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Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Catherine M.; Ferone, Morgan E.

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days). However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal. PMID:28357377

  2. Screening for genital chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Low, Nicola; Redmond, Shelagh; Uusküla, Anneli; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects and safety of chlamydia screening in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men, compared with standard care, on chlamydia transmission and on complications of infection.

  3. [Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and contraception].

    PubMed

    Aloisio, T; Rullo, F; Smeraglia, R; Giorgio, A; Lettieri, G; Sannino, F; Martinelli, A

    1988-01-01

    330 women with a median age of 30.15 (+- 9.5) years sought gynecological consultation for advice on contraception and for cervical carcinoma screening. Anamnesis explored the presence of dysuria, dyspareunia, secretions, and pelvic pain, the number of partners, and type of contraceptive used. Endocervical samples were collected by means of tampon and the specimens were analyzed for 48 to 120 hours to find antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) by a solid phase immunoenzymatic test. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from all women to look for antibodies of C.T. and also the indirect immunoperoxidase test was used to search for specific antibodies of C.T. (IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG). The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. None of the women who used oral hormonal contraceptives or condoms were infected (presence of antigens and positivity for IgM and/or IgE and/or IgA), however, 36 of 90 IUD users (40%) were infected, 18 of 132 women who used no contraceptives whatsoever (13.7%) were also infected. 91% of the subjects had a single partner. In view of these findings the use of the condom and oral contraceptives is recommended with proper instruction about their potential side effects.

  4. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  5. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  6. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  7. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  8. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  9. Type I interferon signaling exacerbates Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Prantner, Daniel; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Goodwin, Anna M; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Darville, Toni

    2008-10-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) induced during in vitro chlamydial infection exert bactericidal and immunomodulatory functions. To determine the precise role of type I IFNs during in vivo chlamydial genital infection, we examined the course and outcome of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in mice genetically deficient in the receptor for type I IFNs (IFNAR(-/-) mice). A significant reduction in chlamydial shedding and duration of lower genital tract infection was observed in IFNAR(-/-) mice in comparison to the level of chlamydial shedding and duration of infection in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, IFNAR(-/-) mice developed less chronic oviduct pathology in comparison to that in WT mice. Compared to the WT, IFNAR(-/-) mice had a greater number of chlamydial-specific T cells in their iliac lymph nodes 21 days postinfection. IFNAR(-/-) mice also exhibited earlier and enhanced CD4 T-cell recruitment to the cervical tissues, which was associated with increased expression of CXCL9 in the genital secretions of IFNAR(-/-) mice, but not with expression of CXCL10, which was reduced in the genital secretions of IFNAR(-/-) mice. These data suggest that type I IFNs exacerbate C. muridarum genital infection through an inhibition of the chlamydial-specific CD4 T-cell response.

  10. The risk of transmission of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is less than that of genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.

    PubMed

    Lycke, E; Löwhagen, G B; Hallhagen, G; Johannisson, G; Ramstedt, K

    1980-01-01

    A total of 211 men with 237 female sexual partners and a total of 155 women with 156 male consorts were examined for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The index patients had either single chlamydial or gonococcal infections or dual infections with both microorganisms. Analysis of recovery rates for groups of sexual consorts indicated that gonorrhea was contracted more frequently than chlamydial infection. Thus, when index patients had dual infections, 45% and 28% of their female and male consorts, respectively, had chlamydial infection, but 64% and 77%, respectively, had gonorrhea. When index patients had single infections with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, chlamydial infections were observed in consorts of 45% (women) and 28% (men), but gonococcal infections were observed in 80% (women) and 81% (men). Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of consorts of patients with chlamydial infection eluded infection than did partners of patients with gonorrhea. Women who used an intrauterine contraceptive device had chlamydial and gonococcal infections more often than those who used other forms of contraception, or no contraceptive.

  11. Gamma Interferon Is Required for Optimal Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Genital Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naglak, Elizabeth K.; Morrison, Sandra G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the combination of antibody and CD4+ T cells is fundamental to designing an efficacious chlamydial vaccine. Using the Chlamydia muridarum genital infection model of mice, which replicates many features of human C. trachomatis infection and avoids the characteristic low virulence of C. trachomatis in the mouse, we previously demonstrated a significant role for antibody in immunity to chlamydial infection. We found that antibody alone was not protective. Instead, protection appeared to be conferred through an undefined antibody-cell interaction. Using gene knockout mice and in vivo cellular depletion methods, our data suggest that antibody-mediated protection is dependent on the activation of an effector cell population in genital tract tissues by CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cell-secreted cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was found to be a key component of the protective antibody response. The protective function of IFN-γ was not related to the immunoglobulin class or to the magnitude of the Chlamydia-specific antibody response or to recruitment of an effector cell population to genital tract tissue. Rather, IFN-γ appears to be necessary for activation of the effector cell population that functions in antibody-mediated chlamydial immunity. Our results confirm the central role of antibody in immunity to chlamydia reinfection and demonstrate a key function for IFN-γ in antibody-mediated protection. PMID:27600502

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis: important relationships to race, contraception, lower genital tract infection, and Papanicolaou smear.

    PubMed

    Shafer, M A; Beck, A; Blain, B; Dole, P; Irwin, C E; Sweet, R; Schachter, J

    1984-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease in adolescent girls. Of 366 adolescent patients screened, 15.3% were found to have chlamydial endocervical infections, with an infection rate of 23.3% in blacks, 14.3% in Hispanics, and 10.3% in whites (P = 0.01, excess for blacks). Of Chlamydia-positive patients, 63.6% had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection, compared with 35.4% of Chlamydia-negative patients (P = 0.004). Oral contraceptive users had a higher prevalence of infection (23.8%) compared with those using a barrier method (16.2%) or with nonusers (9.3%) (P = 0.004). Inflammatory changes on Papanicolaou smears were associated with chlamydial infection (P = 0.0001). Other variables identified as risk factors for chlamydial infection included both a younger age at first intercourse (P = 0.02) and more years of sexual activity (P = 0.02). Chronologic, menarchal, and gynecologic age, biologic age of the cervix, the number of sexual partners in the last month and during a lifetime, and parity were not found to be associated with recovery of Chlamydia.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  14. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  15. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    R. R. Ingalls, C. W. Andrews, Jr., A. M. Scurlock, and T. Darville . 2007. Plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce immune pathology...and protect against oviduct disease. J. Immunol. 179:4027-4034. 49 8. Darville , T., C. W. Andrews, Jr., and R. G. Rank. 2000. Does inhibition of...Sufficient IFN-gamma to Mediate Robust Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Infection. J. Immunol. 180:3375-3382. 19. Darville , T

  16. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis. PMID

  17. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  18. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A−/− mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  19. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  20. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  1. Incidence of recurrent diagnoses of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections among male and female soldiers of the US army

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S.; Brundage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background/objectives: Few studies of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence, especially among men, and most studies of C trachomatis in US military populations are cross sectional prevalence surveys. A population based retrospective cohort was used to determine risk factors for repeat diagnoses of genital C trachomatis infections among male and female soldiers with previous C trachomatis infections. Methods: All active duty soldiers diagnosed with C trachomatis genital infections between 1994 and 1998. Cohort members were passively followed until repeat diagnoses of C trachomatis infection, termination of army service, or the end of the study. Results: Among 11 771 soldiers with initial diagnoses of chlamydia, the crude rate of repeat diagnoses was 52.0 per 1000 person years. Women and men aged 20–24 were at greatest unadjusted risk of reinfection. After adjustment, women aged 20–24 and men aged 25–29 were at higher risk than their younger or older counterparts. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that both male and female soldiers who are diagnosed with chlamydia infections have relatively high risks of reinfection through their 20s. Key Words: epidemiology; military personnel; sexually transmitted diseases; United States PMID:11158689

  2. A case control study of active genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients with tubal infertility in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Shittu, S O; Abdul, A M

    2006-01-01

    A case-controlled study of the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 120 patients with tubal infertility (study group) and 120 clients of the family planning clinic (control group) attending the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria in northern Nigeria is reported. The prevalence was 38.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (29.6-47.6%) in the study group and 13.3%, 95% CI (7.8-20.7%) in the control group. There was a fourfold risk of having genital Chlamydial infection among the cases compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.04, 95% CI (2.04 < OR < 8.09). Tubal infertility was found to be significantly associated with genital C. trachomatis infection (P < 0.001). Out of the 58 cases of primary infertility, 22(37.9%) tested positive for genital C. trachomatis compared with 24 of the 62 (38.7%) that had secondary infertility. The infection was not found to be significantly associated with a particular type of infertility (primary or secondary), number of sexual partners or previous sexually transmitted disease (P < 0.05). There is need for provision of facilities to enable screening for genital C. trachomatis infection in view of its high prevalence in the study population.

  3. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. METHODS This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. RESULTS Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. CONCLUSION Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:27588273

  4. Analysis of Factors Driving Incident and Ascending Infection and the Role of Serum Antibody in Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ali N.; Zheng, Xiaojing; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Taylor, Brandie D.; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Zhong, Wujuan; Darville, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection is a major cause of female reproductive morbidity. Risk factors for ascending infection are unknown, and the role for antibody in protection is not well established. Methods. We recruited 225 women from urban outpatient clinics and followed them for a median of 12 months. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of serum anti-chlamydial immunoglobulin G (IgG), behavioral factors, and microbiological factors associated with endometrial infection at enrollment, and a longitudinal analysis of factors associated with incident infection. Results. Oral contraceptives (adjusted relative risk [RR], 2.02 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.38–2.97]) and gonorrhea (adjusted RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.07–2.60]) were associated with endometrial infection. Gonorrhea (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.09 [95% CI, 1.41–6.78]), cervical infection at enrollment (adjusted HR, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.07–5.11]), and exposure to uncircumcised partners (adjusted HR, 2.65 [95% CI, 1.21–5.82]) or infected partners (adjusted HR, 4.99 [95% CI, 2.66–9.39]) significantly increased the risk of incident infection. Seropositivity was associated with a reduced cervical burden (P < .05) but no differences in rates of ascending infection (adjusted RR, 1.24 [95% CI, .71–2.19]) or incident infection (adjusted HR, 0.94 [95% CI, .52–1.69]). Conclusions. Serum anti-chlamydial IgG is not associated with a lowered rate of ascending or repeat infection. Identification of factors associated with ascending infection and increased risk of incident infection provide guidance for targeted screening of women at increased risk for sequelae. PMID:26347571

  5. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.; Kerr, Micah S.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals. PMID:26519447

  6. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  7. IL-23 induces IL-22 and IL-17 production in response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but the absence of these cytokines does not influence disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108

  8. Antigen specific immune response in Chlamydia muridarum genital infection is dependent on murine microRNAs-155 and -182

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Jonathon; Koundinya, Gopala Krishna Lanka; Castillo, Kevin; Hobel, Sabrina; Chambers, James P.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M. Neal; Aigner, Achim; Christenson, Lane K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-chlamydial immunity involves efficient presentation of antigens (Ag) to effector cells resulting in Ag-specific immune responses. There is limited information on inherent underlying mechanisms regulating these events. Previous studies from our laboratory have established that select microRNAs (miRs) function as molecular regulators of immunity in Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) genital infection. In this report, we investigated immune cell type-specific miRs, i.e. miR-155 and -182, and the role in Ag-specific immunity. We observed significant up-regulation of miR-155 in C57BL/6 bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), and miR-182 in splenic Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells. Using mimics and inhibitors, we determined that miR-155 contributed to BMDC activation following Cm infection. Co-cultures of miR-155 over-expressed in BMDC and miR-182 over-expressed in Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, or miR-155−/− BMDC with miR-182 inhibitor treated Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, resulted in IFN-γ production comparable to Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells isolated from Cm infected mice. Additionally, miR-182 was significantly up-regulated in intranasally vaccinated mice protected against Cm infection. In vivo depletion of miR-182 resulted in reduction in Ag-specific IFN-γ and genital pathology in Cm infected mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an interaction of miR-155 (in Cm infected DC) and miR-182 (in CD4+ T-cell) resulting in Ag specific immune responses against genital Cm. PMID:27556515

  9. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage

    PubMed Central

    Quispe Calla, Nirk E.; Pavelko, Stephen D.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  10. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age Attending the Gynecology Clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003

  11. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

  12. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Zurenski, Matthew A; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M; Darville, Toni

    2013-10-15

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4(+) T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4(+) T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4(+) T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity.

  13. A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K; de la Maza, Luis M

    2010-11-10

    Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-γ both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks following the immunization, all mice were challenged in the meatus urethra. The urethra, urinary bladder, testes and epididymides were harvested at weekly intervals and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis. Based on the culture results from these four organs both groups of Chlamydia-immunized mice showed significant protection. In the group immunized i.u., 10% (5/50) had positive cultures, while in the group immunized i.n. 28% (14/50) had positive cultures during the 5 weeks of observation. In contrast, in the sham-immunized animals 47% (47/100) had positive cultures (P<0.005) during the study period. In addition, the number of positive organs, the length of time that the animal had positive cultures, and the total number of inclusion forming units (IFU) recovered were overall significantly lower in the i.u. or i.n. groups in comparison with the sham-immunized animals. However, in relation to the i.u. immunized group, the protection elicited in the i.n. group was delayed and not as robust. In conclusion, immunization of mice in the meatus urethra may provide the gold standard for testing Chlamydia vaccines in a male model.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis in sexually active teenage girls. Factors related to genital chlamydial infection: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rahm, V A; Odlind, V; Pettersson, R

    1991-08-01

    The incidence of new infections with C trachomatis was found to be 19%. Predisposing factors for a subsequent chlamydial infection were multiple partners, smoking and previous infection with C trachomatis. Girls with a spread cervical ectopy were not more likely to contract a chlamydial infection in one year than girls without an ectopy. Oral contraceptive use was not found to predispose for a chlamydial infection.

  15. Pathogenesis of genital tract disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J

    2010-06-15

    Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s)that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest that the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected nonimmune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia activation of the innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor 2, and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation, which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-interferon-g-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that, although the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis that thwart development of optimally effective control programs, including vaccine development.

  16. Epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Simms, I; Catchpole, M; Brugha, R; Rogers, P; Mallinson, H; Nicoll, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the recent epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in England and Wales. DESIGN: Retrospective study of routinely available surveillance datasets and ad hoc prevalence studies. METHODS: Numbers of new cases of genital C trachomatis infection, obtained from the Department of Health and Welsh Office, were combined with the estimated mid-year resident population of England and Wales. Rates were analysed for trend over time using a log linear age period model in GLIM4. Ad hoc prevalence and case finding studies carried out over the past 20 years were critically assessed in terms of study design and testing methodologies. RESULTS: Attendance rates at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics were higher for women than men over the period 1989 to 1994 as were the number of laboratory reports. The highest rate of attendance (GUM clinic data) was for women aged 16 to 19 years. There was an overall significant linear decrease in the attendance rates over time for both men (p = 0.0172) and women (p = 0.0000) between 1989 and 1994. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection detected within different clinical settings, together with a substantial level of asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genital C trachomatis infection is broadly distributed throughout the sexually active population, with a substantial reservoir of asymptomatic infection among those generally perceived to be at low risk of a sexually transmitted infection. Young people, particularly women aged 16 to 19 years, are at highest risk of genital C trachomatis infection. This is of concern since younger women are more susceptible than older women to developing complications of chlamydial infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The broad distribution of infection across all sexually active health service attenders and the high level of asymptomatic infection suggest that a new, screening based, approach to the control of genital C

  17. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  18. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Brade, Helmut; Rank, Roger G; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings have implicated interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the female genital tract during chlamydial infection. But how IL-1beta is produced and its specific role in infection and pathology are unclear. Therefore, our goal was to determine the functional consequences and cellular sources of IL-1beta expression during a chlamydial genital infection. In the present study, IL-1beta(-/-) mice exhibited delayed chlamydial clearance and decreased frequency of hydrosalpinx compared to wild-type (WT) mice, implying an important role for IL-1beta both in the clearance of infection and in the mediation of oviduct pathology. At the peak of IL-1beta secretion in WT mice, the major producers of IL-1beta in vivo are F4/80(+) macrophages and GR-1(+) neutrophils, but not CD45(-) epithelial cells. Although elicited mouse macrophages infected with Chlamydia muridarum in vitro secrete minimal IL-1beta, in vitro prestimulation of macrophages by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli or C. trachomatis L2 prior to infection greatly enhanced secretion of IL-1beta from these cells. By using LPS-primed macrophages as a model system, it was determined that IL-1beta secretion was dependent on caspase-1, potassium efflux, and the activity of serine proteases. Significantly, chlamydia-induced IL-1beta secretion in macrophages required bacterial viability but not growth. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1beta secreted by macrophages and neutrophils has important effects in vivo during chlamydial infection. Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type.

  19. Identification of homing receptors that mediate the recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, K A; Rank, R G

    1997-01-01

    Murine genital infection induced with the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn) elicits a short-lived protective immunity mediated primarily by Th1 CD4 cells. To understand the development of local cell-mediated immunity against C. trachomatis infection, we investigated the mechanism(s) which mediates CD4 lymphocyte migration to the genital mucosa by identifying molecules that could support this process. We found that primarily CD4 cells were recruited to the genital tract (GT) during primary and challenge MoPn infection. Peak levels were found 21 days after primary inoculation (15.4% +/- 2.7%) and 7 days (31.3% +/- 8.5%) after challenge but diminished after resolution of infection. The CD4 cells appeared to be recruited to the GT in response to infection since these cells expressed the profile of activated, or memory, cells. We also observed up-regulation of homing receptors containing LFA-1 (CD11a) and alpha4 (CD49d) on GT CD4 cells over the course of infection. Furthermore, the mucosal homing receptor chain, beta7, but not the peripheral homing receptor chain beta1 (CD29), was detected on GT CD4 cells. MoPn-infected GT tissue expressed the endothelial cell ligands vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1), which correspond to the homing receptors on GT CD4 cells. Interestingly, VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1 were not expressed in the GTs of uninfected mice but were temporarily induced following infection, indicating that expression of endothelial ligands in the GT are regulated by chlamydial infection. These data suggest that recruitment of CD4 cells to the GT is mediated through LFA-1:ICAM-1 and alpha4beta7:MAdCAM-1-VCAM-1 interactions. PMID:9393816

  20. Interleukin-17 contributes to generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of infection.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Amy M; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Foote, Isaac P; Bailey, Sarabeth L; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K; Darville, Toni

    2011-03-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra(-/-) mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra(-/-) mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ(-/-) mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ(-/-) mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens.

  1. [Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted bacterial infections].

    PubMed

    Clad, A

    2002-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. In Western Europe, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased by more than 95% since the 1970ies; "tripper" and syphilis are essentially confined to high-risk groups while genital chlamydial infections affect people of all social classes, but information about chlamydia is still scarce in many European countries. Clinically genital chlamydial infections resemble gonorrhoea (dysuria, discharge, irregular bleeding, dyspareunia, perihepatitis) and may be mistaken for appendicitis. However, Chlamydia trachomatis persists longer and more often asymptomatic than Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the urogenital tract of men and women. About 20% of all chlamydia infected women suffer from partial or complete tubal occlusion. Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of female infertility, but most of these women never experienced any clinical sign of pelvic inflammatory disease. Since particle concentrations are often very low in urine and cervical secretions only DNA-amplification tests, e.g. PCR or LCR, exhibit sufficient sensitivity for direct detection Chlamydia trachomatis. While Neisseria gonorrhoeae is eradicated by single-shot treatment with commonly used antibiotics like penicillins or cephalosporins Chlamydia trachomatis affords treatment for at least 10 days with doxycyline or macrolides. Partner treatment is essential to avoid reinfections. Condoms not only protect against HIV, but also against chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis.

  2. Identification of an iron-responsive protein that is antigenic in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.

    PubMed

    Raulston, Jane E; Miller, Jeffrey D; Davis, Caroyn H; Schell, Maria; Baldwin, Amy; Ferguson, Kaethe; Lane, Heather

    2007-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of immune-mediated damage to the reproductive tract of infected patients. Certain chlamydial antigens and host genetic factors have been identified as contributing to immunopathological events, but a comprehensive understanding of specific components involved in destructive vs. protective immune responses to chlamydial infections is far from clear. In this study, it is shown that C. trachomatis-infected patients generate antibodies against an iron-responsive chlamydial protein, YtgA. The identity of YtgA was confirmed by mass spectrometry following two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. This finding underscores a necessity to examine patient sera samples to identify chlamydial antigens that are likely encountered and important to the immune response during human infections.

  3. In Vitro Passage Selects for Chlamydia muridarum with Enhanced Infectivity in Cultured Cells but Attenuated Pathogenicity in Mouse Upper Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Conrad, Turner; Yang, Zhangsheng; Dai, Jin; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    Although modern Chlamydia muridarum has been passaged for decades, there are no reports on the consequences of serial passage with strong selection pressure on its fitness. In order to explore the potential for Pasteurian selection to induce genomic and phenotypic perturbations to C. muridarum, a starter population was passaged in cultured cells for 28 generations without standard infection assistance. The resultant population, designated CMG28, displays markedly reduced in vitro dependence on centrifugation for infection and low incidence and severity of upper genital tract pathology following intravaginal inoculation into mice compared to the parental C. muridarum population, CMG0. Deep sequencing of CMG0 and CMG28 revealed novel protein variants in the hypothetical genes TC0237 (Q117E) and TC0668 (G322R). In vitro attachment assays of isogenic plaque clone pairs with mutations in either TC0237 and TC0668 or only TC0237 reveal that TC0237(Q117E) is solely responsible for enhanced adherence to host cells. Paradoxically, double mutants, but not TC0237(Q117E) single mutants, display severely attenuated in vivo pathogenicity. These findings implicate TC0237 and TC0668 as novel genetic factors involved in chlamydial attachment and pathogenicity, respectively, and show that serial passage under selection pressure remains an effective tool for studying Chlamydia pathogenicity. PMID:25712926

  4. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pengfei; Du, Wangqi; Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-12-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection.

  5. Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection induced by a vaccine based on the major outer membrane multi-epitope human papillomavirus major capsid protein L1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Liu, Jianxiao; Gong, Wenci; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Shanli; Zhang, Lifang

    2011-03-24

    The administration of an efficacious vaccine is the most effective long-term measure to control the genital tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in humans. The current challenge for Ct vaccine development is to develop an effective delivery vehicle for induction of a high level of mucosal T and complementary B cell responses. We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) multiepitope of Ct delivered with the human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 as a vehicle with adjuvant properties, in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) containing mammalian codon-optimization HPV6b L1 gene and Ct MOMP multiepitope was constructed. The Ct MOMP multiepitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides was inserted into C-terminal of HPV6b L1-coding sequence. The constructed plasmid after verified by enzyme restriction assay and DNA sequencing was transfected into COS-7 cells. Expression of the chimeric gene in COS-7 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed successful expression of the chimeric HPV6b L1/Ct MOMP multiepitope gene both at the mRNA and protein levels in transfected COS-7 cells. Intramuscular (IM) administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Ct MOMP, but also Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against the Ct MOMP epitopes. In addition, recipients of IM immunization of HPV6b L1/Ct MOMP multiepitope were highly resistant to infection. Altogether, the results suggested that IM delivery of HPV6b L1-MOMP multiepitope may be a suitable vaccine regimen potentially capable of inducing protective mucosal immunity against Ct infection.

  6. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed. PMID:27525325

  7. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  8. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  9. MyD88 deficiency leads to decreased NK cell gamma interferon production and T cell recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but a predominant Th1 response and enhanced monocytic inflammation are associated with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Sikes, James; Prantner, Daniel; Andrews, Charles W; Frazer, Lauren; Goodwin, Anna; Snowden, Jessica N; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that MyD88 knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed clearance of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A blunted Th1 response and ineffective suppression of the Th2 response were also observed in MyD88 KO mice. The goal of the present study was to investigate specific mechanisms whereby absence of MyD88 leads to these effects and address the compensatory mechanisms in the genital tract that ultimately clear infection in the absence of MyD88. It was observed that NK cells recruited to the genital tract in MyD88 KO mice failed to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA and protein. This defect was associated with decreased local production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but normal levels of IL-12p70. Additionally, recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract was reduced in MyD88 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. Although chronic infection in MyD88 KO mice resulted in oviduct pathology comparable to that of WT mice, increased histiocytic inflammation was observed in the uterine horns. This was associated with increased CCL2 levels and recruitment of macrophages as a potential compensatory mechanism. Further deletion of TLR4-TRIF signaling in MyD88 KO mice, using TLR4/MyD88 double-KO mice, did not further compromise host defense against chlamydiae, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are Toll-like receptor (TLR) independent. Despite some polarization toward a Th2 response, a Th1 response remained predominant in the absence of MyD88, and it provided equivalent protection against a secondary infection as observed in WT mice.

  10. Sociodemography of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Coventry, UK, 1992–6

    PubMed Central

    Winter, A; Sriskandabalan, P; Wade, A; Cummins, C; Barker, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and geographic risk factors for incident Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. Design: Cross sectional retrospective study of cases diagnosed in local genitourinary clinics. Setting: Coventry, West Midlands, from 1992 to 1996. Subjects: 582 female and 620 male Coventry residents aged 15–64 years diagnosed with one or more episodes of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay. Subjects were assigned a Townsend deprivation score based on residence. The denominator population aged 15–64 years was derived from 1991 census data. Results: The mean annual incidence of genital chlamydia was 151 episodes (95% CI 140–163) per 100 000 population in men and 138 episodes (95% CI 128–149) per 100 000 population in women. Highest subgroup incidence was observed in 15–19 year old black women (2367 (95% CI 1370–4560) per 100 000), and 20–24 year old black men (1951 (95% CI 1158–3220) per 100 000). In univariate analyses, the most important risk factor for chlamydia infection in males was being black (incidence 1377 (95% CI 1137–1652) per 100 000 for black v 133 (95% CI 122–145) per 100 000 for white; RR 10.4, p<0.0001) and for women was young age (incidence 475 (95% CI 415–540) per 100 000 for age group 15–19 years v 52 (95% CI 45–60) per 100 000 for age group 25–64 years; RR 9.1, p<0.0001). In Poisson regression models of first episodes of genital chlamydia, for both males and females the effect of ethnic group could not be fully explained by socioeconomic confounding. There were significant interactions between age and ethnic group for both sexes and between age and level of deprivation for men. Geographical analysis revealed a high incidence of genital chlamydia in estates on the edge of the city as well as the urban core. Conclusions: There is a complex interaction between geographical location, age, ethnic group, and social deprivation on the risk of acquiring genital Chlamydia

  11. Protection against Chlamydia Promoted by a Subunit Vaccine (CTH1) Compared with a Primary Intranasal Infection in a Mouse Genital Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Theisen, Michael; Christensen, Dennis; Follmann, Frank; Andersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background The chlamydial proteins CT443 (OmcB) and CT521 (rl16) have previously been identified as human B and/or T cell targets during a chlamydial infection in humans. Here we compare the protective effector mechanism promoted by a fusion protein composed of CT521 and CT443 (CTH1) with a primary intranasal Chlamydia muridarum infection known to provide high levels of protection against a genital chlamydial challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings The fusion protein CTH1, adjuvanted with a strong Th1 inducing cationic adjuvant (CAF01), significantly reduced the bacterial shedding compared to a control group in both a C. trachomatis Serovar D and C. muridarum challenge model. The CTH1/CAF01 vaccine was found to induce polyfunctional T cells consisting of TNFα/IL-2 and TNFα/IL-2/IFN-γ positive cells and high titers of CTH1 specific IgG2a and IgG1. By depletion experiments the protection in the C. muridarum challenge model was demonstrated to be mediated solely by CD4+ T cells. In comparison, an intranasal infection with C. muridarum induced a T cell response that consisted predominantly of TNFα/IFN-γ co-expressing effector CD4+ T cells and an antibody response consisting of C. muridarum specific IgG1, IgG2a but also IgA. This response was associated with a high level of protection against challenge—a protection that was only partially dependent on CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, whereas the antibody response induced by intranasal infection was strongly reactive against the native antigens displayed in the chlamydial elementary body, only low levels of antibodies against this preparation were found after CTH1/CAF01 immunization. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that CTH1 vaccination promotes a CD4+ T cell dependent protective response but compared with intranasal C. muridarum infection lacks a CD4 independent protective mechanism for complete protection. PMID:20505822

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  13. Genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T

    1994-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136

  14. The Chlamydia-Secreted Protease CPAF Promotes Chlamydial Survival in the Mouse Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhangsheng; Tang, Lingli; Shao, Lili; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Schenken, Robert; Valdivia, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive in vitro characterization of CPAF (chlamydial protease/proteasome-like activity factor), its role in chlamydial infection and pathogenesis remains unclear. We now report that a Chlamydia trachomatis strain deficient in expression of CPAF (L2-17) is no longer able to establish a successful infection in the mouse lower genital tract following an intravaginal inoculation. The L2-17 organisms were cleared from the mouse lower genital tract within a few days, while a CPAF-sufficient C. trachomatis strain (L2-5) survived in the lower genital tract for more than 3 weeks. However, both the L2-17 and L2-5 organisms maintained robust infection courses that lasted up to 4 weeks when they were directly delivered into the mouse upper genital tract. The CPAF-dependent chlamydial survival in the lower genital tract was confirmed in multiple strains of mice. Thus, we have demonstrated a critical role of CPAF in promoting C. trachomatis survival in the mouse lower genital tracts. It will be interesting to further investigate the mechanisms of the CPAF-dependent chlamydial pathogenicity. PMID:27382018

  15. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.

  16. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  17. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ⁺ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia.

  18. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia.

  19. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... other types of STIs. Most common STIs are: Gonorrhea HIV/AIDS Syphilis Hepatitis Herpes Even if you ... you from passing the STIs back and forth. Gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia. Therefore, treatment for gonorrhea ...

  20. A chlamydial type III-secreted effector protein (Tarp) is predominantly recognized by antibodies from humans infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and induces protective immunity against upper genital tract pathologies in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Lili; Chen, Fan; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yingqian; Baseman, Joel; Perdue, Sondra; Yeh, I-Tien; Shain, Rochelle; Holland, Martin; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Yu, Ping; Zhong, Guangming

    2009-05-14

    Chlamydia trachomatis genome is predicted to encode a type III secretion system consisting of more than 40 open reading frames (ORFs). To test whether these ORFs are expressed and immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans, we expressed 55 chlamydial ORFs covering all putative type III secretion components plus control molecules as fusion proteins and measured the reactivity of these fusion proteins with antibodies from patients infected with C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract (24 antisera) or in the ocular tissue (8 antisera). Forty-five of the 55 proteins were recognized by at least 1 of the 32 human antisera, suggesting that these proteins are both expressed and immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans. Tarp, a putative type III secretion effector protein, was identified as a novel immunodominant antigen due to its reactivity with the human antisera at high frequency and titer. The expression and immunogenicity of Tarp were confirmed in cell culture and mouse systems. Tarp was mainly associated with the infectious form of chlamydial organisms and became undetectable between 13 and 24 h during the infection cycle in cell culture. Mice intravaginally infected with C. muridarum developed Tarp-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. More importantly, immunization of mice with Tarp induced Th1-dominant immunity that significantly reduced the shedding of live organisms from the lower genital tract and attenuated inflammatory pathologies in the fallopian tube tissues. These observations have demonstrated that Tarp, an immunodominant antigen identified by human antisera, can induce protective immunity against chlamydial infection and pathology in mice.

