) form in the Lo phase. Importantly, the strong difference in lifetimes between the two phases was preserved when cholesterol was added to the Ld phase. The two phases could be imaged with high contrast by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) on giant unilamellar vesicles. FLIM images of F2N12S-labeled live HeLa cells confirmed that the plasma membrane was mainly in the Lo-like phase. Furthermore, the two phases were found to be homogeneously distributed all over the plasma membrane, indicating that they are highly mixed at the spatiotemporal resolution of the FLIM setup. Finally, FLIM could also be used to sensitively monitor the change in lipid phase upon cholesterol depletion and apoptosis. PMID:25992730

  19. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Membrane Lipid Order with a Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe

    PubMed Central

    Kilin, Vasyl; Glushonkov, Oleksandr; Herdly, Lucas; Klymchenko, Andrey; Richert, Ludovic; Mely, Yves

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the lateral segregation of lipids into liquid-ordered (Lo) and -disordered (Ld) phases in lipid membranes, environment-sensitive dyes that partition in both phases but stain them differently have been developed. Of particular interest is the dual-color F2N12S probe, which can discriminate the two phases through the ratio of its two emission bands. These bands are associated with the normal (N∗) and tautomer (T∗) excited-state species that result from an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer. In this work, we investigated the potency of the time-resolved fluorescence parameters of F2N12S to discriminate lipid phases in model and cell membranes. Both the long and mean lifetime values of the T∗ form of F2N12S were found to differ by twofold between Ld and Lo phases as a result of the restriction in the relative motions of the two aromatic moieties of F2N12S imposed by the highly packed Lo phase. This differed from the changes in the ratio of the two emission bands between the two phases, which mainly resulted from the decreased hydration of the N∗ form in the Lo phase. Importantly, the strong difference in lifetimes between the two phases was preserved when cholesterol was added to the Ld phase. The two phases could be imaged with high contrast by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) on giant unilamellar vesicles. FLIM images of F2N12S-labeled live HeLa cells confirmed that the plasma membrane was mainly in the Lo-like phase. Furthermore, the two phases were found to be homogeneously distributed all over the plasma membrane, indicating that they are highly mixed at the spatiotemporal resolution of the FLIM setup. Finally, FLIM could also be used to sensitively monitor the change in lipid phase upon cholesterol depletion and apoptosis. PMID:25992730

  20. FRET-Based Mito-Specific Fluorescent Probe for Ratiometric Detection and Imaging of Endogenous Peroxynitrite: Dyad of Cy3 and Cy5.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaotong; Chen, Qiangqiang; Yang, Yingfang; Tang, Yao; Wang, Rui; Xu, Yufang; Zhu, Weiping; Qian, Xuhong

    2016-08-31

    Peroxynitrite (OONO(-)) is profoundly implicated in health and disease. The physiological and pathological outcome of OONO(-) is related to its local concentration, and hence, a reliable OONO(-) assay is highly desired. We have developed a FRET-based small-molecule fluorescent probe (PNCy3Cy5), harnessing the differential reactivity of Cy3 and Cy5 toward OONO(-) by fine-tuning. It exhibits high detection sensitivity and yields a ratiometric fluorescent signal. We have exemplified that it can be applied in semiquantitative determination of OONO(-) in living cells. Notably, it specifically localizes in mitochondria, where endogenous OONO(-) is predominantly generated. Thus, PNCy3Cy5 is a promising molecular tool for peroxynitrite biology. PMID:27517310

  1. Ratiometric fluorescent/colorimetric cyanide-selective sensor based on excited-state intramolecular charge transfer-excited-state intramolecular proton transfer switching.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Fang, Sin-Kai; Hu, Jiun-Wei; Tsai, Hsing-Yang; Chen, Kew-Yu

    2014-05-20

    A novel salicylideneaniline-based fluorescent sensor, SB1, with a unique excited-state intramolecular charge transfer-excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESICT-ESIPT) coupled system was synthesized and demonstrated to fluorescently sense CN(-) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity in aqueous media based on ESICT-ESIPT switching. A large blue shift (96 nm) was also observed in the absorption spectra in response to CN(-). The bleaching of the color could be clearly observed by the naked eye. Moreover, SB1-based test strips were easily fabricated and low-cost, and could be used in practical and efficient CN(-) test kits. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations further support the cyanide-induced ESICT-ESIPT switching mechanism. The results provide the proof of concept that the colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent cyanide-selective chemodosimeter can be created based on an ESICT-ESIPT coupled system. PMID:24809868

  2. Ratiometric fluorescent ion detection in water with high sensitivity via aggregation-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer using a conjugated polyelectrolyte as an optical platform.

    PubMed

    Le, Van Sang; Kim, Boram; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Ji-Eun; Yang, Renqiang; Woo, Han Young

    2013-05-14

    A cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte was designed and synthesized based on poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) containing 5 mol% benzothiadiazole (BT) as a low energy trap and 15-crown-5 as a recognizing group for potassium ions. A potassium ion can form a sandwich-type 2:1 Lewis acid-based complex with 15-crown-5, to cause the intermolecular aggregation of polymers. This facilitates inter-chain fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to a low-energy BT segment, resulting in fluorescent signal amplification, even at dilute analyte concentrations. Highly sensitive and selective detection of K(+) ions was demonstrated in water. The linear response of ratiometric fluorescent signal as a function of [K(+) ] allows K(+) quantification in a range of nanomolar concentrations with a detection limit of ≈0.7 × 10(-9) M. PMID:23417971

  3. Single Probe for Imaging and Biosensing of pH, Cu(2+) Ions, and pH/Cu(2+) in Live Cells with Ratiometric Fluorescence Signals.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Ding, Changqin; Zhou, Jie; Tian, Yang

    2015-01-01

    It is very essential to disentangle the complicated inter-relationship between pH and Cu in the signal transduction and homeostasis. To this end, reporters that can display distinct signals to pH and Cu are highly valuable. Unfortunately, there is still no report on the development of biosensors that can simultaneously respond to pH and Cu(2+), to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we developed a single fluorescent probe, AuNC@FITC@DEAC (AuNC, gold cluster; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; DEAC, 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid), for biosensing of pH, Cu(2+), and pH/Cu(2+) with different ratiometric fluorescent signals. First, 2,2',2″-(2,2',2″-nitrilotris(ethane-2,1-diyl)tris((pyridin-2-yl-methyl)azanediyl))triethanethiol (TPAASH) was designed for specific recognition of Cu(2+), as well as for organic ligand to synthesize fluorescent AuNCs. Then, pH-sensitive molecule, FITC emitting at 518 nm, and inner reference molecule, DEAC with emission peak at 472 nm, were simultaneously conjugated on the surface of AuNCs emitting at 722 nm, thus, constructing a single fluorescent probe, AuNC@FITC@DEAC, to sensing pH, Cu(2+), and pH/Cu(2+) excited by 405 nm light. The developed probe exhibited high selectivity and accuracy for independent determination of pH and Cu(2+) against reactive oxygen species (ROS), other metal ions, amino acids, and even copper-containing proteins. The AuNC-based inorganic-organic probe with good cell-permeability and high biocompatibility was eventually applied in monitoring both pH and Cu(2+) and in understanding the interplaying roles of Cu(2+) and pH in live cells by ratiometric multicolor fluorescent imaging.

