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Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  2. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  3. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  4. Experimental genital tract infection with Chlamydia psittaci (GPIC agent) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jantos, C A; Augustin, J; Durchfeld-Meyer, B; Baumgärtner, W; Schiefer, H G

    1998-01-01

    The course of experimental chlamydial infection of the male genital tract was studied. Inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC agent) into the vas deferens of rats resulted in chlamydial infection of the epididymis, testis and the prostate gland. The inflammatory response was most prominent at 14 days after infection. Chlamydiae were recovered from the epididymides and the prostate glands for up to 90 and 60 days post inoculation, respectively. Histopathological changes associated with chlamydial infection of the epididymis or prostate gland were characterized by intratubular and interstitial purulent inflammation. Chlamydia-specific IgM- and IgG-antibodies were found in sera of nearly all infected animals. Results of this study indicate that this animal model may be useful to study the pathogenesis, immune responses and sequelae of chlamydial infections of the male genital tract.

  5. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection of antibody-deficient gene knockout mice.

    PubMed Central

    Su, H; Feilzer, K; Caldwell, H D; Morrison, R P

    1997-01-01

    The importance of antibody-mediated immunity in primary and secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections was examined by using a definitive model of B-cell deficiency, the microMT/microMT gene knockout mouse. Vaginally infected B-cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice developed a self-limiting primary infection that was indistinguishable from infection of control C57BL/6 mice. Sera and vaginal secretions from infected mice were analyzed for anti-Chlamydia antibodies. C57BL/6 mice produced high-titered serum anti-Chlamydia immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a), IgG2b, and IgA antibodies, and vaginal washes contained predominately anti-Chlamydia IgA. Serum and vaginal washes from infected B-cell-deficient mice were negative for anti-Chlamydia antibody. T-cell proliferation and delayed-type hypersensitivity assays were used as measures of Chlamydia-specific cell-mediated immunity and were found to be comparable for C57BL/6 and B-cell-deficient mice. Seventy days following primary infection, mice were rechallenged to assess acquired immunity. B-cell-deficient mice which lack anti-Chlamydia antibodies were more susceptible to reinfection than immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. However, acquired immune resistance was evident in both strains of mice and characterized by decreased shedding of chlamydiae and an infection of shorter duration. Thus, this study demonstrates that cell-mediated immune responses alone were capable of resolving chlamydial infection; however, in the absence of specific antibody, mice were more susceptible to reinfection. Therefore, these data suggest that both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were important mediators of immune protection in this model, though cell-mediated immune responses appear to play a more dominant role. PMID:9169723

  7. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Karnika; Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164) were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  8. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Karnika; Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164) were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines. PMID:27166039

  9. Gamma Interferon Is Required for Optimal Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Genital Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naglak, Elizabeth K.; Morrison, Sandra G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the combination of antibody and CD4+ T cells is fundamental to designing an efficacious chlamydial vaccine. Using the Chlamydia muridarum genital infection model of mice, which replicates many features of human C. trachomatis infection and avoids the characteristic low virulence of C. trachomatis in the mouse, we previously demonstrated a significant role for antibody in immunity to chlamydial infection. We found that antibody alone was not protective. Instead, protection appeared to be conferred through an undefined antibody-cell interaction. Using gene knockout mice and in vivo cellular depletion methods, our data suggest that antibody-mediated protection is dependent on the activation of an effector cell population in genital tract tissues by CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cell-secreted cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was found to be a key component of the protective antibody response. The protective function of IFN-γ was not related to the immunoglobulin class or to the magnitude of the Chlamydia-specific antibody response or to recruitment of an effector cell population to genital tract tissue. Rather, IFN-γ appears to be necessary for activation of the effector cell population that functions in antibody-mediated chlamydial immunity. Our results confirm the central role of antibody in immunity to chlamydia reinfection and demonstrate a key function for IFN-γ in antibody-mediated protection. PMID:27600502

  10. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  11. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis. PMID

  12. Plac8-dependent and iNOS-dependent mechanisms clear Chlamydia muridarum infections from the genital tract1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.; Kerr, Micah S.; Slaven, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars replicate predominately in genital tract epithelium. This tissue tropism poses a unique challenge for host defense and vaccine development. Studies utilizing the Chlamydia muridarum mouse model have shown that CD4 T cells are critical for clearing genital tract infections. In vitro studies have shown that CD4 T cells terminate infection by up regulating epithelial iNOS transcription and nitric oxide production. However, this mechanism is not critical as iNOS-deficient mice clear infections normally. We recently showed that a subset of Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones could terminate replication in epithelial cells using an iNOS-independent mechanism requiring T cell degranulation. We advance that work using microarrays to compare iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent CD4 T cell clones. Plac8 was differentially expressed by clones having the iNOS-independent mechanism. Plac8-deficient mice had delayed clearance of infection, and Plac8-deficient mice treated with the iNOS-inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine were largely unable to resolve genital tract infections over 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that there are two independent and redundant T cell mechanisms for clearing C. muridarum genital tract infections; one dependent on iNOS, the other dependent on Plac8. While T cells subsets are routinely defined by cytokine profiles, there may be important subdivisions by effector function, in this case CD4Plac8. PMID:22238459

  13. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  14. Texting decreases the time to treatment for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Menon‐Johansson, A S; McNaught, F; Mandalia, S; Sullivan, A K

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a text message result service within an inner London sexual health clinic. Method Demographic data, diagnoses, and time to diagnosis and treatment were collected over a 6 month period for patients receiving text messages and a matched standard recall group. Data on messages sent, staff time, and cost in relation to result provision were collected. Results Over a 6 month period 952 text messages were sent. In the final month of analysis, 33.9% of all clinic results were provided by text, resulting in a saving of 46 hours of staff time per month. 49 messages requested that the patient return for treatment, 28 of these patients had untreated genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. The mean number of days (SD) to diagnosis was significantly shorter in the text message group (TG) v the standard recall group (SG) (7.9 (3.6) v 11.2 (4.7), p <0.001). The median time to treatment was 8.5 days (range 4–27 days) for the TG group v 15.0 (range 7–35) for SG, p  =  0.005. Conclusion Patients with genital CT infection are diagnosed and receive treatment sooner since the introduction of a text message result service. The introduction of this service has resulted in a significant saving in staff time. PMID:16461603

  15. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A−/− mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  16. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  17. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  18. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  19. Incidence of recurrent diagnoses of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections among male and female soldiers of the US army

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S.; Brundage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background/objectives: Few studies of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence, especially among men, and most studies of C trachomatis in US military populations are cross sectional prevalence surveys. A population based retrospective cohort was used to determine risk factors for repeat diagnoses of genital C trachomatis infections among male and female soldiers with previous C trachomatis infections. Methods: All active duty soldiers diagnosed with C trachomatis genital infections between 1994 and 1998. Cohort members were passively followed until repeat diagnoses of C trachomatis infection, termination of army service, or the end of the study. Results: Among 11 771 soldiers with initial diagnoses of chlamydia, the crude rate of repeat diagnoses was 52.0 per 1000 person years. Women and men aged 20–24 were at greatest unadjusted risk of reinfection. After adjustment, women aged 20–24 and men aged 25–29 were at higher risk than their younger or older counterparts. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that both male and female soldiers who are diagnosed with chlamydia infections have relatively high risks of reinfection through their 20s. Key Words: epidemiology; military personnel; sexually transmitted diseases; United States PMID:11158689

  20. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  1. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  2. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. METHODS This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. RESULTS Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. CONCLUSION Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:27588273

  3. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence.

  4. Mucosal and systemic immune responses to plasmid protein pgp3 in patients with genital and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    GHAEM-MAGHAMI, S; RATTI, G; GHAEM-MAGHAMI, M; COMANDUCCI, M; HAY, P E; BAILEY, R L; MABEY, D C W; WHITTLE, H C; WARD, M E; LEWIS, D J M

    2003-01-01

    The circulating and cervical B cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid protein pgp3 were characterized in children and adults with ocular or genital chlamydial infection using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and ELISA. No pgp3-specific ASCs were detected in healthy controls, but predominantly IgA ASCs were detected in UK adults with uncomplicated cervicitis or urethritis (P = 0·03, 0·019). In patients with extragenital complications or pelvic inflammatory disease a mixed response with more IgG and IgM ASCs was evident, suggesting a breach of mucosal immune compartmentalization with more extensive infection. In women with chlamydial cervicitis, ASCs secreting predominantly IgA, but also IgG, to pgp3 were present in cervix at presentation, with a frequency 30–50 times higher than blood. Cervical ASC numbers, especially IgG, fell markedly six weeks after antibiotic treatment. We detected principally IgA pgp3-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in children resident in a Gambian endemic area, with a trend towards suppression of IgA responses during intense trachomatous inflammation (P = 0·06), as previously reported for other chlamydial antigens, and in keeping with the findings in genital disease. These data provide a rationale for further studies of immune responses to pgp3 in humans and animal models of chlamydia-induced disease, and its potential use in diagnostic assays and protective immunization strategies. PMID:12780690

  5. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ashlesh K; Li, Weidang; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Kamalakaran, Sangamithra; Guentzel, M Neal; Seshu, J; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-07-01

    The immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced oviduct pathological sequelae is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in perforin (perforin(-/-) mice) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production (TNF-α(-/-) mice) displayed comparable vaginal chlamydial clearance rates but significantly reduced oviduct pathology (hydrosalpinx) compared to that of wild-type mice. Since both perforin and TNF-α are effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells, we evaluated the role of CD8(+) T cells during genital Chlamydia muridarum infection and oviduct sequelae. Following vaginal chlamydial challenge, (i) mice deficient in TAP I (and therefore the major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I pathway and CD8(+) T cells), (ii) wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, and (iii) mice genetically deficient in CD8 (CD8(-/-) mice) all displayed similar levels of vaginal chlamydial clearance but significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, compared to those of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting a role for CD8(+) T cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. Repletion of CD8(-/-) mice with wild-type or perforin(-/-), but not TNF-α(-/-), CD8(+) T cells at the time of challenge restored hydrosalpinx to levels observed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells is important for pathogenesis. Additionally, repletion of TNF-α(-/-) mice with TNF-α(+/+) CD8(+) T cells significantly enhanced the incidence of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation compared to those of TNF-α(-/-) mice but not to the levels found in wild-type mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells and non-CD8(+) cells cooperates to induce optimal oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae.