  1. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  2. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Belland, Robert J; Ingalls, Robin R; O'Connell, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  3. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  4. The Recall Response Induced by Genital Challenge with Chlamydia muridarum Protects the Oviduct from Pathology but Not from Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Melissa M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Mintus, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site. PMID:22431649

  5. The recall response induced by genital challenge with Chlamydia muridarum protects the oviduct from pathology but not from reinfection.

    PubMed

    Riley, Melissa M; Zurenski, Matthew A; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Andrews, Charles W; Mintus, Margaret; Darville, Toni

    2012-06-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site.

  6. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Poston, Taylor B; Gottlieb, Sami L; Darville, Toni

    2017-01-19

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C. trachomatis vaccine is feasible. Vaccine development for genital chlamydial infection has been in the preclinical phase of testing for many years, but the first Phase I trials of chlamydial vaccine candidates are underway, and scientific advances hold promise for additional candidates to enter clinical evaluation in the coming years. We describe the clinical and public health need for a C. trachomatis vaccine, provide an overview of Chlamydia vaccine development efforts, and summarize current vaccine candidates in the development pipeline.

  7. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections. PMID:27681919

  8. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  9. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  10. Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a

  11. A proposed mouse model to study male infertility provoked by genital serovar E, Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Hanen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Mabrouk, Imed; Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Keskes, Leila; Mallek, Zohair; Aouni, Mahjoub; Hammami, Adnane

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen. The impact of chlamydial infection on male infertility is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the role of C trachomatis human genital serovar E on sperm function, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and reproductive performance, using the Swiss male mice model. Fertile mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with 10(6) C trachomatis inclusion-forming units at day 0. The studied parameters were evaluated 7, 15, 21, and 30 days postinoculation (pi) in infected and sham-infected controls. Semen parameters of the infected mice groups were significantly lower than those of the control groups at the different days pi. DNA fragmentation study indicated that the mean percentages of apoptotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups 7 and 15 days pi, whereas the mean percentages of necrotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control group on the 30th day pi. A decrease in reproductive performance was observed at different days pi in infected male mice groups when compared to the control groups. Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in the mean number of infant mice was observed at 21 and 30 days pi. In conclusion, our data showed that inoculation of fertile male Swiss mice in the meatus urethra with C trachomatis could lead to alteration of semen parameters, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and decrease of the reproductive performance of male mice.

  12. Is there a need for rescreening of patients treated for genital chlamydial infections?

    PubMed

    Mårdh, Per-Anders; Persson, Kenneth

    2002-06-01

    The present communication reviews reasons to perform rescreening of chlamydia-infected persons. It brings up difficulties to differentiate between relapse and reinfection. Studies on follow-up of chlamydia-positive cases after therapy are reviewed. It also highlights reasons for therapeutic failure, like compliance, pharmacological factors, including poor bioavailability, wrong dose regimens, lack of adherence to drug intake, neglect of partner notification and concomitant therapy in consorts, possible development of resistance to drugs generally prescribed, false negative or false positive diagnostic tests and reinfection from extra-genital not 'cured' sites. The review points to the need to establish programmes for routine rescreening of chlamydia-infected persons.

  13. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  14. [Chlamydia trachomatis infections in teenagers].

    PubMed

    Gille, G; Klapp, C

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents enter puberty early and many have sexual intercourse at a young age. That sexual intercourse can have side effects with life-long consequences is still a taboo field. In Germany, we do not have figures about the prevalence of the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted diseases in young people. Therefore the Medical Association for the Promotion of Women's Health (AGGF) initiated a prevalence study on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in girls younger than 18 years in Berlin (n=266). After informed consent, information was given in 92 school classes. Thereafter in 30 offices of gynecologists the girls were offered a PCR test for the detection of CT free of charge. The results--10% of the 17-year-old girls had an acute chlamydial infection after an average of 19 months of sexual activity--suggest that in Germany there is a hidden epidemic among adolescents. Adolescents are not adequately informed about the risks of CT infection; medical counseling is both desired and effective.

  15. The Chromosome-Encoded Hypothetical Protein TC0668 Is an Upper Genital Tract Pathogenicity Factor of Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Turner Allen; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Matulich, Patrick; Keck, Jonathon; Beltrami, Noah; Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Dai, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We previously associated a missense mutation of the tc0668 gene of serial in vitro-passaged Chlamydia muridarum, a murine model of human urogenital C. trachomatis, with severely attenuated disease development in the upper genital tract of female mice. Since these mutants also contained a TC0237 Q117E missense mutation that enhances their in vitro infectivity, an effort was made here to isolate and characterize a tc0668 single mutant to determine its individual contribution to urogenital pathogenicity. Detailed genetic analysis of C. muridarum passages revealed a truncated variant with a G216* nonsense mutation of the 408-amino-acid TC0668 protein that does not produce a detectable product. Intracellular growth and infectivity of C. muridarum in vitro remain unaffected in the absence of TC0668. Intravaginal inoculation of the TC0668 null mutant into C3H/HeJ mice results in a typical course of lower genital tract infection but, unlike a pathogenic isogenic control, is unable to elicit significant chronic inflammation of the oviduct and fails to induce hydrosalpinx. Thus, TC0668 is demonstrated as an important chromosome-encoded urogenital pathogenicity factor of C. muridarum and the first with these characteristics to be discovered for a Chlamydia pathogen. PMID:26597987

  16. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-05

    fever , suggesting a systemic response to infection. Shedding of the organism can be detected for up to 21 days and it is thought that the pig model may...attending Colorado family planning clinics. Sex Transm Dis 23:481-8. 102. Ghaem-Maghami, S., G. Ratti, M. Ghaem-Maghami, M. Comanducci, P. E. Hay , R. L

  17. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... of sexually transmitted infection (STIs). Common STIs are gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes . Even if you ...

  18. Chlamydial Variants Differ in Ability To Ascend the Genital Tract in the Guinea Pig Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K.; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even “silent” infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. PMID:26015484

  19. Inhibition of apoptosis by gamma interferon in cells and mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis).

    PubMed

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Darville, Toni; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Rank, Roger G; Ojcius, David M

    2002-05-01

    The effect of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) on apoptosis due to infection by Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) was studied in epithelial cells in culture and in the genital tracts of mice. IFN-gamma concentrations that induce the formation of aberrant, persistent chlamydiae inhibit apoptosis due to C. muridarum infection. In cells treated with an IFN-gamma concentration that leads to the development of a heterogenous population of normal and aberrant Chlamydia vacuoles, apoptosis was inhibited preferentially in cells that contained the aberrant vacuoles. The inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma appears to be due in part to expression of host cell indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, since inhibition of apoptosis could be partially reversed through coincubation with exogenous tryptophan. Apoptotic cells were observed in the genital tracts of wild-type mice infected with C. muridarum, and a significantly larger number of apoptotic cells was detected in infected IFN-gamma-deficient mice. These results suggest that IFN-gamma may contribute to pathogenesis of persistent Chlamydia infections in vivo by preventing apoptosis of infected cells.

  20. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  1. Aspects of reproductive biology that influence the distribution and spread of Chlamydia trachomatis within the female genital tract: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lyons, J M; Morré, S A; Land, J A

    2009-11-01

    Critical to evaluating Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine candidates is the availability of appropriate animal models. At a minimum, models must mimic the essential features of transmission and disease progression that contribute to the severe outcomes associated with upper genital tract infection. Existing models, whether mouse, pig or nonhuman primate, are based on the generally accepted premise that upper genital tract infection, when it occurs, is an event subsequent to cervical infection. However, what this simple paradigm overlooks are many features of reproductive biology that could influence both the initial distribution and subsequent spread of C. trachomatis within the female genital tract, as well as the immune responses made at these site(s) of infection. A review of the literature strongly suggests that the menstrual cycle and coitusrelated phenomena are likely to have a profound effect on the course and outcome of female genital tract infection with C. trachomatis. Although the new paradigm that emerges raises concerns about the adequacy of existing animal models, it also suggests ways to modify these models to better mimic the complexities of human infection and therefore serve as appropriate models in which to test the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates against C. trachomatis infection in women.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni

    2005-10-01

    In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN). Mothers of affected infants were found to have inclusions in their cervical epithelial cells, fathers of such infants had inclusions in their urethral cells, and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections was revealed. Fifty years later, chlamydial isolation procedures were developed, and studies again demonstrated Chlamydia trachomatis as an etiology of ICN and the female birth canal as the reservoir. In the late 1970s, a report by Beem and Saxon described respiratory tract colonization and a distinct pneumonia syndrome in infected infants. Genital chlamydial infection is recognized as the world's most common sexually transmitted disease, with estimates of greater than 4 million new infections occurring annually in the United States. Although most C. trachomatis infections in men and women are asymptomatic, infection can lead to severe reproductive complications in women. The high prevalence in women of child-bearing age results in exposure of an estimated 100,000 neonates in the United States annually. Many of these infants develop conjunctivitis, pneumonia, or both in the first few months of life. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and approaches to prevention of conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn and young infant are reviewed here. Appropriate testing for chlamydial infection in a pediatric victim of sexual assault and the implications of identifying C. trachomatis in suspected cases of childhood sexual abuse also are reviewed.

  3. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  4. [Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1983-05-01

    1080 nonpregnant women ages 16-34 years, presenting for the 1st time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for Chlamydia trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptives (OCs). This was not because OC users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking OCs is greater. (author's)

  5. Interleukin-10 Modulates Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells through Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Assembly during Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10−/−) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1β production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10−/− mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10−/− mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10+/+) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10−/− DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1β production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10−/− DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious

  6. [Investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis with Cell Culture, DFA and PCR Methods in the Genital Swab Samples of Symptomatic Patients].

    PubMed

    Ozüberk, Osman Özüberk; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ozçelik, Bülent; Ekmekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is considered the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. C.trachomatis causes eye infections such as trachoma and newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, newborn pneumonia, genitourinary system infections and suppurative inguinal lymphadenitis namely lymphogranuloma venerum. The aim of this study was to investigate C.trachomatis by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture methods in the clinical samples sent to the microbiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of genital infections. A total of 50 swab samples obtained from adult patients (49 female, 1 male) who were admitted to Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between February-March 2010, were included in the study. C.trachomatis antigens were investigated by a commercial DFA (PathoDx, Remel, USA) method. McCoy cell cultures prepared in microplate wells were used for the isolation of C.trachomatis. The growth of C.trachomatis in cell cultures was confirmed by DFA and iodine staining methods. C.trachomatis DNA was investigated by commercially available PCR (Chlamydia trachomatis 330/740 IC; Sacace, Italy) method. In our study, 4 (8%) of the 50 swab samples were found positive with DFA, 1 (2%) was positive with cell culture, and 1 (2%) was positive with PCR. The only sample that gave positive results with all of the three methods was an urethral swab. Three cervical swab samples that were found positive only with DFA method was evaluated as false positivity. When cell culture was considered as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of DFA method were estimated as 100% and 94%, respectively, while those rates for PCR were 100% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, although cell culture is still the gold standard in the diagnosis of C.trachomatis. infections, since it is time consuming and difficult to apply, more rapid and reliable PCR methods may be applied in diagnosis. DFA method which is

  7. Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

  8. Experimental rabbit models of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, T. C.; Kuo, C.; Patton, D. L.; Grayston, J. T.; Campbell, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR), a common cause of acute respiratory disease in humans, has recently been associated with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated rabbit models of chlamydial infection to investigate the pathogenesis of C. pneumoniae infection. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with C. pneumoniae, strain AR-39, and primary and repeated infection were assessed. After a single inoculation, lung pathology was characterized by a moderate self-resolving interstitial pneumonia with bronchiolitis of 21 days in duration. Chlamydial DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) intermittently in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue through day 21 postinoculation, spleen tissue at day 14, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at days 3 and 21. After repeated inoculations, chlamydial DNA was detected by PCR in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue through day 42. Lung lesions consisted of multifocal interstitial mononuclear cell aggregates that persisted up to day 42. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were less susceptible to C. pneumoniae infection. After multiple inoculations of Watanabe rabbits, C. pneumoniae was detected by PCR and/or immunocytochemistry until day 21. In conclusion, C. pneumoniae induced a moderate respiratory infection in these rabbit models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8579129

  9. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts.

    PubMed

    Asquith, Kelly L; Horvat, Jay C; Kaiko, Gerard E; Carey, Alison J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S

    2011-05-01

    Chlamydiae are intracellular bacteria that commonly cause infections of the respiratory and genital tracts, which are major clinical problems. Infections are also linked to the aetiology of diseases such as asthma, emphysema and heart disease. The clinical management of infection is problematic and antibiotic resistance is emerging. Increased understanding of immune processes that are involved in both clearance and immunopathology of chlamydial infection is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Here, we show that IL-13 was produced in the lungs of mice rapidly after Chlamydia muridarum (Cmu) infection and promoted susceptibility to infection. Wild-type (WT) mice had increased disease severity, bacterial load and associated inflammation compared to IL-13 deficient (-/-) mice as early as 3 days post infection (p.i.). Intratracheal instillation of IL-13 enhanced bacterial load in IL-13-/- mice. There were no differences in early IFN-g and IL-10 expression between WT and IL-13-/- mice and depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect infection in IL-13-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a lack of CD4+ T cell involvement and a novel role for IL-13 in innate responses to infection. We also showed that IL-13 deficiency increased macrophage uptake of Cmu in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of IL-13 during infection of lung epithelial cells in vitro decreased the percentage of infected cells and reduced bacterial growth. Our results suggest that enhanced IL-13 responses in the airways, such as that found in asthmatics, may promote susceptibility to chlamydial lung infection. Importantly the role of IL-13 in regulating infection was not limited to the lung as we showed that IL-13 also promoted susceptibility to Cmu genital tract infection. Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial infections and IL

  10. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jessica; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Schenken, Robert; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  11. Infrequent detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in a longitudinal study of women with treated cervical infection.

    PubMed Central

    Munday, P E; Thomas, B J; Gilroy, C B; Gilchrist, C; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine how often Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections are detected in women following completion of a currently recommended treatment regimen and the reason for recurrence. METHODS--A longitudinal follow-up study of 43 initially C trachomatis-positive women for periods of up to two years. RESULTS--C trachomatis was detected in three women, 19, 16 and about four months, respectively after completion of treatment. All specimens from the other 40 women which were taken during visits two to seven, that is periods of three to 700 days after treatment, were chlamydia-negative. CONCLUSION--Although C trachomatis is usually eradicated from the genital tract by conventional treatment, occasionally it may be found again. It is difficult to determine whether detection after treatment is due to persistence or reinfection and further studies are required. PMID:7750948

  12. Genital chlamydial infection: association between clinical features, organism genotype and load.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Verlander, Neville Q; Kumar, Navin; Bentley, Neil; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    The association between the clinical features of genital chlamydial infection and organism genotype and load was evaluated. Chlamydial DNA was detected and quantified in genital swabs from 233 (7 %) of 3384 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The chlamydia-positive subcohort comprised 132 (57 %) females and 101 (43 %) males. Clinical features were present in 33 % women and 72 % men. The chlamydial load was found to be higher in women (median load: 5.6 log) than men (median load: 3.5 log). Single variable analysis failed to show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.3). Owing to the limited amount of clinical material, information on chlamydial genotypes was available for 70 % (n = 162) of chlamydia-positive patients. However, multivariable analysis of these samples did show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.02). This discrepancy is most probably due to the difference in the amount of data analysed by single variable (data from 233 patients) and multivariable (data from 162 patients) analysis. The distribution of chlamydia genotypes was as follows: type E (46 %), F (22 %), D (8 %), K (8 %), G (7 %), J (4 %), I (1 %) and H (0.6 %). No statistically significant association was observed between chlamydial genotype and clinical features in either single variable (P value = 0.6) or multivariable (P value = 0.4) analysis. These findings suggest that chlamydial load and diversity in the ompA gene plays little, if any, role in the pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection.

  13. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... STI test if you are at risk. 6 Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  14. Refractory Genital HPV Infection and Adult-Onset Still Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoimmune disease (AIID) that can develop after exposure to infectious agents. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported to induce or exacerbate AIIDs, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No guidelines are available for the management of genital warts in AOSD. Case report and literature review. We report a patient who was diagnosed AOSD in the setting of refractory and recurrent genital HPV infection, demonstrating a possible link between HPV infection and AOSD. In addition, we also discuss the management of genital warts in patients with AOSD. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of AOSD with genital HPV infection have been reported in literature. We then conclude that the patient AOSD may be triggered by primary HPV infection. Larger number of patient samples is needed to confirm whether HPV could trigger AOSD. PMID:27082556

  15. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  16. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  17. Isolation of Chlamydia from women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Burns, D C; Darougar, S; Thin, R N; Lothian, L; Nicol, C S

    1975-10-01

    Cervical swabs for Chlamydia culture were collected from 638 unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic with a fresh complaint. Chlamydia were isolated from 76 (12 per cent.) of the women. When the results were related to the patients' diagnoses, Chlamydia were present in 44 per cent. of women with gonorrhoea and in 22 per cent. of women who were contacts of men with nonspecific urethritis (women who may be regarded as having non-specific genital infection). Chlamydia were uncommon in women with no evidence of genital infection. Significant correlations were found between the presence of Chlamydia and cervical erosion, cervical cytological inflammatory change, and absence of symptoms. Isolates were obtained more frequently from women with non-specific genital infection who were primary contacts than from women who were secondary contacts. These findings support the concept that Chlamydia are pathogens in the genital tract and are sexually transmitted.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chacko, M R; Lovchik, J C

    1984-06-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was studied in a sexually active urban Baltimore adolescent population. Possible risk factors such as age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, number of sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonococcal infection were also evaluated. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the 280 adolescents studied was 26%: 35% in male adolescents, 27% in pregnant female adolescents, and 23% in nonpregnant female adolescents. Chlamydia was almost three times as prevalent as gonorrhea in the same population. Age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonorrhea were not significantly associated with chlamydial infection. However, multiple current sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, genitourinary symptoms, and cervical ectopy were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Testing for chlamydial infection in sexually active urban teenagers is recommended for those with genitourinary symptoms, those with cervical ectopy, or those who are contacts of persons with sexually transmitted disease. Considering the reservoir of infection in the asymptomatic female adolescents, screening for chlamydial infections in family planning clinics warrants consideration.

  19. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  20. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward.

  1. Global Mapping of the Inc-Human Interactome Reveals that Retromer Restricts Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Mirrashidi, Kathleen M; Elwell, Cherilyn A; Verschueren, Erik; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Frando, Andrew; Von Dollen, John; Rosenberg, Oren; Gulbahce, Natali; Jang, Gwendolyn; Johnson, Tasha; Jäger, Stefanie; Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M; Sherry, Jessica; Dunn, Joe Dan; Olive, Andrew; Penn, Bennett; Shales, Michael; Cox, Jeffery S; Starnbach, Michael N; Derre, Isabelle; Valdivia, Raphael; Krogan, Nevan J; Engel, Joanne

    2015-07-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of genital and ocular infections for which no vaccine exists. Upon entry into host cells, C. trachomatis resides within a membrane-bound compartment—the inclusion—and secretes inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) that are thought to modulate the host-bacterium interface. To expand our understanding of Inc function(s), we subjected putative C. trachomatis Incs to affinity purification-mass spectroscopy (AP-MS). We identified Inc-human interactions for 38/58 Incs with enrichment in host processes consistent with Chlamydia's intracellular life cycle. There is significant overlap between Inc targets and viral proteins, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms among obligate intracellular microbes. IncE binds to sorting nexins (SNXs) 5/6, components of the retromer, which relocalizes SNX5/6 to the inclusion membrane and augments inclusion membrane tubulation. Depletion of retromer components enhances progeny production, revealing that retromer restricts Chlamydia infection. This study demonstrates the value of proteomics in unveiling host-pathogen interactions in genetically challenging microbes.

  2. Reduced Live Organism Recovery and Lack of Hydrosalpinx in Mice Infected with Plasmid-Free Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Jianlin; Hou, Shuping; Ding, Yiling; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zeng, Hao; Baseman, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce severe pathology. To evaluate whether the attenuated pathogenicity is due to insufficient infection or inability of the plasmidless chlamydial organisms to trigger pathological responses, we compared plasmid-competent and plasmid-free C. muridarum infections in 5 different strains of mice. All 5 strains developed hydrosalpinx following intravaginal inoculation with plasmid-competent, but not inoculation with plasmid-free, C. muridarum. The lack of hydrosalpinx induction by plasmid-free C. muridarum correlated with significantly reduced live organism recovery from the lower genital tract and shortened infection in the upper genital tract. The plasmid-free C. muridarum organisms failed to induce hydrosalpinx even when the organisms were directly inoculated into the oviduct via an intrabursal injection, which was accompanied by significantly reduced survival of the plasmidless organisms in the genital tracts. Furthermore, plasmid-competent C. muridarum organisms after UV inactivation were no longer able to induce hydrosalpinx even when directly delivered into the oviduct at a high dose. Together, these observations suggest that decreased survival of and shortened infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum may contribute significantly to its attenuated pathogenicity. We conclude that adequate live chlamydial infection in the oviduct may be necessary to induce hydrosalpinx. PMID:24343644

  3. Influence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis on pregnancy outcome, infant health and life-long sequelae in infected offspring.

    PubMed

    Mårdh, Per-Anders

    2002-12-01

    This chapter deals with genital chlamydial infections in pregnancy and postpartum. There is increasing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis infection may result in a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including early and late abortion, intrauterine infections of the fetus, stillbirth, prematurity, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) and postpartum endometritis. Ectopic pregnancy is commonly associated with a previous tubal chlamydial infection where immunological reactions seem to play a role. C. trachomatis infection may be acquired as an intrauterine infection, as well as during transit through the birth channel, and this may result in neonatal conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. The role of chlamydial infection in the sudden death syndrome has also been considered, but evidence so far is minimal. Neonatal chlamydial infection may cause life-long sequelae, such as obstructive lung disease. Genital chlamydial infections have been associated with problems in insemination and attempts at in vitro fertilization. The chapter also deals with screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis and the treatment of infected mothers and their offspring.

  4. Host immune responses after hypoxic reactivation of IFN-γ induced persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Jerchel, Stefan; Kaufhold, Inga; Schuchardt, Larissa; Shima, Kensuke; Rupp, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) are the most frequent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Severe clinical sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal occlusion, and tubal infertility are linked to inflammatory processes of chronically infected tissues. The oxygen concentrations in the female urogenital tract are physiologically low and further diminished (0.5–5% O2, hypoxia) during an ongoing inflammation. However, little is known about the effect of a low oxygen environment on genital C. trachomatis infections. In this study, we investigated the host immune responses during reactivation of IFN-γ induced persistent C. trachomatis infection under hypoxia. For this purpose, the activation of the MAP-kinases p44/42 and p38 as well as the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 were analyzed. Upon hypoxic reactivation of IFN-γ induced persistent C. trachomatis infection, the phosphorylation of the p44/42 but not of the p38 MAP-kinase was significantly diminished compared to IFN-γ induced chlamydial persistence under normoxic condition. In addition, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were observed for reactivated Chlamydiae under hypoxia compared to a persistent chlamydial infection under normoxia. Our findings indicate that hypoxia not only reactivates IFN-γ induced persistent C. trachomatis infections resulting in increased bacterial growth and progeny but also dampens inflammatory host immune signaling responses that are normally observed in a normoxic environment. PMID:24783060

  5. Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1981-06-01

    One thousand eight non-pregnant women aged 16-34 years, presenting for the first time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for C trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptive agents. This was not because oral contraceptive users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking oral contraceptives is increased.

  6. [Contraception and the risk of genital infections in women].

    PubMed

    Serfaty, D

    1989-03-25

    If the best way of preventing genital infections is probably to restrict the number of partners, physicians should not forget that local contraceptives provide a mechanical or chemical barrier, the protection of which is certainly not ineffective.

  7. Enhanced neutrophil longevity and recruitment contribute to the severity of oviduct pathology during Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew A; Darville, Toni

    2011-10-01

    Our previous studies revealed that intravaginal infection of mice with a plasmid-deficient strain of Chlamydia muridarum, CM3.1, does not induce the development of oviduct pathology. In this study, we determined that infection with CM3.1 resulted in a significantly reduced frequency and absolute number of neutrophils in the oviducts during acute infection. This reduction in neutrophils was associated with significantly lower levels of neutrophil chemokines in the oviducts and decreased production of neutrophil chemokines by oviduct epithelial cells infected with CM3.1 in vitro. Infection with CM3.1 also resulted in an increased frequency of late apoptotic/dead neutrophils in the oviduct. Examination of the ability of Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent neutrophil apoptosis in vitro revealed that C. trachomatis strain D/UW-3/Cx exhibited an enhanced ability to prevent neutrophil apoptosis compared to plasmid-deficient CTD153, and this effect was dependent on the presence of CD14(high) monocytes. The presence of monocytes also resulted in enhanced neutrophil cytokine production and increased production of tissue-damaging molecules in response to D/UW-3/Cx relative to results with CTD153. Attempts to use antibody-mediated depletion to discern the specific role of neutrophils in infection control and pathology in vivo revealed that although Ly6G(high) neutrophils were eliminated from the blood and oviducts with this treatment, immature neutrophils and high levels of tissue-damaging molecules were still detectable in the upper genital tract. These data support the role of neutrophils in chlamydia-induced pathology and reveal that novel methods of depletion must be developed before their role can be specifically determined in vivo.

  8. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department ...

  9. Male genital tract chlamydial infection: implications for pathology and infertility.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kelly A; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research, screening, and treatment are focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. The prevalence of chlamydial infection, however, is similar in males and females. Furthermore, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. The role of Chlamydia in the development of prostatitis is controversial, but we suggest that Chlamydia is an etiological agent, with incidences of up to 39.5% reported in patients with prostatitis. Infection of the testis and prostate is implicated in a deterioration of sperm, possibly affecting fertility. Chlamydia infections also may affect male fertility by directly damaging the sperm, because sperm parameters, proportion of DNA fragmentation, and acrosome reaction capacity are impaired with chlamydial infection. Furthermore, the proportion of male partners of infertile couples with evidence of a Chlamydia infection is greater than that documented in the general population. An effect of male chlamydial infection on the fertility of the female partner also has been reported. Thus, the need for a vaccine to protect both males and females is proposed. The difficulty arises because the male reproductive tract is an immune-privileged site that can be disrupted, potentially affecting spermatogenesis, if inappropriate inflammatory responses are provoked. Examination of responses to infection in humans and in experimental animal models suggest that an immunoglobulin A-inducing vaccine will be able to target the male reproductive tract effectively while avoiding harmful inflammatory responses that may impair fertility.

  10. Pregnancy outcome in serologically indicated active Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, O P; Shaia, M; Rosenman, H; Livshin, Y; Choukroun, C; Barr, I; Diamant, Y Z

    1993-05-01

    A serological test for chlamydial infection was administered to 281 Jerusalem women in order to determine the rate and influence of Chlamydia on pregnancy outcome. Serological indication of active infection was present in 7.8% of the tested women, while 15.3% were shown to be positive for Chlamydia. Among the ultraorthodox subpopulation of Mea Shearim, serological indication of active infection was present among 5.9% of the women, and 12.3% of this population tested positive. In comparison, women from the secular subpopulation had 12.7% serological indication of active infection and 22.95% tested positive (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between pregnancy duration, birthweight, incidence of premature uterine contractions, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum febrile morbidity in the infected and noninfected groups. Women with a previous history of induced abortions showed a significantly higher evidence of past Chlamydia infection (9.3%) when compared with the women who did not have an infection (1.4%) (P < 0.006). Among the ultraorthodox women with positive or active infection, 41% had suffered at least one spontaneous abortion, as compared with 25% of the religious women who had no serological evidence of infection.

  11. Does inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha affect chlamydial genital tract infection in mice and guinea pigs?

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Rank, R G

    2000-09-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in host defense against chlamydial infection remains unclear. In order to further evaluate the relevance of TNF-alpha to host resistance in chlamydial genital tract infection, we examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-alpha response in normal C57 mice and in interferon gamma gene-deficient C57 mice infected intravaginally with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis. Since the guinea pig model of female genital tract infection more closely approximates the human in terms of ascending infection and development of pathology, we also examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-alpha response in guinea pigs infected intravaginally with the guinea pig strain of Chlamydia psittaci. We successfully blocked the early TNF-alpha response in the respective animal models. This blockade had no effect on the numbers of organisms isolated from the genital tract during the time of TNF-alpha inhibition in mice or guinea pigs. Analysis of interleukin-1beta, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in the mouse model revealed that blockade of the TNF-alpha response did not alter the release of these proinflammatory proteins. Yet, in TNF-alpha-depleted mice, increased numbers of neutrophils were detected in the genital tract, and, in TNF-alpha-depleted guinea pigs, increased numbers of neutrophils as well as infiltrating lymphocytes were seen in the endocervix. Blockade of TNF-alpha does not affect the level of infection in mice or guinea pigs, but it may decrease TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis of infiltrating inflammatory cells.

  12. [Abortive infection of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with Chlamydia ovis].

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A

    1976-01-01

    A mouse adaptated strain of Chlamydia ovis, when inoculated in the peritoneal cavity, caused the death of both pregnant and non pregnant mice. In addition, mice inoculated late in pregnancy (12 to 16 days after breeding) aborted 4 to 6 days after inoculation. Chlamydia was recovered from foetuses and from the organs of the mice (Liver, Spleen, Lungs). The severity of the disease was related to the inoculum concentration, so it was possible to induce late abortions with a rapid recovery of the females, like in the natural infection of the ewes. In the same conditions, the original Chlamydia strain maintained by passage on yolk sac, induced only an inapparent disease transmissible to the young mice.

  13. Subversion of Cell-Autonomous Host Defense by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Annette; Rudel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Obligate intracellular bacteria entirely depend on the metabolites of their host cell for survival and generation of progeny. Due to their lifestyle inside a eukaryotic cell and the lack of any extracellular niche, they have to perfectly adapt to compartmentalized intracellular environment of the host cell and counteract the numerous defense strategies intrinsically present in all eukaryotic cells. This so-called cell-autonomous defense is present in all cell types encountering Chlamydia infection and is in addition closely linked to the cellular innate immune defense of the mammalian host. Cell type and chlamydial species-restricted mechanisms point a long-term evolutionary adaptation that builds the basis of the currently observed host and cell-type tropism among different Chlamydia species. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the strategies pathogenic Chlamydia species have developed to subvert and overcome the multiple mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells defend themselves against intracellular pathogens.