  4. Ratiometric Quantum Dot-Ligand System Made by Phase Transfer for Visual Detection of Double-Stranded DNA and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqian; Ye, Mingfu; Ge, Qinyu; Qu, Xiaojun; Guo, Qingsheng; Hu, Xianyun; Sun, Qingjiang

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a proof-of-concept quantum dot-ligand (QD-L) system for visual selective detection of nucleic acids, in combination with a ratiometric fluorescence technique. This system comprises a dual-emission QDs nanohybrid formed by embedding a red-emission QD (rQD) in a silica nanoparticle and electrostatically assembling green-emission QDs (gQDs) onto the silica surface, as the signal displaying unit, and a hydrophobic compound, dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz), attached onto the gQDs surface via phase transfer, as the ligand as well as fluorescence quencher of gQDs. This system is successfully used for quantification of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Because of its avid binding with dppz, dsDNA can break up the QD-L system, displacing the dppz ligand from the gQDs surface and restoring the gQDs emission. Since the red emission of embedded rQDs stays constant, variations of the dual-emission intensity ratios display continuous color changes from orange to bright green, which can be clearly observed by the naked eye. More importantly, this system is advantageous in terms of specificity over a QD ionic conjugate, because the electrical neutrality of dppz excludes its nonspecific electrostatic association with dsDNA. The QD-L system also is capable of detecting single-nucleotide polymorphism, exhibiting sequence-specific ratiometric fluorescence as a QD-bioconjugate does, but possessing the obvious advantage in terms of low cost, with the avoidance of modification, labeling, and purification processes. Therefore, the QD-L system provides an extremely simple but general strategy for detecting nucleic acids in a facile, sensitive, and specific manner. PMID:26752152

  5. Phospholipid-modified upconversion nanoprobe for ratiometric fluorescence detection and imaging of phospholipase D in cell lysate and in living cells.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yao; Wu, Yan-Mei; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Wu, Shuang; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia

    2014-07-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a critical component of intracellular signal transduction and has been implicated in many important biological processes. It has been observed that there are abnormalities in PLD expression in many human cancers, and PLD is thus recognized as a potential diagnostic biomarker as well as a target for drug discovery. We report for the first time a phospholipid-modified nanoprobe for ratiometric upconversion fluorescence (UCF) sensing and bioimaging of PLD activity. The nanoprobe can be synthesized by a facile one-step self-assembly of a phospholipid monolayer composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated phospholipid and rhodamine B-labeled phospholipid on the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) NaYF4: 20%Yb, 2%Er. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the UCF emission at 540 nm of the UCNPs to the absorbance of the rhodamine B occurs in the nanoprobe. The PLD-mediated hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond makes rhodamine B apart from the UCNP surface, leading to the inhibition of FRET. Using the unaffected UCF emission at 655 nm as an internal standard, the nanoprobe can be used for ratiometric UCF detection of PLD activity with high sensitivity and selectivity. The PLD activity in cell lysates is also determined by the nanoprobe, confirming that PLD activity in a breast cancer cell is at least 7-fold higher than in normal cell. Moreover, the nanoprobe has been successfully applied to monitoring PLD activity in living cells by UCF bioimaging. The results reveal that the nanoprobe provides a simple, sensitive, and robust platform for point-of-care diagnostics and drug screening in biomedical applications. PMID:24939283

  6. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry of genetically encoded targets.

    PubMed

    Vreja, Ingrid C; Kabatas, Selda; Saka, Sinem K; Kröhnert, Katharina; Höschen, Carmen; Opazo, Felipe; Diederichsen, Ulf; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2015-05-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is generally used in imaging the isotopic composition of various materials. It is becoming increasingly popular in biology, especially for investigations of cellular metabolism. However, individual proteins are difficult to identify in SIMS, which limits the ability of this technology to study individual compartments or protein complexes. We present a method for specific protein isotopic and fluorescence labeling (SPILL), based on a novel click reaction with isotopic probes. Using this method, we added (19) F-enriched labels to different proteins, and visualized them by NanoSIMS and fluorescence microscopy. The (19) F signal allowed the precise visualization of the protein of interest, with minimal background, and enabled correlative studies of protein distribution and cellular metabolism or composition. SPILL can be applied to biological systems suitable for click chemistry, which include most cell-culture systems, as well as small model organisms. PMID:25783034

  7. Single Fluorescent Protein-Based Indicators for Zinc Ion (Zn(2+)).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Ai, Hui-Wang

    2016-09-20

    Genetically encoded fluorescent Zn(2+) indicators (GEZIs) are highly attractive research tools for studying Zn(2+) homeostasis and signaling in mammalian cells. Most current GEZIs are based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a select pair of fluorescent proteins (FPs) fused with Zn(2+)-binding motifs. One drawback of such FRET-based GEZIs is their broad spectral profile bandwidths, creating challenges when monitoring multiple targets or parameters. To address this issue, we have engineered a group of intensiometric GEZIs based on single teal and red FPs that can be utilized to monitor subcellular Zn(2+) diffusion and glucose-induced Zn(2+) secretion in pancreatic INS-1E β-cells. These GEZIs offer the simplicity of intensiometric measurements, compatibility in multicolor imaging, large dynamic ranges, and relatively small molecular sizes, making them valuable additions to the molecular toolbox for imaging Zn(2+). PMID:27539450

  8. Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Hod; Mohar, Boaz; Sun, Yi; Narayan, Sujatha; Gordus, Andrew; Hasseman, Jeremy P; Tsegaye, Getahun; Holt, Graham T; Hu, Amy; Walpita, Deepika; Patel, Ronak; Macklin, John J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Ahrens, Misha B; Schreiter, Eric R; Jayaraman, Vivek; Looger, Loren L; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) allow measurement of activity in large populations of neurons and in small neuronal compartments, over times of milliseconds to months. Although GFP-based GECIs are widely used for in vivo neurophysiology, GECIs with red-shifted excitation and emission spectra have advantages for in vivo imaging because of reduced scattering and absorption in tissue, and a consequent reduction in phototoxicity. However, current red GECIs are inferior to the state-of-the-art GFP-based GCaMP6 indicators for detecting and quantifying neural activity. Here we present improved red GECIs based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a), with sensitivity comparable to GCaMP6. We characterized the performance of the new red GECIs in cultured neurons and in mouse, Drosophila, zebrafish and C. elegans in vivo. Red GECIs facilitate deep-tissue imaging, dual-color imaging together with GFP-based reporters, and the use of optogenetics in combination with calcium imaging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12727.001 PMID:27011354

  9. Reversible Fluorescent Probe for Selective Detection and Cell Imaging of Oxidative Stress Indicator Bisulfite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajiao; Guan, Lingmei; Yu, Huan; Yan, Yehan; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang; Sun, Mingtai; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2016-04-19

    In this paper, we report a benzothiazole-functionalized cyanine fluorescence probe and demonstrate that it is selectively reactive to bisulfite, an intermediate indicator for oxidative stress. The selective reaction can be monitored by distinct ratiometric fluorescence variation favorable for cell imaging and visualization. The original probe can be regenerated in high yield through the elimination of bisulfite from the product by peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, accompanied by fluorescence turning on at 590 nm, showing a potential application for the detection of peroxides. We successfully applied this probe for fluorescence imaging of bisulfite in cancer cells (MCF-7) treated with bisulfite and hydrogen peroxide as well as a selective detection limit of 0.34 μM bisulfite in aqueous solution. PMID:27030140

  10. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  11. Quantitative assessment of ratiometric bimolecular beacons as a tool for imaging single engineered RNA transcripts and measuring gene expression in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Song, Yang; Shah, Akash Y; Lekova, Virzhiniya; Raj, Arjun; Huang, Ling; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Recently, we developed an oligonucleotide-based probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), which generates a detectable fluorescent signal in living cells that express the target RNA. Here, we show that RBMBs can also be used to image single RNA transcripts in living cells, when the target RNA is engineered to contain as few as four hybridization sites. Moreover, comparison with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that RBMBs could be used to accurately quantify the number of RNA transcripts within individual cells. Measurements of gene expression could be acquired within 30 min and using a wide range of RBMB concentrations. The ability to acquire accurate measurements of RNA copy number in both HT-1080 cells and CHO cells also suggests that RBMBs can be used to image and quantify single RNA transcripts in a wide range of cell lines. Overall, these findings highlight the robustness and versatility of RBMBs as a tool for imaging RNA in live cells. We envision that the unique capabilities of RBMBs will open up new avenues for RNA research.