  7. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16–29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11–12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69–1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36–2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  8. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals.

  9. Mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma reduces the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, C; Tome, H; Pitakaka, R; Butcher, R; Sokana, O; Kako, H; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection and is frequently asymptomatic; ocular C. trachomatis strains cause trachoma. Mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin for trachoma might also reduce the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis. In a survey conducted in the Solomon Islands in 2014, prior to MDA, the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis was 20.3% (95% CI 15.9% to 25.4%). We conducted a survey to establish the impact of MDA with azithromycin on genital C. trachomatis. Methods Women attending three community outpatient clinics, predominantly for antenatal care, 10 months after MDA with azithromycin given for trachoma elimination, were enrolled in this survey. Self-taken high vaginal swabs were for C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the BD Probetec strand displacement assay. Results 298 women were enrolled. C. trachomatis infection was diagnosed in 43 women (14.4%, 95% CI 10.6% to 18.9%) and N. gonorrhoeae in 9 (3%, 95% CI 1.4% to 5.7%). The age-adjusted OR for C. trachomatis infection was consistent with a significant decrease in the prevalence of C. trachomatis following MDA (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.94, p=0.027). There was no change in the prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae between following MDA (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.22, p=0.13). Conclusions This study demonstrated a 40% reduction in the age-adjusted prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection following azithromycin MDA for trachoma elimination. PMID:26888658

  10. IL-23 induces IL-22 and IL-17 production in response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but the absence of these cytokines does not influence disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108

  11. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage

    PubMed Central

    Quispe Calla, Nirk E.; Pavelko, Stephen D.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  12. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage.

    PubMed

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  13. Cost-effectiveness of screening women at moderate risk for genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Nettleman, M D; Jones, R B

    1988-07-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of screening women at moderate (prevalence, 7.9%) risk for urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. The characteristics of culture and direct antigen tests were based on published values. Those of serology were based on a comparative study in 434 college women. Three serological tests were evaluated: microimmunofluorescence, an indirect fluorescent antibody assay, and an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Their sensitivities and specificities were 97% and 64%, 87% and 64%, and 84% and 51%, respectively, compared with culture. Screening all patients with a direct antigen test costing less than $12 was more cost-effective than neither testing nor treating patients, although only 53% of patients with positive test results would actually be infected. The use of culture alone or as a confirmatory test was less cost-effective but had high positive predictive values. Seropositivity was not highly predictive of active infection. Chlamydial screening can be cost-effective in moderate-risk women. PMID:3133496

  14. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality. PMID:18334071

  15. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality.

  16. Differential Regulation of CD4 Lymphocyte Recruitment between the Upper and Lower Regions of the Genital Tract during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kathleen A.; Walker, Jennifer C.; Jameel, Shimul H.; Gray, Heather L.; Rank, Roger G.

    2000-01-01

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in both the local recruitment of protective immune responses and an inflammatory infiltrate that may also participate in tubal pathology. As a beginning to understanding the etiology of immune system-mediated tubal pathology, we evaluated the regional recruitment of lymphocyte subsets to different areas of the female genital tract (GT) over the course of a murine infection with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn). Using flow cytometric techniques we found that the CD4 lymphocyte subset was preferentially recruited to the upper GT (oviduct and uterine horn) over the lower GT (cervical-vaginal region) throughout the course of MoPn infection. The influx of CD4 cells also correlated with the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs) and in vitro lymphocyte adherence in the upper GT. Interestingly, the expression of ECAMs in the lower GT was not maintained longer than 7 days after infection, even in the presence of viable chlamydiae. Taken together, these data suggest that regulatory mechanisms of lymphocyte recruitment differ between the upper and lower regions of the GT and may influence the clearance of chlamydiae and the development of tubal pathology. PMID:10678969

  17. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men and women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are no accurate data regarding the real prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Spain. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections and the risk factors for acquiring them among 1,048 young (15–24 years old) inhabitants of Laviana. Methods The study was completed in the period between 1st November 2010 and 31st December 2011. We conducted a capture strategy in the whole population, instead of only in a sample group, with a capture conducted in schools, in the local health centre, by post and by phone as a last resort. The design was based on the model used by Shafer to increase screening rates. C. trachomatis was identified by RT-PCR in urine samples. Results A total of 487 sexually active people underwent the test, which implies a response rate of 59.8% of the sexually active people (target population). The prevalence was 4.1% (CI 95%: 3.1-5.8): women: 4% ( CI 95%; 2.8-6.4) and men: 4.3% (CI 95%: 2.9-7.2). The circulating genotype was the E genotype. There was an increase in the risk of C. trachomatis infection when barrier contraceptives were not routinely used OR: 4.76 (CI 95%:1.30-17.36) p<0.05. Conclusions In our study the prevalence in women resembles those found in other countries in Europe and the prevalence in men is similar to that in women. Screening for C. trachomatis infection in women would be cost-effective in Spain given the prevalence of C. trachomatis measured by this study. The use of a condom is the best preventative measure for avoiding STIs in sexually active people. PMID:23968487

  18. Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. Method We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18–25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. Results In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. Conclusion In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov IDNCT00283127 PMID:23343391

  19. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

  20. A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-γ both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks following the immunization, all mice were challenged in the meatus urethra. The urethra, urinary bladder, testes and epididymides were harvested at weekly intervals and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis. Based on the culture results from these four organs both groups of Chlamydia-immunized mice showed significant protection. In the group immunized i.u., 10% (5/50) had positive cultures, while in the group immunized i.n. 28% (14/50) had positive cultures during the 5 weeks of observation. In contrast, in the sham-immunized animals 47% (47/100) had positive cultures (P<0.005) during the study period. In addition, the number of positive organs, the length of time that the animal had positive cultures, and the total number of inclusion forming units (IFU) recovered were overall significantly lower in the i.u. or i.n. groups in comparison with the sham-immunized animals. However, in relation to the i.u. immunized group, the protection elicited in the i.n. group was delayed and not as robust. In conclusion, immunization of mice in the meatus urethra may provide the gold standard for testing Chlamydia vaccines in a male model. PMID:20920574

  1. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Safety and Efficacy Study of Rifalazil Compared with Azithromycin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, William M.; Pascual, Maria Luz G.; Mathew, Judy; Koltun, William D.; Morgan, Franklin; Batteiger, Byron E.; Mayes, Annette; Tao, Sijia; Hurwitz, Selwyn J.; Sayada, Chalom

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose chlamydia therapies of oral rifalazil (25 mg) and azithromycin (1 g) was conducted in 82 women with uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The microbiologic cure rate of C. trachomatis with rifalazil (n = 33) was 84.8% at the visit on day 22 to 26 (test-of-cure visit), versus 92.1% with azithromycin (n = 38), and the number of treatment failures in each group was 5 and 3, respectively. The difference in cure rate was −7.3%, with a lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of −22.5, and thus, noninferiority was not established at the prespecified margin (lower limit of CI of −15%). The overall treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) and treatment-related TEAE rates were lower in the rifalazil group (68% and 55%) than in the azithromycin group (71% and 62%), respectively. Subjects classified as treatment failures at day 22 to 26 had a lower mean plasma concentration of rifalazil at the visit on day 8 to 12 than those classified as treatment cures, but this difference was not significant; however, the levels were similar for both groups at the visit on day 22 to 26. A single 25-mg dose of rifalazil was well tolerated and eradicated C. trachomatis in most of these women with uncomplicated genital C. trachomatis infection. (The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01631201). PMID:24798277

  2. Genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis fails to induce protective immunity in gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice despite a strong local immunoglobulin A response.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, M; Schön, K; Ward, M; Lycke, N

    1997-01-01

    CD4+ T cells have been found to play a critical role in immune protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Since both humoral and cell-mediated antichlamydial immunity have been implicated in host protection, the crucial effector functions provided by the CD4+ T cells may rely on Th1 or Th2 functions or both. In the present study, we evaluated the development of natural immunity following vaginal infection with C. trachomatis serovar D in female gamma interferon receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mice with a disrupted Th1 effector system. We found that in comparison with wild-type mice, the IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited a severe ascending primary infection of prolonged duration which stimulated almost 10-fold-stronger specific local immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG responses in the genital tract. Following resolution of the primary infection and despite the augmented antibody responses to chlamydiae, the IFN-gammaR-/- mice were completely unprotected against reinfection, suggesting that local antibodies play a subordinate role in host protection against chlamydial infection. Immunohistochemical analysis of frozen sections of the genital tract revealed many CD4+ T cells in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, with a dominance of interleukin 4-containing cells in mice following resolution of the secondary infection. However, in contrast to the findings with wild-type mice, the typical clusters of CD4+ T cells were not found in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice. Few and similarly distributed CD8+ T cells were observed in IFN-gammaR-/- and wild-type mice. Whereas chlamydia-infected macrophages from wild-type mice had no inclusion bodies (IB) and produced significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of IFN-gamma, macrophages from IFN-gammaR-/- mice contained many IB but no NO. These results indicate that CD4+ Th1 cells and IFN-gamma, rather than local antibodies, are critical elements in host immune protection stimulated by a natural ascending C. trachomatis infection in the