  14. Characterization of Chlamydial Genital Infection Resulting from Sexual Transmission from Male to Female Guinea Pigs and Determination of Infectious Dose

    PubMed Central

    Rank, Roger G.; Bowlin, Anne K.; Reed, Ronald L.; Darville, Toni

    2003-01-01

    A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 104, 103, 102, and 101 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 102 IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 104 or 103 IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 102 IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 104 and 103 IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 102 IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 102-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 102 IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female. Immunization of females

  15. Characterization of chlamydial genital infection resulting from sexual transmission from male to female guinea pigs and determination of infectious dose.

    PubMed

    Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Reed, Ronald L; Darville, Toni

    2003-11-01

    A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 10(4), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(1) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 10(2) IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 10(4) or 10(3) IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 10(2) IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 10(4) and 10(3) IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 10(2) IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 10(2)-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 10(2) IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G.; Haas, Joel T.; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an “inclusion”. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  17. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: Role of TLRs, NLRs, and the Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. PMID:22985781

  18. Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Coers, Jörn; Gondek, Dave C; Olive, Andrew J; Rohlfing, Amy; Taylor, Gregory A; Starnbach, Michael N

    2011-06-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNγ induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs), we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3((-/-)) mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3((-/-)) mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4(+) T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4(+) T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Amedee, Angela M.; Albritton, Hannah L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L.; Schust, Danny J.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition. PMID:26730599

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.

  1. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  3. Stimulation of the cytosolic receptor for peptidoglycan, Nod1, by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ojcius, David M; Viala, Jérôme; Girardin, Stéphane; Liu, Wei; Delarbre, Christiane; Philpott, Dana; Kelly, Kathleen A; Darville, Toni

    2006-06-01

    Infection of epithelial cells by the intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, leads to activation of NF-kappaB and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We find that overexpression of a dominant-negative Nod1 or depletion of Nod1 by RNA interference inhibits partially the activation of NF-kappaB during chlamydial infection in vitro, suggesting that Nod1 can detect the presence of Chlamydia. In parallel, there is a larger increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes following Chlamydia infection when primary fibroblasts are isolated from wild-type mice than from Nod1-deficient mice. The Chlamydia genome encodes all the putative enzymes required for proteoglycan synthesis, but proteoglycan from Chlamydia has never been detected biochemically. Since Nod1 is a ubiquitous cytosolic receptor for peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria, our results suggest that C. trachomatis and C. muridarum do in fact produce at least the rudimentary proteoglycan motif recognized by Nod1. Nonetheless, Nod1 deficiency has no effect on the efficiency of infection, the intensity of cytokine secretion, or pathology in vaginally infected mice, compared with wild-type controls. Similarly, Rip2, a downstream mediator of Nod1, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, and TLR4, increases only slightly the intensity of chlamydial infection in vivo and has a very mild effect on the immune response and pathology. Thus, Chlamydia may not produce sufficient peptidoglycan to stimulate Nod1-dependent pathways efficiently in infected animals, or other receptors of the innate immune system may compensate for the absence of Nod1 during Chlamydia infection in vivo.

  4. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  5. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  6. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Food Poisoning Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Gonorrhea HIV and AIDS Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease ... Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Gonorrhea HIV and AIDS Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pubic Lice ...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis as the Cause of Infectious Infertility: Acute, Repetitive or Persistent Long-Term Infection?

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Larissa; Rupp, Jan

    2016-07-02

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently detected agent of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Infection of the lower female genital tract (FGT) can cause cervicitis and if ascending to the upper FGT may result in serious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), salpingitis and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The factors leading to this complication are still not completely understood. We elaborate four different models for host-pathogen interactions in C. trachomatis infections that may promote disease development: (1) acute infection, (2) repeated infections, (3) chronic/persistent infections and (4) non-inflammatory colonization. Whereas experimental data exist for all of these models in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, we were interested in seeing what clinical evidence we have supporting one or the other model. We particularly focused on data that favour the one or the other model for TFI development in C. trachomatis infection and speculate on future studies that could integrate in vitro findings for a better characterization of the situation in vivo.

  8. Chlamydia Serine Protease Inhibitor, targeting HtrA, as a New Treatment for Koala Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Amba; Fraser, Tamieka; Gillett, Amber; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Huston, Wilhelmina M.

    2016-01-01

    The koala, an iconic marsupial native to Australia, is a threatened species in many parts of the country. One major factor in the decline is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia. Current therapeutic strategies to treat chlamydiosis in the koala are limited. This study examines the effectiveness of an inhibitor, JO146, which targets the HtrA serine protease for treatment of C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae in vitro and ex vivo with the aim of developing a novel therapeutic for koala Chlamydia infections. Clinical isolates from koalas were examined for their susceptibility to JO146. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with JO146 during the mid-replicative phase of C. pecorum or C. pneumoniae infections resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. Ex vivo primary koala tissue cultures were used to demonstrate the efficacy of JO146 and the non-toxic nature of this compound on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary cell lines established from koala tissues collected at necropsy. Our results suggest that inhibition of the serine protease HtrA could be a novel treatment strategy for chlamydiosis in koalas. PMID:27530689

  9. Chlamydia psittaci infection and associated infertility in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Gartley, C J

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen ewes were injected subcutaneously with the agent of enzootic ovine abortion, Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1, at 50 days gestation. Placental and fetal tissues were examined at 15 days postinfection and thereafter at ten day intervals. Placental infection was detected at 15 days postinfection. Only postinoculation sera collected from postinfected ewes contained antibodies reactive to C. psittaci. Five (26%) chlamydial infected ewes experienced inapparent fetal loss before day 105 of gestation. This finding is significant since C. psittaci infection in sheep is commonly associated with abortion and not infertility. PMID:8358679

  10. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed

    Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

    1991-09-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection.

  11. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

    1991-01-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection. PMID:1774342

  12. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  13. Genital Herpetic Infection: A Family Practice Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David

    1982-01-01

    Several major breakthroughs have occurred in our understanding of the epidemiology, immunology and biological behavior of the human herpes virus I and II. The family physician, however, is still confronted with four basic clinical situations: patients who present with a genital erosion or ulcer, affected patients in the reproductive age group, patients who ask if herpes causes cervical cancer, and patients who are very troubled by endless recurrences. As syphilitic chancre is becoming rare, the family physician has to recognize the increasing importance of herpes viruses in the etiology of the genital erosion-ulcer syndrome to acquire the clinical and laboratory skills to make that distinction. The prevention of neonatal disease is now possible in the majority of cases provided that pregnancies at risk are identified. Adequate virological surveillance should make it possible to virtually eliminate the disease. The evidence for the oncogenecity is circumstantial. Potential intra- and interpersonal effects of the disease are outlined. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3 PMID:21286567

  14. A prediction rule for selective screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Gotz, H; van Bergen, J E A M; Veldhuijzen, I; Broer, J; Hoebe, C; Richardus, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections is aimed at the reduction of these infections and subsequent complications. Selective screening may increase the cost effectiveness of a screening programme. Few population based systematic screening programmes have been carried out and attempts to validate selective screening criteria have shown poor performance. This study describes the development of a prediction rule for estimating the risk of chlamydial infection as a basis for selective screening. Methods: A population based chlamydia screening study was performed in the Netherlands by inviting 21 000 15–29 year old women and men in urban and rural areas for home based urine testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for chlamydial infection among 6303 sexually active participants, and the discriminative ability was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with bootstrap resampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of C trachomatis (CT) infection was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 3.2) in women and 2.0% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) in men. Chlamydial infection was associated with high level of urbanisation, young age, Surinam/Antillian ethnicity, low/intermediate education, multiple lifetime partners, a new contact in the previous two months, no condom use at last sexual contact, and complaints of (post)coital bleeding in women and frequent urination in men. A prediction model with these risk factors showed adequate discriminative ability at internal validation (AUC 0.78). Conclusion: The prediction rule has the potential to guide individuals in their choice of participation when offered chlamydia screening and is a promising tool for selective CT screening at population level. PMID:15681717

  15. Early local cytokine profiles in strains of mice with different outcomes from chlamydial genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Sikes, J D; Fraley, P L; Rank, R G

    2001-06-01

    In this study, we expand on the examination of genetically determined differences in host responses that correlate with clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the genital tract. We infected C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H/HeN mice with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). C57BL/6 mice had the shortest course of infection (22 days) and the lowest incidence of severe hydrosalpinx. BALB/c mice also had a short course of infection (25 days), but all developed hydrosalpinx. C3H/HeN mice had the longest course of infection (38 days), and all developed severe hydrosalpinx. Determination of local cytokine responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of genital tract secretions revealed that the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) were significantly increased in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains compared to those in the C3H/HeN strain whereas the level of IL-6 was not different. The level of the neutrophil chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) was increased during the first week of infection in all three strains but was significantly higher in the BALB/c strain, the strain with the most rapid influx of neutrophils into the genital tract. Prolonged detection of MIP-2 in C3H/HeN mice was associated with a protracted presence of neutrophils in the genital tract. Early increases in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are associated with earlier eradication of infection in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains than in the C3H/HeN strain. Increased levels of MIP-2 and neutrophils in BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice relative to C57BL/6 mice suggest that these responses may contribute to pathology.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai; Wong, Ngai Sze; Parish, William L.; Miu, Heidi Yin Hai; Yang, Li-Gang; Emch, Michael; Ho, King Man; Fong, Francois Yeung; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong. Methods Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression. Results Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%), the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8–2.5%) but sexually active young (18–26 years) women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7–18.2%) in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40–49 years) women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81–230); living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46–55.40); and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants) who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25–22.8). A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed. Conclusion Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further

  17. Nitric oxide synthases and tubal ectopic pregnancies induced by Chlamydia infection: basic and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ruijin; Zhang, Sean X; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Zou, Shien; Egecioglu, Emil; Norström, Anders; Brännström, Mats; Billig, Håkan

    2010-12-01

    Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a common cause of pregnancy-related first trimester death. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by three NO synthases (NOS) in different tissues, including the Fallopian tube. Studies of knockout mouse models have improved our understanding of the function of NOS isoforms in reproduction, but their roles and specific mechanisms in infection-induced tubal dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. Here, we provide an overview of the expression, regulation and possible function of NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tube, highlighting the effects of infection-induced changes in the tubal cellular microenvironment (imbalance of NO production) on tubal dysfunction and the potential involvement of NOS isoforms in tubal EP after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. The non-equivalent regulation of tubal NOS isoforms during the menstrual cycle suggests that endogenous ovarian steroid hormones regulate NOS in an isoform-specific manner. The current literature suggests that infection with C. trachomatis induces an inflammatory response that eventually leads to tubal epithelial destruction and functional impairment, caused by a high NO output mediated by inducible NOS (iNOS). Therefore, tissue-specific therapeutic approaches to suppress iNOS expression may help to prevent ectopic implantation in patients with prior C. trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tube.

  18. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  19. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

    2017-02-16

    Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

  20. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population.

  1. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  2. Predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women in general practice.

    PubMed

    Bro, F; Juul, S

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in order to suggest indications for culture among women in general practice. In a multi-practice study 29 general practitioners examined 352 women complaining of vaginal discharge and 225 women having a pelvic examination for other reasons. Information from patient history, pelvic examination, and laboratory tests was recorded, and a culture for C. trachomatis was performed. C. trachomatis was isolated from 30 women (8.5%) with complaints of vaginal discharge and from nine (4.0%) without complaints. The predictive value for chlamydial infection of the information obtained was examined by logistic regression. Complaints of vaginal discharge, age under 25 years, use of oral contraception, suspected exposure to sexually transmitted disease, increased amount of discharge on pelvic examination, pH of discharge above 5.0 and the presence of leucocytes on wet smear microscopy were predictive of infection with C. trachomatis. Using information from patient history alone it was possible to discriminate between patients with low and high risk for chlamydia infection, the range being from 2% to 37%. Indications for culture for C. trachomatis, based upon easily obtained information from the patient history, are suggested.

  3. Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Geisler, William M; Corey, Lawrence

    2002-03-27

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients; however, its role as a respiratory pathogen in immunocompromised hosts has been infrequently recognized. We describe C. pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection in a 19-year-old male after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed fever on day +14, and a subsequent computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a right lateral pleural-based opacity, which was then resected during thoracoscopy. Diagnosis was made by culture and staining of the resected tissue with C. pneumoniae-specific monoclonal antibodies, and azithromycin was administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. pneumoniae respiratory infection after stem cell or marrow transplantation. C. pneumoniae often coexists with other etiologic agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Considering the infrequency of infections from this organism in this clinical setting, one must still rule out other more likely respiratory pathogens.

  4. Cell death, BAX activation, and HMGB1 release during infection with Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Verbeke, Philippe; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2004-11-01

    Infection by a number of Chlamydia species leads to resistance of the host cell to apoptosis, followed by induction of host-cell death. In a population of infected cells that displays protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis among the adherent cells, we find that cells that had been recovered from the supernatant share characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis, as assayed by the propidium iodide (PI)-annexin V double-labeling technique. Cell death was observed in both an epithelial cell line and primary fibroblasts, although the primary cells had a higher propensity to die through apoptosis than the immortalized cell line. Staurosporine-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, BAX, was inhibited in the epithelial cell line infected for 32 h with the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) but not the murine pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of C. trachomatis, but inhibition of staurosporine-mediated BAX activation disappeared after 48 h of infection with the LGV/L2 strain. Conversely, infection with MoPn (C. muridarum) but not LGV/L2 led to BAX activation after 72 h, as previously reported for shorter (48 h) infection with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) serovar of C. psittaci (C. caviae). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit staurosporine-mediated BAX activation or to activate BAX due to the infection itself may vary as a function of the chlamydial strain. Interestingly, both the epithelial cells and the fibroblasts also released high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) during infection, although much less HMGB1 was released from fibroblasts, consistent with the higher level of apoptosis observed in the primary cells. HMGB1 is released preferentially by necrotic or permeabilized viable cells, but not apoptotic cells. In the extracellular space, HMGB1 promotes inflammation through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. Higher levels of HMGB1 were also measured in the genital-tract secretions of mice

  5. [Infection and coronary atherosclerosis: the role Chlamydia pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Paz, M; de Otero, J; Codinach, P; Ferrer-Ruscalleda, F; Gayà, M; Ibernón, M

    1998-11-01

    The role of inflammatory reactions in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is widely accepted. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has linked infections to atherosclerosis. It is hypothesized that infections could interact with other risk factors of vascular disease, enhancing the endothelial damage and the production of atherosclerotic plaques. Several different infectious agents have been related to the atherosclerosis genesis: mainly herpesvirus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Several lines of evidence strongly link C. pneumoniae to atherosclerosis. Consequently, several studies evaluating the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment in the reduction of cardiac ischemic events in patients with C. pneumoniae seropositivity have been performed. These studies support a causative role for C. pneumoniae. This article reviews the recent evidence linking infections to atherosclerosis, with emphasis on the role of C. pneumoniae on the atherosclerotic plaque.

  6. Zoonotic infection with Chlamydia psittaci at an avian refuge centre.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Dicxk, Veerle; Dossche, Liesbeth; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci at a wild bird refuge centre resulting in the infection of members of the staff. Pharyngeal swabs were culture positive in 26% (11/42) of the sampled birds, and molecular characterisation of isolates revealed genotypes A, B, D, and E/B. The finding reflects multiple distinct infections and highlights the endemic nature of this pathogen in avian wildlife. Two clinically normal birds being prepared for release were found to be excreting C. psittaci genotype B or E/B and viable genotype B was detected in pharyngeal swabs from 30% (3/10) of the human workers tested. The findings suggest there should be enhanced surveillance and control measures in place in bird rehabilitation centres in order to minimise the risk of both zoonoses and of re-introduction of infection back into wildlife populations.

  7. Prenatal Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Catherine L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Panum, Inge; Uldum, Soren A.; Bass, Debra C.; Olsen, Jorn; Roberts, James M.; Ness, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and preeclampsia was examined longitudinally among 205 cases and 423 normotensive controls nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Antibodies were analyzed at a first prenatal visit (mean 14.2 weeks) and at delivery. Prenatal infections were identified as IgG/IgM seroconversion or a four-fold rise in IgG antibody titers. Although serological evidence of incident prenatal CT infection was uncommon (n=9, 1.4%) in this general pregnant population, infected women were more likely to develop preeclampsia, after adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, race and time between blood draws (ORadj 7.2, 95% CI 1.3 – 39.7). PMID:24058897

  8. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  9. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: role of TLRs, NLRs, and the inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against C. pneumoniae infection.

  10. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  11. [A child with iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Tsumura, N; Nagai, K; Yamada, T; Sakata, Y; Tominaga, K; Kato, H; Motohiro, T; Masunaga, N; Mochizuki, M

    1994-12-01

    A case of uncommon iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is reported. The patient was a 9-year-old boy who had suffered from cough, pharyngeal pain, and low grade fever. The symptoms persisted for more than 1 month in spite of an oral cephem antibiotic. Ophthalmalgia, congestion around the iris and cough had lasted with alleviation and exacerbation. A diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection was made by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and microimmunofluorescence test (MIF). The symptoms subsided with administration of clarithromycin (CAM: 300 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Because of the simultaneous alleviation of iritis, C. pneumoniae infection was considered to introduce the iritis. Much remains to be clarified about this pathogenesis of iritis and more detailed evaluations are required.

  12. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, J.K.

    1982-03-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of (3H)uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism.

  13. Steroids alone or as adjunctive therapy with doxycycline fail to improve oviduct damage in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Tammy E; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Darville, Toni

    2014-06-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection.

  14. Steroids Alone or as Adjunctive Therapy with Doxycycline Fail To Improve Oviduct Damage in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Tammy E.; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  15. Endothelial Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes oxidation of LDL.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ralf; Dragonas, Charalampos; Mueller, Andreas; Maltaris, Theodoros; Rupp, Jan; Beckmann, Matthias W; Maass, Matthias

    2004-06-25

    The bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae chronically infects atheromatous lesions and is linked to atherosclerosis by modifying inflammation, proliferation, and the lipid metabolism of blood monocytes. As continuous LDL modification in the vascular intima is crucial for atherogenesis we investigated the impact of endothelial infection on LDL oxidation. HUVEC were infected with a vascular C. pneumoniae strain. Supernatants of infected cells but not cell lysates increased lipid peroxidation products (6.44 vs 6.14 nmol/ml, p<0.05) as determined by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances assay. Moreover, supernatants rendered human LDL more susceptible to oxidation as shown in a copper-ion catalysed LDL oxidation assay by a 16% reduction of LDL resistance against pro-oxidative stimuli (p<0.05). Chlamydial infection of vascular endothelial cells releases acellular components that convert LDL to its proatherogenic form and reduce its resistance against oxidation. Foci of chronic endothelial chlamydial infection may thus continuously contribute to the dysregulated lipid metabolism that promotes atherogenesis.

  16. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  17. Toll-like receptor-2, but not Toll-like receptor-4, is essential for development of oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; O'Neill, Joshua M; Andrews, Charles W; Nagarajan, Uma M; Stahl, Lynn; Ojcius, David M

    2003-12-01

    The roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host inflammatory response to infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis have not been elucidated. We examined production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in wild-type TLR2 knockout (KO), and TLR4 KO murine peritoneal macrophages infected with the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. Furthermore, we compared the outcomes of genital tract infection in control, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice. Macrophages lacking TLR2 produced significantly less TNF-alpha and IL6 in response to active infection. In contrast, macrophages from TLR4 KO mice consistently produced higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 responses than those from normal mice on in vitro infection. Infected TLR2-deficient fibroblasts had less mRNA for IL-1, IL-6, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2, but TLR4-deficient cells had increased mRNA levels for these cytokines compared with controls, suggesting that ligation of TLR4 by whole chlamydiae may down-modulate signaling by other TLRs. In TLR2 KO mice, although the course of genital tract infection was not different from that of controls, significantly lower levels of TNF-alpha and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 were detected in genital tract secretions during the first week of infection, and there was a significant reduction in oviduct and mesosalpinx pathology at late time points. TLR4 KO mice responded to in vivo infection similarly to wild-type controls and developed similar pathology. TLR2 is an important mediator in the innate immune response to C. trachomatis infection and appears to play a role in both early production of inflammatory mediators and development of chronic inflammatory pathology.

  18. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  19. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  20. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  1. Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

  2. False-positive prostate cancer markers in a man with symptomatic urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Smelov, V; Novikov, A; Brown, L J; Eklund, C; Strokova, L; Ouburg, S; Morre, S A; Dillner, J

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic male urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection resulted in inflammation of the prostate, with associated increases in both prostate-specific (PSA) and prostate cancer-specific (PCA3) markers with prostate biopsies showing no evidence of malignancy.

  3. The presence of Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in patients infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyue; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yuanjun; Li, Lingjie; Hou, Shuping; Gao, Xibo; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 has been found in Chlamydia caviae in a guinea pig model for inclusion conjunctivitis, raising the possibility that Chlamydia phage is also present in patients infected with C. trachomatis (Ct). In the present study, we assayed for presence of Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in 84 non-Ct controls and 206 Ct patients using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), followed by verification with Western blot. None of the subjects were exposed to an antibiotic treatment or had a C. pneumoniae infection. The VP1 antibody test was positive in both, the ELISA and Western blot assay, in 4 Ct patients. PCR amplification experiments revealed presence of the VP1 gene in 5 Ct patients. The results suggest that Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 may exist in some Ct patients.

  4. High prevalence of extra-genital chlamydial or gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Allan-Blitz, Lao-Tzu; Leon, Segundo R; Bristow, Claire C; Konda, Kelika A; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Brown, Brandon J; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are among the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. Data are limited, however, on the burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru. Data were gathered from self-collected anal or pharyngeal swabs from participants in Lima, Peru, and analyzed via cross-sectional methods. Prevalence ratios for the association between extra-genital infection with socio-demographic and sexual behaviors were determined. Overall, 127 (32.8%) participants had anal or pharyngeal infections. On multivariate modeling, anal infection was positively associated with practicing both receptive and insertive anal sex, when compared to insertive alone (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.32-4.71), and negatively associated with any antibiotic use in the prior three months (PR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.39-0.91). Pharyngeal infection was negatively associated with age greater than 30 years compared to 18-30 years (PR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.30-0.96), and positively associated with gender identity of transgender women (PR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.20-3.73). This study demonstrates considerable burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  6. Molecular epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis among patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic - will vaccines protect?

    PubMed

    Jalal, H; Stephen, H; Bibby, D F; Sonnex, C; Carne, C A

    2007-09-01

    High-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main causative agents of cervical cancer, for which Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) may sometimes be a co-factor. Vaccines have been developed against some subtypes of human papillomavirus and a vaccine against CT is in development. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the subtypes of HPV and CT in genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic attenders. In total, 1000 consecutive patients attending the GU clinic participated in this anonymized point-prevalence study. Urethral swabs from 437 men and urethral plus cervical swabs as a single specimen from 563 women were tested for the subtypes of both organisms. Nested major outer membrane protein (MOMP) polymerase chain reaction detected CT chromosomal DNA in 44/437 (10%) of the men and 73/563 (13%) of the women. Genotypes E, F, and D were the most common. In all, 55/437 (13%) of men and 244/563 (43%) of women were infected with at least one high-risk HPV type. In conclusion, the new HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, would have protected against 58% and 45%, respectively, of the high-risk subtypes found in women in this population. The rate of high-risk HPV infection (43%) found in women in this study raises concern.

  7. Differential profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity between endocervical and vaginal secretions from women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Rhoda; Kraus, Thomas A; Ding, Jian; Veretennikova, Alina; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Singh, Tricia; Lo, Yungtai; Quayle, Alison J; Chang, Theresa L

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1α, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFNγ, IL-1β, and MIP1-α were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection.

  8. [Mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus persistence during viral-bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Bekhalo, V A; Sysoliatina, E V; Nagurskaia, E V

    2009-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of persistence on the example of Chlamydia trachomatis in conditions of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) superinfection in vitro and in vivo are described. Emergence of persisting forms of Chlamydia as well as factors influencing on this process are considered. Contemporary views on pathogenesis of viral-bacterial infection with HSV-2 and C. trachomatis as well as interactions of the agents with local immunity factors are described. It was suggested that there are signaling pathways through which HSV-2 changes life cycle of Chlamydia.

  9. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and the use of oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    van Voorst Vader, P C; Lier, J G; Posma, A L; Schröder, F P; Schirm, J; Kauer, F M

    1991-02-23

    We determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women who visited a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and the influence of the number of partners and the use of oral contraceptives (OC), with special attention to the recognition of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and to the results of therapy. Of 217 women, with a mean age of 26 years (range 14-56), who visited the STD clinic of the University Hospital of Groningen from July 1985 until November 1987, anamnestic data were collected as well as the results of swabs from cervix and urethra taken for culture and direct immunofluorescence test of C. trachomatis and for gonococcal culture. The influence of the number of partners (1 versus greater than 1) and OC on the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. PID was excluded in coöperation with the department of gynaecology. C. trachomatis-infected women were treated by doxycycline orally (day 1 2 x 100 mg, day 2-7 1 x 100 mg) according to the dosage scheme advised by the Dutch Health Council in 1986. A control culture was taken 2-3 weeks after treatment. C. trachomatis was detected in 72/217 (33%) women by culture and (or) direct IF test and in 22/41 (54%) women with gonorrhoea. In connection with the number of partners in the year preceding the examination, the following prevalences were found: 18/74 (24%) (1 partner), 43/108 (40%) (2-5 partners) and 10/27 (greater than 5 partners).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  11. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  12. The link between contraceptive methods and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Pery, J; Kitai, E

    1988-09-01

    The effect of various contraceptive methods on Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection was examined in a group of 158 women, with a mean age of 26.9 years, patients of a family planning clinic. Their symptoms were mild abdominal pain or vaginal discharge. Antibodies to CT were examined by an indirect immunoperoxidase assay, with a commercial kit. From each patient a vaginal smear was collected for bacteriologic and mycologic study. In group I, consisting of 30 married women with a mean age of 31 years, 5 (16.7%) IUD users had a positive test for CT antibodies. In group II, comprising 57 women, with a mean age of 23.3 years, 22 (38.6%) oral contraceptive (OC) users, of whom 94.7% were unmarried, had positive tests for CT antibodies. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). In group III, comprising 71 women with a mean age of 28.1 years, 62% unmarried and using other contraceptive methods, 15 (21.1%) had a positive test for CT antibodies. The incidence of CT infection was not different in the 3 groups under study, when the factors of age and marital status were taken into consideration (p greater than 0.30). Bacterial vaginal infection was found in 43.3% of the IUD users, compared with only 14% of the OC users (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the OC users, candidiasis was predominant, the difference from the other groups being statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The women with positive antibodies also more frequently had colonies of bacterial and mycological vaginal infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women's Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, N; Egger, M; Sterne, J A C; Harbord, R M; Ibrahim, F; Lindblom, B; Herrmann, B

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. Methods The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. Results We analysed complete data from 43 715 women in Uppsala aged 15–24 years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709 000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35 years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. Conclusions The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated. PMID:16731670

  14. Stimulator of IFN gene is critical for induction of IFN-beta during Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2010-03-01

    Type I IFN signaling has recently been shown to be detrimental to the host during infection with Chlamydia muridarum in both mouse lung and female genital tract. However, the pattern recognition receptor and the signaling pathways involved in chlamydial-induced IFN-beta are unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated no role for TLR4 and a partial role for MyD88 in chlamydial-induced IFN-beta. In this study, we demonstrate that mouse macrophages lacking TLR3, TRIF, TLR7, or TLR9 individually or both TLR4 and MyD88, still induce IFN-beta equivalent to wild type controls, leading to the hypothesis that TLR-independent cytosolic pathogen receptor pathways are crucial for this response. Silencing nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 in HeLa cells partially decreased chlamydial-induced IFN-beta. Independently, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the stimulator of IFN gene (STING) protein in HeLa cells and mouse oviduct epithelial cells significantly decreased IFN-beta mRNA expression, suggesting a critical role for STING in chlamydial-induced IFN-beta induction. Conversely, silencing of mitochondria-associated antiviral signaling proteins and the Rig-I-like receptors, RIG-I, and melanoma differentiation associated protein 5, had no effect. In addition, induction of IFN-beta depended on the downstream transcription IFN regulatory factor 3, and on activation of NF-kappaB and MAPK p38. Finally, STING, an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, was found to localize in close proximity to the chlamydial inclusion membrane during infection. These results indicate that C. muridarum induces IFN-beta via stimulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 pathway, and TLR- and Rig-I-like receptor-independent pathways that require STING, culminating in activation of IFN regulatory factor 3, NF-kappaB, and p38 MAPK.

  15. Genital examination, microscopy and high vaginal swabs: are these valuable components of a sexually transmitted infection screen in asymptomatic women?

    PubMed

    Green, Pippa; Lacey, Helen; Kasperowicz, Regina

    2007-02-01

    Improving access to genitourinary (GU) medicine services in the face of increasing demand and escalating rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) necessitates a review of current practice and modernization of service provision. At a time when GU medicine resources are limited and technology is available to perform non-invasive screening tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, we question the cost-effectiveness of routine genital examination, microscopy and culture of a high vaginal swab (HVS) in the management of asymptomatic women attending a GU medicine clinic. We conducted a case-note review of 206 consecutive asymptomatic female GU medicine clinic attendees who requested 'a check up'. We conclude that routine on-site microscopy of samples from the cervix, urethra and vagina, and laboratory culture of a HVS did not influence the outcome of patient care. No clinically significant genital tract pathology was identified on examination, with the possible exception of one woman in whom HSV1 was diagnosed opportunistically. The results of this study have significant implications for service provision and patient management.