  12. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Grist, Samantha M; Schmok, Jonathan C; Liu, Meng-Chi Andy; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C

    2015-08-14

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia.

  13. Design of ratiometric fluorescent probes based on arene-metal-ion interactions and their application to Cd(II) and hydrogen sulfide imaging in living cells.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Ippei; Kinoshita, Miyuki; Kawagoe, Ryosuke; Nakagawa, Saika; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hamachi, Itaru; Ojida, Akio

    2014-02-17

    Non-coordinative interactions between a metal ion and the aromatic ring of a fluorophore can act as a versatile sensing mechanism for the detection of metal ions with a large emission change of fluorophores. We report the design of fluorescent probes based on arene-metal-ion interactions and their biological applications. This study found that various probes having different fluorophores and metal binding units displayed significant emission redshift upon complexation with metal ions, such as Ag(I), Cd(II), Hg(II), and Pb(II). X-ray crystallography of the complexes confirmed that the metal ions were held in close proximity to the fluorophore to form an arene-metal-ion interaction. Electronic structure calculations based on TDDFT offered a theoretical basis for the sensing mechanism, thus showing that metal ions electrostatically modulate the energy levels of the molecular orbitals of the fluorophore. A fluorescent probe was successfully applied to the ratiometric detection of the uptake of Cd(II) ions and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in living cells. These results highlight the utility of interactions between arene groups and metal ions in biological analyses.

  14. Imaging with organic indicators and high-speed charge-coupled device cameras in neurons: some applications where these classic techniques have advantages.

    PubMed

    Ross, William N; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Popovic, Marko A; Zecevic, Dejan

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic calcium and voltage imaging is a major tool in modern cellular neuroscience. Since the beginning of their use over 40 years ago, there have been major improvements in indicators, microscopes, imaging systems, and computers. While cutting edge research has trended toward the use of genetically encoded calcium or voltage indicators, two-photon microscopes, and in vivo preparations, it is worth noting that some questions still may be best approached using more classical methodologies and preparations. In this review, we highlight a few examples in neurons where the combination of charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging and classical organic indicators has revealed information that has so far been more informative than results using the more modern systems. These experiments take advantage of the high frame rates, sensitivity, and spatial integration of the best CCD cameras. These cameras can respond to the faster kinetics of organic voltage and calcium indicators, which closely reflect the fast dynamics of the underlying cellular events.

  15. 9-Aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) as a smart platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2011-07-21

    In this communication, we report that 9-aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) can serve as a potential platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors by simple incorporation of pH responsive elements on Seoul-Fluor. Seoul-Fluor-based fluorescent pH sensors allow the emission- and pH-tuning ability upon protonation by varying their pK(a) values and electronic characteristics of substituents by a rational design.

  16. Design of NIR Chromenylium-Cyanine Fluorophore Library for "Switch-ON" and Ratiometric Detection of Bio-Active Species In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanfen; Cheng, Dan; Ren, Tianbing; Li, Yinhui; Zeng, Zebing; Yuan, Lin

    2016-02-01

    The real-time monitoring of key biospecies in the living systems has received thrusting attention during the past decades. Specifically, fluorescent detection based on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes is highly favorable for live cells, live tissues, and even animal imaging, owing to the substantial merits of the NIR window, such as minimal phototoxicity, deep penetration into tissues, and low autofluorescence background. Nevertheless, developing potent NIR fluorescent probes still poses serious challenges to the chemists because traditional NIR fluorophores are less tunable than visible-wavelength fluorophores. To address this issue, here we report a set of novel NIR hybrid fluorophores, namely, the hybrid chromenylium-cyanine fluorophore (CC-Fluor), in which both the fluorescence intensity and the emission wavelength can be easily adjusted by the conformational changes and substitution groups. Compared to known NIR fluorophores, the new CC-Fluors are substantially advantageous for NIR probe development: (1) CC-Fluors display tunable and moderate Stokes shifts and quantum yields; (2) the fluorophores are stable at physiological conditions after long-term incubation; (3) the absorption maxima of CC-Fluors coincide with the common laser spectral lines in mainstream in vivo imaging systems; (4) most importantly, CC-Fluors can be easily modified to prepare NIR probes targeting various biospecies. To fully demonstrate the practical utility of CC-Fluors, we report two innovative NIR probes, a ratiometric pH probe and a turn-on Hg(2+) probe, both are successfully employed in live animal imaging. Hence, the detailed studies allow us to confirm that CC-Fluors can work as an excellent platform for developing NIR probes for the detection of species in living systems. PMID:26730493

  17. Development of a ratiometric fluorescent urea biosensor based on the urease immobilized onto the oxazine 170 perchlorate-ethyl cellulose membrane.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Rhee, Jong Il

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the oxazine 170 perchlorate (O17)-ethyl cellulose (EC) membrane was successfully applied in the fabrication of a urea-sensing membrane. The urea-sensing membrane was a double layer consisting of the O17-EC membrane and a layer of the enzyme urease entrapped into EC matrix. The sensing principle of urea was based on the hydrolysis reaction of urea under the catalysis of the urease to produce ammonia in water and also on the binding of ammonia with the dye O17 to create the shift in the emission wavelength from λ(em)=630 nm to λ(em)=565 nm. The data collected from the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at λ(em)=630 nm and λ(em)=565 nm was proportional to urea concentration. The urea-sensing membrane with the ratiometric method was used to measure the concentrations of urea in the range of 0.01-0.1 M with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.027 mM and 0.1-1.0 M with LOD of 0.224 mM. It showed fast response time, high reversibility and long-term stability in this concentration range. The recovery percentage of urea concentrations of the urea-sensing membrane for two kinds of biological urine solutions (BU1, BU2) was around 85-118%. The measured results were in good agreement with standard urea concentrations in the range of 0.06 M to 1.0 M.