  3. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  4. Chlamydia muridarum Infection Associated Host MicroRNAs in the Murine Genital Tract and Contribution to Generation of Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Haskins, William E.; Chambers, James P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Bakar, Sazaly Abu; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection in humans and is associated with reproductive tract damage. However, little is known about the involvement and regulation of microRNAs (miRs) in genital CT. Methods We analyzed miRs in the genital tract (GT) following C. muridarum (murine strain of CT) challenge of wild type (WT), and CD4+ T cell deficient (CD4−/−) C57BL/6 mice at days 6 and 12 post challenge. Results At day 6, miRs significantly downregulated in the lower GT were miR-125b-5p, −16, −214, −23b, −135a, −182, −183, −30c, and −30e while −146 and −451 were significantly upregulated, profiles not exhibited at day 12 post bacterial challenge. Significant differences in miR-125b-5p (+5.06 fold change), −135a (+4.9), −183 (+7.9), and −182 (+3.2) were observed in C. muridarum infected CD4−/− compared to WT mice. In silico prediction and mass spectrometry revealed regulation of miR-135a and −182 and associated proteins i.e, Heat Shock Protein B1 and Alpha-2HS-Glycoprotein. Conclusion This study provides evidence on regulation of miRs following genital chlamydial infection suggesting a role in pathogenesis and host immunity. PMID:24976530

  5. Interleukin-17 contributes to generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of infection.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Amy M; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Foote, Isaac P; Bailey, Sarabeth L; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K; Darville, Toni

    2011-03-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra(-/-) mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra(-/-) mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ(-/-) mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ(-/-) mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens. PMID:21149587

  6. Interleukin-17 Contributes to Generation of Th1 Immunity and Neutrophil Recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection but Is Not Required for Macrophage Influx or Normal Resolution of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Foote, Isaac P.; Bailey, Sarabeth L.; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K.; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra−/− mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra−/− mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra−/− mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ−/− mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ−/− mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens. PMID:21149587

  7. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  8. The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O’Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  9. Identification of an iron-responsive protein that is antigenic in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.

    PubMed

    Raulston, Jane E; Miller, Jeffrey D; Davis, Caroyn H; Schell, Maria; Baldwin, Amy; Ferguson, Kaethe; Lane, Heather

    2007-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of immune-mediated damage to the reproductive tract of infected patients. Certain chlamydial antigens and host genetic factors have been identified as contributing to immunopathological events, but a comprehensive understanding of specific components involved in destructive vs. protective immune responses to chlamydial infections is far from clear. In this study, it is shown that C. trachomatis-infected patients generate antibodies against an iron-responsive chlamydial protein, YtgA. The identity of YtgA was confirmed by mass spectrometry following two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. This finding underscores a necessity to examine patient sera samples to identify chlamydial antigens that are likely encountered and important to the immune response during human infections.

  10. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection. PMID:26657117

  11. Major outer membrane protein variants of Chlamydia trachomatis are associated with severe upper genital tract infections and histopathology in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Dean, D; Oudens, E; Bolan, G; Padian, N; Schachter, J

    1995-10-01

    Cervical and endometrial samples from 33 women with lower genital tract infection (LGTI) or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) polymorphism. Polymorphism was correlated with symptoms, clinical findings, and histopathology. F, E, I, D, H, K, and G genotypes were represented. Thirty-seven genotyped samples (66%) displayed omp1 mutations compared with prototype sequences. Significantly, 7 of 7 women with variant F infections had PID compared with 6 non-variant F infections in women with LGTI (P = .003). PID was defined by clinical findings or plasma cells on endometrial biopsy. Of interest, F variants were associated with histopathology. Eleven women (92%) with E genotypes were asymptomatic. Our data suggest that F variants are associated with symptomatic, severe endometrial disease, whereas E genotypes are associated with asymptomatic, milder infections. Detection of virulent genotypes may provide a prognostic indicator for serious sequelae. Larger studies are required to evaluate the molecular, immunologic, and epidemiologic basis for these findings. PMID:7561174

  12. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed. PMID:27525325

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  14. Protective efficacy of major outer membrane protein-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG monoclonal antibodies in a murine model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Cotter, T W; Meng, Q; Shen, Z L; Zhang, Y X; Su, H; Caldwell, H D

    1995-12-01

    The protective efficacy of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn was evaluated in a murine genital tract infection model. MAbs were delivered into serum and vaginal secretions of naive mice by using the backpack hybridoma tumor system, and protective efficacy was assessed over the first 8 days following challenge by quantitative determination of chlamydial recovery from cervicovaginal swabs, histopathological evaluation of genital tract tissue, and immunohistochemical detection of chlamydial inclusions. IgA and IgG significantly reduced the incidence of infection following vaginal challenge with 5 50% infectious doses, but such protection was overwhelmed by 10- and 100-fold higher challenge doses. Both MAbs also consistently reduced vaginal shedding from infected animals with all three challenge doses compared with the negative control MAb, although the magnitude of this effect was marginal. Blinded pathological evaluation of genital tract tissues at 8 days postinfection showed a significant reduction in the severity of the inflammatory infiltrate in oviduct tissue of infected IgA- and IgG-treated animals. Immunohistochemical detection of chlamydial inclusions revealed a marked reduction in the chlamydial burden of the oviduct epithelium; this finding is consistent with the reduced pathological changes observed in this tissue. These studies indicate that the presence of IgA or IgG MAbs specific to major outer membrane proteins has a marginal effect in preventing chlamydial colonization and shedding from the genital tract but has a more pronounced effect on ascending chlamydial infection and accompanying upper genital tract pathology.

  15. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Chernesky, Max A

    2005-01-01

    Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  16. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia.

  17. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia. PMID:25704502

  18. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Chlamydia Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  19. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  20. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  1. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  2. Prevalence of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Govender, S; Theron, G B; Odendaal, H J; Chalkley, L J

    2009-11-01

    The study was designed to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and Chlamydia on women attending their first prenatal visit, in conjunction with pre-term labour or HIV status. For pre-term labour (2003), 199 women were monitored for pre-term delivery (<37 weeks); for colonisation and HIV (2005), 219 women were screened. Microbial detection was performed on DNA extracted from endocervical swabs employing PCR techniques. Colonisation was seen to be highest in the 14-20 year age group from 2003. In women aged > or = 21 years, co-colonisation was 13%, although there was a shift from co-colonisation with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in 2003, to other dual/triple combinations in 2005. Overall, major trends from both collection periods were that the prevalence of U. urealyticum tended to be higher in women > or = 26 years, while the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and M. hominis lower. No association was evident between colonisation with M. hominis, U. urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum and labour outcome. HIV status had no effect on the prevalence/co-colonisation of M. hominis, U. urealyticum or C. trachomatis. The importance of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and C. trachomatis in long-term aetiologies requires further investigations, certainly in relation to syndromic management regimens that fail to reduce colonisation rates. PMID:19821660

  3. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  4. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... for laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae , 2014. MMWR 2014;63(No. RR-2):1 - 24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(RR-12):1- ...

  5. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  6. [Chlamydia infection in neonates and infants].

    PubMed

    Sarlangue, J; Castella, C

    2005-04-01

    Incidence of chlamydial infection depends on maternal colonization during pregnancy, which is different in each population. The transmission is not obligatory but when present, it occurs at birth through the genital tractus. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the first cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, with no influence of eye lotion application at birth. C. trachomatis is also responsible for interstitial pneumonia with possible consequences on the lung function. The laboratory diagnosis relies on the identification of intracellular bacteria in patient samples by the mean of culture or PCR. Systemic antibiotherapy by macrolides is always necessary, with local application in the case of conjunctivitis. The key point is the detection of colonization of pregnant women with identified risk factors. In positive case, oral treatment of both parents is recommended.

  7. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  8. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Belland, Robert J; Ingalls, Robin R; O'Connell, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  9. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  10. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections. PMID:27681919

  11. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections. PMID:27681919

  12. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  13. Innate immunity is sufficient for the clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the female mouse genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Sturdevant, Gail L.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum and C. trachomatis, mouse and human strains respectively, have been used to study immunity in a murine model of female genital tract infection. Despite evidence that unique genes of these otherwise genomically similar strains could play a role in innate immune evasion in their respective mouse and human hosts there have been no animal model findings to directly support this conclusion. Here, we infected C57BL/6 and adaptive immune deficient Rag1−/− female mice with these strains and evaluated their ability to spontaneously resolve genital infection. Predictably, C57BL/6 mice spontaneously cleared infection caused by both chlamydial strains. In contrast, Rag1−/− mice which lack mature T and B cell immunity but maintain functional innate immune effectors, were incapable of resolving C. muridarum infection but spontaneously cleared C. trachomatis infection. This distinct dichotomy in adaptive and innate immune-mediated clearance between mouse and human strains has important cautionary implications for the study of natural immunity and vaccine development in the mouse model. PMID:24585717

  14. Identification and characterization of novel recombinant vaccine antigens for immunization against genital Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Coler, Rhea N.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Probst, Peter; Barth, Brenda; Ovendale, Pamela; Fang, Hang; Alderson, Mark; Lobet, Yves; Cohen, Joe; Mettens, Pascal; Reed, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide with over 91 million cases estimated annually. An effective subunit vaccine against Chlamydia may require a multivalent subunit cocktail of antigens in a single formulation for broad coverage of a heterogeneous MHC population. Herein we describe the identification by CD4+ and CD8+ T cell expression cloning, serological expression cloning, and an in silico analysis of the C. trachomatis genome, of novel C. trachomatis antigens. These antigens elicited human CD4+ T cell responses, and a subset proved to be immunogenic and protective when administered as immunoprophylactic vaccines against C. trachomatis challenge. Candidate vaccines consisting of the prioritized C. trachomatis antigens adjuvanted in GSK proprietary AS01B adjuvant were prioritized based on induction of solid protection against challenge in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with C. trachomatis. Some of the vaccines prevented bacterial shedding and colonization of the upper genital tract to varying degrees by mechanisms that may include CD4+ T cells. PMID:19281568

  15. Immunity and vaccines against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Sarah E. M.; Horner, Patrick J.; Horne, Andrew W.; Entrican, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent findings on immunity and vaccine development to Chlamydia trachomatis. Recent findings There is increasing knowledge on the interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis and infected host cells. During genital infection the organism avoids generating protective immunity but immune responses to a number of chlamydial proteins have been associated with reproductive tract pathology. Various vaccine and adjuvant preparations have been tried experimentally. Information generated by proteomics and complex studies of serological and T-lymphocyte immune responses points to novel vaccine candidates. Summary Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is associated with reproductive pathology. To develop rational vaccines it is necessary to understand the complex life-cycle of the organism, the host immune response to infection and how these relate to disease. Infection does not prevent reinfection and antibiotic treatment prevents antibody production at a population level. It remains unclear what type of immune response would be sufficient to prevent infection and/or reinfection. Although the prevalence and demographics of infection and the severity of disease associations suggest it would be desirable, there is no vaccine currently available. A number of studies have identified novel vaccine candidates. PMID:21124214

  16. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Gomes, Igor Logetto Caetité; Santana, Iuri Usêda; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents is increasing worldwide. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in young women, and undetected disease is highly associated with long-term complications in women. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually active population of female adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, and to describe their socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 100 sexually active adolescents (10-19 years) were included in this study, between 2008 and 2010. Endocervical samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Inhouse polymerase chain reaction of cervical specimens was used for Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The overall prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 31% (95% CI 22-40). There were no statistically significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and frequency of condom use between Chlamydia infected and uninfected adolescents. The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescents from Salvador was the highest in Brazil up to the present date. These results demonstrate an urgent need for continued and comprehensive prevention strategies along with proper screening for Chlamydia in high-risk populations in order to decrease the rates of infection.