  16. Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infection of Macaca nemestrina fallopian tubes produces a Th1-like cytokine response associated with fibrosis and scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhis, W C; Barrett, L K; Sweeney, Y T; Kuo, C C; Patton, D L

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous pockets containing autologous salpingeal tissue implants were inoculated three times with C. trachomatis. The inflammation after three inoculations was associated with a mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8 T-cell lymphocytes. Perforin mRNA was induced in infected pockets, demonstrating that activated cytolytic lymphocytes were present in the lesions. Fibrosis, as evidenced by fibroblast proliferation and connective tissue deposition, was observed by the third infection. Cytokine mRNAs induced by repeated chlamydial infection included gamma interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs, but IL-4 mRNA was not induced. Nearly identical findings were found in macaque fallopian tubes infected in situ repeatedly with C. trachomatis, validating the subcutaneous pocket model of chlamydial salpingitis. However, it was not possible to evaluate if there was an induction of perforin mRNA in infected salpingeal tubes in situ, because there was a high basal level of perforin mRNA in these tissues. These results suggest that repeated chlamydial infection of the female upper genital tract leads to CD8 T-cell predominance, a Th1-like cytokine milieu, and these inflammatory changes are associated with progression to fibrosis associated with female infertility. PMID:9169748

  17. Development of a pigtail macaque model of sexually transmitted infection/HIV coinfection using Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and SHIVSF162P3

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Tara; Fakile, Yetunde; Phillips, Christi; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Mitchell, James; Patton, Dorothy; Sturdevant, Gail; Caldwell, Harlan D.; Secor, W. Evan; Papp, John; Hendry, R. Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Kersh, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. To model the interaction between STIs and HIV infection, we evaluated the capacity of the pigtail macaque model to sustain triple infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and SHIVSF162P3. Methods Seven SHIVSF162P3-infected pigtail macaques were inoculated with T. vaginalis only (n = 2), C. trachomatis only (n = 1), both T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis (n = 2), or control media (no STI; n = 2). Infections were confirmed by culture and/or nucleic acid testing. Genital mucosa was visualized by colposcopy. Results Characteristic gynecologic signs were observed for both STIs, but not in control animals. Manifestations were most prominent at days 7–10 post-infection. STIs persisted between 4 and 6 weeks and were cleared with antibiotics. Conclusions These pilot studies demonstrate the first successful STI-SHIV triple infection of pigtail macaques, with clinical presentation of genital STI symptoms similar to those observed in humans. PMID:21781129

  18. Effect of the purinergic receptor P2X7 on Chlamydia infection in cervical epithelial cells and vaginally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Cruz, Cristiane; Sater, Ali Abdul; Andrews, Charles W; Ojcius, David M

    2007-09-15

    Ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, with its agonist ATP has been previously shown to inhibit intracellular infection by chlamydiae and mycobacteria in macrophages. The effect of P2X7R on chlamydial infection had never been investigated in the preferred target cells of chlamydiae, cervical epithelial cells, nor in vaginally infected mice. In this study, we show that treatment of epithelial cells with P2X7R agonists inhibits partially Chlamydia infection in epithelial cells. Chelation of ATP with magnesium or pretreatment with a P2X7R antagonist blocks the inhibitory effects of ATP. Similarly to previous results obtained with macrophages, ATP-mediated inhibition of infection in epithelial cells requires activation of host-cell phospholipase D. Vaginal infection was also more efficient in P2X7R-deficient mice, which also displayed a higher level of acute inflammation in the endocervix, oviduct, and mesosalpingeal tissues than in infected wild-type mice. However, secretion of IL-1beta, which requires P2X7R ligation during infection by other pathogens, was decreased mildly and only at short times of infection. Taken together, these results suggest that P2X7R affects Chlamydia infection by directly inhibiting infection in epithelial cells, rather than through the ability of P2X7R to modulate IL-1beta secretion.

  19. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  20. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Lonks, John R.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; Kojic, Erna M.; Hardy, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  1. Pathogenic potential of novel Chlamydiae and diagnostic approaches to infections due to these obligate intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-04-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exhibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology.

  2. Risk profile for Chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Morse, D L; Lawrence, C E; Murphy, D; Hipp, S

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. Overall Chlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors for Chlamydia infection included: age < 20 years (odds ratio 1.6), use of oral contraceptives (odds ratio 2.0), a history of having more than one sexual partner (odds ratio 1.7) and, in one clinic where data was available, inflammation on Papanicolaou smears (odds ratio 2.1). These data helped secure funding for Chlamydia preventive services and permitted development of a risk profile (score card) of Chlamydia for each age group. Use of such a score card can be most helpful in assigning which patients could benefit most from Chlamydia cultures, especially in those areas where testing is unavailable or too costly to screen all patients.

  3. Combination Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Prevents Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Macaques Harboring Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Radzio, Jessica; Henning, Tara; Jenkins, Leecresia; Ellis, Shanon; Farshy, Carol; Phillips, Christi; Holder, Angela; Kuklenyik, Susan; Dinh, Chuong; Hanson, Debra; McNicholl, Janet; Heneine, Walid; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2016-05-15

    Genital inflammation associated with sexually transmitted infections increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is unclear whether the increased risk can reduce the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated whether coinfection of macaques with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis decreases the prophylactic efficacy of oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Macaques were exposed to simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginally each week for up to 16 weeks and received placebo or FTC/TDF pericoitally. All animals in the placebo group were infected with SHIV, while 4 of 6 PrEP recipients remained uninfected (P= .03). Oral FTC/TDF maintains efficacy in a macaque model of sexually transmitted coinfection, although the infection of 2 macaques signals a modest loss of PrEP activity.

  4. The importance of interferon-gamma in an early infection of Chlamydia psittaci in mice.

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, M C; Maley, S W; Entrican, G; Buxton, D

    1994-01-01

    Athymic mice (nu/nu) and their hairy littermates (nu/+) were infected experimentally with Chlamydia psittaci and the role of endogenous interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on the resolution of the infection was studied. The pathological changes produced in the spleen, liver and lung were exacerbated by administration of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to IFN-gamma and an increased number of viable chlamydiae were recovered from the tissues of both nu/+ and nu/nu mice treated in this way. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8039814

  5. Susceptibility of prostate epithelial cells to Chlamydia muridarum infection and their role in innate immunity by recruitment of intracellular Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 and MyD88 to the inclusion.

    PubMed

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Maccioni, Mariana; Cuffini, Cecilia; Gatti, Gerardo; Rivero, Virginia E

    2006-12-01

    Although Chlamydia infections are widespread throughout the world, data about immunopathogenesis of genitourinary tract infections in males are very limited. In the present work we present an in vitro model of male genital tract-derived epithelial cells, more precisely prostate epithelial cells (PEC), to analyze if they are susceptible and able to respond to Chlamydia muridarum infection. Our results demonstrate that rat PEC are susceptible to C. muridarum infection and respond to this pathogen by up-regulating different proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes that could participate in the recruitment and local activation of immune cells, therefore influencing innate and adaptive immune responses during Chlamydia infection. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and related molecules on PEC and the effect of C. muridarum infection on their expression. Our results demonstrate that PEC express significant levels of TLR4, CD14, TLR2, and the adaptor molecule MyD88 and up-regulate these proteins in response to C. muridarum infection. Indeed, TLR4, CD14, TLR2, and the adaptor MyD88 are specifically recruited to the vicinity of the bacterial inclusion, suggesting that these TLRs are actively engaged in signaling from this intracellular location in these cells. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that an in vitro model of infection with Chlamydia of male tract-derived epithelial cells has been achieved, and it provides the opportunity to determine how these cells respond and participate in modulating innate and adaptive immune response during Chlamydia infections.

  6. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P < 0.001), as well as in retrospective studies (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.74–2.74, P < 0.001). Additionally, with a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for HPV and age, C. trachomatis infection was identified as an independent predictor of cervical cancer in 11 studies (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03–3.01, P = 0.04). Coinfection of human papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis based on histological type indicated an elevated risk for both squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 2.00–2.45, P < 0.001), and adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21–2.15, P = 0.001), in associated with C. trachomatis. Subgroup analysis by where C. trachomatis infection was detected showed a significantly higher risk of cervical cancer associated with C. trachomatis infection detected in serum (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 2.01–2.42, P < 0.001), cervical tissue blocks (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.21–6.83, P = 0

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Lewis, Maria E; Greene, Sheila J; Foster, Timothy P; Quayle, Alison J

    2013-08-01

    The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1α protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72h after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNFα and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120h post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These evasion

  8. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  9. The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced infection in women suffering from cervicovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Pungetti, D; Calderara, M A; Panozzo, M; Pignataro, R; Selleri, M C; Travisani, D; Cantiero, D; Mazzoli, F; Maurizio, G; Zanardi, E

    1988-01-01

    The results of a research on Chlamydia T. (direct survey of both the antigen in the uterine cervix and plasmatic antibodies) in a group of subjects suffering for cervico-vaginitis are provided. The incidence of the Chlamydia infection (proved by either the presence of this bacterium or antibody positivity) is not different from the values reported in literature. Conversely, the presence of neither specific cytological or colposcopic patterns nor of priviledged comites at vaginal level could be demonstrated. Our data, however, confirm a greater incidence of this infection in women reporting early sexual life and a high number of partners. As for the relationship between Chlamydia and contraceptives a slightly higher incidence of positivity in the cervix of patients using oestro-progestinics was registered, whereas no significant difference was noted in the use of other contraceptives IUD included.

  10. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  11. Comparative performance of the Roche COBAS Amplicor assay and an in-house real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Al-Suwaine, Abdulrahman; Stephen, Hannah; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the comparative performance of the Amplicor assay and an in-house semi-automated, multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infection. Four different assays, the COBAS Amplicor CT test (Amplicor PCR), in-house real-time PCR (IHRT-PCR), in-house nested cryptic plasmid PCR and in-house nested major outer membrane protein PCR, were performed on genital swabs from 1000 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The samples were designated true positive if Chlamydia trachomatis DNA was detected by at least two of the four above-mentioned assays while a sample was defined as true negative if C. trachomatis DNA was detected in only one or none of the assays. By this criterion, there were 129 true positive and 871 true negative samples for C. trachomatis DNA in this cohort. Amplicor PCR designated 144 samples positive: 128 (89%) of 144 samples were true positive and 16 (11%) were false positive. IHRT-PCR detected 126 of 129 true positive samples and did not generate any false positive results. The sensitivity of IHRT-PCR was comparable with, and specificity was higher than, Amplicor PCR for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infection.

  12. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  13. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  14. Prevalence and predictors of chlamydia co-infection among patients infected with gonorrhoea at a sexual health clinic in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Templeton, David J; Manokaran, Niveditha; O'Connor, Catherine C

    2012-09-01

    Anogenital gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is commonly diagnosed at sexual health clinics by on-site microscopy. Whether to add anti-chlamydial therapy in such situations is unclear. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea between May 2005 and April 2010 at RPA Sexual Health were reviewed. Of 165 patients diagnosed with anogenital gonorrhoea, 27 (16.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-22.9%) were co-infected with chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Compared with those only infected with anogenital gonorrhoea, there was no correlation of anogenital gonorrhoea-chlamydia co-infection with any demographic, behavioural or clinical variables examined. Anti-chlamydial therapy should be considered for all patients with gram stain diagnosed anogenital gonorrhoea at the initial clinic visit.

  15. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    PubMed

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.

  16. Patients with cervical Ureaplasma Urealyticum and Chlamydia Trachomatis infection undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET: The need for new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Zhen; Xu, Wang-Ming; Qi, Qian-Rong; Luo, Zeng-Li; Dong, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Genital tract infections with ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most frequent sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. UU and CT infections are considered to be the leading cause for infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, little is known about the specific effect of cervical UU and CT infections on the etiology of female infertility, as well as the pregnancy outcomes of the patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET). In order to find the association between cervical UU and/or CT infection and pregnancy outcomes, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on the patients undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET with cervical UU and/or CT infection. A total of 2208 patients who received IVF/ICSI-ET were enrolled in this study. Data on the general conditions, pregnancy history and clinical pregnant outcomes were analyzed in terms of the cervical UU and CT detection. Our results revealed that cervical UU and CT infections were the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor-induced infertility. Moreover, the pregnancy rate, abortion rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and premature birth rate in patients with UU and/or CT infections showed no significant difference when compared with the control group. We recommend that cervical UU and CT detection should be an optional item for infertility patients and clinical UU detection should differentiate the subtypes of cervical UU. Positive cervical UU and CT infections should not be taken as strict contraindications for IVF/ICSI-ET.

  17. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnia, Elahe; Kharaghani, Roghieh; Maleki, Azam; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Sedaghatpisheh, Tahereh; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Molae, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%). The use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas. PMID:27974960

  19. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening…

  20. Sexual behavior and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic students in Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Stock, C; Guillén-Grima, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L; Serrano-Monzo, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Krämer, A

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess patterns of sexual activity, preventive behaviors, contraceptive use, and the prevalence of chlamydia infection in student populations from two countries. 188 asymptomatic students of the University of Bielefeld, Germany and 590 students of the Navarra Public University, Spain were surveyed using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Urine samples were analyzed by ligase chain reaction technique for chlamydia infection. Compared to German students, Spanish students were less likely to have more than one sex partner within the last 12 months (OR: 0.62; CI: 0.46-0.83), to have sexual intercourse more than one time per week (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to use oral contraceptives (OR: 0.16; CI: 0.10-0.26). They reported a higher use of condoms (OR: 2.93; CI: 2.01-4.27) and were more likely to always use condoms with a new sex partner (OR: 2.47; CI: 1.72-3.53). The prevalence of chlamydia infection was considerably higher in German students (5.8% [corrected] in females; 2.2% in males) than in Spanish students, where no case was found. The higher frequency of sexual activity, a higher engagement in risk-taking sexual behavior and the lower use of barrier contraceptives may contribute to the higher prevalence of chlamydia infection in German students.

  1. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    urine collection and pelvic examination. Specimens were analyzed at the Johns Hopkins University Chlamydia laboratory using strand displacement... urine were also compared between the two sites. Results: CT infection was found in 1.3% of the participants at one site where women are screened ...89 Table 2: Results of Laboratory Tests at the Screening And Non- Screening Prison

  2. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  3. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Branković, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F.; Noz, Marlies P.; Wiericx, Wilhelmina (Anke) J.; Spaargaren, Joke; Morré, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  4. [Cervicitis--epidemiological and clinical risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university students].

    PubMed

    Schilling, A; Stevenson, M

    1994-01-01

    Fifty volunteer, asymptomatic sexually active university female students were examined and inquired, in order to find risk factors predictive of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Epidemiologic and behavioral factors (age, number of sexual partners, oral contraceptives use and history of previous sexually transmitted diseases) were found to be similar among the studied group and published data for North American female college students, but barrier contraceptive methods use was found to be different. Twenty two per cent of the sample had clinical cervicitis, and 30% had subclinical. If the screening models proposed by different authors would have been applied, between a 32% and 72% of the sample would have been selectively for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is concluded that international sugerences about Chlamydia trachomatis screening should be adopted until national experiences are made.

  5. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p < .05). The prevalence of HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  6. Chlamydia Screening Decision Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    has relevance to the military as an uncomplicated chlamydia infection can be treated with an inexpensive course of oral antibiotics taken on an...lifetime, or inconsistent barrier contraception practice. Problem Statement Chlamydia infection is a significant problem for young women. Current...records had risk factors for chlamydia documented. Four records documented imperfect barrier contraception use. One documented multiple sex partners

  7. Differences in infectivity and induction of infertility: A comparative study of Chlamydia trachomatis strains in the murine model

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Jennifer R.; Tifrea, Delia; Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, although commonly asymptomatic in women, can result in chronic sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. However, a clear relationship has not been determined between specific serovars and the ability to lead to upper genital tract infection or infertility. Thus, in order to investigate differences in pathogenicity, C3H/HeN mice were infected in the ovarian bursa with the C. trachomatis strains D (UW-3/Cx), F (N.I.1), F (IC-Cal-3) and E (Bour). Differences both in the amount of vaginal shedding as well as subsequent fertility rates were observed between D (UW-3/Cx) and F (N.I.1) compared to F (IC-Cal-3) and E (Bour). Approximately 50% of the mice infected with the D (UW-3/Cx) and F (N.I.1) strains had vaginal shedding for up to 3–4 weeks after infection and fertility rates of less than 25%. Furthermore, mice inoculated with D (UW-3/Cx) and F (N.I.1) showed infertility even in the absence of medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA) treatment. In contrast, both MPA and non-MPA treated mice infected with F (IC-Cal-3) or E (Bour) did not show vaginal shedding and had fertility rates between 45–88%. Mutations in the CT135 open reading frame have been associated with virulence. However, no nucleotide differences were found among the four isolates for CT135. This murine model of infection with C. trachomatis may help with the understanding of disease pathology in humans and ultimately vaccine development. PMID:23287699

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections.

  9. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment <10% of PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15–10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26–4.45); screened-arm POPI-RCT: 0.99%(0.00–29.06)). In the absence of active chlamydia treatment 26.44%(11.57–46.32) of PID at 12-months was attributable to untreated (baseline) chlamydia infections (deferred-arm POPI-RCT). The PEFs suggest that eradicating baseline chlamydia infections could prevent 484 cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for

  10. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  11. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  12. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Cram, Erik D; Simmons, Ryan S; Palmer, Amy L; Hildebrand, William H; Rockey, Daniel D; Dolan, Brian P

    2015-11-23

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8(+) T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8(+) killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins.

  13. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Erik D.; Simmons, Ryan S.; Palmer, Amy L.; Hildebrand, William H.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8+ T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8+ killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins. PMID:26597986

  14. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  15. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in

  16. Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Karnak, Demet; Beder, Sumru

    2002-10-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a general term for chronic, irreversible lung disease that combines qualities of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The standard definition of chronic bronchitis is a productive cough for three months per year (for at least two consecutive years) without an underlying aetiology. Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) represents a common complaint that leads patients to seek medical attention. COPD and AECB are directly responsible for the overuse of antibiotics in the developed world. Fifty per cent of exacerbations have either viral or non-infectious origin. For this reason, antibiotic use remains controversial. Among other bacteria, Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for 4 - 16% of AECB in hospitalised or out-patients, although among smokers and people using steroids, the incidence is 34%. C. pneumoniae may either be the sole causative agent or a co-agent in AECB. This paper reviews the management of COPD/AECB with respect to antibiotic use. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy relevant to Chlamydia in the management of AECB are also evaluated in this review.

  17. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194

  18. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    PubMed

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  19. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and

  20. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples.

  1. [Genitourethral infections caused by D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Holló, Péter; Jókai, Hajnalka; Herszényi, Krisztina; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-04

    Sexually transmitted infections of the urogenital tract are most commonly caused by the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide, resulting the clinical picture of acute urethritis in men as well as urethritis and endocervicitis in women. As women often present with few symptoms only or a completely symptom-free disease course, one of the most important long-term complications is chronic pelvic inflammatory disease often followed by the development of infertility caused by chronic scar formation. Well-organized screening programs are considered to have a leading role in the prevention of disease spreading and long lasting unwanted complications. Antibiotic treatment options are often influenced by special circumstances, such as pregnancy and several complicated clinical forms. The aims of the authors are to give a concise review on the current knowledge regarding Chlamydia trachomatis infections and summarize typical clinical signs, modern diagnostic techniques as well as accepted treatment protocols and basic aspects of screening.

  2. Chlamydia Screening Decision Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    uncomplicated chlamydia infection can be treated with an inexpensive course of oral antibiotics taken on an outpatient basis, while pelvic inflammatory disease... contraception , I would screen for chlamydia . Chlamydia Screening 31 I would say intuition doesn’t play into my decision making because there are high risk...or inconsistent barrier contraception Chlamydia Screening 34 practice. This view was not supported by the data obtained from the review of patient

  3. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

    PubMed

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-11-13

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis’ struggle to keep its host alive

    PubMed Central

    Sixt, Barbara S.; Valdivia, Raphael H.; Kroemer, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiae infect a diverse range of eukaryotic host species, including vertebrate animals, invertebrates, and even protozoa. Characteristics shared by all Chlamydiae include their obligate intracellular lifestyle and a biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form, the elementary body (EB), invades a host cell and differentiates into the replicative form, the reticulate body (RB), which proliferates within a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. After several rounds of division, RBs retro-differentiate into EBs that are then released to infect neighboring cells. The consequence of this obligatory transition between replicative and infectious forms inside cells is that Chlamydiae absolutely depend on the viability and functionality of their host cell throughout the entire infection cycle. We recently conducted a forward genetic screen in Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted human pathogen, and identified a mutant that caused premature death in the majority of infected host cells. We employed emerging genetic tools in Chlamydia to link this cytotoxicity to the loss of the protein CpoS (Chlamydia promoter of survival) that normally localizes to the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole. CpoS-deficient bacteria also induced an exaggerated type-1 interferon response in infected cells, produced reduced numbers of infectious EBs in cell culture, and were cleared faster from the mouse genital tract in a transcervical infection model in vivo. The analysis of this CpoS-deficient mutant yielded unique insights into the nature of cell-autonomous defense responses against Chlamydia and highlighted the importance of Chlamydia-mediated control of host cell fate for the success of the pathogen. PMID:28357396

  5. Asymptomatic Endemic Chlamydia pecorum Infections Reduce Growth Rates in Calves by up to 48 Percent

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10−4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10−4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10−4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

  6. Prevalence of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection among STI patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Giulia; Herzum, Astrid; Rebora, Alfredo; Drago, Francesco

    2016-12-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a carcinogenic agent responsible for tumor development in many sexually involved tissues. We present a survey on the prevalence of HPV infection in a risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The studied population was formed by 125 STI clinic attendees, who took part in a screening program on STIs. To be included in the study, the patients had to show no overt clinical signs of HPV infection. Genital (cervical in women, urethral in men), anal, and oral samples were collected with ThinPrep liquid based cytology preparation system. Overall, of the screened population, 56% proved positive for genital HPV, 37% for oral HPV, and 42% for anal HPV infection. Our data indicate that in STI patients, HPV infection is more prevalent, than previously estimated. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiological burden of HPV in sexually involved tissues, especially in the oral mucosa.

  7. Acceptance of Home-Based Chlamydia Genital and Anorectal Testing Using Short Message Service (SMS) in Previously Tested Young People and Their Social and Sexual Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wolffs, Petra T.; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Control strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are most effective when targeting people at highest risk. We assessed test acceptance of home-collection test kits offered by short messaging services (SMS) texts, in high-risk young people, i.e. those who had previously tested CT positive (positive indices), or negative reporting more than 3 sex partners (negative indices), and their sexual and social networks. Methods Young (16 to 25 years old) heterosexuals who previously tested positive (n=536) or negative (n=536) in our STI clinic received, 3 to 20 months after their initial screening, an SMS inviting them to re-test. They were offered a free home-collection test kit including a genital (men and women) and anorectal (women only) test, and a test kit to pass on to a friend or sex partner (peer). SMS reminders were sent in case of non-response. We assessed proportions of tests requested and returned, peers tested, and positivity. Associations with the individual’s initial screening result and other factors were explored using logistic regression. Results Of 1072 people invited to retest, 34.4% (n=369) requested a test. Of these, 55.8% (n=206) retested. Overall, retest participation was higher in positive (22%) than in negative indices (16%) (p<0.001); it was also higher in women and in those aged >22 years. Positivity was 13% and 7% in positive and negative indices, respectively. One in 3 retesters also had a peer tested. Of tested peers (n=87), 84% were friends, 31% were first-time testers, and 7% tested positive. Conclusion Acceptance of a relatively low-cost strategy for genital and anorectal testing, i.e. using SMS and home-collection test kits, was highest in individuals who previously tested CT positive suggesting that implementation for this group may be considered. By further including a peer-led testing component, undetected CT positives can be identified in the social networks surrounding a high-risk individual. PMID:26230085

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection and oral contraceptive use among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Oh, M K; Feinstein, R A; Soileau, E J; Cloud, G A; Pass, R F

    1989-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between oral contraceptive use and Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in women less than 19 years of age. The clinical and epidemiologic data of 73 (19.4% prevalence rate) girls with chlamydial infection were analyzed, with special attention given to contraceptive use. The findings were compared with data from 303 girls who were chlamydia negative to assess the relationship between oral contraceptive use and C. trachomatis infection. Use of an oral contraceptive for 6 months or longer was associated with chlamydial infection (p = 0.005; odds ratio = 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.53-3.29). Oral contraceptive use was not associated with an increased rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Association of oral contraceptive use with chlamydial infection remained significant after adjustments were made for confounding variables in a logistic regression process (p = 0.013). This study suggests that oral contraceptive use may promote chlamydial infection of the cervix or enhance the detection of the C. trachomatis from the cervix in this population.

  9. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in untreated women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a structured review.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Risser, J M H

    2007-11-01

    Because of the long-term consequences of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis screening depends in part on the incidence of PID in untreated, chlamydia-infected women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the original research assessing the incidence of PID following C. trachomatis infection. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and selected all available prospective cohort studies. Six studies had original data: the incidence of PID varied from 0% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] 0-12%) during one year of follow-up of 30 women to 30% (95% CI 12-54%) during 50 days of follow-up of 20 women. Studies that included asymptomatic women in other settings reported a lower incidence than those that evaluated women in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In conclusion, no study was of a size or quality to answer our research question definitively. Investigators and clinicians planning chlamydia-screening programmes need to be cognizant of the inconclusive incidence data.

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2011-05-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis.

  12. Characterization of the Genital Microenvironment of Female Rhesus Macaques Prior to and After SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Whitney A.; Birke, Leslie; Dufour, Jason; Loganantharaj, Nisha; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Molina, Patricia E.; Amedee, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem HIV infection among women is frequently modeled in female rhesus macaques. Longitudinal studies on genital compartment and hormonal factors that can influence susceptibility to SIV infection are lacking in this animal model. Methods of Study Genital specimens and menstruation of indoor-housed female rhesus macaques were analyzed prior to and after SIV-infection. Results Median menstrual cycle length averaged 27 days, although highly variable cycle lengths and frequent periods of amenorrhea were observed during summer months. The vaginal microbiota, characterized by adapted Nugent scoring, showed predominance of small gram-variable rods and gram-positive cocci. Highly variable vaginal cytokine levels were observed pre- and post-SIV infection. Vaginal viral loads correlated with plasma viral loads, but were not associated with progesterone levels. Conclusion These results provide an integrated characterization of important factors in the vaginal microenvironment that are relevant to the experimental design of HIV prevention and transmission studies in female rhesus macaques. PMID:26290147

  13. Differential Expression of mRNA Encoding Cytokines and Chemokines in the Reproductive Tract after Infection of Mice with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Katheryn L.; Van Fleet, Maranda; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Peterson, Ellena M.; Bridges, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis targets epithelial cells within the genital tract which respond by secreting chemokines and cytokines. Persistent inflammation can lead to fibrosis, tubal infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy; many infections are asymptomatic. Most studies have investigated the inflammatory response in the initial stages of infection, less is known about the later stages of infection, especially with a low, potentially asymptomatic, bacterial load. Our objective was to determine the inflammatory mediators involved in clearance of low-grade infection and the potential involvement in chronic inflammation. Six to eight week old C3H/HeJ mice were pretreated with 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate on day -10 and -3 before infection. Mice (n=3 for 28 d, n=3 for 35 d) were infected with 5 × 102 inclusion-forming units of C. trachomatis, serovar D; vaginal cultures were obtained weekly to monitor infection. Control mice (n=3 for 28 d, n=3 for 35 d) were sham infected. Mice were killed on day 28 (experiment 1) and day 35 (experiment 2) post-infection and vaginal tissue, uterine horns and oviducts collected for analysis of mRNAs encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Total RNA was isolated and a superarray analysis performed using mouse Cytokines and Chemokines PCR arrays (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Statistical differences in gene expression were determined using a paired Students t-test. At 28 days after infection, the expression of mRNA encoding 6, 35 and 3 inflammatory genes differed from controls in vaginal, uterine and oviductal tissues, respectively (P<0.05). At 35 days after infection, the expression of mRNA encoding 16, 38 and 14 inflammatory genes differed from controls in vaginal, uterine and oviductal tissues, respectively (P<0.05). Understanding the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response at later stages of infection should aid in the development of treatment options that minimize the development of asymptomatic, chronic

  14. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.

  15. [Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia psittaci infection in dogs].

    PubMed

    Kocianová, E; Lisák, V; Kopcok, M

    1992-03-01

    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia psittaci antibodies was investigated in 530 dog specimens divided into six groups, i. e. A = private watch dogs, B1 = service dogs from Bratislava, B2 = service dogs from other localities of Slovakia and Moravia, C = watch dogs from farms, I = household dogs, T = stray dogs. The dogs demonstrated the higher seropositivity to C. burnetii (11.7%) than to Ch. psittaci (5.5%). The highest percentage of antibodies to C. burnetii was found in stray dogs (23.7%), less prevalence of antibodies was observed in the animals in group C (13.6%), almost the same positivity was proved in the dogs of group B1 and B2 (10.5 and 10.6%). The highest positivity to Ch. psittaci was demonstrated in the dogs of group A (8.7%), less in group B2 (6.6%) and the least number in group B1 (1.9%). The stray dogs occupied the intermediate position in this data (Tab. I). Ninety four localities were tested, from which 38 were seropositive. Neither acute coxiellosis nor chlamydiosis were proved in any animals examined. Ninety per cent of dogs were found healthy, but 10% of dogs demonstrated hepatopathia and gastroenteritis. Two of them (category A and I) were seropositive to C. burnetii (titer 1:8 to 1:16) and one to Ch. psittaci (titer 1:16). Both C. burnetii and Ch. psittaci attack dogs parallely with the agents of other zoonoses, of which the most common is Toxoplasma gondii (Tab. II). Several dogs demonstrated seropositivity to three up to five zoonotic agents (Tab. III).

  16. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines.

  17. Immune Response in Male Guinea Pigs Infected with the Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis Agent of Chlamydia Psittaci

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    occasionally epididymitis . About 20% of men infected with gonorrhea will have a concomitant chlamydial infection (15). Curiously, men show a lower infection...al. (18) examined the course of chlamydial induced epididymitis . When C. trachomatis, biovar MoPn, was injected into the vas deferens, the organism... epididymitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in rats. Infect. Immun. 60:2324-2328. 19. Johnson, A. P., M. J. Hare, G. D. Wilbanks, P. Cooper, C. M. Heatherington

  18. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    PubMed

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  19. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  20. Pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum challenge activates lung interstitial macrophages which correlate with IFN-γ production and infection control in mice.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Eric; Baglaenko, Yuriy; Prayitno, Nadia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Akram, Ali; Lin, Aifeng; Chiu, Basil; Inman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Protective immunity to the pathogen Chlamydia is dependent on a robust IFN-γ response generated by innate and adaptive lymphocytes. Here we assess the role of the macrophage in orchestrating a protective response in vivo to the murine pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum. During acute pulmonary and peritoneal infection, resident macrophages in both sites are infected with C. muridarum and adopt an inflammatory phenotype. In the lung, this activation is restricted to interstitial macrophages, which harbor higher levels of C. muridarum 16sRNA than alveolar macrophages. We examined innate and adaptive lymphocyte activation in the peritoneal cavity with macrophage depletion and with adoptive transfer of infected macrophages. These experiments demonstrate macrophage activation correlates with a protective IFN-γ response and effective control of C. muridarum. These studies suggest that a quantitative or qualitative alteration in macrophages may play a key role in the development of Chlamydia-associated diseases.

  1. Guanylate Binding Proteins Enable Rapid Activation of Canonical and Noncanonical Inflammasomes in Chlamydia-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A.; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Miao, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  2. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections.

  3. High dynamic range detection of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by direct quantitative PCR of the infected cells.

    PubMed

    Eszik, Ildikó; Lantos, Ildikó; Önder, Kamil; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Burián, Katalin; Endrész, Valéria; Virok, Dezső P

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria developing in an intracytoplasmic niche, the inclusion. Chlamydia growth measurement by inclusion counting is a key task in the development of novel antichlamydial antibiotics and in vaccine studies. Most of the current counting methods rely on the immunofluorescent staining of the inclusions and either manual or automatic microscopy detection and enumeration. The manual method is highly labor intensive, while the automatic methods are either medium-throughput or require automatic microscopy. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for growth related chlamydial DNA detection; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, the requirement of purification of DNA or RNA from the infected cells. This limitation makes this approach unfeasible for high-throughput screenings. To overcome this, we developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA directly from the infected HeLa cells. With our method we were able to detect the bacterial growth in a 4 log scale (multiplicity of infection (MOI): 64 to 0.0039), with high correlation between the biological and technical replicates. As a further proof of the method, we applied the direct qPCR for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. The measured MICs of moxifloxacin, tetracycline, clarithromycin and compound PCC00213 were 0.031 μg/ml, 0.031 μg/ml, 0.0039 μg/ml and 6.2 μg/ml respectively, identical or close to the already published MIC values. Our direct qPCR method for chlamydial growth and antibiotic MIC determination is less time-consuming, more objective and more sensitive than the currently applied manual or automatic fluorescent microscopy- based methods.