  18. Computational analysis and ratiometric comparison approaches aimed to assist column selection in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry targeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Sampsonidis, Ioannis; Witting, Michael; Koch, Wendelin; Virgiliou, Christina; Gika, Helen G; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2015-08-01

    In the present work two different approaches, a semi-quantitative and a Derringer function approach, were developed to assist column selection for method development in targeted metabolomics. These approaches were applied in the performance assessment of three HILIC columns with different chemistries (an amide, a diol and a zwitterionic phase). This was the first step for the development of a HILIC UPLC-MS/MS method that should be capable to analyze a large number of polar metabolites. Two gradient elution profiles and two mobile phase pH values were tested for the analysis of multi-analyte mixtures. Acquired chromatographic data were firstly treated by a ratiometric, "semi-quantitative" approach which quantifies various overall analysis parameters (e.g. the percent of detected compounds, retentivity and resolved critical pairs). These parameters were used to assess chromatographic performance in a rather conventional/traditional and cumbersome/labor-intensive way. Secondly, a comprehensive and automated comparison of the three columns was performed by monitoring several well-known chromatographic parameters (peak width, resolution, tailing factor, etc.) using a lab-built programming script which calculates overall desirability utilizing Derringer functions. Derringer functions exhibit the advantage that column performance is ultimately expressed in an objective single and quantitative value which can be easily interpreted. In summary, results show that each column exhibits unique strengths in metabolic profiling of polar compounds. The applied methodology proved useful for the selection of the most effective chromatographic system during method development for LC-MS/MS targeted metabolomics, while it could further assist in the selection of chromatographic conditions for the development of multi-analyte methods.

  19. A molecular imprinting-based turn-on Ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Wu, Xiaqing; Fu, Junqing; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-07-15

    A novel molecular imprinting-based turn-on ratiometric fluorescence sensor was constructed via a facile sol-gel polymerization for detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the basis of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) by using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as detection signal source and quantum dots (QDs) as reference signal source. With the presence and increase of 2,4-D, the amine groups on the surface of QDs@SiO2 could bind with 2,4-D and thereby the NBD fluorescence intensities could be significantly enhanced since the PET process was inhibited, while the QDs maintained constant intensities. Accordingly, the ratio of the dual-emission intensities of green NBD and red QDs could be utilized for turn-on fluorescent detection of 2,4-D, along with continuous color changes from orange-red to green readily observed by the naked eye. The as-prepared fluorescence sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14μM within 5min, and distinguished recognition selectivity for 2,4-D over its analogs. Moreover, the sensor was successfully applied to determine 2,4-D in real water samples, and high recoveries at three spiking levels of 2,4-D ranged from 95.0% to 110.1% with precisions below 4.5%. The simple, rapid and reliable visual sensing strategy would not only provide potential applications for high selective ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices, but also greatly enrich the research connotations of molecularly imprinted sensors.

  20. A unique type of pyrrole-based cyanine fluorophores with turn-on and ratiometric fluorescence signals at different pH regions for sensing pH in enzymes and living cells.

    PubMed

    He, Longwei; Lin, Weiying; Xu, Qiuyan; Wei, Haipeng

    2014-12-24

    The development of new functional fluorescent dyes has attracted great attention. Herein we have described a novel strategy to design a unique type of cyanine dyes by attaching two indolium moieties at the α-positions of the pyrrole core. The new type of cyanine dyes is named as PyCy fluorophores. Importantly, PyCy dyes can exhibit an exceptional feature, fluorescence turn-on response at pH varying from acidic to near-neutral conditions, and a ratiometric fluorescence response at pH varying from near-neutral to basic conditions. By taking advantage of the fluorescence turn-on response of PyCy2 at pH varying from acidic to near-neutral conditions and emission properties of PyCy2, we have demonstrated that a small-molecule fluorescent probe can image pH variations in living cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that PyCy2 can sense real-time pH changes under alkaline conditions induced by enzymes based on the ratiometric fluorescence response of PyCy2 at pH varying from near-neutral to basic conditions. We expect that the new design strategy for PyCy fluorophores may prompt the development of a wide variety of cyanine derivatives with desirable properties.

  1. Fast-Response Calmodulin-Based Fluorescent Indicators Reveal Rapid Intracellular Calcium Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Helassa, Nordine; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Conte, Ianina; Scaringi, John; Esposito, Elric; Bradley, Jonathan; Carter, Thomas; Ogden, David; Morad, Martin; Török, Katalin

    2015-11-03

    Faithful reporting of temporal patterns of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics requires the working range of indicators to match the signals. Current genetically encoded calmodulin-based fluorescent indicators are likely to distort fast Ca(2+) signals by apparent saturation and integration due to their limiting fluorescence rise and decay kinetics. A series of probes was engineered with a range of Ca(2+) affinities and accelerated kinetics by weakening the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-peptide interactions. At 37 °C, the GCaMP3-derived probe termed GCaMP3fast is 40-fold faster than GCaMP3 with Ca(2+) decay and rise times, t1/2, of 3.3 ms and 0.9 ms, respectively, making it the fastest to-date. GCaMP3fast revealed discreet transients with significantly faster Ca(2+) dynamics in neonatal cardiac myocytes than GCaMP6f. With 5-fold increased two-photon fluorescence cross-section for Ca(2+) at 940 nm, GCaMP3fast is suitable for deep tissue studies. The green fluorescent protein serves as a reporter providing important novel insights into the kinetic mechanism of target recognition by calmodulin. Our strategy to match the probe to the signal by tuning the affinity and hence the Ca(2+) kinetics of the indicator is applicable to the emerging new generations of calmodulin-based probes.

  2. Fast-Response Calmodulin-Based Fluorescent Indicators Reveal Rapid Intracellular Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Helassa, Nordine; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Conte, Ianina; Scaringi, John; Esposito, Elric; Bradley, Jonathan; Carter, Thomas; Ogden, David; Morad, Martin; Török, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Faithful reporting of temporal patterns of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics requires the working range of indicators to match the signals. Current genetically encoded calmodulin-based fluorescent indicators are likely to distort fast Ca2+ signals by apparent saturation and integration due to their limiting fluorescence rise and decay kinetics. A series of probes was engineered with a range of Ca2+ affinities and accelerated kinetics by weakening the Ca2+-calmodulin-peptide interactions. At 37 °C, the GCaMP3-derived probe termed GCaMP3fast is 40-fold faster than GCaMP3 with Ca2+ decay and rise times, t1/2, of 3.3 ms and 0.9 ms, respectively, making it the fastest to-date. GCaMP3fast revealed discreet transients with significantly faster Ca2+ dynamics in neonatal cardiac myocytes than GCaMP6f. With 5-fold increased two-photon fluorescence cross-section for Ca2+ at 940 nm, GCaMP3fast is suitable for deep tissue studies. The green fluorescent protein serves as a reporter providing important novel insights into the kinetic mechanism of target recognition by calmodulin. Our strategy to match the probe to the signal by tuning the affinity and hence the Ca2+ kinetics of the indicator is applicable to the emerging new generations of calmodulin-based probes. PMID:26527405

  3. Monitoring synaptic and neuronal activity in 3D with synthetic and genetic indicators using a compact acousto-optic lens two-photon microscope☆

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alfonso, Tomás; Nadella, K.M. Naga Srinivas; Iacaruso, M. Florencia; Pichler, Bruno; Roš, Hana; Kirkby, Paul A.; Silver, R. Angus

    2014-01-01

    Background Two-photon microscopy is widely used to study brain function, but conventional microscopes are too slow to capture the timing of neuronal signalling and imaging is restricted to one plane. Recent development of acousto-optic-deflector-based random access functional imaging has improved the temporal resolution, but the utility of these technologies for mapping 3D synaptic activity patterns and their performance at the excitation wavelengths required to image genetically encoded indicators have not been investigated. New method Here, we have used a compact acousto-optic lens (AOL) two-photon microscope to make high speed [Ca2+] measurements from spines and dendrites distributed in 3D with different excitation wavelengths (800–920 nm). Results We show simultaneous monitoring of activity from many synaptic inputs distributed over the 3D arborisation of a neuronal dendrite using both synthetic as well as genetically encoded indicators. We confirm the utility of AOL-based imaging for fast in vivo recordings by measuring, simultaneously, visually evoked responses in 100 neurons distributed over a 150 μm focal depth range. Moreover, we explore ways to improve the measurement of timing of neuronal activation by choosing specific regions within the cell soma. Comparison with existing methods These results establish that AOL-based 3D random access two-photon microscopy has a wider range of neuroscience applications than previously shown. Conclusions Our findings show that the compact AOL microscope design has the speed, spatial resolution, sensitivity and wavelength flexibility to measure 3D patterns of synaptic and neuronal activity on individual trials. PMID:24200507