  17. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ishita; Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A "Pubmed" search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  18. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  19. The Chromosome-Encoded Hypothetical Protein TC0668 Is an Upper Genital Tract Pathogenicity Factor of Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Turner Allen; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Matulich, Patrick; Keck, Jonathon; Beltrami, Noah; Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Dai, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We previously associated a missense mutation of the tc0668 gene of serial in vitro-passaged Chlamydia muridarum, a murine model of human urogenital C. trachomatis, with severely attenuated disease development in the upper genital tract of female mice. Since these mutants also contained a TC0237 Q117E missense mutation that enhances their in vitro infectivity, an effort was made here to isolate and characterize a tc0668 single mutant to determine its individual contribution to urogenital pathogenicity. Detailed genetic analysis of C. muridarum passages revealed a truncated variant with a G216* nonsense mutation of the 408-amino-acid TC0668 protein that does not produce a detectable product. Intracellular growth and infectivity of C. muridarum in vitro remain unaffected in the absence of TC0668. Intravaginal inoculation of the TC0668 null mutant into C3H/HeJ mice results in a typical course of lower genital tract infection but, unlike a pathogenic isogenic control, is unable to elicit significant chronic inflammation of the oviduct and fails to induce hydrosalpinx. Thus, TC0668 is demonstrated as an important chromosome-encoded urogenital pathogenicity factor of C. muridarum and the first with these characteristics to be discovered for a Chlamydia pathogen. PMID:26597987

  20. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rank, R. G.; Sanders, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1562052

  1. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Sanders, M M

    1992-04-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection.

  2. The Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Fail to Auto-Inoculate the Mouse Genital Tract after Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract for 70 days

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhu, Cuiming; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Nu; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum is known to colonize in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time, which has been hypothesized to serve as a reservoir for spreading to the genital tract. To test this hypothesis, a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum was used to establish a long-lasting infection in the mouse gastrointestinal tract following either intragastric or intrarectal inoculations. In vivo imaging revealed significant bioluminescent signals mainly in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiments. Ex vivo imaging localized the signals to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which was confirmed by monitoring the C. muridarum organisms in the mouse organs/tissues. Despite the long-lasting colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and active shedding of infectious organisms in the rectal swabs, the organisms did not cause any significant infection or pathology in the genital tract throughout the experiments, which was reproduced in multiple strains of mice and with an increased inoculation dose to the gastrointestinal tract. The above observations have demonstrated that the long-lasting C. muridarum organisms from the gastrointestinal tract are inefficient in auto-inoculating the genital tract, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract Chlamydia may utilize an indirect mechanism to affect its pathogenicity in the genital tract. PMID:27192556

  3. Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis can engage both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and bridge the respiratory and genital mucosae.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Catarina V; Zhang, Xuqing; Giovannone, Nicholas; Sennott, Erica L; Starnbach, Michael N

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the cellular populations and mechanisms responsible for overcoming immune compartmentalization is valuable for designing vaccination strategies targeting distal mucosae. In this study, we show that the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis infects the murine respiratory and genital mucosae and that T cells, but not Abs, elicited through intranasal immunization can protect against a subsequent transcervical challenge. Unlike the genital infection where CD8(+) T cells are primed, yet fail to confer protection, we found that intranasal priming engages both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, allowing for protection against genital infection with C. trachomatis. The protection is largely dependent on IFN-γ secretion by T cells. Moreover, different chemokine receptors are critical for C. trachomatis-specific CD4(+) T cells to home to the lung, rather than the CXCR3- and CCR5-dependent migration observed during genital infection. Overall, this study demonstrates that the cross-mucosa protective immunity against genital C. trachomatis infection following intranasal immunization is not dependent on Ab response but is mediated by not only CD4(+) T cells but also by CD8(+) T cells. This study provides insights for the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens that threaten reproductive health worldwide.

  4. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, your health care provider will collect a culture or perform a test called a PCR: The culture will be collected during a pelvic exam in women, or from the ... back. Your health care provider may also check you for other ...

  5. [Current aspects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    PubMed

    de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2013-04-01

    The number of detection and diagnosis of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing among both men and women. Three-quarters involve young people between 15 and 24 years. Infection, often asymptomatic, is more common in women. It is necessary to identify it to avoid complications.The number of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is also growing. The affected patients are homo/bisexuel men frequently co-infected with HIV. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the tests of choice to the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection regardless of the clinical situation. Most of tests simultaneously detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The recommended treatment regimens for a non-complicated infection to C. trachomatis is azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose or doxycyline 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days. Doxycyclin for 21 days remains the treatment of choice for LGV. Patients should be instructed to refer their sex partners for treatment. PMID:23419460

  6. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, C Y William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate.

  7. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  8. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  9. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

    2013-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ≥ 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable.

  10. Interleukin-10 Modulates Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells through Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Assembly during Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10−/−) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1β production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10−/− mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10−/− mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10+/+) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10−/− DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1β production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10−/− DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious

  11. Interleukin-10 modulates antigen presentation by dendritic cells through regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly during Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph; He, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1β production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10(-/-) mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10(-/-) mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10(+/+)) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10(-/-) DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1β production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10(-/-) DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious diseases by

  12. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities. PMID:16967912

  13. [Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Ewa; Pieniazek, Piotr; Branicka, Agnieszka; Bozek, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumonia was found in 1989 to cause acute and chronic respiratory tract infections. This agent has been as well associated with other disease: atherogenesis and coronary heart disease. This study is aimed both at making an introduction to the issues related to C. pneumoniae diagnosis and presenting contemporary laboratory methods. Given the limitations of traditional diagnostics methods, serodiagnosis (EIA) and nucleic acids amplification (PCR, hybridisation) provide the most convincing evidence of C. pneumoniae infections. Culture and direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) may be useful in confirming these results. A variety of methods applied can provide an opportunity to detect bacteria in different clinical samples--incl. sputum, nasopharyngeal and throat swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissues from biopsy and autopsy. PMID:12184026

  14. Analysis of the humoral immune response to chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Batteiger, B E; Rank, R G

    1987-08-01

    Studies using the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection with the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) have shown that serum and local antibodies play a role both in the resolution of infection and in protection against reinfection. Thus, this model is suited for further exploration of immune mechanisms and for vaccine studies with chlamydial macromolecules. We have further characterized the model by assessing the antigen-specific antibody response to experimental genital infection by using immunoblotting to assay both genital secretions and serum. The GPIC agent was characterized by analysis of outer membrane proteins, which indicated that the GPIC agent possessed a major outer membrane protein (MOMP), with a molecular mass of 39 kilodaltons (kDa), and a 61-kDa protein, analogous to cysteine-rich 60-kDa proteins or doublets of Chlamydia trachomatis strains. As indicated by immunoblotting, most infected animals produced serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to MOMP, the 61-kDa proteins, an 84-kDa outer membrane protein, and lipopolysaccharide. Such serum antibodies persisted for at least 813 days after primary genital infection. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against the 61-kDa proteins, lipopolysaccharide, and MOMP, but not the 84-kDa protein, were detected in secretions. Animals challenged with GPIC 825 days after primary infection became infected again despite the presence of serum antibodies, but the period of chlamydial shedding was significantly shorter and less intense than in primary infections. Although the specific mechanism is not known, these data suggest that a long-lasting immune effect is capable of altering the course of infection late after primary infection. Correlation of the antigen-specific antibody response and other immune parameters with the duration and degree of protective immunity induced by infection or vaccination may be helpful in further understanding the nature of such protective immunity.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  16. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms.

  17. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jessica; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Schenken, Robert; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  18. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  19. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection.

  20. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  1. Provision of chlamydia testing in a nationwide service offering termination of pregnancy: with data capture to monitor prevalence of infection

    PubMed Central

    Mallinson, H; Hopwood, J; Skidmore, S; Fenton, K; Phillips, C; Jones, I

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To establish a methodology by which all women attending for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) branches may be approached to participate in Chlamydia trachomatis screening. To examine the feasibility of monitoring C trachomatis prevalence and the impact of charging for screening on the uptake rate in this population. Methods: Patients attending for TOP at participating BPAS branches were offered a test for chlamydia infection and asked to complete a questionnaire. Urine samples from participants were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Results: 1001 women provided a urine sample, a 77% response rate among those participating in the study. Factors significantly associated with taking up chlamydia screening included symptoms, previous TOP, parity, and no previous chlamydial test. Overall prevalence of genital chlamydial infection was 7.5%, with highest age specific prevalences occurring among attendees aged 20–24 years (11.5%) and under 20 years (10.8%). In univariate analysis, chlamydia positivity was significantly associated with respondent age and previous diagnosis with chlamydia. Only 35% of women who had the screening test would have done so had they been asked to pay the £20 clinical, administrative, and laboratory costs of the examination. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of routine chlamydia screening and the potential for prospective prevalence monitoring across the nationwide BPAS service. In most cases the chlamydia result was available within the clinical contact period for the TOP. Charging patients directly for the test could reduce uptake of chlamydia screening to levels unsatisfactory for both the public health and prevalence monitoring purposes. PMID:12473801

  2. Comparison of a DNA probe with culture for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis directly from genital specimens.