  4. Molecular cartography in acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--a non-targeted metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Müller, Constanze; Dietz, Inga; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Moritz, Franco; Rupp, Jan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae cause several respiratory diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis. Here, we present an integrated non-targeted metabolomics analysis applying ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine metabolite alterations in C. pneumoniae-infected HEp-2 cells. Most important permutations are elaborated using uni- and multivariate statistical analysis, logD retention time regression and mass defect-based network analysis. Classes of metabolites showing high variations upon infection are lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Moreover, we observed several non-annotated compounds as predominantly abundant after infection, which are promising biomarker candidates for drug-target and diagnostic research.

  5. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B. Nelson; Ingles, Donna J.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Villa, Luisa L.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. PMID:26688833

  6. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  7. Role of proapoptotic BAX in propagation of Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) and the host inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Ojcius, David M; Andrews, Charles W; Korsmeyer, Stanley J; Rank, Roger G; Darville, Toni

    2003-03-14

    The BCL-2 family member BAX plays a critical role in regulating apoptosis. Surprisingly, bax-deficient mice display limited phenotypic abnormalities. Here we investigate the effect of BAX on infection by the sexually transmitted pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis). Bax(-/-) cells are relatively resistant to Chlamydia-induced apoptosis, and fewer bacteria are recovered after two infection cycles from Bax(-/-) cells than from wild-type cells. These results suggest that BAX-dependent apoptosis may be used to initiate a new round of infection, most likely by releasing Chlamydia-containing apoptotic bodies from infected cells that could be internalized by neighboring uninfected cells. Nonetheless, infected Bax(-/-) cells die through necrosis, which is normally associated with inflammation, more often than infected wild-type cells. These studies were confirmed in mice infected intravaginally with C. muridarum; since the infection disappears more quickly from Bax(-/-) mice than from wild-type mice, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in Bax(-/-) mice, and large granulomas are present in the genital tract of Bax(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data suggest that chlamydia-induced apoptosis via BAX contributes to bacterial propagation and decreases inflammation. Bax deficiency results in lower infection and an increased inflammatory cytokine response associated with more severe pathology.

  8. Abortion due to infection with Chlamydia psittaci in a sheep farmer's wife.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F W; Matheson, B A; Williams, H; Laing, A G; Jandial, V; Davidson-Lamb, R; Halliday, G J; Hobson, D; Wong, S Y; Hadley, K M

    1985-01-01

    A farmer's wife who had helped with lambing aborted spontaneously in March after a short febrile illness in the 28th week of her pregnancy. She developed disseminated intravascular coagulation post partum with acute renal failure and pulmonary oedema. Recovery was complete after two weeks of hospital care. A strain of Chlamydia psittaci, probably of ovine origin, was isolated from the placenta and fetus. The patient's serum showed rising titres of antibody against chlamydia group antigen; the placental and fetal isolates; and a known ovine abortion, but not a known avian, strain of C psittaci. IgG against both ovine abortion and enteric strains of C psittaci was detected, but IgM against only an abortion strain was detected. Histological examination showed pronounced intervillus placentitis with chlamydial inclusions in the trophoblast but no evidence of fetal infection or amnionitis. Laboratory evidence of chlamydial infection was found in an aborting ewe on the farm in January and in remaining sheep and lambs in July. Doctors should recognise the possible risk to pregnant women in rural areas where chlamydial infections in farm animals are widespread. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3918685

  9. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  10. Differences in innate immune responses (in vitro) to HeLa cells infected with nondisseminating serovar E and disseminating serovar L2 of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Darville, Toni L; Cuozzo, Francis P; Ferguson, Kaethe; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2002-06-01

    The inflammatory response associated with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections is thought to be initiated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines from infected epithelial cells. This study focuses on the interactions between C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells and immune cells involved in the early stages of infection, i.e., neutrophils and macrophages. First, we showed that the expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), an anti-inflammatory cytokine mainly active on macrophages, was upregulated at the mRNA level in the genital tracts of infected mice. Second, incubation of differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells or monocyte-derived macrophages (MdM) with basal culture supernatants from C. trachomatis serovar E- or serovar L2-infected HeLa cells resulted in macrophage activation with a differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) but not of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression. Third, coculture of infected HeLa cells with dTHP-1 cells resulted in a reduction in chlamydial growth, which was more dramatic for serovar E than for L2 and which was partially reversed by the addition of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies for serovar E or exogenous tryptophan for both serovars but was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase or anti-IL-8 or anti-IL-1beta antibodies. A gamma interferon-independent IDO mRNA upregulation was also detected in dTHP-1 cells from infected cocultures. Lastly, with a two-stage coculture system, we found that (i) supernatants from neutrophils added to the apical side of infected HeLa cell cultures were chlamydicidal and induced MdM to express antichlamydial activity and (ii) although polymorphonuclear leukocytes released more proinflammatory cytokines in response to serovar E- than in response to L2-infected cells, MdM were strongly activated by serovar L2 infection, indicating that the early inflammatory response generated with a nondisseminating or a disseminating

  11. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  12. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Péré, Hélène; Bélec, Laurent

    2014-05-12

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection-an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy.

  13. Increased Risk of Endometriosis in Patients With Lower Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Hsu, Yu-An; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Wan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endometriosis results from the ectopic invasion of endometrial glands and stroma in the peritoneal cavity. The exact etiology of endometriosis is still unknown. It has, however, been shown that there are higher numbers of Escherichia coli in menstrual blood, and higher endotoxin levels in menstrual fluid, as well as, in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether lower genital tract infections could increase the risk of endometriosis. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to conduct a population-based cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva, and a control group comprising patients matched by age, sex, and comorbidities but without inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, or vulva. A total of 79,512 patients were included in the inflammatory disease group and an equal number of control individuals were selected. The incidence of endometriosis (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–2.12; P < 0.001) was higher among patients than controls. Cox proportional hazards models showed that irrespective of comorbidities, lower genital tract infection was an independent risk factor for endometriosis. Patients with lower genital tract infections exhibit a substantially higher risk for developing endometriosis. PMID:26962775

  14. Recurrent optic neuritis associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Gieffers, Jens; Maass, Matthias; Hanefeld, Folker

    2006-09-01

    It has been suggested that Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including multiple sclerosis. We report the case of a 12-year-old male with isolated recurrent optic neuritis and an associated CNS infection with C. pneumoniae. The patient presented with three attacks of optic neuritis within 5 months. A positive polymerase chain reaction for C. pneumoniae in the cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis of a CNS infection with C. pneumoniae. After treatment with the antibiotic rifampicin, he experienced no further attacks during the follow-up period of 6 years. These findings suggest the possibility of a C. pneumoniae infection as a contributing factor or even causative event for the development of optic neuritis.

  15. Contribution of viruses, Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae to acute respiratory infections in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Naghipour, Mohammadreza; Cuevas, Luis E; Bakhshinejad, Tahereh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Noursalehi, Smaeil; Alavy, Ali; Dove, Winifred; Hart, Charles Anthony

    2007-06-01

    The study reports the frequency and clinical presentation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, influenza (Inf V), parainfluenza, adenovirus (Adv), Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Rasht, Iran. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and swabs were collected from 261 children in 2003 and 2004. Pathogens were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), confirmed with sequence analysis. Ninety-three pathogens were detected in 83 children. RSV was present in 39 (15%), Adv in 37 (14%), Inf A in 11 (4%), C. trachomatis in 4 (2%) and M. pneumoniae, in 2 (1%) children. Neither parainfluenza nor metapneumovirus were detected. RSV, Inf A and C. trachomatis were more frequent in children with lower respiratory infections. Adv presented more frequently as upper respiratory infection. All pathogens, except M. pneumoniae, were detected in children with severe pneumonia. Viruses play a significant role in Iranian children with community-acquired ARI.

  16. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-11-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in African American women who exclusively have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina A; Kapil, Richa; Austin, Erika L; Brown, LaDraka; Hook, Edward W; Geisler, William M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about whether Chlamydia trachomatis can be sexually transmitted between women or how often it occurs in women who have sex with women (WSW). We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and serum Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibody responses among African American WSW who reported a lifetime history of sex only with women (exclusive WSW) (n = 21) vs. an age-matched group of women reporting sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42). Participants completed a survey, underwent a pelvic examination in which a cervical swab was collected for Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), and had serum tested for anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body-based ELISA. No exclusive WSW had a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT vs. 5 (11.9%) WSWM having a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT (p = 0.16). Compared with WSWM, WSW were significantly less likely to be Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive (7 [33.3%] vs. 29 [69%], p = 0.007). Among Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive women, all were seropositive by IgG1, and the magnitude of Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgG1 responses did not differ in Chlamydia trachomatis-seropositive WSW vs. WSWM. In conclusion, Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity was relatively common in exclusive African American WSW, though significantly less common than in African American WSWM.

  18. A Zebrafish Model for Chlamydia Infection with the Obligate Intracellular Pathogen Waddlia chondrophila

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Alexander G. J.; Ruetten, Maja; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Nufer, Lisbeth; Voegtlin, Andrea; Lehner, Angelika; Greub, Gilbert; Crosier, Philip S.; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    Obligate intracellular chlamydial bacteria of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are important pathogens of terrestrial and marine vertebrates, yet many features of their pathogenesis and host specificity are still unknown. This is particularly true for families such as the Waddliacea which, in addition to epithelia, cellular targets for nearly all Chlamydia, can infect and replicate in macrophages, an important arm of the innate immune system or in their free-living amoebal counterparts. An ideal pathogen model system should include both host and pathogen, which led us to develop the first larval zebrafish model for chlamydial infections with Waddlia chondrophila. By varying the means and sites of application, epithelial cells of the swim bladder, endothelial cells of the vasculature and phagocytosing cells of the innate immune system became preferred targets for infection in zebrafish larvae. Through the use of transgenic zebrafish, we could observe recruitment of neutrophils to the infection site and demonstrate for the first time that W. chondrophila is taken up and replicates in these phagocytic cells and not only in macrophages. Furthermore, we present evidence that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mediated signaling plays a role in the innate immune reaction to W. chondrophila, eventually by Toll-like receptor (TLRs) recognition. Infected larvae with depleted levels of MyD88 showed a higher infection load and a lower survival rate compared to control fish. This work presents a new and potentially powerful non-mammalian experimental model to study the pathology of chlamydial virulence in vivo and opens up new possibilities for investigation of other members of the PVC superphylum. PMID:27917158

  19. Update on the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Muñoz, G; Sánchez, R; Henkel, R; Gallegos-Avila, G; Díaz-Gutierrez, O; Vigil, P; Vásquez, F; Kortebani, G; Mazzolli, A; Bustos-Obregón, E

    2004-02-01

    With approximately 90 million cases annually, infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial disease in the world. Considering that these infections are often asymptomatic and cause major complications like acute pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility or infant pneumonia, the estimated costs for diagnosis and treatment in the USA amounts to 2.2 million US dollars for each 500 cases. Therefore, there is a high need for correct, quick and cost-effective diagnosis and treatment of this urogenital tract infection. New innovative therapies provide good results with regard to efficacy and patients' compliance. The success rates of treatments are at least 95%. However, the occurrence of antibiotic resistance should not be ignored and new treatment schemes must be developed. The state-of-the-art of diagnosis and treatment of chlamydial infections as well as the pathophysiology is discussed in this review. In conclusion, infections with C. trachomatis is an important public health problem, especially in third world and developing countries, and more socio-economic studies linking secondary prevention of chlamydial infections, infertility and adverse pregnancy outcome are needed to understand more of its aetiology. In addition, diagnosis and treatment should be improved. Data in men revealed that past infections but not present infections are more related to male infertility. There is still controversial results. In future studies, function of the seminal vesicles and evaluation of the antioxidant capacity should be taken into account when role of C. trachomatis infection on male fertility is assessed.

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Mice Induces Chronic Lung Inflammation, iBALT Formation, and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jupelli, Madhulika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chiba, Norika; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Jones, Heather D.; Peterson, Ellena; Chen, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5×105 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis. PMID:24204830

  1. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  2. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Chrissy h; Franklin, Christopher S; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A; Clark, Taane G; Burton, Matthew J; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J

    2015-11-30

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10(-7)) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling.

  3. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10−7) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  4. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... painless sores. Less common infections such as chancroid , granuloma inguinale , molluscum contagiosum , and syphilis may also cause ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 16. Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital herpes Genital warts Melanoma Molluscum contagiosum ...

  5. Genital human papillomavirus infection in women from the Zagreb region.

    PubMed

    Marijan, Tatjana; Vranes, Jasmina; Mlinarić-Dzepina, Ana; Leskovar, Vladimira; Knezević, Jasna; Kvaternik, Matea

    2007-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection, especially among young, sexually active individuals. As persistent infection with oncogenic types may lead to cervical cancer, HPV testing is a useful tool to screen for women at risk for subsequent development of cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in different age groups of cytologically selected women from the Zagreb region, and to evaluate the frequency and results of repeat hrHPV testing. During a one-year study period (November 2005 to November 2006), a total of 3,440 cervical samples from women attending gynecological services of public and private health care systems were received. They were tested for 13 hrHPV genotypes by the polymerase chain reaction based AMPLICOR HPV test (Roche Molecular Systems). The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 34.6%. Most samples were obtained from women aged 21-30 years (44.2%), followed by the 31-40 (27.6%), 41-50 (15.7%), 51-60 (5.3%) and 261 (2.4%) age groups. Out of 3,227 cervical samples obtained from women of known age, 4.9% were obtained from the group of girls younger than 21, in which the highest prevalence of hrHPV (49.4%) was found. A similar prevalence was observed in women aged 21-30 (45.1%). The prevalence gradually decreased with age. During the study period, repeat hrHPV testing was performed in samples from 66 women at different intervals. Out of 28 women that were hrHPV negative on initial testing, only five women turned positive on repeat testing. Out of 38 women that were positive on initial testing, in one-third hrHPV could not be detected on repeat testing. As expected, hrHPV infection was highly prevalent in female adolescents and young women. Further investigation on repeat hrHPV testing is needed to assess virus clearance and rate of newly acquired infection.

  6. Chitosan-Based Nanomedicine to Fight Genital Candida Infections: Chitosomes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Toril; Mishchenko, Ekaterina; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson; Mattsson, Sofia; Tho, Ingunn; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-03-04

    Vaginal infections are associated with high recurrence, which is often due to a lack of efficient treatment of complex vaginal infections comprised of several types of pathogens, especially fungi and bacteria. Chitosan, a mucoadhesive polymer with known antifungal effect, could offer a great improvement in vaginal therapy; the chitosan-based nanosystem could both provide antifungal effects and simultaneously deliver antibacterial drugs. We prepared chitosan-containing liposomes, chitosomes, where chitosan is both embedded in liposomes and surface-available as a coating layer. For antimicrobial activity, we entrapped metronidazole as a model drug. To prove that mucoadhesivness alone is not sufficient for successful delivery, we used Carbopol-containing liposomes as a control. All vesicles were characterized for their size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Chitosan-containing liposomes were able to assure the prolonged release of metronidazole. Their antifungal activity was evaluated in a C. albicans model; chitosan-containing liposomes exhibited a potent ability to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. The presence of chitosan was crucial for the system's antifungal activity. The antifungal efficacy of chitosomes combined with antibacterial potential of the entrapped metronidazole could offer improved efficacy in the treatment of mixed/complex vaginal infections.

  7. Chitosan-Based Nanomedicine to Fight Genital Candida Infections: Chitosomes

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Toril; Mishchenko, Ekaterina; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Mattsson, Sofia; Tho, Ingunn; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal infections are associated with high recurrence, which is often due to a lack of efficient treatment of complex vaginal infections comprised of several types of pathogens, especially fungi and bacteria. Chitosan, a mucoadhesive polymer with known antifungal effect, could offer a great improvement in vaginal therapy; the chitosan-based nanosystem could both provide antifungal effects and simultaneously deliver antibacterial drugs. We prepared chitosan-containing liposomes, chitosomes, where chitosan is both embedded in liposomes and surface-available as a coating layer. For antimicrobial activity, we entrapped metronidazole as a model drug. To prove that mucoadhesivness alone is not sufficient for successful delivery, we used Carbopol-containing liposomes as a control. All vesicles were characterized for their size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Chitosan-containing liposomes were able to assure the prolonged release of metronidazole. Their antifungal activity was evaluated in a C. albicans model; chitosan-containing liposomes exhibited a potent ability to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. The presence of chitosan was crucial for the system’s antifungal activity. The antifungal efficacy of chitosomes combined with antibacterial potential of the entrapped metronidazole could offer improved efficacy in the treatment of mixed/complex vaginal infections. PMID:28273850

  8. Usefulness of quantifying leukocytes in first-voided urine to predict positivity for Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic men at high risk for chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shin; Horie, Kengo; Seike, Kensaku; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute non-gonococcal urethritis, but some infected men are asymptomatic. We examined leukocytes in uncentrifuged first-voided urine (FVU) from asymptomatic men at high risk for chlamydial infection by automated urine particle analyzers to assess whether the quantification of urinary leukocytes could predict chlamydial infection in these men. We enrolled 209 asymptomatic men, whose female sexual partners had been diagnosed as having a genital chlamydial infection. Their FVU specimens were examined for quantification of leukocytes with automated urine particle analyzers and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum by nucleotide acid amplification tests. Eleven men positive for N. gonorrhoeae or M. genitalium were excluded from further analysis. In the remaining 198 men, 84 positive for C. trachomatis (42.4%) had 1.8-1666.9 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl (median, 43.3 WBCs/μl) in their FVU, whereas 114 negative for C. trachomatis had 0.1-1378 WBCs/μl (median, 4.8 WBCs/μl). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of leukocytes counts for predicting chlamydial infection. A cut-off point of leukocyte counts of 12.5 WBCs/μl was determined from the ROC curve, resulting in a sensitivity of 86.9% and specificity of 88.6% for predicting chlamydial infection. Leukocyte quantification in FVU by automated urine particle analyzers showed good performance in predicting the positivity and negativity for chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men. This test could potentially develop into a relevant tool for preselecting asymptomatic men prior to C. trachomatis screening.

  9. Health-related quality of life and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually experienced female inner-city students: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Eleanor; Kerry, Sarah R; Nightingale, Claire; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) in women with and without undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We analysed data from 2401 multi-ethnic sexually active female students aged 16–27 years who were recruited to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening – the prevention of pelvic infection trial in 2004–2006. At recruitment, all participants were asked to provide self-taken vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing and to complete a sexual health questionnaire including quality of life (EQ-5D). Most women (69%) had an EQ-5D of one representing ‘perfect health’ in the five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. We therefore compared the proportion of women with an EQ-5D score < 1 implying ‘less than perfect health’ in women with and without chlamydia infection, and women with symptomatic chlamydia versus the remainder. The proportion of women with EQ-5D score < 1 was similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia: 34% (47/138) versus 31% (697/2263; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.41). However, more women with symptomatic chlamydia had EQ-5D score < 1 than the remainder: 45% (25/55) versus 31% (714/2319; RR 1.47, CI 1.10 to 1.98). In this community-based study, EQ-5D scores were similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia. However, a higher proportion of women with symptomatic chlamydia infection had ‘less than perfect health’. Undiagnosed chlamydia infection may not have a major short-term effect on health-related quality of life, but EQ-5D may not be the best tool to measure it in this group. PMID:27154958

  10. Cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university women: relationship to history, contraception, ectopy, and cervicitis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, H R; Costin, M; Meder, J B; Bownds, L M; Sim, D A; Lewis, M; Alexander, E R

    1985-10-01

    Endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was found in 13 of 162 volunteer female university students (8%). Infection was correlated with younger age (p less than 0.05), less than or equal to 4 years of intercourse (p less than 0.05), a history of gonorrhea (p less than 0.01), and exposure to a partner with urethritis (p less than 0.01). Women who used intrauterine or barrier contraception had less infection (2%) than did women who used oral contraception (14.3%, p less than 0.05) or none at all (10.7%, p less than 0.05). Infection was strongly associated with a cervicitis score calculated from erythema, ectopy, discharge, and secretions that contained white blood cells (p less than 0.0001). By multivariate analysis, a proposed clinical approach was arrived at for testing for chlamydial organisms all women with cervicitis who were not using barrier contraception. The positive predictive value of this approach for chlamydial infection was 28%, and the negative predictive value 98.4%. Cervical ectopy was increased in women who used oral contraception (p less than 0.01), and infection was increased in women with ectopy, regardless of their contraceptive method (p less than 0.001). These results will aid in more rapid diagnosis of endocervical chlamydial infection and in the choice of contraception in young women and high-prevalence groups.

  11. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  12. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens. PMID:28129377

  13. Characteristics of human papillomaviruses infection in men with genital warts in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Liang; Lai, Yongxian; Liu, Qinxiu; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen

    2016-08-16

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infected men causes continued transmission of HPV to women. The prevalence of 15 high-risk HPV strains (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68) and 6 low-risk HPV strains (HPV6, 11, 42, 43, 44 and CP8304) were evaluated in 935 males with genital warts. Of the 447 (447/935, 47.8%) HPV DNA positive subjects, 230 (24.6%), 356 (38.1%) and 139 (14.9%) were infected by high-risk, low-risk and both high and low-risk HPV respectively. Of the 356 low-risk HPV infected subjects, 333(93.5%) were infected by single HPV strain; 203 (57.0%), 147 (41.3%), 24 (6.7%) and 5 (1.4%) were infected with HPV genotype 6, 11, CP8304 and 44 respectively; population with age ≤ 20 showed the highest infection rate. High-risk HPV are also highly prevalent in our patients, genotype 16, 58, 51, 39, 52 and 53 are the top five prevalent genotypes with infection rates of 27.4%, 18.7%, 14.3%, 13.9%, 12.6% and 12.6% respectively; only 68.3% subjects were sole infection; subjects with 41 ≤ age ≤ 50 showed the highest infection rate. Both high and low-risk HPV are highly prevalent in men with genital warts, its impact on women HPV control and prevention need further evaluation.

  14. Characteristics of human papillomaviruses infection in men with genital warts in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yongxian; Liu, Qinxiu; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infected men causes continued transmission of HPV to women. The prevalence of 15 high-risk HPV strains (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68) and 6 low-risk HPV strains (HPV6, 11, 42, 43, 44 and CP8304) were evaluated in 935 males with genital warts. Of the 447 (447/935, 47.8%) HPV DNA positive subjects, 230 (24.6%), 356 (38.1%) and 139 (14.9%) were infected by high-risk, low-risk and both high and low-risk HPV respectively. Of the 356 low-risk HPV infected subjects, 333(93.5%) were infected by single HPV strain; 203 (57.0%), 147 (41.3%), 24 (6.7%) and 5 (1.4%) were infected with HPV genotype 6, 11, CP8304 and 44 respectively; population with age ≤ 20 showed the highest infection rate. High-risk HPV are also highly prevalent in our patients, genotype 16, 58, 51, 39, 52 and 53 are the top five prevalent genotypes with infection rates of 27.4%, 18.7%, 14.3%, 13.9%, 12.6% and 12.6% respectively; only 68.3% subjects were sole infection; subjects with 41 ≤ age ≤ 50 showed the highest infection rate. Both high and low-risk HPV are highly prevalent in men with genital warts, its impact on women HPV control and prevention need further evaluation. PMID:27270315

  15. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  16. Is chlamydia screening and testing in Britain reaching young adults at risk of infection? Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483

  17. The Relationship between Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection before and after Mass Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhani, Athumani M.; Derrick, Tamsyn; Macleod, David; Holland, Martin J.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is a blinding disease, initiated in early childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The population prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma; ‘‘follicular conjunctivitis” (TF) and/or ‘‘intense papillary inflammation” (TI), guide programmatic decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the persistence of TF following resolution of infection at both the individual and population level raises concerns over the suitability of this clinical sign as a marker for C. trachomatis infection. Methodology/Principle Findings We systematically reviewed the literature for population-based studies and those including randomly selected individuals, which reported the prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma and ocular C. trachomatis infection by nucleic acid amplification test. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between active trachoma and C. trachomatis infection before and after MDA. TF and C. trachomatis infection were strongly correlated prior to MDA (r = 0.92, 95%CI 0.83 to 0.96, p<0.0001); the relationship was similar when the analysis was limited to children. A moderate correlation was found between TI and prevalence of infection. Following MDA, the relationship between TF and infection prevalence was weaker (r = 0.60, 95%CI 0.25 to 0.81, p = 0.003) and there was no correlation between TI and C. trachomatis infection. Conclusions/Significance Prior to MDA, TF is a good indicator of the community prevalence of C. trachomatis infection. Following MDA, the prevalence of TF tends to overestimate the underlying infection prevalence. In order to prevent unnecessary additional rounds of MDA and to accurately ascertain when elimination goals have been reached, a cost-effective test for C. trachomatis that can be administered in low-resource settings remains desirable. PMID:27783678

  18. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ≥40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. PMID:26010956

  19. Chronic urticaria associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection and success of antiviral therapy--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran; Sankalecha, Sudhir

    2010-06-01

    The role of infectious agents as a cause of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether genital herpes simplex infection is causally related to CIU. We identified two patients with recurrent genital herpes simplex infections associated with CIU. Episodes of genital herpes were especially associated with acute exacerbation of urticaria. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies and Tzanck smears were done in both patients, along with other relevant investigations for CIU. Acyclovir was added to antihistamine therapy. Both patients were apparently in good health and appeared clinically immunologically stable, though one of them was found to be diabetic. Clinical and laboratory investigations for genital lesions supported a diagnosis of herpes simplex. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies were markedly raised in both patients. The Tzanck smear was positive in one case and negative in the other, despite a definitive clinical diagnosis of herpes progenitalis. CIU, which was inadequately controlled with antihistamines alone, responded dramatically to the addition of acyclovir therapy. Our results may not be applicable to other patients with CIU, especially when there is inadequate evidence of an association with genital herpes. CIU may be associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection. In such situations, the addition of acyclovir to therapy may be beneficial.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole.

  1. Pregnancy failure following vaginal infection of sheep with Chlamydia psittaci prior to breeding.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    Enzootic abortion in sheep, caused by Chlamydia psittaci, has been associated with pregnancy failure in most sheep-producing countries. Late-term abortions or the birth of weak low-birth-weight lambs occurred following primary C. psittaci infection in pregnant ewes. However, the mode by which C. psittaci can be transmitted among sheep has not been established. The present study was designed to determine whether the vaginal tracts of nonpregnant ewes were susceptible to C. psittaci infection and whether such infections had an impact during the next pregnancy. At day 0 of the estrus cycle, the vaginal tracts of 10 nonpregnant ewes were inoculated with C. psittaci and 10 ewes were exposed by subcutaneous injection. The ewes were bred 6 weeks postinfection. Five ewes from the vaginally infected group and four from the subcutaneously infected group were reinfected by subcutaneous injection at day 60 of gestation. Pregnancy outcomes and antibody responses to infection were compared with that of ewes that were infected with C. psittaci, either subcutaneously or intravaginally, for the first time during pregnancy and with that of noninfected control ewes. Subcutaneous infection of nonpregnant ewes did not cause subsequent pregnancy failure; rather, this provided protection against abortion following reinfection during pregnancy. As expected, abortions or the birth of weak lambs was observed in those ewes that received primary C. psittaci infection by either route during pregnancy. Similarly, abortion or the birth of weak lambs was a consequence of vaginal inoculation prior to breeding, thereby confirming the susceptibility of the vaginal mucosa to infection and demonstrating the potential for venereal transmission. PMID:8606067

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  3. [If it's not only itching or burning: management of sexually transmitted infections (part 1)].

    PubMed

    Vuichard, Danielle; Itin, Peter

    2013-07-03

    Current clinical aspects of genital ulcer diseases, urethritis and genital warts are reviewed. In the first part we focus on the commonest sexually transmitted pathogens associated with urethritis, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea; and we provide an overview about human papilloma virus related genital infections. Diagnostic and treatment approaches are based on the most recent internationally published guidelines and should help practitioners managing their patients, preventing irreversible complications and further transmission.

  4. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genital herpes fact sheet Genital warts fact sheet Gonorrhea fact sheet HIV/AIDS Human papillomavirus (HPV) Pap ... sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs. STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, genital warts, HIV, and syphilis. ...

  5. Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during calf infection with Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed

    Kästner, Julia; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, the causative agent of ornithosis, is an obligate intracellular pathogen with a unique developmental cycle and a high potential for zoonotic transmission. Various mammalian hosts, such as cattle, horse, sheep and man that are in close contact with contaminated birds can get infected (referred to as psittacosis). Since little is known about long-term sequelae of chronic disease and the molecular mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenesis, a key step in understanding the in vivo situation is the identification of C. psittaci infection-associated proteins. For this, we investigated sera of infected calves. Using the immunoscreening approach In Vivo Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT) including all relevant controls, we focused on C. psittaci proteins, which are induced in vivo during infection. Sera were pooled, extensively adsorbed against in vitro antigens to eliminate false positive results, and used to screen an inducible C. psittaci 02DC15 genomic expression library. Screening and control experiments revealed 19 immunogenic proteins, which are expressed during infection. They are involved in transport and oxidative stress response, heme and folate biosynthesis, DNA replication, recombination and repair, cell envelope, bacterial secretion systems and hypothetical proteins of so far unknown functions. Some of the proteins found may be considered as diagnostic markers or as candidates for the development of vaccines.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections Among Men and Women Entering California Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kyle T.; Chow, Joan M.; Ruiz, Juan; Schachter, Julius; Horowitz, Evalyn; Bunnell, Rebecca; Bolan, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection among newly arriving inmates at 6 California prisons. Methods. In this cross-sectional study in 1999, urine specimens collected from 698 men aged 18 to 25 years and 572 women aged 18 years or older were tested at intake for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using ligase chain reaction. An analysis of demographic and arrest-related correlates of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae infection was performed. Results. The overall C trachomatis prevalence was 9.9% (95% CI=7.8%, 12.3%) among men aged 18 to 25 years, 8.9% (95% CI = 2.9%, 22.1%) among women aged 18 to 25 years, and 3.3% (95% CI=2.0%, 5.1%) among women overall. Three N gonorrhoeae cases were detected with an overall prevalence of 0.24% (95% CI=0.05%, 0.69%). Conclusions. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection at entry to California prisons, especially among young female and male inmates, was high, which supports routine screening at entry into prison. In addition, screening in a jail setting where most detainees are incarcerated before entry into the prison setting may provide an excellent earlier opportunity to identify these infections and treat disease to prevent complications and burden of infection in this high-risk population. PMID:17008584

  7. Plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce immune pathology and protect against oviduct disease.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Catherine M; Ingalls, Robin R; Andrews, Charles W; Scurlock, Amy M; Darville, Toni

    2007-09-15

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the world. In women, genital infection can cause endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease with the severe sequelae of ectopic pregnancy or infertility. Chlamydia sp. do not damage tissues directly, but induce an injurious host inflammatory response at the infected site. In the murine model of genital disease with Chlamydia muridarum, TLR2 plays a role in both early production of inflammatory mediators and development of chronic oviduct pathology. We report the results of studies with plasmid-cured C. muridarum mutants that retain the ability to infect the murine genital tract, but fail to cause disease in the oviduct. These mutants do not stimulate TLR2-dependent cytokine production in mice, nor in innate immune cells or epithelial cells in vitro. They induce an effective Th1 immune response, with no evidence for Th1-immune-mediated collateral tissue damage. Furthermore, mice previously infected with the plasmid-deficient strains are protected against oviduct disease upon challenge with virulent C. muridarum. If plasmid-cured derivatives of human C. trachomatis biovars exhibit similar phenotypic characteristics, they have the potential to serve as vaccines to prevent human disease.