  4. Indicators+: a proposal for everyday peace indicators.

    PubMed

    Mac Ginty, Roger

    2013-02-01

    Many of the approaches to measuring peace favoured by international organisations, INGOs and donor governments are deficient. Their level of analysis is often too broad or too narrow, and their aggregated statistical format often means that they represent the conflict-affected area in ways that are meaningless to local communities. This article takes the form of a proposal for a new generation of locally organised indicators that are based in everyday life. These indicators are inspired by practice from sustainable development in which indicators are crowd sourced. There is the potential for these to become 'indicators+' or part of a conflict transformation exercise as communities think about what peace might look like and how it could be realised. The article advocates a form of participatory action research that would be able to pick up the textured 'hidden transcript' found in many deeply divided societies and could allow for better targeted peacebuilding and development assistance. PMID:22868180

  5. Stable DNA Nanomachine Based on Duplex–Triplex Transition for Ratiometric Imaging Instantaneous pH Changes in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA nanomachines are becoming useful tools for molecular recognition, imaging, and diagnostics and have drawn gradual attention. Unfortunately, the present application of most DNA nanomachines is limited in vitro, so expanding their application in organism has become a primary focus. Hence, a novel DNA nanomachine named t-switch, based on the DNA duplex–triplex transition, is developed for monitoring the intracellular pH gradient. Our strategy is based on the DNA triplex structure containing C+-G-C triplets and pH-dependent Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our results indicate that the t-switch is an efficient reporter of pH from pH 5.3 to 6.0 with a fast response of a few seconds. Also the uptake of the t-switch is speedy. In order to protect the t-switch from enzymatic degradation, PEI is used for modification of our DNA nanomachine. At the same time, the dynamic range could be extended to pH 4.6–7.8. The successful application of this pH-depended DNA nanomachine and motoring spatiotemporal pH changes associated with endocytosis is strong evidence of the possibility of self-assembly DNA nanomachine for imaging, targeted therapies, and controllable drug delivery. PMID:26016566

  6. [Ph-Sensor Properties of a Fluorescent Protein from Dendronephthya sp].

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, A A; Chertkova, R V; Martynov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescent proteins are now widely applicable for monitoring pH changes in live cells. Here, we have shown that a fluorescent protein from Dendronephthya sp. (DendFP) exhibits a pronounced pH-sensitivity. Unlike most of known genetically encoded pH-sensors, fluorescence of the protein is not quenched upon medium acidification, but is shifting from the red to green spectral range. Therefore, quantitative measurements of intracellular pH are feasible by ratiometric comparison of emission intensities in the red and green spectral ranges, which makes DendFP advantageous compared with other genetically encoded pH-sensors. PMID:27125020

  7. Development of dual-emission ratiometric probe-based on fluorescent silica nanoparticle and CdTe quantum dots for determination of glucose in beverages and human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hong; Feng, Ting; Dong, Lingyu; Wang, Liyun; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Hailing; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Luan; Xie, MengXia

    2016-08-01

    A novel dual emission ratiometric fluorescence probe for determination of glucose has been developed. The reference dye fluorescence isothiocyanate (FITC) has been encapsulated in the silica nanoparticles and then the red emission CdTe QDs were grafted on the surface of the silica particles to obtain the fluorescence probe. With glucose and dopamine as substrates, the glucose level was proportional to the fluorescence ratio change of above probe caused by dopamine oxidation, which was produced via bienzyme catalysis (glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase). The established approach was sensitive and selective, and has been applied to determine the glucose in beverage, urine and serum samples. The average recoveries of the glucose at various spiking levels ranged from 95.5% to 108.9% with relative standard deviations from 1.5% to 4.3%. The results provided a clue to develop sensors for rapid determination of the target analytes from complex matrices. PMID:26988523

  8. [Performance indicators: INCA (cardiovascular indicators) project].

    PubMed

    Gillespie, F; Orsi, G B; Caracci, G; Scanzano, P; Casertano, L; Duranti, G; Cardo, S; Barone, A P; Tozzi, Q; Ammirati, F

    2007-01-01

    The objective of INCA project was the development and implementation of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI type ST elevation) process and outcome indicators for the regional cardiology units, testing the possibility of using regional healthcare information data to evaluate the quality of provided healthcare within the regional healthcare accreditation process. The project is introduced by an overview of major concepts of evaluating and managing quality of healthcare. We performed a literature review of structure, process and outcome indicators in cardiology and of accreditation standards for cardiology at national and international level. Through consensus procedures and according to international evidence based literature a set of 18 process and outcome indicators for AMI was defined. A specific procedure for data collection has been developed. Education and training of participants on procedures, quality and accreditation was achieved. Expected verifiable end-points have been achieved over a three months period of data collecting throughout 21 cardiology units, differentiated for level of complexity and location, for a total of 409 clinical observed cases of AMI. Analysis of data was followed by the diffusion of results. Successful data collection of clinical performance indicators on a regional basis was achieved. Participants have been trained to quality sciences. Results will be useful to evaluate and design implementation strategies of regional accreditation of health care services within a shared framework. Benchmarking within Regional hospital cardiology care services will be developed following self evaluation and continuous quality improvement cycle activities. PMID:17405513

  9. Oral Dosing of Chemical Indicators for In Vivo Monitoring of Ca2+ Dynamics in Insect Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinandus; Arai, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi; Suzuki, Madoka; Sato, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a remarkably facile staining protocol to visually investigate dynamic physiological events in insect tissues. We attempted to monitor Ca2+ dynamics during contraction of electrically stimulated living muscle. Advances in circuit miniaturization and insect neuromuscular physiology have enabled the hybridization of living insects and man-made electronic components, such as microcomputers, the result of which has been often referred as a Living Machine, Biohybrid, or Cyborg Insect. In order for Cyborg Insects to be of practical use, electrical stimulation parameters need to be optimized to induce desired muscle response (motor action) and minimize the damage in the muscle due to the electrical stimuli. Staining tissues and organs as well as measuring the dynamics of chemicals of interest in muscle should be conducted to quantitatively and systematically evaluate the effect of various stimulation parameters on the muscle response. However, existing staining processes require invasive surgery and/or arduous procedures using genetically encoded sensors. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and remarkably facile method for staining, in which chemical indicators can be orally administered (oral dosing). A chemical Ca2+ indicator was orally introduced into an insect of interest via food containing the chemical indicator and the indicator diffused from the insect digestion system to the target muscle tissue. We found that there was a positive relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the indicator and the frequency of electrical stimulation which indicates the orally dosed indicator successfully monitored Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle tissue. This oral dosing method has a potential to globally stain tissues including neurons, and investigating various physiological events in insects. PMID:25590329