    PubMed

    Gratton, C A; Lim-Fong, R; Prasad, E; Kibsey, P C

    1990-02-01

    A study was conducted to compare results between culture methods and the Gen-Probe (Gen-Probe Inc. San Diego, California) chemiluminescent technique of nucleic acid hybridization to identify Chlamydia trachomatis from genital specimens from 117 females and 70 males. Specimens collected from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and infertility clinics were randomized as to whether probe or culture swabs were collected first. The Gen-Probe demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 75% in the female population and a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 75% in the male population when compared to the reference culture method using cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells. Gen-Probe had an overall sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 75% when the two groups were combined. Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Labs) results were obtained on 135 specimens; 90 of which correlated with probe and culture. The remaining 45 specimens had varying combinations of probe, culture and Chlamydiazyme results. MicroTrak (Syva) was done on 49 specimens; 35 of which correlated with probe and culture. The remaining 14 specimens had varying combinations of probe, culture and MicroTrak results. The apparent lack of sensitivity of the DNA probe is a major drawback of this system. PMID:2179711

  3. Premature apoptosis of Chlamydia-infected cells disrupts chlamydial development.

    PubMed

    Ying, Songmin; Pettengill, Matthew; Latham, E Ray; Walch, Axel; Ojcius, David M; Häcker, Georg

    2008-11-15

    The obligate intracellular development of Chlamydia suggests that the bacteria should be vulnerable to premature host cell apoptosis, but because Chlamydia-infected cells are apoptosis resistant, this has never been able to be tested. We have devised a system to circumvent the apoptotic block imposed by chlamydial infection. When the proapoptotic protein Bim(S) was experimentally induced, epithelial cells underwent apoptosis that was not blocked by chlamydial infection. Apoptosis during the developmental cycle prevented the generation of infectious bacteria and caused transcriptional changes of bacterial genes and loss of intracellular ATP. Intriguingly, although apoptosis resulted in destruction of host cell structures and of the Chlamydia inclusion, and prevented generation of elementary bodies, Bim(S) induction in the presence of a caspase inhibitor allowed differentiation into morphologically normal but noninfectious elementary bodies. These data show that chlamydial infection renders host cells apoptosis resistant at a premitochondrial step and demonstrate the consequences of premature apoptosis for development of the bacteria.

  4. Are women with chlamydia infection who self-refer to genitourinary medicine clinics different?

    PubMed

    Huengsberg, M; Ahmed-Jushuf, I; Rogstad, K E; Jeyasingh, N; Paul, G; Singh, S; Tan, B; Lackenby, S; Shahmanesh, M

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection who self-refer to genitourinary medicine clinics have different demographic characteristics to those who initially attend other agencies. This study took place in three genitourinary medicine clinics from Birmingham, Nottingham and Sheffield. Demographic and post-code data were collected from female patients diagnosed with genital chlamydia infection in 2000. Townsend scores, as an index of socioeconomic status, were derived from post-codes from a subset of the cohort (from Birmingham). Comparison was made between those who were diagnosed by genitourinary medicine clinics and those diagnosed in the community and referred to genitourinary medicine clinics for further management. Data were collected from 1047 genitourinary medicine and 816 non-genitourinary medicine women, of whom 686 (84.1%) attended genitourinary medicine clinics following referral. After excluding those with incomplete data, 1614 (987 genitourinary medicine and 627 non-genitourinary medicine) patients were included in the study. Using logistic regression analysis, we were unable to demonstrate any significant differences in age or Townsend scores between genitourinary medicine and non-genitourinary medicine patients. However, significantly more Black Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.22, 3.20) and single women (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.64, 2.29) self-referred to genitourinary medicine clinics compared with other health-care settings. This trend was consistent between Birmingham and Nottingham. In Sheffield, there was no difference in marital status. Ethnicity was not a factor as there were no Black Caribbean patients in the Sheffield cohort. Women who were diagnosed with genital chlamydia infection in genitourinary medicine clinics have some different demographic characteristics to those who were diagnosed in the community.

  5. Sexual and testing behaviour associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a cohort study in an STI clinic in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Veličko, Inga; Ploner, Alexander; Sparén, Pär; Marions, Lena; Herrmann, Björn; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Background Genital chlamydia infection (chlamydia) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Sweden. To guide prevention needs, we aimed to investigate factors associated with chlamydia. Methods A cohort of visitors aged 20–40 years at an urban STI clinic in Sweden was recruited. Behavioural data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Self-sampled specimens were tested for chlamydia by a DNA amplification assay. Statistically significant (p<0.05) and epidemiologically relevant covariates were entered in a multivariate Poisson model adjusted for potential confounders (age and gender). Backward stepwise elimination produced a final model. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing values. Results Out of 2814 respondents, 1436 were men with a chlamydia positivity rate of 12.6% vs 8.9% in women. Lifetime testing for chlamydia and HIV was high (82% and 60%, respectively). Factors significantly associated with chlamydia were: 20–24 years old (adjusted risk ratio (ARR)=2.10, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.65); testing reason: contact with a chlamydia case (ARR=6.55, 95% CI 4.77 to 8.98) and having symptoms (ARR=2.19, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.24); 6–10 sexual partners (ARR=1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21); last sexual activity ‘vaginal sex and oral sex and anal sex and petting’ (ARR=1.84, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.10); alcohol use before sex (ARR=1.98, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.57); men with symptoms (ARR=2.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.18); tested for chlamydia (ARR=0.72, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94). Conclusions Risk factors associated with chlamydia were consistent with previous reports in similar settings and suggest no major changes over time. Increased risk for chlamydia infection associated with high-risk behaviour (eg, alcohol use, increased number of sexual partners) supports the need for behavioural interventions in this population such as promotion of safer sex behaviour (condom use) and testing. PMID:27566631

  6. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward.

  7. Polymorphisms in the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin Locus Associated with Ocular and Genital Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, John H.; Hughes, Scott; Hogan, Daniel; Cieplak, Gordon; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D.; Belland, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a strict human pathogen producing infections that cause medically important chronic inflammatory diseases, such as blinding trachoma and tubal factor infertility. Isolates exist as serotypes that fall into distinct biologic and pathological groups corresponding to differences in infection tissue tropism and invasion properties. Paradoxically, genome sequencing of several diverse strains has revealed a remarkable level of genomic synteny, suggesting that minor genetic differences determine the pathogen host- and tissue-specific infection characteristics. To better understand the genetic basis of chlamydial pathobiologic diversity, we performed comparative DNA-DNA microarray genomic hybridizations with all 15 C. trachomatis serovariants. We found there are few major genetic differences among the 15 serovars. An exception was the cytotoxin locus located in the plasticity zone, a region that exhibited significant polymorphisms among serovars. We therefore sequenced this region from all 15 serovars. The cytotoxin gene was interrupted by extensive mutations and deletions among the different serovars; however, three basic open reading frame motifs were discovered that correlated with noninvasive oculotropic, urogenitotropic, and invasive serovars. Of interest, only noninvasive genitotropic serovars possessed an intact N-terminal portion of the putative toxin gene. This region contains the UDP-glucose binding domain and the glycosyltransferase domain required for enzymatic activity of the clostridial toxin homologs, suggesting a role in urogenital infection or pathogenesis. PMID:15557630

  8. Postal urine specimens: are they a feasible method for genital chlamydial infection screening?

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, J; Rowsell, R; Horner, P; Crowley, T; Caul, E O; Low, N; Smith, G D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A United Kingdom (UK) screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis has recently been announced. Pilot projects involving the opportunistic testing of women attending health facilities are due to commence in several sites. There is a danger that this approach will fail to obtain adequate population coverage. The alternative--true systematic population screening--is generally assumed to be unfeasible. Studies in Denmark using postal urine specimens have challenged this assumption. No such studies have been reported from the UK. AIM: To assess the potential of urine specimens sent by post as the basis for a UK population screening strategy for genital chlamydial infection. METHOD: Two hundred patients (100 men, 100 women) aged 18 to 45 years were randomly sampled from the list of one urban group practice. Subjects were mailed an explanatory letter, a urine sample container, a sexual lifestyle questionnaire, and a prepaid return envelope. Non-responders were contacted by telephone; persistent non-responders were visited at home. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by DNA amplification and enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Sixty-four (32%) subjects were no longer living at their GP registered address. Of the remaining 136, 126 (93%) responded to the survey and 113 (83%) accepted the request for a urine sample and completed a questionnaire. Acceptance rates were similar for men and women and across age groups. Four samples (3%) were Chlamydia positive. CONCLUSION: Home mailed urine specimen collection in conjunction with a self-completed postal questionnaire is feasible. This could provide a viable basis both for determining population Chlamydia prevalence and for a UK Chlamydia population screening strategy. Overall cost effectiveness of such a strategy will depend on the cost of the test used. Comparative performance characteristics of the different currently available tests in this setting have yet to be fully determined. PMID:10562745