  8. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    PubMed

    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  9. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    PubMed

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  10. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  11. Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for

  12. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  13. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  14. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... of testing for chlamydia. NAAT is a molecular test that detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of Chlamydia trachomatis . It is generally more sensitive and specific than other chlamydia tests and can be performed on a vaginal swab ...

  15. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Supram, Hosuru Subramanya; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Sharma, JSS; Shrestha, Junu

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  16. Control of herpes simplex virus infections of the genital tract by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Buchan, A; Skinner, G R; Fuller, A; Hartley, C; Hallworth, J; Stocker, D; Melling, J; Wiblin, C

    1985-03-01

    The apparent increasing incidence of herpes simplex virus infections of the genital tract has focused attention on the efficacy of vaccination in preventing infection or modifying established disease. Results of an 'open trial' using a DNA-free inactivated virus subunit vaccine have shown that vaccination of subjects at risk of contracting infection from their sexual partner reduced the transmission rate from 34% in unvaccinated controls to 0.5%. In a separate study, vaccination of patients who had experienced their first overt attack of herpes genitalis (the initial clinical episode) had significantly fewer recurrences over the follow-up period of 12 months than the unvaccinated control group. The results, we feel, justify a placebo controlled trial.

  17. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100 % detection for ≥ 10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(- 1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 88 %. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks.

  18. High Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Mixed Infections Detected by Microarray Assay in South American Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I.; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F. PMID:27082962

  19. Contraceptive methods and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Park, B J; Stergachis, A; Scholes, D; Heidrich, F E; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between contraceptive methods and cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the authors studied a population-based sample of 1,779 nonpregnant women aged 15-34 years who underwent cell culture diagnostic testing for the detection of C. trachomatis at a health maintenance organization. Barrier contraceptive method users were classified as those who reported using one of the following methods at time of testing: condom, diaphragm, cervical cap, spermicidal sponge, foam, or vaginal spermicidal suppositories. Barrier methods were associated with a reduction in the risk of chlamydial infection in women aged 25 years or older when compared with all other women in the same age category (adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.66). When compared with only noncontracepting women, the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.34 (95% CI 0.06-1.99). The protective effect of barrier methods was not evident in women younger than age 25 years. Oral contraceptive use was not associated with the risk of C. trachomatis infection using either referent group; the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.99 (95% CI 0.57-1.73) compared with all other women, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.44-1.79) compared with noncontracepting women. These findings suggest that present patterns of use of barrier methods differ by age and afford only selective protection against cervical C. trachomatis infections.

  20. Human conjunctival transcriptome analysis reveals the prominence of innate defense in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Angels; Freeman, Tom C; Jeffries, David; Burton, Matthew J; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J

    2010-11-01

    Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is endemic in 52 countries. There is a critical need to further our understanding of the host response during disease and infection, as millions of individuals are still at risk of developing blinding sequelae. Infection of the conjunctival epithelial cells by the causative bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, stimulates an acute host response. The main clinical feature is a follicular conjunctivitis that is incompletely defined at the tissue-specific gene expression and molecular levels. To explore the features of disease and the response to infection, we measured host gene expression in conjunctival samples from Gambian children with active trachoma and healthy controls. Genome-wide expression and transcription network analysis identified signatures characteristic of the expected infiltrating immune cell populations, such as neutrophils and T/B lymphocytes. The expression signatures were also significantly enriched for genes in pathways which regulate NK cell activation and cytotoxicity, antigen processing and presentation, chemokines, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. The data suggest that in addition to polymorph and adaptive cellular responses, NK cells may contribute to a significant component of the conjunctival inflammatory response to chlamydial infection.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with elevated body mass index in young men.

    PubMed

    Rantala, A; Lajunen, T; Juvonen, R; Bloigu, A; Paldanius, M; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S; Peitso, A; Vainio, O; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is said to be associated with obesity. We studied the association between C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation and increased BMI in 891 Finnish military recruits. IgG seropositivity in arrival and departure serum samples during 6-12 months of military service was considered as persistence of antibodies and a possible indication of chronic infection. Persistently high C-reactive protein (CRP) level (elevated on arrival and departure) (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.9), and persistent C. pneumoniae antibodies (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8) were significant risk factors for overweight (BMI 25 kg/m2). In addition, those who had persistent antibodies and persistently elevated CRP levels, or those who had either of them, had a significantly higher BMI (kg/m2) compared to those who had neither of them (25.8 vs. 24.6 vs. 23.5, respectively; P<0.001). These results provide new information about the association between possible chronic C. pneumoniae infection and obesity in young men.

  3. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  4. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Infant HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Xu, Jiahong; Ank, Bonnie; Morgado, Mariza G; Watts, D. Heather; Weir, Fred; Persing, David; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) can lead to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. STI prevalence and its association with HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated in a sub-study analysis from a randomized, multi-center clinical trial. METHODOLOGY Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women collected at the time of labor and delivery were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of CT and NG (Xpert® CT/NG, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Infant HIV infection was determined by HIV DNA PCR at 3 months. RESULTS Of the 1373 urine specimens, 249 (18.1%) were positive for CT and 63 (4.6%) for NG; 35 (2.5%) had both CT and NG detected. Among 117 cases of HIV MTCT (8.5% transmission) the lowest transmission rate occurred among infants born to CT and NG uninfected mothers (8.1%) as compared to those infected with only CT (10.7%) and both CT and NG (14.3%), (p = 0.04). Infants born to CT-infected mothers had almost a 1.5-fold increased risk for HIV acquisition (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.9–2.3, p=0.09). CONCLUSION This cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women are at high risk for infection with CT and NG. Analysis suggests that STIs may predispose to an increased HIV MTCT risk in this high risk cohort of HIV-infected women. PMID:26372927

  5. Chlamydia muridarum infection of macrophages elicits bactericidal nitric oxide production via reactive oxygen species and cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Nelson, David E

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ≤1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-β). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance.

  6. Prevention of Chlamydia-Induced Infertility by Inhibition of Local Caspase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804

  7. Infection with a plasmid-free variant Chlamydia related to Chlamydia trachomatis identified by using multiple assays for nucleic acid detection.

    PubMed Central

    An, Q; Radcliffe, G; Vassallo, R; Buxton, D; O'Brien, W J; Pelletier, D A; Weisburg, W G; Klinger, J D; Olive, D M

    1992-01-01

    Clinical samples in transport media from 40 patients exhibiting pathologies potentially caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection were analyzed for chlamydial nucleic acid, and the results were compared with those of culture. Chlamydial culture was performed by a shell vial centrifugation method with HeLa 229 host cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect either regions on a 7.5-kb plasmid characteristic of C. trachomatis (plasmid-PCR) or a segment of the 16S rRNA genes (rRNA-PCR). All PCR results were confirmed by hybridization with probes for the specific amplified products in either a Southern or a dot blot format. An RNase protection (RNP) assay was used to detect genus-specific chlamydial 16S rRNA directly from the clinical samples. The PCR assays detected C. trachomatis but not other bacteria, including Chlamydia spp. C. trachomatis was isolated from six samples which were positive by the rDNA-PCR and plasmid-PCR assays. Five of the culture-positive specimens were positive by the RNP assay. Twenty-two samples were negative by all criteria. Surprisingly, nine samples were positive by rRNA-PCR and RNP assays only. Nucleic acid sequencing of the rRNA-PCR-amplified products indicated a close relationship between the variants and C. trachomatis. The data may indicate an unrecognized process in C. trachomatis infection or that these patients were infected by a variant strain of C. trachomatis which lacks the C. trachomatis-specific plasmid. Images PMID:1280642

  8. Detection of Chlamydia infection in Peromyscus species rodents from sylvatic and laboratory sources.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kyle H; Sigar, Ira M; Schripsema, Justin H; Townsend, Kathryn E; Barry, Randall J; Peters, Jan; Platt, Kenneth B

    2016-04-01

    To determine if Chlamydia muridarum, or other chlamydiae, are enzootic in rodents, we probed a serum bank of wild Peromyscus spp. mice for immunoglobulin G-antibody reactivity to ultraviolet light-inactivated C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Applying a cut-off for a positive reaction of OD(405) nm = 0.1 at a 1:20 dilution, we found titratable antibody reactivity in 190 of 247 specimens surveyed (77%, mean OD(405) = 0.33 ± 0.26, range = 0.11-1.81, median = 0.25). In addition, serum samples were obtained from a colony of specific pathogen-free Peromyscus spp. maintained at the University of South Carolina and six of 12 samples were reactive (50%, mean OD(405) = 0.19 +/- 0.08, range = 0.1-0.32, median = 0.18). Lastly, 40 additional wild Peromyscus spp. were captured in a disparate region of Midwestern USA and 22 serum specimens were reactive (55%, mean OD(405) = 0.22 +/- 0.11, range = 0.1-0.48, median = 0.2). Specificity of selected reactive sera for chlamydial antigen was confirmed on Western blot using resolved purified EBs as the detecting antigen. From tissues removed from several mice at necropsy, the gene for chlamydial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples of 16S rRNA were subjected to additional PCR for the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA). The amplicons of three select ompA positive samples were sequenced with ≥99% homology with C. muridarum. Our findings indicate that chlamydial infection is enzootic for Peromyscus spp., and that C. muridarum, or a closely related species or strain, is likely the agent in the tested rodent species.

  9. Semen inflammatory markers and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Marvast, L; Aflatoonian, A; Talebi, A R; Ghasemzadeh, J; Pacey, A A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting results about the effect of generally infection and Chlamydia trachomatis on seminal ILs and semen parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between semen quality and the level of seminal interleukins (ILs) in infertile couples with C. trachomatis. Blood, first void urine (FVU) and semen were obtained from 250 infertile men who had failed to conceive after 12 months of trying. Serological analysis for specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum, the presence of C. trachomatis in FVU and semen sample and semen analysis were carried out. The main results are as follows: (i) elevated IL-6 and IL-8 are observed in C. trachomatis-positive men, but this is not significant and it varies by diagnostic method; and (ii) IL-6 and IL-8 levels were correlated with each other and the concentration of leucocytes, but IL-8 was correlated with semen volume and patient's age. This study showed that men with such an infection in FVU samples (PCR positive) had only lower semen volume compared with men without infection.

  10. Oral squamous papilloma and condyloma acuminatum as manifestations of buccal-genital infection by human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Helena Lucia B.; Rabelo, Priscila C.; de Santana, Maria Rúbia F.; Ferreira, Dennis Carvalho; Filho, Antônio C.

    2009-01-01

    Genital infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease (STD), has increased considerably due to the changes in sexual behaviour and an increase in the practice of oral sex. HPV, in a parallel manner, has been closely studied due to its oncogenic potential. We present the case of a 27-year-old patient, with a multi-partner sexual history and frequent practice of oral sex, who suffered from warts lesions on the genitalia and tongue. Squamous papilloma was diagnosed from a tongue biopsy. The treatment of the oral lesion was by way of surgery, without relapse in the first two years. Our discussion in this report is regarding the HPV infection in the oral cavity. PMID:21938114

  11. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  12. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; Black, Carolyn M

    2003-02-01

    The clinically relevant pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis. The major complications and sometimes debilitating evolutionary outcomes of these infections include: trichiasis and cicatrizing trachoma, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease and involuntary tubal factor infertility and bronchopulmonary pneumonia. These diseases, in addition to other chlamydia-associated chronic syndromes (e.g., artherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), pose serious public healthcare and huge budgetary concerns. The current medical opinion is that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is a sine qua non--to control the morbidity of chiamydial infection in the human population. The research goal for an efficacious human chlamydial vaccine has faced key challenges to define the elements of protective immunity to facilitate vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of appropriate vaccine candidates that possess stable antigenic and immunologic properties and the development of effective delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost immune effectors to achieve long-term protective immunity. Progress in the functional immunobiology of Chlamydia has established the essential immunologic paradigms for vaccine selection and evaluation, including the obligatory requirement for a vaccine to induce T-helper Type 1 immune response that controls chlamydiae. Recent advances in chlamydial genomics and proteomics should enhance the identification of likely chlamydial gene products that fulfill the antigenic requirements of putative vaccine candidates. Major inroads are however needed in the construction and development of novel and effective delivery systems, such as vectors and adjuvants. This review summarizes the status of contemporary chlamydial vaccine research and promising trends fueling the growing optimism for an efficacious vaccine. The

  13. Simultaneous plasma and genital pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atazanavir and efavirenz in HIV-infected women starting therapy

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michael; Louie, Stan; Xu, Jiaao; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Mordwinkin, Nicholas; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Few studies characterize longitudinal female plasma and genital antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Among 20 regimen-naïve HIV-infected adult women initiating atazanavir- (n=9) or efavirenz-based therapy (n=11), we measured blood CD4+ T-lymphocytes, and paired plasma and genital HIV RNA and atazanavir or efavirenz 2 days before starting therapy, and 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, 28, 60, 120, and 180 days after. The mean (range) log10 baseline plasma viral load was 4.89 (2.64 – 6.09) copies/mL and genital was 3.30 (1.60 – 5.00). In the atazanavir and efavirenz groups, mean (SD) days to 50% decrease in plasma viral load was 8.2 (4.9) vs. 9.3 (7.4), P=0.7, and in the genital tract was 7.3 (3.5) vs. 9.3 (7.7), P=0.5. The median (interquartile range) plasma:genital concentration ratio for atazanavir was 0.11 (0.001 to 0.46), vs. 0.34 (0.05 to 1.30) for efavirenz, P=0.5. Average plasma efavirenz or atazanavir concentrations over time did not affect virologic response. Blood CD4+ percentages increased by +2.3 (P=0.06) and +3.0 (P=0.003) for every 1 mg/L increase in average plasma and genital drug concentration, respectively. Plasma and genital viral pharmacodynamics were similar between the groups and independent of average concentrations, but blood CD4+ response was related in particular to genital extravascular drug concentrations. PMID:25683232

  14. A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbour Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia's ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g. amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodelling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further highlights the

  15. Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones control Chlamydia muridarum replication in epithelial cells by nitric oxide-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jayarapu, Krupakar; Kerr, Micah; Ofner, Susan; Johnson, Raymond M

    2010-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are sexually transmitted intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate in epithelial cells lining the human reproductive tract. It is clear from knockout mice and T cell depletion studies using Chlamydia muridarum that MHC class II and CD4 T cells are critical for clearing bacteria from the murine genital tract. It is not clear how CD4 T cells interact with infected epithelial cells to mediate bacterial clearance in vivo. Previous work using an epithelial tumor cell line showed that a Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clone was able to inhibit C. muridarum replication in vitro via induction of epithelial NO production. We have previously shown that Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones can recognize and be activated by infected reproductive tract epithelial cells and block Chlamydia replication in them. We extend those observations by investigating the mechanism used by a panel of CD4 T cell clones to control Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. We found that Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones were cytolytic, but that cytolysis was not likely critical for controlling C. muridarum replication. For one, CD4 T cell clone-induced epithelial NO production was critical for controlling replication; however, the most potent CD4 T cell clones were dependent on T cell degranulation for replication control with only a minor additional contribution from NO production. We discuss our data as they relate to existing knockout mouse studies addressing mechanisms of T cell-mediated control of Chlamydia replication and their implications for intracellular epithelial pathogens in mouse models.

  16. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

    PubMed

    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types.

  17. Exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Robman, Luba; Mahdi, Olaimatu; McCarty, Catherine; Dimitrov, Peter; Tikellis, Gabriella; McNeil, John; Byrne, Gerald; Taylor, Hugh; Guymer, Robyn

    2005-06-01

    Recent studies have found an association between exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To assess a potential risk of AMD progression posed by exposure to C. pneumoniae, the authors reexamined Australian residents in 2001-2002 who were aged 51-89 years with early AMD at baseline (1992-1995). Examination included macular photography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine antibody titers to the elementary bodies from C. pneumoniae AR39. AMD progression was assessed quantitatively, using both coarse and fine progression steps following an international classification for AMD grading, and also qualitatively, by side-by-side comparison of baseline and follow-up macular photographs. Serologic data were available for 246 of 254 (97%) subjects. AMD progression was associated with a higher antibody titer. After adjustment for age, smoking, family history of AMD, history of cardiovascular diseases, and source study, the subjects in the upper tertiles of antibody titers were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.92, 4.69), 2.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 5.41), and 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.46, 6.37) times more at risk of progression than those in the lowest tertile, using three definitions of progression, respectively. The fact that seroreactivity to C. pneumoniae was independently associated with the risk of AMD progression suggests that C. pneumoniae infection may be an additional risk factor for AMD progression.

  18. Enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in diverse patient groups.

    PubMed

    Bakir, T M; Hossain, A; De-Silva, S; Siddiqui, A; Sengupta, B S; el-Sheikh, M M; Bakir, A F

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in parallel with cell culture was used to investigate the extent of infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis. EIA reactive confirmed in cell culture was taken as positive. C. trachomatis was found in 6 (26.0%) of 23 men with symptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), ten (17.2%) of 58 symptom-free males and in three of 4 with postgonococcal urethritis. Among 106 asymptomatic pregnant women studied the incidence of C. trachomatis was 8.5% while a higher incidence (16.7%) was found in those with symptoms. C. trachomatis positivity in asymptomatic and symptomatic post-natal screening were 11.4% and 7.7%. Of 43 symptomatic non-pregnant females investigated, 7 (16.3%) were found to be positive for C. trachomatis. Of 3 women with PID, 2 (66.7%) harboured C. trachomatis in their cervix while in another 29 infertile women, C. trachomatis was positive in 3 (8.1%). Contraceptives appeared to have an effect on the chlamydial positivity. Comparative testing of EIA with the standard cell culture method in this study indicate EIA as a suitable alternative for the definitive diagnosis of chlamydial infection in high prevalence settings and with caution in low prevalence settings.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G infection in a bisexual male with urethritis.

    PubMed

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Saigal, Karnika; Khanna, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G urogenital tract infection in a 33-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) seropositive Indian bisexual male. This case highlights the emergence of a new serovar in India. The patient was tested positive for C. trachomatis by both cryptic plasmid and omp A gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On further characterization using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and omp A gene sequencing, the strain was found to be C. trachomatis serovar G. His spouse was also found to be infected with C. trachomatis serovar G. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the clinical isolates obtained from both partners and were found to be identical to the isolates available in GenBank. The sexual network could not be traced further. Detection of a new genotype suggests importation of a new strain into the population probably by sexual contact with a person from a geographical area where the strain is common. Identifying circulating genotypes in the community can assist in developing strategies for improved sexually transmitted disease control.

  20. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women with bad obstetric history and infertility.

    PubMed

    Salmani, Manjunath P; Mindolli, Preeti B; Vishwanath, G

    2011-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis has currently emerged as the most common sexually transmitted pathogen. It is usually asymptomatic and is difficult to diagnose clinically. It is one of the causes for bad Obstetric History (BOH) and infertility. Women at highest risk often have the least access to health care facilities. Therefore there is a need for a rapid, simple, inexpensive and non-invasive test to detect C. trachomatis infection. Serological testing forms the mainstay of diagnosing the disease and to treat BOH and infertility. Hence the present study was conducted. Enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis. Out of 260 cases, 130 had history of BOH, 80 had history of infertility and 50 healthy pregnant women (HPW) were used as controls. The seropositivity of C. trachomatis in the study was 25.4% (66). Out of 130 cases of BOH, seropositivity was 27.7% (36). Out of 80 cases of infertility, seropositivity was 35% (28) and out of 50 cases of HPW seropositivity was 4% (2). In BOH cases, women with history of two abortions showed seropositivity of 7.3% and women with history of three or more abortions showed seropositivity of 62.5%. Hence, seropositivity of C. trachomatis infection was found to be significant among women with BOH and infertility as compared to HPW.

  1. Community Risk Factors for Ocular Chlamydia Infection in Niger: Pre-Treatment Results from a Cluster-Randomized Trachoma Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amza, Abdou; Kadri, Boubacar; Nassirou, Baido; Stoller, Nicole E.; Yu, Sun N.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Chin, Stephanie; West, Sheila K.; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trachoma control programs utilize mass azithromycin distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis as part of an effort to eliminate this disease world-wide. But it remains unclear what the community-level risk factors are for infection. Methods This cluster-randomized, controlled trial entered 48 randomly selected communities in a 2×2 factorial design evaluating the effect of different treatment frequencies and treatment coverage levels. A pretreatment census and examination established the prevalence of risk factors for clinical trachoma and ocular chlamydia infection including years of education of household head, distance to primary water source, presence of household latrine, and facial cleanliness (ocular discharge, nasal discharge, and presence of facial flies). Univariate and multivariate associations were tested using linear regression and Bayes model averaging. Findings There were a total of 24,536 participants (4,484 children aged 0–5 years) in 6,235 households in the study. Before treatment in May to July 2010, the community-level prevalence of active trachoma (TF or TI utilizing the World Health Organization [WHO] grading system) was 26.0% (95% CI: 21.9% to 30.0%) and the mean community-level prevalence of chlamydia infection by Amplicor PCR was 20.7% (95% CI: 16.5% to 24.9%) in children aged 0–5 years. Univariate analysis showed that nasal discharge (0.29, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.54; P = 0.03), presence of flies on the face (0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.64; P = 0.001), and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.07, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.13; P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. In multivariate analysis, facial flies (0.26, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.49; P = 0.03) and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.06, 95% CI: 0.008 to 0.11; P = 0.02) were associated risk factors for ocular chlamydial infection. Interpretation We have found that the presence of facial

  2. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

  3. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    PubMed

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Campbell, Christine M Pierce; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  4. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Activates Immune Function to Decrease Chlamydia trachomatis Shedding in a Murine Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Belay, Tesfaye; Fu, Chih-lung; Woart, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) against chlamydia genital infection in mice. AHCC is an extract of mushroom commonly used as a dietary supplement is known to boost the immune system. Mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis after a 24-day cold-stress application. Oral administration of AHCC to stressed or non-stressed mice was carried out seven days before infection and during the course of infection along with cervicovaginal swabbing. Cytokine production by peritoneal and splenic T cells isolated from AHCC-fed stressed mice and non-stressed mice was measured ELISA. Splenic T cells from both animal groups were co-cultured with mouse monocyte J774.2 cell line or cultured by addition of supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line for 24 hours. Infection studies showed that AHCC-feeding compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-feeding to stressed mice resulted in reduced Chlamydia trachomatis shedding from the genital tract. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. Production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the AHCC group was significantly high compared to production in PBS-fed group. Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines

  5. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  6. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young

  7. Genital streptococcal infection in non-pregnant women: a case-note review.

    PubMed

    Sonnex, C

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this case-note review was to examine the clinical features and management of women with either vulval or vaginal swabs culturing positive for streptococci. Group B haemolytic streptococcus was isolated in all cases. The majority of women with vulval streptococci presented with irritation or soreness. Candidal infection was found in 43% and a dermatosis in 27%. All women with positive vaginal culture had vaginal soreness and/or discharge. Candida was isolated in 27% and there were features of desquamative vaginitis in 20%. Women treated with erythromycin failed to improve symptomatically. The findings of this study suggest that streptococci mostly play a secondary role and colonize an already damaged genital epithelium.

  8. Interferon system in women with genital papillomavirus infection receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, S I; Zhdanov, A V; Loginova, N S; Faizullin, L Z; Prilepskaya, V N; Van'ko, L V; Sukhikh, G T

    2002-11-01

    The interferon system was studied in women with genital papillomavirus infection. In most patients the interferon system was activated, while the ability of lymphocytes to respond to inductors decreased. Laserotherapy and immunomodulatory therapy with larifan, ridostin, and viferon for 1 month normalized blood interferon concentration (39.4% patients) and interferon-gamma production by lymphocytes in response to inductors (87.9% patients). After laser monotherapy these parameters returned to normal only in 13.2 and 7.6% patients, respectively. Correlation and regression analyses showed that changes in the interferon system were synchronized after immunomodulatory therapy. These data indicate that immunomodulatory therapy produces a complex effect on the interferon system. Measurements of blood interferon level can be used to predict the effect of further treatment with interferon-gamma inductors.

  9. Identification of the elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis in the electron microscope by an indirect immunoferritin technique.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, C R; Richmond, S J; Caul, E O

    1975-01-01

    An indirect immunoferritin (IIF) technique is described for recognizing the elementary bodies (EB) of Chlamydia trachomatis in unsectioned preparations. Both the EB of a genital strain of C. trachomatis grown in irradiated McCoy cells and EB in clinical specimens obtained from patients attending a venereal disease clinic were identified by the IIF test in the electron microscope. Cell culture-grown EB were detected by ferritin staining for up to 4 weeks after the organisms had lost their infectivity for tissue cultures. The IIF test was of comparable sensitivity to isolation methods in detecting chlamydiae in clinical specimens. Other possible applications of the IIF technique are discussed. Images PMID:1102559

  10. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur.

  11. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections.

  12. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages.

  13. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  14. The effect of introducing routine self-taken extra-genital swabs in a genitourinary medicine clinic cohort: a before and after study.

    PubMed

    Nyatsanza, Farai; Trivedy, Anisha; Brook, Gary

    2016-12-01

    Starting July 2013, all patients attending a sexual health clinic who reported risk of extra-genital infection were offered self-taken extra-genital swabs. The study aim was to assess the detection rate of extra-genital infection since self-taken swabs were introduced. We compared patients diagnosed with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in six-month periods before (February-July 2012) and after (February-July 2014) the introduction of self-taken extra-genital swabs. There were 408 (98 gonorrhoea, 310 chlamydia) detected infections in the 2012 period and 404 (121 gonorrhoea, 283 chlamydia) in 2014. The rate of extra-genital chlamydia/gonorrhoea increased fourfold from 18/408, 4.4% to 77/404 19% (P < 0.0001). The rise was seen in both rectal (8/408, 2% vs. 40/404, 9.9%, P < 0.0001) and pharyngeal infection (10/408, 2.5% vs. 48/404, 11.8% P < 0.0001). Significant rises were seen in men who have sex with men in rectal (5/408, 1.2% vs. 28/404, 6.9% P = 0.001) and pharyngeal infection (10/408, 2.5% vs. 20/404, 5%, P = 0.02) and for women in rectal (3/408, 0.7% vs. 12/404, 3% P = 0.03) and pharyngeal infection (0/408, 0% vs. 20/404, 5%, P < 0.0001). In 100 consecutive patients having extra-genital swabs in each study period, self-swabbing rose from 0% (0/100) to 89% (89/100) P < 0.0001. The introduction of routine self-taken extra-genital swabs has led to a large rise in detected extra-genital chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea infection in men who have sex with men and women.

  15. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-22

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician. PMID:19714222

  17. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  18. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C. W.; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. Methods A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1–9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. Results The prevalence of active trachoma in 1–9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4–4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1–9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4–2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. Discussion The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in

  19. Oral contraceptives, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and pelvic inflammatory disease. A word of caution about protection.

    PubMed

    Washington, A E; Gove, S; Schachter, J; Sweet, R L

    1985-04-19

    Management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and decisions about contraception are being influenced by reports that oral contraceptives decrease the risk of PID. To evaluate the validity of this association, we have examined published epidemiologic evidence and reviewed relevant information from other disciplines. Current information does not permit the generalization that oral contraceptives protect against all forms of PID. Most studies conducted (1) have been limited to hospitalized women, who represent less than 25% of all PID cases and are likely to have relatively severe forms of the disease, and (2) have failed to distinguish between gonococcal and nongonococcal PID. While oral contraceptives may provide some protection against gonococcal PID, no basis exists for assuming similar protection is provided against chlamydial PID. In fact, epidemiologic and biologic evidence suggests that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of nongonococcal PID, is enhanced by oral contraceptives. We judge the conclusion that oral contraceptives protect against all PID to be premature, and urge caution in its application in health policy and clinical decisions.

  20. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  1. The Effects of Chronic Binge Alcohol on the Genital Microenvironment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  2. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam L; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Devlin, Joanne M; Sansom, Fiona M

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of 'wet bottom' in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes.

  3. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro and modulation of inflammatory response in vivo by membrane-bound glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; Yedgar, Saul; Krimsky, M; Andrews, C W; Jungas, Thomas; Ojcius, David M

    2004-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) efficiently inhibit adherence of several strains of Chlamydia trachomatis to cell lines in vitro, but none of the GAG have been able to inhibit infections in vivo. One possible cause for failure of GAG inhibition in vivo is the inability to deliver a sustained concentration of GAG at the mucosal surface. We tested the possibility of enhancing cell protection by increasing the cell-surface concentration of GAG using membrane-anchored GAG (MAG), composed of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-linked GAG. These lipid conjugates were originally designed as extracellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors and exhibit a dual effect: the lipid moiety incorporates into the cell membrane, interfering with the action of PLA2 on cell membranes, and the anchored GAG protects the cell membrane from exogenous inflammatory mediators. We tested the ability of MAG to block chlamydia infection in vitro and in vivo. The MAG blocked infection of epithelial cells in vitro when added to the cells at the same time or before infection, but not if added after the bacteria had already invaded the host cells. One of the MAG led to the production of aberrant Chlamydia vacuoles, suggesting it may inhibit intracellular PLA2 associated with development of the vacuole. Although the MAG did not inhibit vaginal infection of mice, they decreased significantly the level of secretion of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma but had no effect on secretion of the neutrophil chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Acute and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates were not altered by MAG treatment. These findings suggest that lipid conjugation of GAG could be used as a novel approach for increasing cell-surface concentrations of GAG. The inconclusive in vivo results might be due to the physical properties of the tested MAG or an insufficient application protocol, and their improvement might provide the desired inhibitory effects.