  10. Oral dosing of chemical indicators for in vivo monitoring of Ca2+ dynamics in insect muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandus; Arai, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Suzuki, Madoka; Sato, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a remarkably facile staining protocol to visually investigate dynamic physiological events in insect tissues. We attempted to monitor Ca2+ dynamics during contraction of electrically stimulated living muscle. Advances in circuit miniaturization and insect neuromuscular physiology have enabled the hybridization of living insects and man-made electronic components, such as microcomputers, the result of which has been often referred as a Living Machine, Biohybrid, or Cyborg Insect. In order for Cyborg Insects to be of practical use, electrical stimulation parameters need to be optimized to induce desired muscle response (motor action) and minimize the damage in the muscle due to the electrical stimuli. Staining tissues and organs as well as measuring the dynamics of chemicals of interest in muscle should be conducted to quantitatively and systematically evaluate the effect of various stimulation parameters on the muscle response. However, existing staining processes require invasive surgery and/or arduous procedures using genetically encoded sensors. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and remarkably facile method for staining, in which chemical indicators can be orally administered (oral dosing). A chemical Ca2+ indicator was orally introduced into an insect of interest via food containing the chemical indicator and the indicator diffused from the insect digestion system to the target muscle tissue. We found that there was a positive relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the indicator and the frequency of electrical stimulation which indicates the orally dosed indicator successfully monitored Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle tissue. This oral dosing method has a potential to globally stain tissues including neurons, and investigating various physiological events in insects. PMID:25590329

  11. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOEpatents

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  12. Two-Photon Lifetime Imaging of Voltage Indicating Proteins as a Probe of Absolute Membrane Voltage.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Daan; Klein, Aaron J; Cohen, Adam E

    2015-09-01

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) can report cellular electrophysiology with high resolution in space and time. Two-photon (2P) fluorescence has been explored as a means to image voltage in tissue. Here, we used the 2P electronic excited-state lifetime to probe absolute membrane voltage in a manner that is insensitive to the protein expression level, illumination intensity, or photon detection efficiency. First, we tested several GEVIs for 2P brightness, response speed, and voltage sensitivity. ASAP1 and a previously described citrine-Arch electrochromic Förster resonance energy transfer sensor (dubbed CAESR) showed the best characteristics. We then characterized the voltage-dependent lifetime of ASAP1, CAESR, and ArcLight under voltage-clamp conditions. ASAP1 and CAESR showed voltage-dependent lifetimes, whereas ArcLight did not. These results establish 2P fluorescence lifetime imaging as a viable means of measuring absolute membrane voltage. We discuss the prospects and improvements necessary for applications in tissue.

  13. Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging.

    PubMed

    Akerboom, Jasper; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Wardill, Trevor J; Tian, Lin; Marvin, Jonathan S; Mutlu, Sevinç; Calderón, Nicole Carreras; Esposti, Federico; Borghuis, Bart G; Sun, Xiaonan Richard; Gordus, Andrew; Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian; Macklin, John J; Filosa, Alessandro; Aggarwal, Aman; Kerr, Rex A; Takagi, Ryousuke; Kracun, Sebastian; Shigetomi, Eiji; Khakh, Baljit S; Baier, Herwig; Lagnado, Leon; Wang, Samuel S-H; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Kimmel, Bruce E; Jayaraman, Vivek; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S; Schreiter, Eric R; Looger, Loren L

    2012-10-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Recent efforts in protein engineering have significantly increased the performance of GECIs. The state-of-the art single-wavelength GECI, GCaMP3, has been deployed in a number of model organisms and can reliably detect three or more action potentials in short bursts in several systems in vivo. Through protein structure determination, targeted mutagenesis, high-throughput screening, and a battery of in vitro assays, we have increased the dynamic range of GCaMP3 by severalfold, creating a family of "GCaMP5" sensors. We tested GCaMP5s in several systems: cultured neurons and astrocytes, mouse retina, and in vivo in Caenorhabditis chemosensory neurons, Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction and adult antennal lobe, zebrafish retina and tectum, and mouse visual cortex. Signal-to-noise ratio was improved by at least 2- to 3-fold. In the visual cortex, two GCaMP5 variants detected twice as many visual stimulus-responsive cells as GCaMP3. By combining in vivo imaging with electrophysiology we show that GCaMP5 fluorescence provides a more reliable measure of neuronal activity than its predecessor GCaMP3. GCaMP5 allows more sensitive detection of neural activity in vivo and may find widespread applications for cellular imaging in general.

  14. Two-Photon Lifetime Imaging of Voltage Indicating Proteins as a Probe of Absolute Membrane Voltage.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Daan; Klein, Aaron J; Cohen, Adam E

    2015-09-01

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) can report cellular electrophysiology with high resolution in space and time. Two-photon (2P) fluorescence has been explored as a means to image voltage in tissue. Here, we used the 2P electronic excited-state lifetime to probe absolute membrane voltage in a manner that is insensitive to the protein expression level, illumination intensity, or photon detection efficiency. First, we tested several GEVIs for 2P brightness, response speed, and voltage sensitivity. ASAP1 and a previously described citrine-Arch electrochromic Förster resonance energy transfer sensor (dubbed CAESR) showed the best characteristics. We then characterized the voltage-dependent lifetime of ASAP1, CAESR, and ArcLight under voltage-clamp conditions. ASAP1 and CAESR showed voltage-dependent lifetimes, whereas ArcLight did not. These results establish 2P fluorescence lifetime imaging as a viable means of measuring absolute membrane voltage. We discuss the prospects and improvements necessary for applications in tissue. PMID:26331249

  15. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  16. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  17. Calculation of enviromental indices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.

  18. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  19. Some Investigations with Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Suggests activities involving the use of indices. Provides five activities with examples for routine practice, pattern recognition, prediction, conjecture, generalization, factorization, and limit concept. (YP)

  20. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  1. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

  2. Educational Quality Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1993-01-01

    The Educational Quality Indicators initiative, a 3-year collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school districts, generated 10 action research projects that developed educational indicator systems with a broad range of student outcomes, methods of data collection and interpretation, and outcomes reporting. Field testing of these systems…

  3. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  4. Temperature-indicating Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzig, F

    1939-01-01

    This report is an attempt at a new method of coating the surface of the cylinder with materials that undergo chemical change at definite temperatures as indicated by a change in color. In this way it was hoped that the substance itself would indicate directly the position of its isotherms, which in measurements with thermocouples requires a tedious amount of labor.

  5. Nontrivial Effect of the Color-Exchange of a Donor/Acceptor Pair in the Engineering of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Based Indicators.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yusaku; Kamagata, Takanori; Mukai, Asuka; Takada, Shinji; Nagai, Takeharu; Horikawa, Kazuki

    2016-07-15

    Genetically encoded indicators driven by the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism are reliable tools for live imaging. While the properties of FRET-based indicators have been improved over the years, they often suffer from a poor dynamic range due to the lack of comprehensive understanding about how to apply an appropriate strategy to optimize the FRET parameters. One of the most successful optimizations is the incorporation of circularly permuted fluorescent proteins (cpFPs). To better understand the effects of this strategy, we systematically investigated the properties of the indicators by utilizing a set of FRET backbones consisting of native or one of the most effective cp variants (cp173FPs) with considerations of their order. As a result, the ordering of donor and acceptor FPs, which has been ignored in previous studies, was found to significantly affect the dynamic range of indicators. By utilizing these backbones, we succeeded in improving a cGMP indicator with 3.6-fold increased dynamic range and in generating an ultrasensitive cAMP indicator capable of environmental imaging, demonstrating the practical importance of the ordering of donors and acceptors in the engineering of FRET-based indicators. PMID:27232891

  6. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOEpatents

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  7. New red-fluorescent calcium indicators for optogenetics, photoactivation and multi-color imaging.