  9. The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated.

    PubMed Central

    Ingalls, R R; Rice, P A; Qureshi, N; Takayama, K; Lin, J S; Golenbock, D T

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a major etiologic agent of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is a gram-negative pathogen, chlamydial infections are not generally thought of as endotoxin-mediated diseases. A molecular characterization of the acute immune response to chlamydia, especially with regard to the role of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), remains to be undertaken. We extracted 15 mg of LPS from 5 x 10(12) C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EB) for analysis of structure and biological activity. When methylated lipid A was subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, the majority of the lipid A was found to be pentaacyl. The endotoxin activities of whole C. trachomatis EB and purified LPS were characterized in comparison with whole Salmonella minnesota R595 and with S. minnesota R595 LPS and lipooligosaccharide from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Both C. trachomatis LPS and whole EB induced the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from whole blood ex vivo, and C. trachomatis LPS was capable of inducing the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B in a Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast cell line transfected with the LPS receptor CD14. In both assays, however, C. trachomatis was approximately 100-fold less potent than S. minnesota and N. gonorrhoeae. The observation that C. trachomatis is a weak inducer of the inflammatory cytokine response correlates with the clinical observation that, unlike N. gonorrhoeae infection, genital tract infection with C. trachomatis is often asymptomatic. The ability of specific LPS antagonists to completely inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducing activity of whole C. trachomatis EB suggests that the inflammatory cytokine response to chlamydia infection may be mediated primarily through LPS. This implies that the role of other surface protein antigens, at least in terms of eliciting the proinflammatory cytokine response, is likely to be minor. PMID:7542638

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G.; Haas, Joel T.; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an “inclusion”. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  11. 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, E; Ouburg, S; de Vries, H J; Stary, A; Radcliffe, K; Unemo, M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections, which most frequently are asymptomatic, are major public health concerns globally. The 2015 European C. trachomatis guideline provides: up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of C. trachomatis infections; a clearer recommendation of using exclusively-validated nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) C. trachomatis testing; the recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection; and recommendations to identify, verify and report C. trachomatis variants. Improvement of access to testing, test performance, diagnostics, antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of C. trachomatis patients are crucial to control its spread. For detailed background, evidence base and discussions, see the background review for the present 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al. Int J STD AIDS. 2015).

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.

  13. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  14. Estradiol-Treated Female Mice as Surrogate Hosts for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Genital Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jerse, Ann E; Wu, Hong; Packiam, Mathanraj; Vonck, Rachel A; Begum, Afrin A; Garvin, Lotisha E

    2011-01-01

    Historically, animal modeling of gonorrhea has been hampered by the exclusive adaptation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to humans. Genital tract infection can be established in female mice that are treated with 17β-estradiol, however, and many features of experimental murine infection mimic human infection. Here we review the colonization kinetics and host response to experimental murine gonococcal infection, including mouse strain differences and evidence that IL-17 responses, toll-like receptor 4, and T regulatory cells play a role in infection. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the mouse system and the potential of transgenic mice to circumvent host restrictions. Additionally, we review studies with genetically defined mutants that demonstrated a role for sialyltransferase and the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE active efflux pump in evading innate defenses in vivo, but not for factors hypothesized to protect against the phagocytic respiratory burst and H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli. Studies using estradiol-treated mice have also revealed the existence of non-host-restricted iron sources in the female genital tract and the influence of hormonal factors on colonization kinetics and selection for opacity (Opa) protein expression. Recent work by others with estradiol-treated mice that are transgenic for human carcinoembryonic adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) supports a role for Opa proteins in enhancing cellular attachment and thus reduced shedding of N. gonorrhoeae. Finally we discuss the use of the mouse model in product testing and a recently developed gonorrhea chlamydia coinfection model.

  15. Characterization of chlamydial genital infection resulting from sexual transmission from male to female guinea pigs and determination of infectious dose.

    PubMed

    Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Reed, Ronald L; Darville, Toni

    2003-11-01

    A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 10(4), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(1) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 10(2) IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 10(4) or 10(3) IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 10(2) IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 10(4) and 10(3) IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 10(2) IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 10(2)-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 10(2) IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female

  16. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, William M.; Uniyal, Apurva; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Johnson, Shacondra; Perry, Raymond C.W.; Kadrnka, Carmel M.; Kerndt, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin (1 g in one dose) to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). The treatment was directly observed. The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A (OmpA) genotyping of C. trachomatis strains. RESULTS Among the 567 participants enrolled, 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. A total of 155 participants in each treatment group (65% male) made up the per-protocol population. There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 7.4%). The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3.2 percentage points, with an upper boundary of the 90% confidence interval of 5.9 percentage points, which exceeded the prespecified absolute 5-percentage-point cutoff for establishing the noninferiority of azithromycin. CONCLUSIONS In the context of a closed population receiving directly observed treatment for urogenital chlamydia infection, the efficacy of azithromycin was 97%, and the efficacy of doxycycline was 100%. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00980148.) PMID:26699167

  17. Chlamydia Serine Protease Inhibitor, targeting HtrA, as a New Treatment for Koala Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Fraser, Tamieka; Gillett, Amber; Tyndall, Joel D A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2016-01-01

    The koala, an iconic marsupial native to Australia, is a threatened species in many parts of the country. One major factor in the decline is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia. Current therapeutic strategies to treat chlamydiosis in the koala are limited. This study examines the effectiveness of an inhibitor, JO146, which targets the HtrA serine protease for treatment of C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae in vitro and ex vivo with the aim of developing a novel therapeutic for koala Chlamydia infections. Clinical isolates from koalas were examined for their susceptibility to JO146. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with JO146 during the mid-replicative phase of C. pecorum or C. pneumoniae infections resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. Ex vivo primary koala tissue cultures were used to demonstrate the efficacy of JO146 and the non-toxic nature of this compound on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary cell lines established from koala tissues collected at necropsy. Our results suggest that inhibition of the serine protease HtrA could be a novel treatment strategy for chlamydiosis in koalas. PMID:27530689

  18. Chlamydia Serine Protease Inhibitor, targeting HtrA, as a New Treatment for Koala Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Amba; Fraser, Tamieka; Gillett, Amber; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Huston, Wilhelmina M.

    2016-01-01

    The koala, an iconic marsupial native to Australia, is a threatened species in many parts of the country. One major factor in the decline is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia. Current therapeutic strategies to treat chlamydiosis in the koala are limited. This study examines the effectiveness of an inhibitor, JO146, which targets the HtrA serine protease for treatment of C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae in vitro and ex vivo with the aim of developing a novel therapeutic for koala Chlamydia infections. Clinical isolates from koalas were examined for their susceptibility to JO146. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with JO146 during the mid-replicative phase of C. pecorum or C. pneumoniae infections resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. Ex vivo primary koala tissue cultures were used to demonstrate the efficacy of JO146 and the non-toxic nature of this compound on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary cell lines established from koala tissues collected at necropsy. Our results suggest that inhibition of the serine protease HtrA could be a novel treatment strategy for chlamydiosis in koalas. PMID:27530689

  19. Chlamydia Serine Protease Inhibitor, targeting HtrA, as a New Treatment for Koala Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Fraser, Tamieka; Gillett, Amber; Tyndall, Joel D A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2016-01-01

    The koala, an iconic marsupial native to Australia, is a threatened species in many parts of the country. One major factor in the decline is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia. Current therapeutic strategies to treat chlamydiosis in the koala are limited. This study examines the effectiveness of an inhibitor, JO146, which targets the HtrA serine protease for treatment of C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae in vitro and ex vivo with the aim of developing a novel therapeutic for koala Chlamydia infections. Clinical isolates from koalas were examined for their susceptibility to JO146. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with JO146 during the mid-replicative phase of C. pecorum or C. pneumoniae infections resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. Ex vivo primary koala tissue cultures were used to demonstrate the efficacy of JO146 and the non-toxic nature of this compound on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary cell lines established from koala tissues collected at necropsy. Our results suggest that inhibition of the serine protease HtrA could be a novel treatment strategy for chlamydiosis in koalas.

  20. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jessica A; Hall, Jennifer V; Kintner, Jennifer; Phillips-Campbell, Regenia; Schoborg, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection. PMID:27486990

  1. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Jessica A.; Hall, Jennifer V.; Kintner, Jennifer; Phillips-Campbell, Regenia; Schoborg, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection. PMID:27486990

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Much, D H; Yeh, S Y

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease of epidemic proportions, infecting an estimated 4 million people a year. It results not only in infertility and ectopic pregnancy but also in infant morbidity and mortality. Ectopic pregnancy is responsible for 11 percent of maternal deaths. About 60 percent of infected women can transmit the bacteria at birth to their infants. Early detection and treatment of chlamydia in both men and women, especially prenatal women, is critical. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix was found in 8.1 percent of a group of 1,004 pregnant women at a hospital prenatal clinic by means of a direct fluorescent antibody test. The prevalence of C. trachomatis was only 0.7 percent in 277 pregnant women receiving prenatal care from private practitioners. All patients between 27 and 30 weeks gestation who tested positive were treated with oral erythromycin. Their partners were treated with tetracycline. The outcome of pregnancy in patients treated for chlamydial infection was compared with a control group of noninfected mothers from the same population. The frequency of premature rupture of the membranes, prematurity, and low Apgar scores among the treated women were not significantly different from those in the control group. There was a significant difference, however, between the two groups in the incidence of low mean birth weight infants and the presence of meconium. Children can acquire a chlamydial infection at birth from contact with infected cervico-vaginal secretions. If not detected and treated, these infected infants may develop conjunctivitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. It is suggested, therefore, that all patients at prenatal clinics be screened for chlamydial cervicitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910182

  3. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  4. Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia muridarum intracervical infection in DBA/1j mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingli; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Arulanandam, Bernard; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-03-10

    We previously reported that intracervical inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum induced hydrosalpinx in DBA/1j mice, but intravaginal inoculation failed to do so. In the current study, we found unexpectedly that intrabursal inoculation of live chlamydial organisms via the oviduct failed to induce significant hydrosalpinx. We further tested whether primary infection via intravaginal or intrabursal inoculation could induce protective immunity against hydrosalpinx following intracervical challenge infection. Mice infected intravaginally with C. muridarum were fully protected from developing hydrosalpinx, while intrabursal inoculation offered partial protection. We then compared immune responses induced by the two genital tract inoculations. Both inoculations induced high IFNγ and IL-17 T cell responses although the ratio of IgG2a versus IgG1 in intravaginally infected mice was significantly higher than in mice infected intrabursally. When the antigen-specificities of antibody responses were compared, both groups of mice dominantly recognized 24 C. muridarum antigens, while each group preferentially recognized unique sets of antigens. Thus, we have demonstrated that intrabursal inoculation is neither effective for causing hydrosalpinx nor efficient in inducing protective immunity in DBA/1j mice. Intravaginal immunization, in combination with intracervical challenge infection in DBA/1j mice, can be a useful model for understanding mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenicity and protective immunity.