  4. Warts (genital)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50% to 60% of sexually active women aged 18 to 49 years have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10% to 15% will have genital warts. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for external genital warts? What are the effects of interventions to prevent transmission of external genital warts? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 55 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bi- and trichloroacetic acid; condoms; cryotherapy; electrosurgery; imiquimod; intralesional, topical, or systemic interferons; laser surgery; podophyllin; podophyllotoxin; surgical excision; and vaccines. PMID:21418685

  5. IL-22 Levels are Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in the Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Moradeke, Makinde Hadijat; Reza, Zariffard; Paria, Mirmonsef; Richard, Novak; Olamide, Jarrett; Alan L, Landay; GregoryT, Spear

    2013-01-01

    Problem IL-22 has important functions at mucosal surfaces, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of epithelium. However IL-22 has not been investigated in the genital tract during TV infection. Methods of Study Women who visited an STD clinic and women from a cohort with frequent Trichomoniasis were studied. IL-22, IL-17 and antimicrobial peptides were measured in cervicovaginal lavage by ELISA. Results In women visiting the STD clinic, those without STDs (n=10) had a median IL-22 of 0 pg/ml while women with infections (n=30) had 27 pg/ml (p=0.04). In the cohort, women with Trichomoniasis (n=19) had significantly higher IL-22 than women with no infections (n=21, 74 versus 0 pg/ml, p=0.0001). IL-17 was also significantly increased in Trichomoniasis and there was a correlation between IL-22 and IL-17 (p=0.001). Conclusion IL-22 is increased in STDs generally and in Trichomoniasis specifically suggesting an antimicrobial response of the mucosa and an epithelial repair process induced by the STDs. PMID:23445169

  6. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  7. Prevalence, clinical features and quantification of genital non-viral infections.

    PubMed

    Carne, C A; Gibbs, J; Delaney, A; Sonnex, C; Verlander, N Q; Smielewska, A; Skeggs, E; Bentley, N; Jalal, H

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a study of the prevalence, clinical features and microscopy findings, by retrospective case-notes survey, of six non-viral organisms, among 1718 attendees at a genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic in England. An in-house assay for six non-viral infections was used and quantitation of ureaplasmas performed. The prevalences of the six organisms were: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), 7.1%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), 0.6%; Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), 1.0%; Trichomonas vaginalis, 0.2%; Ureaplasma urealyticum, 16.1%; Ureaplasma parvum, 35.6%. Among men (but not women) there were significantly raised odds ratios compared with that for U. parvum, for the symptom of discharge with CT, 7.30; MG, 6.43; NG 19.29; dysuria with CT, 5.89 and MG, 5.95; and the microscopy finding of >4 pus cells per high power field with: CT, 7.22; MG, 4.58 and NG 22.31. Evaluation of a possible link between quantitation of U. urealyticum and urethritis did not confirm research findings elsewhere.

  8. Amphipathic β2,2-Amino Acid Derivatives Suppress Infectivity and Disrupt the Intracellular Replication Cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Tiirola, Terttu M.; Strøm, Morten B.; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate in the current work that small cationic antimicrobial β2,2-amino acid derivatives (Mw < 500 Da) are highly potent against Chlamydia pneumoniae at clinical relevant concentrations (< 5 μM, i.e. < 3.4 μg/mL). C. pneumoniae is an atypical respiratory pathogen associated with frequent treatment failures and persistent infections. This gram-negative bacterium has a biphasic life cycle as infectious elementary bodies and proliferating reticulate bodies, and efficient treatment is challenging because of its long and obligate intracellular replication cycle within specialized inclusion vacuoles. Chlamydicidal effect of the β2,2-amino acid derivatives in infected human epithelial cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Images of infected host cells treated with our lead derivative A2 revealed affected chlamydial inclusion vacuoles 24 hours post infection. Only remnants of elementary and reticulate bodies were detected at later time points. Neither the EM studies nor resazurin-based cell viability assays showed toxic effects on uninfected host cells or cell organelles after A2 treatment. Besides the effects on early intracellular inclusion vacuoles, the ability of these β2,2-amino acid derivatives to suppress Chlamydia pneumoniae infectivity upon treatment of elementary bodies suggested also a direct interaction with bacterial membranes. Synthetic β2,2-amino acid derivatives that target C. pneumoniae represent promising lead molecules for development of antimicrobial agents against this hard-to-treat intracellular pathogen. PMID:27280777

  9. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    PubMed

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  10. A Co-infection Model System and the Use of Chimeric Proteins to Study Chlamydia Inclusion Proteins Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Derré, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners. Moreover, it is unclear whether each Inc protein has a distinct function or if a subset of Inc proteins interacts with one another to perform their function. Here, we used IncD as a model to investigate Inc/Inc interaction in the context of Inc protein expression in C. trachomatis. We developed a co-infection model system to display different tagged Inc proteins on the surface of the same inclusion. We also designed chimeric Inc proteins to delineate domains important for interaction. We showed that IncD can self-interact and that the full-length protein is required for dimerization and/or oligomerization. Altogether our approach can be generalized to any Inc protein and will help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which Chlamydia Inc proteins interact with themselves and/or host factors, eventually leading to a better understanding of C. trachomatis interaction with the mammalian host. PMID:28352612

  11. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  12. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds, 2005.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen A; Bradley, Kristy K; Stobierski, Mary G; Tengelsen, Leslie A

    2005-02-15

    Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection of humans that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems. It is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci. From 1988 through 2003, 935 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the CDC and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling avian chlamydiosis in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary.

  13. Prepubertal vaccination of mice against experimental infection of the genital tract with type 2 herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Williams, D R; Moles, A W; Sargent, A

    1980-01-01

    Pre-pubertal immunisation of mice with a formalin-inactivated type 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus vaccine conferred a level of life-long protection against primary type 2 genital infection. Protection levels were better with type 1 vaccine and strikingly influenced by vaccine dosage where a one-hundred-fold reduction from the standard vaccine dosage diminished protection to insignificant levels. Vaccine efficacy was not significantly affected by the method of virus inactivation, the number of immunisations or the age of the mouse at immunisation. Vaccination conferred better protection than previous type 2 genital infection; this may be a consequence of a higher antigenic dose, more acceptable antigenic presentation or to a perversion of the immune response in a latently infected animal to homologous virus challenge.

  14. Prevalence of the genital tract bacterial infections after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Reza; Danesh, Azar; Kabiri, Najmeh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    Due to frequent childbirth, heavy lifting and the structure of the lives of rural women in Shahrekord region, Iran, cystocele and rectocele are of the main medical problems of the women in this area and for its correction, vaginal reconstructive surgery is needed which causes infection. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria causing infection after vaginal reconstructive surgery and performing antibiogram to help these patients for faster recovery. Patients enrolled this study were 92 who had undergone previous vaginal reconstructive surgery and now had infection. After examination, the group of patients taking antibiotics (n = 26) were excluded and the remaining 66 completed the study questionnaire. A gynecologist performed sampling; related tests (aerobic and anaerobic culture using an anaerobic culture gas pack jar and type A which provides absolute anaerobic conditions) were performed; antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Disk Diffusion Method was carried out; and the results were recorded. All the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gardnerella vaginalis in 20 cases (31%), peptostreptococci and anaerobic cocci in 9 cases (13.6%), staphylococcus aureus in 8 cases (9.1%), bacteroides and fusobacterium in 7 cases (10.6%), streptococcus group B in 4 cases (6%), yeast cells in 11 cases (16.6%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in wet mount of 4 (6%) existed. Anaerobic bacteria showed 85% sensitivity to clindamycin, 82% to chloramphenicol, 85% sensitivity to ceftizoxime and 45% to penicillin. Facultative anaerobic bacteria showed a sensitivity rate of 90% to ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol and cephalothin. According to our findings, the rate of vaginal bacterial infection in women with vaginal reconstructive surgery has increased; from which, infections with anaerobic bacteria origins have increased dramatically. We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis prior to genital reconstructive surgeries.

  15. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of interferon gamma in response to natural Chlamydia infection in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Marina; Pavasovic, Ana; Prentis, Peter J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-09-25

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a key Th1 cytokine, with a principal role in the immune response against intracellular organisms such as Chlamydia. Along with being responsible for significant morbidity in human populations, Chlamydia is also responsible for wide spread infection and disease in many animal hosts, with reports that many Australian koala subpopulations are endemically infected. An understanding of the role played by IFNγ in koala chlamydial diseases is important for the establishment of better prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against chlamydial infection in this host. A limited number of IFNγ sequences have been published from marsupials and no immune reagents to measure expression have been developed. Through preliminary analysis of the koala transcriptome, we have identified the full coding sequence of the koala IFNγ gene. Transcripts were identified in spleen and lymph node tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that koala IFNγ is closely related to other marsupial IFNγ sequences and more distantly related to eutherian mammals. To begin to characterise the role of this important cytokine in the koala's response to chlamydial infection, we developed a quantitative real time PCR assay and applied it to a small cohort of koalas with and without active chlamydial disease, revealing significant differences in expression patterns between the groups. Description of the IFNγ sequence from the koala will not only assist in understanding this species' response to its most important pathogen but will also provide further insight into the evolution of the marsupial immune system.

  16. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient.

    PubMed

    Roger, Marie R; Anstead, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  17. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Marie R.

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success. PMID:28373917

  18. Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions tested by real-time PCR vs. direct immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de; Albuquerque, Lúcia Cristina Bezerra de; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2008-08-01

    This study compares the detection rates of Chlamydia trachomatis by two techniques, direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in patients with and without intra-epithelial cervical lesions (SIL) in Recife. We conducted a transversal study involving 35 women with SIL and 35 without SIL attended at Ambulatório Especializado da Mulher, Recife, Brazil. They were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis using two techniques, direct IMF or real time PCR. The rates of Chlamydia trachomatis detection were compared and the association with intra-epithelial cervical lesions was determined using the chi-square test at a 5% level of significance. Concordance between the tests was evaluated using kappa. The global prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 47.1% by direct IMF and 58.6% by real time PCR. A significant association was observed between Chlamydia diagnosis and presence of intra-epithelial cervical lesions, with about 80% positive results by direct IMF and 77.1% by real time PCR. However, the detected rate of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly greater in patients without intra-epithelial cervical lesions tested by real time PCR (40%) when compared to direct IMF (14.3%). The concordance between the tests was weak, with a kappa coefficient of 0.4. Both real time PCR and direct IMF detected elevated rates of Chlamydia infection in patients with intra-epithelial cervical lesions (80%) but the tests were discordant when patients without cervical lesions were tested, possibly because sensitivity of real time PCR is greater.

  19. Attachment and internalization of a Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum strain by McCoy cells: kinetics of infectivity and effect of lectins and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, G; Kihlström, E

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of attachment and ingestion of Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1 by monolayers of McCoy cells were studied by using a method that discriminated between attachment and uptake. When about 1% of the McCoy cells was infected, the proteinase K-resistant chlamydial fraction, regarded as ingested chlamydiae, reached a constant value after about 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Uptake of chlamydiae at 4 degrees C could not be demonstrated. The attached and ingested chlamydial fractions were constant over an eightfold increase in chlamydial inoculum. Chitobiose and chitotriose, the di- and trisaccharides of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, reduced the association of C. trachomatis serotype L1 with McCoy cells. Higher concentrations of chitobiose also selectively inhibited ingestion of chlamydiae. A corresponding effect of chitobiose was also observed on the number of chlamydial inclusions. Wheat germ agglutinin, specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, reduced the association of chlamydiae when incubated at 4 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. A small inhibiting effect of concanavalin A on association of chlamydiae, but no effect of the corresponding carbohydrates, indicates a nonspecific effect on chlamydial attachment of this lectin. These results suggest that beta 1 leads to 4-linked oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are important in the specificity of attachment of C. trachomatis to McCoy cells. PMID:6642670

  20. [Intensity of the epizootic process in sheep infected with S. abortus ovis and Chlamydia psittaci var. ovis].

    PubMed

    Vodas, K; Elitsina, P

    1986-01-01

    An attempt was made to analyze comparatively the intensity of the epizootic process in young female sheep, ewes (second pregnancy, with no records of abortions in their first pregnancy) and their lambs either with an infection of Salmonella abortus ovis only or with a mixed infection of S. abortus ovis and Chlamydia psittaci var. ovis. This was reached through following up and studying the parameters morbidity, mortality, lethality, index of infectedness, index of deadlines, and fertility. It was found that the intensity of the apparent epizootic process was highest with young females affected with a mixed infection, and it was lowest with ewes affected with a pure infection (Salmonella abortion). The intensity of the inapparent epizootic process was best manifested in the young females affected with a pure Salmonella abortion. With these animals both the index of infectedness and the index of deadlines had highest values.

  1. The value of testing multiple anatomic sites for gonorrhoea and chlamydia in sexually transmitted infection centres in the Netherlands, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Koedijk, F D H; van Bergen, J E A M; Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M; van Leeuwen, A P; Hoebe, C J P A; van der Sande, M A B

    2012-09-01

    National surveillance data from 2006 to 2010 of the Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) centres were used to analyse current practices on testing extragenital sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and women. In MSM, 76.0% and 88.9% were tested at least at one extragenital site (pharyngeal and/or anorectal) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively; for women this was 20.5% and 30.2%. Testing more than one anatomic site differed by STI centre, ranging from 2% to 100%. In MSM tested at multiple sites, 63.0% and 66.5% of chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnoses, respectively, would have been missed if screened at the urogenital site only, mainly anorectal infections. For women tested at multiple sites, the proportions of missed chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnoses would have been 12.9% and 30.0%, respectively. Testing extragenital sites appears warranted, due to the numerous infections that would have been missed. Adding anorectal screening to urogenital screening for all MSM visiting an STI centre should be recommended. Since actual testing practices differ by centre, there is a need for clearer guidelines. Routine gonorrhoea and chlamydia screening at multiple sites in STI centres should be investigated further as this might be a more effective approach to reduce transmission than current practice.

  2. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    Genital warts Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted ... human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts, at some point during their lives. Women are ...

  3. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . It can cause sores in the genital ... TOPIC Talking to Your Partner About Condoms About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Talking to Your Partner About STDs 5 ...

  4. Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

    2015-08-01

    Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed.

  5. A coding polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase 9 reduces risk of scarring sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Natividad, Angels; Cooke, Graham; Holland, Martin J; Burton, Matthew J; Joof, Hassan M; Rockett, Kirk; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Mabey, David CW; Bailey, Robin L

    2006-01-01

    Background Trachoma, an infectious disease of the conjunctiva caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is an important global cause of blindness. A dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis during the processes of tissue repair following infection and inflammation are thought to play a key role in the development of fibrotic sequelae of infection, which ultimately leads to blindness. Expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a major effector of ECM turnover, is up-regulated in the inflamed conjunctiva of trachoma subjects. Genetic variation within the MMP9 gene affects in vitro MMP9 expression levels, enzymatic activity and susceptibility to various inflammatory and fibrotic conditions. Methods We genotyped 651 case-control pairs from trachoma endemic villages in The Gambia for coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MMP9 gene using the high-throughput Sequenom® system. Single marker and haplotype conditional logistic regression (CLR) analysis for disease association was performed. Results The Q279R mutation located in exon 6 of MMP9 was found to be associated with lower risk for severe disease sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This mutation, which leads to a nonsynonymous amino-acid change within the active site of the enzyme may reduce MMP-9-induced degradation of the structural components of the ECM during inflammatory episodes in trachoma and its associated fibrosis. Conclusion This work supports the hypothesis that MMP-9 has a role in the pathogenesis of blinding trachoma. PMID:16643654

  6. Will droplet digital PCR become the test of choice for detecting and quantifying ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection? Maybe not.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julius

    2013-11-01

    Evaluation of: Roberts CH, Last A, Molina-Gonzalez S et al. Development and evaluation of a next-generation digital PCR diagnostic assay for ocular chlamydia trachomatis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2195-2203 (2013). Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in developing countries. Currently, there is no program to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health problem. We need better diagnostic tests for research and to assess progress in control programs. Roberts et al. adapted droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids, to detect and quantify Chlamydia trachomatis infections. They compared the results with ddPCR on conjunctival swab specimens collected in trachoma-endemic area to results using Roche's Amplicor® C. trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) PCR and found that ddPCR sensitivity was 73.3%. The authors concluded that 'ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections'. This reviewer disagrees, feeling that if the stated sensitivity is accurate, it is too low, and suggests there may be good reasons to adapt commercially available tests for this purpose.

  7. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-11

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa.

  8. Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be

  9. Test Positivity for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis Infection Among a Cohort of Individuals Released from Jail in Marion County, Indiana

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Barai, Nikita; Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals entering jails have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) but there are few data on STI in the post-incarceration period. This study aimed to describe rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis infection among individuals released from Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana jails. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals incarcerated in Marion County, Indiana jails from 2003–2008 (N=118,670). We linked county jail and public health data to identify individuals with positive STI test results in the one-year following release from jail. Rates per 100,000 individuals and cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for each STI, stratified by demographic, STI and jail characteristics. Results We found significantly higher rates of STI in this cohort than in the general population, with rates in the one-year following release being 2 to 7 times higher for chlamydia, 5 to 24 times higher for gonorrhea, and 19 to 32 times higher for syphilis compared to rates in the general population. Characteristics most associated with increased risk of a positive STI test among this cohort were younger age for chlamydia and gonorrhea, older age for syphilis, black race for men, being jailed for prostitution for women, history of STI, and history of prior incarceration. Conclusions This study found high rates of STIs among a cohort of individuals recently released from jail and identified a number of risk factors. Further study is needed to improve targeted STI testing and treatment among this high-risk population. PMID:25504298

  10. Effect of Genital Herpes on Cervicovaginal HIV Shedding in Women Co-Infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A.; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Design Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Results Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41–0.60, p<0.001) and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16–0.32, p<0.001) but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = −0.10, 95%CI:−0.28–0.08, p = 0.27). Conclusions HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility. PMID:23516595

  11. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in asthmatic and non-asthmatic military conscripts during a non-epidemic period.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, R; Bloigu, A; Paldanius, M; Peitso, A; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S; Harju, T; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

    2008-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory tract infections were studied in 512 male military conscripts (123 asthmatic and 389 non-asthmatic) taking part in 180-day service between July 2004 and July 2005 in Kajaani, Finland. Respiratory tract infections requiring a medical consultation were analysed prospectively. At baseline, at end of service, and during each episode of respiratory infection, blood samples were obtained for measurement of C. pneumoniae antibodies. Data concerning the clinical features of each infection episode were collected. Serological evidence of acute C. pneumoniae infection was found in 34 of the 512 conscripts with antibody data available, including 9.8% of the asthmatic subjects and 5.7% of the non-asthmatic subjects (p 0.111). A serological diagnosis could be made for 25 clinical episodes in 24 conscripts. The spectrum of respiratory tract infections included 13 episodes of mild upper respiratory tract infection and seven episodes of sinusitis, with five episodes involving asthma exacerbation. Two of three pneumonias were primary infections. Primary infections were diagnosed in five subjects, and re-infection/reactivation in 19 subjects, with the latter comprising 12 non-asthmatic subjects and seven asthmatic subjects (p 0.180). Prolonged infections were present in six asthmatic subjects and one non-asthmatic subject (p 0.001). A wide variety of respiratory tract infections, ranging from common cold to pneumonia, were associated with serologically confirmed C. pneumoniae infections. Infections were often mild, with common cold and sinusitis being the most common manifestations. Acute, rapidly resolved C. pneumoniae infections were equally common among asthmatic subjects and non-asthmatic subjects, whereas prolonged infections were more common among subjects with asthma.

  12. Laboratory surveillance of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Denmark 1988-2007.

    PubMed

    Lind, Inga; Bollerup, Anne Cathrine; Farholt, Stense; Hoffmann, Steen

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 laboratory reporting of urogenital chlamydia was integrated in the countrywide notification system for infectious diseases. Previously (1988-1993), laboratory confirmed cases had been reported on a voluntary basis. The applied laboratory technologies changed significantly: in 1988, 48% of cases were diagnosed by culture; in 1994, 88% by enzyme immunoassays; and since 2004 more than 99% by nucleic acid amplification tests. The proportions of chlamydia-positive men diagnosed by testing urine were <1% in 1994, 10% in 2001 and 75% in 2007. From 1994 to 2002 the annual incidence rates of chlamydia per 100,000 population among women were around 350-400 and then increased to 586 in 2007. Among men the incidence rate rose from 125 in 1994 to 358 in 2007. In conclusion, the annual incidence rates of urogenital chlamydia remained high and possibly increasing during a 14-y period (1994-2007), with a high testing activity, improving technologies and countrywide information campaigns. The observed increase is likely to be associated with the introduction of more sensitive diagnostic methods and with increasing testing of men. A possible change in target groups from low- to high-prevalence could not be assessed due to lack of information about persons being tested.

  13. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  15. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis alters the tyrosine phosphorylation and/or localization of several host cell proteins including cortactin.

    PubMed Central

    Fawaz, F S; van Ooij, C; Homola, E; Mutka, S C; Engel, J N

    1997-01-01

    Infection of epithelial cells by two biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of several host proteins. The most prominent change in host protein tyrosine phosphorylation involves a complex of proteins with molecular masses of 75 to 85 kDa (pp75/85) and 100 kDa (pp100). The C. trachomatis-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of pp75/85 and pp100 is observed in several cell lines, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages. Subcellular fractionation and detergent solubility properties of pp75/85 are consistent with its association with the cytoskeleton. Phosphoamino acid analysis demonstrates that the pp75/85 complex is phosphorylated on both tyrosine and serine residues. Immunofluorescence studies of chlamydia-infected cells by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin and antibodies to phosphotyrosine and cortactin demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, as well as cortactin, are localized to the chlamydial vacuole and that this process is facilitated by actin. PMID:9393830

  16. Chlamydia in women: a case for more action?

    PubMed

    1986-04-19

    The 1985 Communicable Disease Surveillance Center figures for sexually transmitted diseases document over 14,000 confirmed cases of genital chlamydial infection in women. Yet, this figure seriously underestimates the size of the problem as many chlamydial infections are silent. The mainstay of diagnosis until recently has been isolation of C. trachomatis in cell culture, which is time consuming, technically demanding, expensive, and available in only a few centers. A firm diagnosis of chlamydial infection cannot be based on serology alone. Antibodies can be detected in 78-100% of womn with C. trachomatis in the cervix, but in those who are culture negative 31-87% also will have antibodies. More support is given to the diagnosis by demonstration of a rising titre of IgG antibody or by detection of IgM, but because of the late presentation of most women with chlamydia this is seldom possible. Newer tests include direct immunofluorescence statining of genital secretions which is rapid and simple. Results of this method compare favorably with those of cell culture, but screening large numbers of smears is expensive and tedious. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays also give good results. C trachomatis is a well known cause of cervicitis and salpingitis and is consequently a major factor in infertility. The frequency of chlamydial infection is influenced by sexual activity and promiscuity, but the effect of contraceptive choice is more difficult to determine. An IUD can provide a nidus for many infections, but the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) is more controversial. Instrumentation of the endocervical canal provides a route for introduction of infection, which is therefore a frequent and important complication of induced abortion. Westergaard et al. in a study of women having 1st trimester abortions found that 10% had symptomless cervical chlamydia; postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease developed in 28% of these patients by comparison with 10% in culture

  17. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  18. Sensing the enemy, containing the threat: cell-autonomous immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Coers, Jörn

    2016-07-29

    The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most common sexually transmitted infection in North America and Europe. Medical complications resulting from genital C. trachomatis infections arise predominantly in women where the initial infections often remain asymptomatic and thus unrecognized. Untreated asymptomatic infections in women can ascend into the upper genital tract and establish persistence, ultimately resulting in extensive scarring of the reproductive organs, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancies. Previously resolved C. trachomatis infections fail to provide protective immune memory, and no effective vaccine against C. trachomatis is currently available. Critical determinants of the pathogenesis and immunogenicity of genital C. trachomatis infections are cell-autonomous immune responses. Cell-autonomous immunity describes the ability of an individual host cell to launch intrinsic immune circuits that execute the detection, containment and elimination of cell-invading pathogens. As an obligate intracellular pathogen C. trachomatis is constantly under attack by cell-intrinsic host defenses. Accordingly, C. trachomatis evolved to subvert and co-opt cell-autonomous immune pathways. This review will provide a critical summary of our current understanding of cell-autonomous immunity to C. trachomatis and its role in shaping host resistance, inflammation and adaptive immunity to genital C. trachomatis infections.

  19. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  20. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.

  1. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  2. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-06-21

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (<40 years), never having been pregnant, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy.

  3. Anti-chlamydial immunity in ewes conferred by vaccination with a combination of three live chlamydia, brucella and salmonella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Souriau, A; Bosseray, N; Rodolakis, A; Lantier, F; Plommet, M

    1988-07-02

    Live attenuated vaccines against Chlamydia psittaci var ovis, Brucella melitensis and Salmonella abortus ovis have previously been shown to be compatible in mice by subcutaneous administration. Immunity against challenge with virulent chlamydia was, however, slightly decreased in associations including the B melitensis Rev 1 vaccine. The chlamydia strain 1B vaccine was administered to four- to five-month-old female lambs, either alone or in combination with the B melitensis Rev1 and the S abortus ovis Rv6 vaccines. Clinical, serological and bacteriological observations demonstrated the compatibility of the three vaccines. Control, singly and triply vaccinated ewes were challenged with a virulent strain of chlamydia during their second pregnancy, 15 months after vaccination. Five of the 12 control ewes lambed normally and 10 of them were infected, as shown by the excretion of the challenge chlamydia in genital secretions. Sixteen of the 17 ewes in the triple vaccine group lambed normally and none was infected. All 12 in the single vaccine group lambed normally and three of the 12 were infected. In spite of this unusually poor protection by the single vaccine, antichlamydial immunity was clearly not decreased by the association with the two other vaccines.

  4. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases and Chlamydia trachomatis in women consulting for contraception.

    PubMed

    Avonts, D; Sercu, M; Heyerick, P; Vandermeeren, I; Piot, P

    1989-10-01

    To study the frequency of genital infections in women consulting their family doctor for contraception, 248 women (median age 23 years) were examined for a range of genital microorganisms. The prevalence of clue cells, Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were 21.0%, 12.9% and 2.0%, respectively. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated in only one case, whereas Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 6.3% of women. A specific clinical picture for an infection with C. trachomatis in women was not seen. Given the prevalence of over 5% for C. trachomatis and the absence of typical signs and symptoms in infected women, screening for this organism is recommended in women requesting an intrauterine contraceptive device, to prevent complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and their sequelae.

  6. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Serovars in Men and Women with a Symptomatic or Asymptomatic Infection: an Association with Clinical Manifestations?

    PubMed Central

    Morré, S. A.; Rozendaal, L.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Boeke, A. J. P.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.; Schirm, J.; de Blok, S.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Doornum, G. J. J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; van den Brule, A. J. C.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association between C. trachomatis serovars and specific clinical symptoms was investigated. C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens from 219 asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from population-based screening programs in Amsterdam. Two hundred twenty-one C. trachomatis-positive cervical and urethral swabs from symptomatically and asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from several hospital-based departments. Serovars were determined using PCR-based genotyping, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nested-PCR-amplified omp1 gene. The most prevalent C. trachomatis serovars, D, E, and F, showed no association with either a symptomatic or asymptomatic course of infection. The most prominent differences found were (i) the association of serovar Ga with symptoms in men (P = 0.0027), specifically, dysuria (P < 0.0001), and (ii) detection of serovar Ia more often in asymptomatically infected people (men and women) (P = 0.035). Furthermore, in women, serovar K was associated with vaginal discharge (P = 0.002) and serovar variants were found only in women (P = 0.045). PMID:10834991

  7. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. PMID:27681924

  8. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis in a male teenager: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sulis, Giorgia; Urbinati, Lucia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Franco; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Matteelli, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    An 18 year old man was seen at a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) clinic for counselling and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection which had been diagnosed during a screening survey of high school students. For two months he had reported conjunctival hyperaemia, increased tearing, itching, and mucopurulent secretions, predominantly on the left eye. His ophthalmologist had made a diagnosis of follicular conjunctivitis and lower superficial punctate keratitis (left eye more than right eye), irresponsive to topical treatment. Chlamydial conjunctivitis was suspected and confirmed by a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) performed on conjunctival scraping. The patient was treated with azithromycin 1 g single dose orally and tetracycline/betamethasone eye ointment for one month. A complete resolution of symptoms was observed three months after aetiological treatment. This case highlights the need to include C. trachomatis infection in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic follicular conjunctivitis among sexually active young individuals.

  10. Measuring Trachomatous Inflammation-Intense (TI) When Prevalence Is Low Provides Data on Infection With Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Andrea I.; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mkocha, Harran; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Quinn, Thomas; West, Sheila K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Clinical trachoma is the current measure of effectiveness of antibiotic and environmental improvements in trachoma endemic communities. Impact assessments measure only trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) is not used for decisions on stopping mass drug administration (MDA) or achieving intervention goals. We tested the supposition that TI was not associated with Chlamydia trachomatis when disease prevalence is low. Methods In 35 communities undergoing MDA as part of a larger project, 110 children ages 1 to 9 years were randomly selected in each community for surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Both eyelids were graded for TF and TI, and a swab for detection of C. trachomatis infection was taken. Results Overall TF prevalence was 5% at baseline. Cases of TI alone constituted 15% of trachoma; 37% of TI cases had infection. At 6 and 12 months, the proportion of trachoma cases that had TI only was 13% and 20%; infection rates were similar to the rates in cases with TF alone. Conclusions Despite low prevalence of trachoma, infection rates for TF alone and TI alone were similar at each time point. The exclusion of cases of TI alone when reporting trachoma prevalence discards additional information on infection. Trachomatous inflammation-intense could be considered as part of impact surveys.