    PubMed

    Oheim, Martin; van 't Hoff, Marcel; Feltz, Anne; Zamaleeva, Alsu; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Collot, Mayeul

    2014-10-01

    Most chemical and, with only a few exceptions, all genetically encoded fluorimetric calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators (GECIs) emit green fluorescence. Many of these probes are compatible with red-emitting cell- or organelle markers. But the bulk of available fluorescent-protein constructs and transgenic animals incorporate green or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP and YFP respectively). This is, in part, not only heritage from the tendency to aggregate of early-generation red-emitting FPs, and due to their complicated photochemistry, but also resulting from the compatibility of green-fluorescent probes with standard instrumentation readily available in most laboratories and core imaging facilities. Photochemical constraints like limited water solubility and low quantum yield have contributed to the relative paucity of red-emitting Ca(2+) probes compared to their green counterparts, too. The increasing use of GFP and GFP-based functional reporters, together with recent developments in optogenetics, photostimulation and super-resolution microscopies, has intensified the quest for red-emitting Ca(2+) probes. In response to this demand more red-emitting chemical and FP-based Ca(2+)-sensitive indicators have been developed since 2009 than in the thirty years before. In this topical review, we survey the physicochemical properties of these red-emitting Ca(2+) probes and discuss their utility for biological Ca(2+) imaging. Using the spectral separability index Xijk (Oheim M., 2010. Methods in Molecular Biology 591: 3-16) we evaluate their performance for multi-color excitation/emission experiments, involving the identification of morphological landmarks with GFP/YFP and detecting Ca(2+)-dependent fluorescence in the red spectral band. We also establish a catalog of criteria for evaluating Ca(2+) indicators that ideally should be made available for each probe. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium signaling in health and disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck

  8. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  10. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  11. Meadow birds as indicators.

    PubMed

    Beintema, A J

    1983-09-01

    The use of birds as indicators for 'biological qualities' is not without risks, and should always be based on a sound knowledge of population dynamics and ecological requirements of the species involved. Meadow birds form a comparatively well-studied group of waders, which breed in Dutch grasslands, heavily influenced by agricultural management. The individual species show different tolerances to intensity levels of management, and can therefore be used as indicators for these levels. PMID:24259105

  12. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  13. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  14. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  15. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  16. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...

  17. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  18. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  19. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  20. Fluorescent Gage Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, C. E.; Gilbaugh, B. L.; Gin, B.; Holt, W. L.; Lesak, P.; Mancini, R.; Spencer, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of dye shows quality of contact between two mating parts. Mating parts checked for fit by spreading fluorescent dye on one, making brief light contact with other, and looking (under UV light) for transferred dye. Dye offers greater visibility under ultraviolet illumination, allowing better indication of how precisely parts match and what areas interfere.

  1. Triboluminescent indicator system

    DOEpatents

    Goods, Steven H.; Dentinger, Paul M.; Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.

    2003-06-24

    There is provided a light emitting device comprising a plurality of triboluminescent particles dispersed throughout a low density, frangible body and activated by rapidly crushing the body in order to transfer mechanical energy to some portion of the particles. The light emitted by these mechanically excited particles is collected and directed into a light conduit and transmitted to a detector/indicator means.

  2. Simplified quantification of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (k(ws) ) with RF saturation time dependent ratiometric analysis (QUESTRA): normalization of relaxation and RF irradiation spillover effects for improved quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI.

    PubMed

    Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2012-04-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI is an emerging imaging technique capable of detecting dilute proteins/peptides and microenvironmental properties, with promising in vivo applications. However, chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI contrast is complex, varying not only with the labile proton concentration and exchange rate, but also with experimental conditions such as field strength and radiofrequency (RF) irradiation scheme. Furthermore, the optimal RF irradiation power depends on the exchange rate, which must be estimated in order to optimize the chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI experiments. Although methods including numerical fitting with modified Bloch-McConnell equations, quantification of exchange rate with RF saturation time and power (QUEST and QUESP), have been proposed to address this relationship, they require multiple-parameter non-linear fitting and accurate relaxation measurement. Our work extended the QUEST algorithm with ratiometric analysis (QUESTRA) that normalizes the magnetization transfer ratio at labile and reference frequencies, which effectively eliminates the confounding relaxation and RF spillover effects. Specifically, the QUESTRA contrast approaches its steady state mono-exponentially at a rate determined by the reverse exchange rate (k(ws) ), with little dependence on bulk water T(1) , T(2) , RF power and chemical shift. The proposed algorithm was confirmed numerically, and validated experimentally using a tissue-like phantom of serially titrated pH compartments.

  3. Simplified quantification of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (kws) with RF saturation time dependent ratiometric analysis (QUESTRA) - Normalization of relaxation and RF irradiation spillover effects for improved quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is an emerging imaging technique capable of detecting dilute proteins/peptides and microenvironmental properties, with promising in vivo applications. However, CEST MRI contrast is complex, varying not only with the labile proton concentration and exchange rate, but also with experimental conditions such as field strength and RF irradiation scheme. Furthermore, the optimal RF irradiation power depends on the exchange rate, which must be estimated in order to optimize the CEST MRI experiments. Although methods including numerical fitting with modified Bloch-McConnell equations, quantification of exchange rate with RF saturation time and power (QUEST and QUESP), have been proposed to address this relationship, they require multiple-parameter non-linear fitting and accurate relaxation measurement. Our work here extended the QUEST algorithm with ratiometric analysis (QUESTRA) that normalizes the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) at labile and reference frequencies, which effectively eliminates the confounding relaxation and RF spillover effects. Specifically, the QUESTRA contrast approaches its steady state mono-exponentially at a rate determined by the reverse exchange rate (kws), with little dependence on bulk water T1, T2, RF power and chemical shift. The proposed algorithm was confirmed numerically, and validated experimentally using a tissue-like phantom of serially titrated pH compartments. PMID:21842497

  4. Dissection of local Ca(2+) signals inside cytosol by ER-targeted Ca(2+) indicator.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Fumihiro; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Ayana; Takagi, Shin; Oda, Yoichi; Bannai, Hiroko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a versatile intracellular second messenger that operates in various signaling pathways leading to multiple biological outputs. The diversity of spatiotemporal patterns of Ca(2+) signals, generated by the coordination of Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space and Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) store the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is considered to underlie the diversity of biological outputs caused by a single signaling molecule. However, such Ca(2+) signaling diversity has not been well described because of technical limitations. Here, we describe a new method to report Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution. We report that OER-GCaMP6f, a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator (GECI) targeted to the outer ER membrane, can monitor Ca(2+) release from the ER at higher spatiotemporal resolution than conventional GCaMP6f. OER-GCaMP6f was used for in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of C. elegans. We also found that the spontaneous Ca(2+) elevation in cultured astrocytes reported by OER-GCaMP6f showed a distinct spatiotemporal pattern from that monitored by plasma membrane-targeted GCaMP6f (Lck-GCaMP6f); less frequent Ca(2+) signal was detected by OER-GCaMP6f, in spite of the fact that Ca(2+) release from the ER plays important roles in astrocytes. These findings suggest that targeting of GECIs to the ER outer membrane enables sensitive detection of Ca(2+) release from the ER at subcellular resolution, avoiding the diffusion of GECI and Ca(2+). Our results indicate that Ca(2+) imaging with OER-GCaMP6f in combination with Lck-GCaMP6f can contribute to describing the diversity of Ca(2+) signals, by enabling dissection of Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution.