  11. The Easiest Children to Reach Are Most Likely to Be Infected with Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Trachoma Endemic Areas of Niger

    PubMed Central

    Amza, Abdou; Kadri, Boubacar; Nassirou, Baido; Yu, Sun N.; Stoller, Nicole E.; Bhosai, Satasuk J.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; McCulloch, Charles E.; West, Sheila K.; Bailey, Robin L.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Control programs for trachoma use mass antibiotic distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in an effort to eliminate this disease worldwide. To determine whether children infected with ocular Chlamydia are more likely to present later for examination than those who are uninfected, we compare the order of presentation for examination of children 0–5 years, and the presence of ocular Chlamydia by PCR in 4 villages in Niger where trachoma is endemic. Methods We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial where 48 randomly selected villages in Niger are divided into 4 study arms of different mass treatment strategies. In a substudy of the main trial, we randomly selected 1 village from each of the 4 study arms (4 total villages) and we evaluated the odds of ocular Chlamydia versus the rank order of presentation for examination and laboratory assessment before treatment was offered. Findings We found the odds of harboring ocular Chlamydia dropped by more than 70% from the first child examined to the last child examined (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.13–0.59, P = 0.001) in the 4 randomly selected villages. We found the odds of active trachoma dropped by 80% from the first child examined to the last child examined (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.10–0.4, P<0.0001) in the 48 villages in the main trial. Interpretation This study demonstrates that even if the WHO recommended 80% treatment coverage is not reached in certain settings, children 0–5 years with the greatest probability of ocular Chlamydia have higher odds of receiving attention because they are the first to present. These results suggest there may be diminishing returns when using scarce resources to track down the last few children in a mass treatment program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00792922 PMID:23326612

  12. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Epithelial Cells Infected with Plasmid-Bearing and Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, John H.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Sturdevant, Gail L.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Wilder, Hannah; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular epitheliotropic bacterial pathogen of humans. Infection of the eye can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The pathophysiology of blinding trachoma is driven by multiple episodes of reinfection of conjunctival epithelial cells, producing an intense chronic inflammatory response resulting in submucosal tissue remodeling and scarring. Recent reports have shown that infection with trachoma organisms lacking the cryptic chlamydial plasmid is highly attenuated in macaque eyes, a relevant experimental model of human trachoma infection. To better understand the molecular basis of plasmid-mediated infection attenuation and the potential modulation of host immunity, we conducted transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis plasmid-bearing (A2497) and plasmid-deficient (A2497P−) organisms. Infection of human epithelial cells with either strain increased the expression of host genes coding for proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1]), chemoattraction (CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10), immune suppression (PD-L1, NFKB1B, TNFAIP3, CGB), apoptosis (CASP9, FAS, IL-24), and cell growth and fibrosis (EGR1 and IL-20) proteins. Statistically significant increases in the levels of expression of many of these genes were found in A2497-infected cells compared to the levels of expression in A2497P−-infected cells. Our findings suggest that the chlamydial plasmid plays a focal role in the host cell inflammatory response to infection and immune avoidance. These results provide new insights into the role of the chlamydial plasmid as a chlamydial virulence factor and its contributions to trachoma pathogenesis. PMID:25404022

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induced Allergic Airway Sensitization Is Controlled by Regulatory T-Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crother, Timothy R.; Schröder, Nicolas W. J.; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2−/−, and TLR4−/− mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2−/− mice, but not in TLR4−/− mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2−/− mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4−/− mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  14. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the kidneys and genital tracts of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Cerri, D; Nuvoloni, R; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Mani, P; Andreani, E; Farina, R

    1996-04-01

    A bacteriological study was carried out to identify possible renal and/or genital carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. L. hardjo was found at slaughter in the kidneys of three seropositive ewes, but not in uterus or salpinges of these animals.

  15. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  16. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  18. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-11

    2008) Guinea pig model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis latent/dormant infection . Microbes and Infection 10: 1469–1476. 54. Smith DW, Balasubramanian V...RESEARCH ARTICLE Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection ...Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Center of Excellence in Infection Genomics, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio

  19. Sublingual immunization with nonreplicating antigens induces antibody-forming cells and cytotoxic T cells in the female genital tract mucosa and protects against genital papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Cuburu, Nicolas; Kweon, Mi-Na; Hervouet, Catherine; Cha, Hye-Ran; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Holmgren, Jan; Stadler, Konrad; Schiller, John T; Anjuère, Fabienne; Czerkinsky, Cecil

    2009-12-15

    We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Sublingual administration of OVA and CT induced Ag-specific IgA and IgG Abs in blood and in cervicovaginal secretions. These responses were associated with large numbers of IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) in the genital mucosa. Genital ASC responses were similar in magnitude and isotype distribution after s.l., intranasal, or vaginal immunization and were superior to those seen after intragastric immunization. Genital, but not blood or spleen, IgA ASC responses were inhibited by treatment with anti-CCL28 Abs, suggesting that the chemokine CCL28 plays a major role in the migration of IgA ASC progenitors to the reproductive tract mucosa. Furthermore, s.l. immunization with OVA induced OVA-specific effector CD8(+) cytolytic T cells in the genital mucosa, and these responses required coadministration of the CT adjuvant. Furthermore, s.l. administration of human papillomavirus virus-like particles with or without the CT adjuvant conferred protection against genital challenge with human papillomavirus pseudovirions. Taken together, these findings underscore the potential of s.l. immunization as an efficient vaccination strategy for inducing genital immune responses and should impact on the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases.

  20. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1β or TNF-α. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar.

  1. Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection and predictive criteria among low-risk women in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ilknur; Cihanyurdu, Meral; Kaklikkaya, Nese; Topbas, Murat; Aydin, Faruk; Erturk, Murat

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young adult low-risk women attending either of two inner-city family planning clinics in Trabzon, the most densely populated city in Turkey's Black Sea region. The study group comprised 150 sexually active women attending either of two family planning clinics. Two endocervical swabs were collected from each woman and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis by tissue culture and a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the associations of clinical factors for predicting C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 19 of the samples (12.7%) by cell culture and in 15 (9.9%) by ELISA. None of the demographic characteristics could be associated with the state of infection, but the women preferring the withdrawal method for contraception accounted for a significantly higher percentage of the C. trachomatis-positive cases than women who used other contraceptive methods. The most frequent signs of cervical infection were vaginal discharge (RR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.60 and 14.79, P = 0.005) and cervical erosion (RR = 3.26, 95% CI 0.97 and 10.90, P = 0.056).

  2. Mast cells play an important role in Chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D.; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V.; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during Cpn infection. We infected C57BL/6 (WT) and mast cell-deficient mice, Kitw-sh/w-sh (Wsh), with Cpn. Wsh mice showed improved survival than WT, with fewer cells in Wsh BALF despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BAL cells and bacterial burden similar to Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BAL cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation while Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of MMP-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during Cpn infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for Cpn. PMID:25754739

  3. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in community-acquired pneumonia and exacerbations of COPD or asthma: therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Meloni, F; Paschetto, E; Mangiarotti, P; Crepaldi, M; Morosini, M; Bulgheroni, A; Fietta, A

    2004-02-01

    Rates of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were determined in 115 adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), purulent exacerbations of COPD and acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, by means of serology and molecular methods. Results were compared with those obtained in a matched control group. Common respiratory pathogens were isolated by cultures in 22.5% and 22.2% of CAP and exacerbated COPD patients, respectively. Cultures from exacerbated asthma patients were always negative. Serological and molecular evidence of current C. pneumoniae infection was obtained in 10.0%, 8.9% and 3.3% of CAP, COPD and asthma cases. The corresponding rates of acute M. pneumoniae infection were 17.5%, 6.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Finally, no difference was found between typical and atypical pathogen rates. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae infections in guiding the choice of empirical antibacterial treatment for CAP and purulent exacerbations of COPD.

  4. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R.; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe−/− mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe−/− mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid Dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-γ showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp. could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  5. Profiling antibody responses to infections by Chlamydia abortus enables identification of potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the "macrophage infectivity potentiator", MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the "translocated actin recruitment protein", TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the "chlamydial protease-like activity factor", CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the "Polymorphic membrane protein D", PmpD), and the "hypothetical proteins" CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus.

  6. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  7. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen as delivery vector can enhance Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanli; Feng, Yan; Rao, Pinhuan; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Li, Wenshu; Zhu, Guanbao; Zhang, Lifang

    2014-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. trachomatis is considered to be an ideal candidate for prophylactic vaccine. We designed a MOMP multi-epitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides and developed hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as antigen delivery vehicle. In order to study the immunogenicity and efficacy of the candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection, we engineered a recombinant plasmid expressing HBsAg and MOMP multi-epitope genes. Results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay revealed successful expression of the recombinant HBsAg/MOMP multi-epitope gene at both the transcription and translation levels. Intramuscular administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Chlamydia and HBsAg but also cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against Chlamydia. In addition, mice inoculated with the rHBsAg were highly resistant to C. trachomatis genital infection. The rHBsAg DNA with MOMP multi-epitope appended at the C terminus of the HBsAg stimulated a stronger immune response and protective response than that appended at the N terminus. Together, our results suggested that use of a recombinant HBsAg encoding the MOMP multi-epitope could be a powerful approach to developing a safe and immunogenic C. trachomatis vaccine.

  8. Neonatal case of herpes simplex virus encephalitis after delivery from a woman whose genital herpes simplex virus infection had been treated with acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Sakae; Takagi, Atsushi; Kuwabara, Kentaro; Migita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    A case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis in a neonate after delivery from a woman whose genital HSV infection had been treated with acyclovir is reported. The main approach to prevent genital HSV infection in the neonate is interruption of transmission at the time of delivery. Guidelines for prophylactic therapy with acyclovir have been established, but the risk of neonatal infection remains. A fever began to develop in a male neonate delivered vaginally from a 35-year-old woman. Treatment with intravenous acyclovir was started on the basis of a diagnosis of HSV encephalitis, because polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV in the cerebrospinal fluid. The mother had had a first genital HSV infection during the second trimester, but treatment with injected acyclovir had caused the blisters and erosion to resolve by the time of delivery. Important steps for preventing neonatal HSV infection are the appropriate treatment of mothers with a history of genital HSV infection, the assessment of delivery methods, and the appropriate treatment of neonates.

  9. Pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Shann, F; Walters, S; Pifer, L L; Graham, D M; Jack, I; Uren, E; Birch, D; Stallman, N D

    1986-01-01

    Paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea. All but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. Only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the Harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the Harvard median). Pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. Twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Five children were probably infected with Chlamydia trachomatis at the time of the study, and there was less convincing serological evidence of current infection in a further 11 children. Five children showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although only one child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to cytomegalovirus, 86 children had this antibody. No child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Ureaplasma urealyticum or Legionella pneumophila. P carinii, respiratory syncytial virus, C trachomatis, M pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus may be important causes of pneumonia in children in developing countries. PMID:3002538

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of selective screening criteria for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending Colorado family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, J T; Henneberry, J F; Rickard, R S; Beebe, J L

    1992-01-01

    Women attending family planning clinics in Colorado during 1988 were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Chlamydiazyme, Abbott Laboratories; Abbott Park, IL). Cervical specimens from 11,793 women attending 22 family planning clinics were analyzed. Patient history and physical exams were used to assess risk factors for infection. A total of 913 individuals (7.7%) had positive culture results for C. trachomatis. Multivariate analysis showed that infection was significantly related to endocervical bleeding, cervical mucopurulent discharge, a new sexual partner in the last 3 months or multiple previous sexual partners (greater than 3) in the last year, pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, and age. Increased odd ratios were observed for the combination of endocervical bleeding and mucopurulent discharge and sexual history that included partners over the previous year as well as the most recent 3 months. A combination of these criteria was used to selectively screen women attending Colorado family planning clinics on an ongoing basis. A cost-benefit analysis employing a model reported previously showed a significant financial benefit associated with universal screening over either selective screening or no screening for C. trachomatis in this population.

  11. Cell-to-cell contact of human monocytes with infected arterial smooth-muscle cells enhances growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Puolakkainen, Mirja; Campbell, Lee Ann; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Richards, Theresa; Patton, Dorothy L; Kuo, Cho-Chou

    2003-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect arterial cells. It has been shown that coculture of human monocytes (U937) and endothelial cells promotes infection of C. pneumoniae in endothelial cells and that the enhancement was mediated by a soluble factor (insulin-like growth factor 2) secreted by monocytes. In this study, it is shown that coculture of monocytes with C. pneumoniae enhances infection of C. pneumoniae in arterial smooth-muscle cells 5.3-fold at a monocyte-to-smooth-muscle cell ratio of 5. However, unlike endothelial cells, no enhancement was observed if monocytes were placed in cell culture inserts or if conditioned medium from monocyte cultures was used, which suggests that cell-to-cell contact is critical. The addition of mannose 6-phosphate or octyl glucoside, a nonionic detergent containing a sugar group, to cocultures inhibited the enhancement. These findings suggest that the monocyte-smooth-muscle cell interaction may be mediated by mannose 6-phosphate receptors present on monocytes.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Kakar, S; Bhalla, P; Maria, A; Rana, M; Chawla, R; Mathur, N B

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31%) neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  13. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role for effective innate immune responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Ma, Jun; Jupelli, Madhulika; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses.

  14. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Play a Role for Effective Innate Immune Responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crother, Timothy R.; Ma, Jun; Jupelli, Madhulika; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses. PMID:23119083

  15. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Intravaginal Swab for PCR Detection of Genitourinary Tract Infections Including Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Trichomonas and Human Papillomavirus in Active Duty Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    and 65 women (8%) reported tubal ligation /hysterectomy. Of the 73 women with chiamydia diagnosed by EIA, 44 were treated at the day of their initial...discharge to detect increased numbers of polymorphonuclear cells is helpful to confirm a " syndromic diagnosis" that may be due to chlamydia, but...methods. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonvi- branes, premature labor, low birth weight, and post -abortion ral sexually transmitted

  16. Increasing relative prevalence of HSV-2 infection among men with genital ulcers from a mining community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lai, W; Chen, C; Morse, S; Htun, Y.; Fehler, H; Liu, H; Ballard, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the aetiology of genital ulcer disease (GUD) and its association with HIV infection in the mining community of Carletonville, South Africa, from two cross sectional surveys of consecutive men presenting with genital lesions during October 1993 to January 1994 and July to November 1998. Methods: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay combined with amplicon detection was used to identify DNA specific sequences of Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Haemophilus ducreyi. A real time PCR assay was used to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results: M-PCR detected T pallidum, HSV, and H ducreyi in 10.3%, 17.2%, and 69.4% of 232 GUD patients during 1993–4 and in 12.4%, 36.0%, and 50.5% of 186 GUD patients in 1998. The proportion of patients with more than one agent increased significantly from 7.3% (17/232) in 1993–4 to 16.7% (31/186) in 1998 (p <0.01). HSV-2 was detected in a higher proportion of ulcer specimens from HIV infected patients than in specimens from HIV uninfected patients during both time periods (1993–4: 26.2% v 6.7%, p <0.001; 1998: 42.1% v 29.6%, p >0.09). Conclusions: Based on two cross sectional surveys, 4 years apart, chancroid remained the leading cause of GUD in men who presented at the STD clinic with genital ulcers in the mining community of Carletonville, South Africa. The relative prevalence of primary syphilis has remained low. However, HSV-2 has emerged as a more significant cause of GUD and the proportion of GUD patients infected with more than one agent also increased significantly. HSV-2 DNA was detected in a significantly higher proportion of ulcer specimens from HIV positive patients than from HIV negative patients. No association was found between HIV infection status and the relative prevalence of chancroid or syphilis. PMID:12794202

  17. Racial origin, sexual lifestyle, and genital infection among women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic in London (1992)

    PubMed Central

    Evans, B. A.; Kell, P. D.; Bond, R. A.; MacRae, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among women of different racial origins and lifestyles. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. SETTING: A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. SUBJECTS: 1084 consecutive women newly attending in 1992. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variables relating to sociodemographic status, sexual lifestyle, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and other genital infections stratified by racial origin. RESULTS: There were 948 evaluable women, of whom 932 (98.3%) were heterosexual and 16 (1.7%) were lesbian. Previous heterosexual intercourse was reported by 69% of lesbian women and their most frequent diagnosis was bacterial vaginosis (38%). The majority of heterosexual women were white (78%) and 16% were black. The black women were more likely to be teenagers (18% cf 8%; p = 0.0004) or students (28% cf 15%; p = 0.0008), and to have had an earlier coitarche (48% cf 38% before aged 17; p < 0.004). They also had a higher proportion of pregnancies (58% cf 38%; p < 0.00001) and births (38% cf 20%; p < 0.00001). The white women showed significantly more sexual partners during the preceding year (p = 0.004) and in total (p < 0.00001) and more reported non-regular partners (48% cf 35%; p = 0.004) with whom they were more likely to use condoms (p = 0.009). However, the black women were more likely to have gonorrhoea (7% cf 2% p < 0.0003), chlamydial infection (12% cf 5% p < 0.002), trichomoniasis (10% cf 2% p < 0.00001), or to sexual contacts of men with non-gonococcal urethritis (19% cf 12% p < 0.02). They were less likely to have genital warts (3% cf 12% p = 0.002). Logistic regression showed that all these variables were independently associated with the black women. The Asian women (2%), none of whom had a sexually transmitted disease, had commenced

  18. Association of caveolin with Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions at early and late stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Wolfrom, S A; Stuart, E S

    2001-06-10

    The mechanism by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis enters eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. There are conflicting reports of entry occurring by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. We report here that C. trachomatis serovar K enters HEp-2 and HeLa 229 epithelial cells and J-774A.1 mouse macrophage/monocyte cells via caveolin-containing sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains in the host cell plasma membranes. First, filipin and nystatin, drugs that specifically disrupt raft function by cholesterol chelation, each impaired entry of C. trachomatis serovar K. In control experiments, filipin did not impair entry of the same organism by an antibody-mediated opsonic process, nor did it impair entry of BSA-coated microspheres. Second, the chlamydia-containing endocytic vesicles specifically reacted with antisera against the caveolae marker protein caveolin. These vesicles are known to become the inclusions in which parasite replication occurs. They avoid fusion with lysosomes and instead traffic to the Golgi region, where they intercept Golgi-derived vesicles that recycle sphingolipids and cholesterol to the plasma membrane. We also report that late-stage C. trachomatis inclusions continue to display high levels of caveolin, which they likely acquire from the exocytic Golgi vesicles. We suggest that the atypical raft-mediated entry process may have important consequences for the host-pathogen interaction well after entry has occurred. These consequences include enabling the chlamydial vesicle to avoid acidification and fusion with lysosomes, to traffic to the Golgi region, and to intercept sphingolipid-containing vesicles from the Golgi.

  19. Mannose-binding lectin 2 (Mbl2) gene polymorphisms are related to protein plasma levels, but not to heart disease and infection by Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, M.A.F.; Gomes, S.T.M.; Almeida, N.C.C.; Souza, M.I.M.; Costa, S.R.C.F.; Hermes, R.B.; Lima, S.S.; Zaninotto, M.M.; Fossa, M.A.A.; Maneschy, M.A.; Martins-Feitosa, R.N.; Azevedo, V.N.; Machado, L.F.A.; Ishak, M.O.G.; Ishak, R.; Vallinoto, A.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 1 of the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene was evaluated in a sample of 159 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (71 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery and 300 control subjects) to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms and heart disease with Chlamydia infection. The identification of the alleles B and D was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and of the allele C was accomplished through PCR assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the three groups did not reveal any significant difference, even when related to previous Chlamydia infection. Variations in the MBL plasma levels were influenced by the presence of polymorphisms, being significantly higher in the group of cardiac patients, but without representing a risk for the disease. The results showed that despite MBL2 gene polymorphisms being associated with the protein plasma levels, the polymorphisms were not enough to predict the development of heart disease, regardless of infection with both species of Chlamydia. PMID:27982280

  20. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  1. Multilocus sequence analysis provides insights into molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum infections in Australian sheep, cattle, and koalas.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts.

  2. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction in endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR.

    PubMed

    Jenab, Anahita; Roghanian, Rasoul; Golbang, Naser; Golbang, Pouran; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the major cause of sexually transmitted disease in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the best method of DNA extraction for detecting C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sexually active women (n = 80) attending Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women, 22 of whom were asymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Three different DNA extraction methods were used in this study (phenol-chlorophorm, proteinase K, and boiling). DNA yield was evaluated by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR. The internal control was assayed by beta-globin primers (PCO4, GH20). The DNA cryptic plasmid was selected as the target for C. trachomatis and samples were examined by PCR using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. It was shown that DNA extraction by boiling was the most sensitive with the highest yield of DNA. Of the 80 samples, 17 (21.25%) showed positivity for C. trachomatis by PCR. The highest rate of C. trachomatis infection was found in the group aged between 35 and 45 years old and those who used withdrawal or an intrauterine device as methods of contraception. It was demonstrated that DNA extraction by boiling was the least expensive and a very rapid method that gave the highest DNA yield. The infection rate in the sexually active women, including symptomatic and asymptomatic, was 21.25%, with a presumably high prevalence compared with other studies done in this field.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis: Protective Adaptive Responses and Prospects for a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Poston, Taylor B; Darville, Toni

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection globally. These infections translate to a significant public health burden, particularly women's healthcare costs due to serious disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. There is no evidence that natural immunity can provide complete, long-term protection necessary to prevent chronic pathology, making human vaccine development critical. Vaccine design will require careful consideration of protective versus pathological host-response mechanisms in concert with elucidation of optimal antigens and adjuvants. Evidence suggests that a Th1 response, facilitated by IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells, will be instrumental in generating long-term, sterilizing immunity. Although the role of antibodies is not completely understood, they have exhibited a protective effect by enhancing chlamydial clearance. Future work will require investigation of broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-augmented cellular immunity to successfully design a vaccine that potently elicits both arms of the immune response. Sterilizing immunity is the ultimate goal. However, vaccine-induced partial immunity that prevents upper genital tract infection and inflammation would be cost-effective compared to current screening and treatment strategies. In this chapter, we examine evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating protective adaptive immune responses to Chlamydia and discuss future challenges and prospects for vaccine development.

  4. Seroepidemiological studies of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in 1-36 months old children with respiratory tract infections and other diseases in Poland.

    PubMed

    Podsiadły, Edyta; Fracka, Beata; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława

    2005-01-01

    Presence of specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae was evaluated in children aged 1 week to 36 months to investigate the role of C. pneumoniae in respiratory infections and other diseases. Serum samples were obtained from 150 hospitalized children, including 123 children presenting the clinical symptoms of various respiratory tract infections, two children with acute diarrhoea, two children with meningitis, 14 children with urinary tract infection, and 9 children with non-infectious diseases. Levels of specific C. pneumoniae IgM, IgG and IgA serum antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). C. pneumoniae IgM antibodies were detected in 16 (13.0 %) of 123 children with respiratory tract infections. Specific IgG antibodies were found in sera of 11 children under 12 months old. Among 27 children without symptoms of a respiratory tract disease, specific C. pneumoniae IgM were found in two (7.4%) children, including one child with meningitis and another child with urinary tract infection. Specific IgA antibodies were not found in any tested child. All cases of C. pneumoniae infections were identified within two calendar years out of eight that were analyzed, i.e. in 1997 and 2000. The incidence of C. pneumoniae infections varied seasonally, with most children infected in autumn. C. pneumoniae IgM antibodies were detected more often in girls (17.9%) then in boys (7.2%). C. pneumoniae infections occur among small children in central Poland. The results of this study indicate that C. pneumoniae may play a role in the etiology of respiratory tract infections in infants and young children.

  5. Characterisation of mycoplasmas isolated from genital tract infections of sheep in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chima, J C; Ojo, M O; Molokwu, J U; Okewole, P A

    1995-09-01

    Four mycoplasma-like organisms isolated from ewes with mucopurulent vaginal discharge and swollen vulva were characterised. Biochemical tests showed three of the isolates to be negative for glucose fermentation and arginine hydrolysis, while the remaining isolate was negative for glucose fermentation but hydrolysed arginine. Serological identification using the growth inhibition, growth precipitation and indirect immunofluorescence tests indicated the three similar isolates as Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and the other isolate as Mycoplasma arginini. There are apparently no previous reports of the isolation of these organisms from the genital tract of sheep in Nigeria.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract.

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae GroEL1 Protein Is Cell Surface Associated and Required for Infection of HEp-2 Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wuppermann, Frederik N.; Mölleken, Katja; Julien, Marion; Jantos, Christian A.; Hegemann, Johannes H.

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates within an inclusion in the eukaryotic cell. The initial event of a chlamydial infection is the adherence to and subsequent uptake of the infectious elementary bodies (EBs) by the human cell. These processes require yet-unidentified bacterial and eukaryotic surface proteins. The GroEL1 protein, which exhibits a very strong antigenicity and in vitro can activate various eukaryotic cells, is a potential pathogenicity factor. We localized the protein during the infection process and found it in the inclusion but outside the chlamydial particles. GroEL1 was also localized on the surface of EBs, and the protein could be washed off the EBs. Latex beads coated with recombinantly produced GroEL1 (rGroEL1) bound in a dose-dependent manner to HEp-2 cells. Likewise, GroEL1, when expressed and displayed on the yeast cell surface, mediated adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, the homologous GroEL2 and GroEL3 proteins showed no adhesive properties. Incubation of primary umbilical vein endothelial cells with soluble GroEL1 and GroEL1-coated latex beads activated the translocation of the general transcription factor NF-κB into the nucleus. Finally, preincubation of HEp-2 cells with rGroEL1 significantly reduced subsequent infection with C. pneumoniae, although adhesion of infectious bacteria to eukaryotic cells was not affected. Taken together, these data support a role for extracellular GroEL1 in the establishment of the chlamydial infection. PMID:18310329

  8. Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the “macrophage infectivity potentiator”, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the “translocated actin recruitment protein”, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the “chlamydial protease-like activity factor”, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the “Polymorphic membrane protein D”, PmpD), and the “hypothetical proteins” CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  9. Mast cells play an important role in chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae.

  10. Development and evaluation of a next-generation digital PCR diagnostic assay for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Chrissy H; Last, Anna; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Cassama, Eunice; Butcher, Robert; Nabicassa, Meno; McCarthy, Elizabeth; Burr, Sarah E; Mabey, David C; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J

    2013-07-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids. We developed a ddPCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infections and found it to be accurate and precise. Using PCR mixtures containing plasmids engineered to include the PCR target sequences, we were able to quantify with a dynamic range between 0.07 and 3,160 targets/μl (r(2) = 0.9927) with >95% confidence. Using 1,509 clinical conjunctival swab samples from a population in which trachoma is endemic in Guinea Bissau, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the quantitative ddPCR assay in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections by comparing the performances of ddPCR and the Roche Amplicor CT/NG test. We defined ddPCR tests as positive when we had ≥95% confidence in a nonzero estimate of target load. The sensitivity of ddPCR against Amplicor was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.9 to 78.7%), and specificity was 99.1% (95% CI, 98.6 to 99.6%). Negative and positive predictive values were 94.6% (95% CI, 93.4 to 95.8%) and 94.5% (95% CI, 91.3 to 97.7%), respectively. Based on Amplicor CT/NG testing, the estimated population prevalence of C. trachomatis ocular infection was ∼17.5%. Receiver-operator curve analysis was used to select critical cutoff values for use in clinical settings in which a balance between higher sensitivity and specificity is required. We concluded that ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections.

  11. Effects of sustained antibiotic bactericidal treatment on Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial-like cells (HeLa) and monocyte-like cells (THP-1 and U-937).

    PubMed

    Mpiga, Philomene; Ravaoarinoro, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a human pathogen that causes multiple diseases worldwide. Despite appropriate therapy with existing antichlamydial antibiotics, chronic exacerbated diseases often occur and lead to serious sequelae. Since C. trachomatis has been found to enter a persistent state after exposure to deleterious conditions, the role of persistence in the failure of chlamydial antibiotherapy is questioned. HeLa, THP-1 and U-937 cells were infected with 10(4)C. trachomatis serovar L2 infectious particles. Three days later the infected cells were treated with minimal bactericidal concentrations of doxycycline (DOX), erythromycin (ERY) or tetracycline (TET) for 24 days or 30 days. Antibiotic efficacy was assessed by measuring chlamydial inclusions and infectious particles, by investigating the resumption of chlamydial growth after antibiotic removal and by testing Chlamydia viability using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction targeting unprocessed 16S rRNA, processed 16S rRNA and Omp-1 mRNA. Treatment of infected HeLa cells with the usual antichlamydial antibiotics suppressed chlamydial active growth. The infection remained unapparent. However, 24 days post treatment the bacterium was found to be viable, as proved by continued expression of unprocessed and processed 16S rRNA and Omp-1 mRNA. This inactive unapparent chlamydial state is not infectious, suggesting Chlamydia persistence. Chlamydia trachomatis also developed persistence both in permissive THP-1 and non-permissive U-937 cells. Unlike in HeLa cells, persistent chlamydial infection in THP-1 and U-937 cells was resolved after 30 days of DOX treatment. Of interest, we noticed that only THP-1 and U-937 cells that were persistently infected following their interaction with infected HeLa cells remained capable of transmitting active infection to HeLa cells. These findings suggest that DOX, TET and ERY, usually administered to combat chlamydial diseases, fail to resolve persistent infection occurring

  12. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: a reservoir for persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wang, Yin; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlamydiae persist in vivo remains undefined; however, chlamydiae in most animals persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Oral infection of mice with Chlamydia muridarum was previously shown to establish a long-term persistent infection in the GI tract. In this study, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C57Bl/6 mice, infected orally with C. muridarum, were infected in the cecum for as long as 100 days in the absence of pathology. The primary target tissue was the cecum although the large intestine was also infected in most animals. A strong serum IgG and cecal IgA antibody response developed. Lymphocyte proliferation assays to chlamydial antigen on mesenteric lymph node cells were positive by day 10 and peaked on days 15–21, but the response returned to baseline levels by 50 days, despite the ongoing presence of the organism in the cecum. Since studies have shown that women and men become infected orally with chlamydiae, we propose that the GI tract is a site of persistent infection and that immune down-regulation in the gut allows chlamydiae to persist indefinitely. As a result, women may become reinfected via contamination of the genital tract from the lower GI tract. PMID:23843274

  13. Leptospira interrogans in the genital tract of sheep. Research on ewes and rams experimentally infected with serovar hardjo (hardjobovis).

    PubMed

    Farina, R; Cerri, D; Renzoni, G; Andreani, E; Mani, P; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Nuvoloni, R

    1996-07-01

    To verify if Leptospira hardjo can colonize the male and female genital organs of sheep, 9 animals (6 non pregnant ewes and 3 mature rams) were infected with a strain of L. hardjobovis recently recovered from the kidneys of a seropositive ewe. Postinfection controls (bacteriologic, serologic, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy) failed to disclose the presence of leptospires in the uterus and oviducts, testicles, epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral glands of animals used for the experiment and slaughtered from 37 to 242 postinfection days. All animals showed a renal localization of L. hardjobovis lasting for the entire period of the study (over 8 months). These results emphasize the important role of sheep as maintenance hosts of the serovar.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177

  15. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  16. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  17. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  18. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections due to Chlamydia spp. and related species].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Mario; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; Salinas, Jesús; Alonso, Roberto; Gutiérrez, José; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Until recently the number of completed genomes belonging to Chlamydia trachomatis was very low, despite its importance in Public Health. Now, there are currently sixty-six completed genomes of C.trachomatis sequenced in different parts of the world. This genomic revolution has helped in understanding its biology, as well as improved the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis, and the development of epidemiological tools, not only for in C.trachomatis, but also for related species such as C.pneumoniae and C.psittaci. The diagnosis based on cell culture, serology and microimmunofluorescence is gradually being replaced by molecular techniques based on PCR or real-time PCR. This is because these molecular tests do not have cross-reactions problems and the procedures are easily standardised between laboratories. Moreover, molecular epidemiology tools described recently, such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR), have increased our knowledge on local and global epidemiology. This article focuses on the impact of the genomics advances achieved over the last few years as applied to the diagnosis, epidemiology and biology of the family Chlamydiaceae family and related species.

  19. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genotypes and haplotypes in the susceptibility to and clinical course of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Dutch women

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Stephan P.; Karimi, Ouafae; Pleijster, Jolein; Lyons, Joseph M.; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Land, Jolande A.; Morré, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections demonstrate remarkable differences in clinical course that are approximately 40% based on host genetic variation. Here, we study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the