  5. Evolving Indications for Tips.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell; Durham, Janette

    2016-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements including covered stents have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Evidence for other less frequent indications continues to accumulate, including the indications of primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding, gastric and ectopic variceal bleeding, primary treatment of medically refractory ascites, recurrent refractory ascites following liver transplantation, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatorenal syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding with early TIPS and using transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts as a primary therapy rather than large volume paracentesis for refractory ascites would likely be the 2 circumstances that permit expansion in the frequency of TIPS procedures. The remaining populations discussed above are relatively rare. PMID:26997087

  6. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  7. Synthesis and Properties of Asante Calcium Red –a Novel Family of Long Excitation Wavelength Calcium Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Hyrc, Krzysztof L.; Minta, Akwasi; Escamilla, P. Rogelio; Chan, Patrick P.L.; Meshik, Xenia A.; Goldberg, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Although many synthetic calcium indicators are available, a search for compounds with improved characteristics continues. Here, we describe the synthesis and properties of Asante Calcium Red-1 (ACR-1) and its low affinity derivative (ACR-1-LA) created by linking BAPTA to seminaphthofluorescein. The indicators combine a visible light (450–540 nm) excitation with deep-red fluorescence (640 nm). Upon Ca2+ binding, the indicators raise their fluorescence with longer excitation wavelengths producing higher responses. Although the changes occur without any spectral shifts, it is possible to ratio Ca2+-dependent (640 nm) and quasi-independent (530 nm) emission when using visible (<490 nm) or multiphoton (~780 nm) excitation. Therefore, both probes can be used as single wavelength or, less dynamic, ratiometric indicators. Long indicator emission might allow easy [Ca2+]i measurement in GFP expressing cells. The indicators bind Ca2+ with either high (Kd=0.49±0.07 μM; ACR-1) or low affinity (Kd=6.65±0.13 μM; ACR-1-LA). Chelating Zn2+ (Kd =0.38±0.02 nM) or Mg2+ (Kd ~5 mM) slightly raises and binding Co2+ quenches dye fluorescence. New indicators are somewhat pH-sensitive (pKa=6.31±0.07), but fairly resistant to bleaching. The probes are rather dim, which combined with low AM ester loading efficiency, might complicate in situ imaging. Despite potential drawbacks, ACR-1 and ACR-1-LA are promising new calcium indicators. PMID:24017967

  8. Synthesis and properties of Asante Calcium Red--a novel family of long excitation wavelength calcium indicators.

    PubMed

    Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Minta, Akwasi; Escamilla, P Rogelio; Chan, Patrick P L; Meshik, Xenia A; Goldberg, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Although many synthetic calcium indicators are available, a search for compounds with improved characteristics continues. Here, we describe the synthesis and properties of Asante Calcium Red-1 (ACR-1) and its low affinity derivative (ACR-1-LA) created by linking BAPTA to seminaphthofluorescein. The indicators combine a visible light (450-540 nm) excitation with deep-red fluorescence (640 nm). Upon Ca2+ binding, the indicators raise their fluorescence with longer excitation wavelengths producing higher responses. Although the changes occur without any spectral shifts, it is possible to ratio Ca(2+)-dependent (640 nm) and quasi-independent (530 nm) emission when using visible (< 490 nm) or multiphoton (∼780 nm) excitation. Therefore, both probes can be used as single wavelength or, less dynamic, ratiometric indicators. Long indicator emission might allow easy [Ca2+]i measurement in GFP expressing cells. The indicators bind Ca2+ with either high (Kd = 0.49 ± 0.07 μM; ACR-1) or low affinity (Kd = 6.65 ± 0.13 μM; ACR-1-LA). Chelating Zn2+ (Kd = 0.38 ± 0.02 nM) or Mg2+ (Kd∼5mM) slightly raises and binding Co2+ quenches dye fluorescence. New indicators are somewhat pH-sensitive (pKa = 6.31 ± 0.07), but fairly resistant to bleaching. The probes are rather dim, which combined with low AM ester loading efficiency, might complicate in situ imaging. Despite potential drawbacks, ACR-1 and ACR-1-LA are promising new calcium indicators. PMID:24017967

  9. [Intraoperative colonoscopy: current indications].

    PubMed

    Stroppa, I; D'Antini, P; Rossi, L; Farinon, A M

    1993-01-01

    From January 1987 to December 1991, 37 patients underwent intraoperative colonoscopy for several indications; these latter can be summarized in the need to define the site or extension of the lesions treated or detected by endoscopy before surgery. This procedure is therefore necessary in those cases in whom intraoperative endoscopy is likely to be useful in planning the surgical treatment. The use of intraoperative colonoscopy should be however considered complementary, but not substitutive, of the preoperative colonoscopy.

  10. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.

  11. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Sivarajan, Lekha

    1993-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:25372708

  12. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, Sidney; Degen, Michael F.; Peters, Henry F.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over the item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection.

  13. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  14. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  15. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  16. Enhanced tamper indicator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.

    2003-07-08

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method whereby the reliability and tamper-resistance of tamper indicators can be improved. A flexible connector may be routed through a latch for an enclosure such as a door or container, and the free ends of the flexible connector may be passed through a first locking member and firmly attached to an insert through the use of one or more attachment members such as set screws. A second locking member may then be assembled in interlocking relation with the first locking member to form an interlocked assembly around the insert. The insert may have one or more sharp projections extending toward the first or second locking member so that any compressive force applied in an attempt to disassemble the interlocked assembly results in permanent, visible damage to the first or second locking member.

  17. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  18. Entanglement–breaking indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lami, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  19. Thalidomide: new indications?

    PubMed

    Combe, B

    2001-12-01

    Thalidomide, which was developed as a nonbarbiturate sedative agent, was taken off the market in 1961 after it was linked to a spate of major birth defects. Gradually, thalidomide was reintroduced for the treatment of a few skin diseases including leprous erythema nodosum, severe mucosal ulcers (e.g., associated with HIV infection or Behçet's disease), lymphocytic skin infiltrations, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Recent reports of original pharmacological properties including modulation of cytokine production (mainly reduced TNF-alpha production) and inhibition of angiogenesis have led to the suggestion that thalidomide may be useful in some inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Several open-label studies and case reports have described the effects of thalidomide in Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis, systemic sclerosis, and a few other systemic disorders. In these indications, minor but dose-limiting side effects were apparently common. Thalidomide analogs with better acceptability profiles are under evaluation. The anti-angiogenic effects of thalidomide may make this compound valuable as single-drug therapy or as an adjunct to chemotherapy in patients with cancer, particularly those with metastases or multiple myeloma. This possibility requires further evaluation.

  20. 'Light bar' attitude indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enevoldson, E. K.; Horton, V. W.

    1982-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a light bar attitude indicator to help maintain proper aircraft attitude during high altitude night flying is described. A standard four-inch ADI was modified to project an artificial horizon across the instrument panel for pitch and roll information. A light bulb was put in the center of the ADI and a thin slit cut on the horizon, resulting in a thin horizontal sheet of light projecting from the instrument. The intensity of the projected beam is such that it can only be seen in a darkened room or at night. The beam on the instrument panel of the T-37 jet trainer is shown, depicting various attitudes. The favorable comments of about 50 pilots who evaluated the instrument are summarized, including recommendations for improving the instrument. Possible uses for the instrument to ease the pilot task are listed. Two potential problems in using the device are the development of pilot complacency and an upright-inverted ambiguity in the instrument.