  5. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M.; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L.; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E.; Siber, George R.; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cell-mediated immunity, with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells implicated in protection. In this report, we present immune profiling data of subjects enrolled in a multicenter study of C. trachomatis genital infection. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from subjects grouped into disease-specific cohorts were screened using a C. trachomatis proteomic library to identify the antigen specificities of recall T cell responses after natural exposure by measuring interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. We identified specific T cell responses associated with the resolution of infection, including unique antigens identified in subjects who spontaneously cleared infection and different antigens associated with C. trachomatis-related sequelae, such as TFI. These data suggest that novel and unique C. trachomatis T cell antigens identified in individuals with effective immune responses can be considered as targets for vaccine development, and by excluding antigens associated with deleterious sequelae, immune-mediated pathologies may be circumvented. PMID:26446421

  6. Modulation of MICA on the surface of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected endocervical epithelial cells promotes NK cell-mediated killing

    PubMed Central

    Ibana, Joyce Altamarino; Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison Jane; Schust, Danny Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are obligate intracellular bacteria that have tropism for the columnar epithelial cells of the genital tract. Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been reported to induce modifications in immune cell ligand expression on epithelial host cells. In this study, we used an in vitro infection model that resulted in a partial infection of C. trachomatis-exposed primary-like immortalized endocervical epithelial cells (A2EN). Using this model, we demonstrated that expression of the natural killer (NK) cell activating ligand, MHC class I-related protein A (MICA), was upregulated on C. trachomatis-infected, but not on noninfected bystander cells. MICA upregulation was concomitant with MHC class I downregulation and impacted the susceptibility of C. trachomatis-infected cells to NK cell activity. The specificity of MICA upregulation was reflected by a higher cytolytic activity of an NK cell line (NK92MI) against C. trachomatis-infected cells compared with uninfected control cells. Significantly, data also indicated that NK cells exerted a partial, but incomplete sterilizing effect on C. trachomatis as shown by the reduction in recoverable inclusion forming units (IFU) when cocultured with C. trachomatis-infected cells. Taken together, our data suggest that NK cells may play a significant role in the ability of the host to counter C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22251247

  7. Is the prevention of genital chlamydial infections by community involvement possible?

    PubMed

    Mårdh, Per-Anders

    2002-12-01

    This chapter presents different means by which community initiatives have been undertaken to reduce the prevalence and incidence of genital and allied infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. As most of these infections in the majority of infected individuals do not produce symptoms that are likely to urge them to attend any health care unit, screening programmes are mandatory to be able to influence the epidemic of infections with this agent. In many societies there has been a skewed gender distribution in the number of chlamydia-positive persons; this probably indicates that diagnostic service activities have been directed more against one gender than the other. The important role of partner notification, as in the case of other sexually transmitted infections, has been documented. Different means of community initiative have included counselling of school children and groups of persons more likely to be infected. Counselling by the pharmacy has an important role in many societies. Selected cohorts have been offered - via the mass media, Internet, radio and television programmes - sampling kits which can be mailed to a laboratory for testing. The establishment of youth clinics has been found effective for detecting teenagers harbouring C. trachomatis, similarly to screening at antenatal clinics. The offer of free consultations, aetiological tests and therapy has been a part of community initiatives, mimicking the services offered for some of the classic sexually transmitted infections. This chapter considers the usefulness of different test methods and stresses the need to retest those found to be positive. Barriers to the successful introduction of screening activities and diagnostic services are also considered. PMID:12473285

  8. Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma infections in pulmonary MALT lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chanudet, E; Adam, P; Nicholson, A G; Wotherspoon, A C; Ranaldi, R; Goteri, G; Pileri, S A; Ye, H; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Du, M-Q

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci were detected at low frequencies (<20%) among 69 pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, 30 other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and 44 non-LPD. The incidence of individual Chlamydiae was generally higher in MALT lymphoma than non-LPD, although not reaching statistical significance. Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA was not detected. PMID:17876330

  9. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  11. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  12. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  13. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population.

  14. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  15. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  16. Cell death, BAX activation, and HMGB1 release during infection with Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Verbeke, Philippe; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2004-11-01

    Infection by a number of Chlamydia species leads to resistance of the host cell to apoptosis, followed by induction of host-cell death. In a population of infected cells that displays protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis among the adherent cells, we find that cells that had been recovered from the supernatant share characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis, as assayed by the propidium iodide (PI)-annexin V double-labeling technique. Cell death was observed in both an epithelial cell line and primary fibroblasts, although the primary cells had a higher propensity to die through apoptosis than the immortalized cell line. Staurosporine-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, BAX, was inhibited in the epithelial cell line infected for 32 h with the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) but not the murine pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of C. trachomatis, but inhibition of staurosporine-mediated BAX activation disappeared after 48 h of infection with the LGV/L2 strain. Conversely, infection with MoPn (C. muridarum) but not LGV/L2 led to BAX activation after 72 h, as previously reported for shorter (48 h) infection with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) serovar of C. psittaci (C. caviae). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit staurosporine-mediated BAX activation or to activate BAX due to the infection itself may vary as a function of the chlamydial strain. Interestingly, both the epithelial cells and the fibroblasts also released high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) during infection, although much less HMGB1 was released from fibroblasts, consistent with the higher level of apoptosis observed in the primary cells. HMGB1 is released preferentially by necrotic or permeabilized viable cells, but not apoptotic cells. In the extracellular space, HMGB1 promotes inflammation through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. Higher levels of HMGB1 were also measured in the genital-tract secretions of mice

  17. [Balantidium coli infection of the female genitals (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rutschow, H

    1976-04-01

    Two cases of therapy-resistant fluorine are reported in which Balantidium coli from the class of the cilia (Ciliophora, Ciliata, Infusoria) was identified. After a personal experiment, the Balantidia must be considered extremely pathogenic. In international literature, no further indication of a ciliata infection of the female genitals was found. PMID:773739

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in "sine causa" recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Olliaro, P; Regazzetti, A; Gorini, G; Milano, F; Marchetti, A; Rondanelli, E G

    One hundred and one women suffering from "sine causa" recurrent abortion were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) infection by using direct examination, cultural and serological procedures. In this series, C.T. infection did not appear to be related to increased risk of recurrent abortion. The culture-positive and serology-positive rates (14.85% and 34.65%, respectively) did not differ from other unselected populations. Neither time from last abortion nor type of abortion were significantly related to C.T. infection. Nonetheless, the women who underwent examination within one year from last abortion and had a culture-positive partner as well, were more likely to present with a C.T.-positive culture.

  19. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Norway Reveals Multiple New Sequence Types and a Large Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gravningen, Kirsten; Christerson, Linus; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Ödman, Kristina; Ståhlsten, Anna; Herrmann, Björn

    2012-01-01

    to be a useful tool in molecular epidemiology of chlamydia infections. PMID:22470572

  20. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  1. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum . PMID:26981690

  2. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  3. Waddlia chondrophila induces systemic infection, organ pathology, and elicits Th1-associated humoral immunity in a murine model of genital infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Gyger, Joel; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Pilloux, Ludovic; Greub, Gilbert; Stojanov, Milos; Baud, David

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is a known bovine abortigenic Chlamydia-related bacterium that has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in human. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how W. chondrophila infection spreads, its ability to elicit an immune response and induce pathology. A murine model of genital infection was developed to investigate the pathogenicity and immune response associated with a W. chondrophila infection. Genital inoculation of the bacterial agent resulted in a dose-dependent infection that spread to lumbar lymph nodes and successively to spleen and liver. Bacterial-induced pathology peaked on day 14, characterized by leukocyte infiltration (uterine horn, liver, and spleen), necrosis (liver) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (spleen). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of a large number of W. chondrophila in the spleen on day 14. Robust IgG titers were detected by day 14 and remained high until day 52. IgG isotypes consisted of high IgG2a, moderate IgG3 and no detectable IgG1, indicating a Th1-associated immune response. This study provides the first evidence that W. chondrophila genital infection is capable of inducing a systemic infection that spreads to major organs, induces uterus, spleen, and liver pathology and elicits a Th1-skewed humoral response. This new animal model will help our understanding of the mechanisms related to intracellular bacteria-induced miscarriages, the most frequent complication of pregnancy that affects one in four women. PMID:26583077

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis-infected patients display variable antibody profiles against the nine-member polymorphic membrane protein family.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun; Hsia, Ru-ching; Shou, Huizhong; Haggerty, Catherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah; Scurlock, Amy M; Wilson, David P; Bavoil, Patrik M

    2009-08-01

    Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively autotransported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene repertoire is the basis of a previously undetected mechanism of antigenic variation. To test this hypothesis, we chose to examine the serologic response of C. trachomatis-infected patients to each Pmp subtype. Immune serum samples were collected from four populations of patients with confirmed C. trachomatis genital infection: 40 women with pelvic inflammatory disease from Pittsburgh, PA; 27 and 34 adolescent/young females from Oakland, CA, and Little Rock, AR, respectively; and 58 adult male patients from Baltimore, MD. The Pmp-specific antibody response was obtained using immunoblot analysis against each of the nine recombinantly expressed Pmps and quantified by densitometry. Our results show that nearly all C. trachomatis-infected patients mount a strong serologic response against individual or multiple Pmp subtypes and that the antibody specificity profile varies between patients. Moreover, our analysis reveals differences in the strengths and specificities of the Pmp subtype-specific antibody reactivity relating to gender and clinical outcome. Overall, our results indicate that the Pmps elicit various serologic responses in C. trachomatis-infected patients and are consistent with the pmp gene family being the basis of a mechanism of antigenic variation.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Patients Display Variable Antibody Profiles against the Nine-Member Polymorphic Membrane Protein Family▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chun; Hsia, Ru-ching; Shou, Huizhong; Haggerty, Catherine L.; Ness, Roberta B.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Dean, Deborah; Scurlock, Amy M.; Wilson, David P.; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2009-01-01

    Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively autotransported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene repertoire is the basis of a previously undetected mechanism of antigenic variation. To test this hypothesis, we chose to examine the serologic response of C. trachomatis-infected patients to each Pmp subtype. Immune serum samples were collected from four populations of patients with confirmed C. trachomatis genital infection: 40 women with pelvic inflammatory disease from Pittsburgh, PA; 27 and 34 adolescent/young females from Oakland, CA, and Little Rock, AR, respectively; and 58 adult male patients from Baltimore, MD. The Pmp-specific antibody response was obtained using immunoblot analysis against each of the nine recombinantly expressed Pmps and quantified by densitometry. Our results show that nearly all C. trachomatis-infected patients mount a strong serologic response against individual or multiple Pmp subtypes and that the antibody specificity profile varies between patients. Moreover, our analysis reveals differences in the strengths and specificities of the Pmp subtype-specific antibody reactivity relating to gender and clinical outcome. Overall, our results indicate that the Pmps elicit various serologic responses in C. trachomatis-infected patients and are consistent with the pmp gene family being the basis of a mechanism of antigenic variation. PMID:19487469

  6. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, J.K.

    1982-03-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of (3H)uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism.

  7. Accurate detection of male subclinical genital tract infection via cervical culture and DNA hybridization assay of the female partner.

    PubMed

    Trum, J W; Pannekoek, Y; Spanjaard, L; Bleker, O P; Van Der Veen, F

    2000-02-01

    The accuracy of the PACE2 DNA hybridization assay of the cervix and cervical culture in female partners for the diagnosis of male subclinical genital tract infection were assessed in a male infertility population. A total of 184 men were screened for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. Seventy-one men were identified with a positive test for one or more of the above mentioned micro-organisms. The overall prevalence of bacterial infection was 39%. Female partners of all men were tested with the PACE2 DNA hybridization assay to detect a C. trachomatis infection. Sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 100%. In 67 female partners (94%) of men who tested positive for U. urealyticum and/or M. hominis, a cervical swab culture was performed. The sensitivity of the cervical swab culture was 100%. In view of the high prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in the male genital tract and the role these sexually transmitted pathogens may play in infertility, one might question whether all couples should be screened for the presence of these pathogens. Transurethral swab culture after digital prostatic massage is disincentive to men. The cervical culture in their female partner, performed as part of the routine fertility work-up, is a suitable alternative to detect the presence of these micro-organisms in the male genital tract.

  8. Use of enteric vaccines in protection against chlamydial infections of the genital tract and the eye of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R L; Murray, E S; Nisson, P E

    1978-12-01

    Guinea pigs in a test group were fed living guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) organisms classified as Chlamydia psittaci in 60% yolk-sac suspensions as enteric vaccines, while animals in a control group received uninfected yolk sac. Seven test animals and 14 control animals were challenged 11 or 22 days later with 1,000 50% infectious doses of GPIC organisms in either the conjunctiva or the vagina. Evidence of protection from mucosal infection in both sites was noted in test animals. Clinically, the disease was less severe, and microbiologically, lower percentages of mucosal cells were infected. The results suggest that enteric vaccination against mucosal infections of the eye and the genital tract with chlamydial agents is possible.

  9. Steroids alone or as adjunctive therapy with doxycycline fail to improve oviduct damage in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Tammy E; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Darville, Toni

    2014-06-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  10. Mechanism of T cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen. PMID:23644176

  11. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  12. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  13. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  14. Concomitant infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Christmas, J T; Wendel, G D; Bawdon, R E; Farris, R; Cartwright, G; Little, B B

    1989-09-01

    Gonorrhea is an important marker for endocervical chlamydial infections in nonpregnant women. Concomitant infection rates as high as 50% have been reported. There are few data on concomitant infection rates in pregnant patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of endocervical chlamydial infections in pregnant women with gonorrhea. Patients with cervical cultures positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae at their initial prenatal visit had endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis culture obtained before anti-gonorrheal therapy. Control patients were selected at random from the same prenatal population. The prevalence of C trachomatis in patients with gonorrhea was significantly greater than that in the control population (46 versus 5%; P less than .001). Patients with gonorrhea were younger, less often married, and more often black than the control population, but these demographic differences did not account for the large difference in the chlamydial prevalence. Erythromycin 500 mg four times daily provided an excellent cure rate without intolerable side effects. Pregnant patients being evaluated or treated for gonorrhea should also be considered at high risk for concomitant cervical chlamydial infection.

  15. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated. PMID:25588005

  16. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Emer; Brennan, Wendy; Cormican, Martin; Glacken, Marita; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Vellinga, Akke; Cahill, Niall; Lysaght, Fionnguala; O'Donnell, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were identified as

  18. [Improvement of health care for patients with upper respiratory tract diseases associated with chlamydia infection].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V

    2012-01-01

    At present the issues in regard to Chlamydia infection are not only limited by urogenital system. By the way optimal organization and non-urogenital chlamydiosis treatment strategy (with respiratory tract involvement in particular) have not been worked out yet and require immediate solutions. Due to new knowledge on respiratory chlamidiosis the authors discuss scientific background for future development of complex measures and main directions of health care support strategy for patients with upper respiratory associated with Chlamydia infection.

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis genital infections: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M; Seña, Arlene C; Sobel, Jack D; Schwebke, Jane R; Krieger, John N; McClelland, R Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269

  20. The presence of Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in patients infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyue; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yuanjun; Li, Lingjie; Hou, Shuping; Gao, Xibo; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 has been found in Chlamydia caviae in a guinea pig model for inclusion conjunctivitis, raising the possibility that Chlamydia phage is also present in patients infected with C. trachomatis (Ct). In the present study, we assayed for presence of Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in 84 non-Ct controls and 206 Ct patients using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), followed by verification with Western blot. None of the subjects were exposed to an antibiotic treatment or had a C. pneumoniae infection. The VP1 antibody test was positive in both, the ELISA and Western blot assay, in 4 Ct patients. PCR amplification experiments revealed presence of the VP1 gene in 5 Ct patients. The results suggest that Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 may exist in some Ct patients. PMID:27213552

  1. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Joshua E; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the "arms race" of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  2. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Joshua E.; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the “arms race” of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  3. Plasmid CDS5 influences infectivity and virulence in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J H; Smith, B J; Wang, Y; Jham, B C; O'Hagan, K P; Thomson, N R; Murthy, A K; Skilton, R J; Chu, P; Clarke, I N

    2014-08-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  4. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  5. Immunity against a Chlamydia infection and disease may be determined by a balance of IL-17 signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Connor P; Armitage, Charles W; Harvie, Marina C G; Andrew, Dean W; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Most vaccines developed against Chlamydia using animal models provide partial protection against a genital tract infection. However, protection against the oviduct pathology associated with infertility is highly variable and often has no defining immunological correlate. When comparing two adjuvants (CTA1-DD and a combination of Cholera toxin plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-CT/CpG) combined with the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) antigen and delivered via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, we identified two vaccine groups with contrasting outcomes following infection. SL immunization with MOMP/CTA1-DD induced a 70% reduction in the incidence of oviduct pathology, without significantly altering the course of infection. Conversely, IN immunization with MOMP/CT/CpG prevented an ascending infection, but not the oviduct pathology. This anomaly presented a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which vaccines can prevent oviduct pathology, other than by controlling the infection. The IL-17 signaling in the oviducts was found to associate with both the enhancement of immunity to infection and the development of oviduct pathology. This conflicting role of IL-17 may provide some explanation for the discordance in protection between infection and disease and suggests that controlling immunopathology, as opposed to the rapid eradication of the infection, may be essential for an effective human chlamydial vaccine that prevents infertility.

  6. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M.; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H.; Morrison, Sandra G.; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-γ sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed—and some may produce functional proteins—but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  7. Resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection by the adoptive transfer of a biovar-specific, Th1 lymphocyte clone.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, J U; Ramsey, K H; Magee, D M; Williams, D M; Kincy, T J; Rank, R G

    1993-01-01

    MoPn-specific T-cell clones were isolated from a T-cell line that was capable of curing chlamydial genital infection by the Chlamydia trachomatis agent of mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) after adoptive transfer. Two clones (designated as 2.14-0 and 2.14-3) were characterized by flow cytometry techniques to be homogenous for L3T4, CD3, and alpha/beta T cell receptor (TcR) T-helper cell markers. The two clones were biovar specific, because they reacted to MoPn but not the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) or C. trachomatis, serovar type E. Cytokine profile analysis, by a combination of bioassays, ELISA, and slot/Northern blotting for specific cytokine messenger RNAs, further revealed that cultures of antigen-stimulated clone 2.14-0 contained interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and gamma interferon (a T helper 1 cell [Th1] profile). Clone 2.14-3 was also positive for gamma interferon, a level much lower than that of clone 2.14-0, and negative for IL-4 secretion, suggesting a Th1 profile as well. The ability of these clones to bring about the resolution of the chronic genital chlamydial infection of nude mice was tested by the adoptive transfer of 10(7) cells of each clone into the mice. By 4 weeks after cell transfer of clone 2.14-0, 81% of recipient nude mice (30 of 37) resolved the disease. In contrast, clone 2.14-3 or a control T-cell clone specific for a heterologous antigen were unable to resolve the infection in 20 recipients in each case, even after 100 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Chlamydia Induces Anchorage Independence in 3T3 Cells and Detrimental Cytological Defects in an Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Andrea E.; Fowler, Larry J.; Patel, Rahul K.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia are Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect. PMID:23308295

  9. Evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually acquired reactive arthritis.

    PubMed

    Keat, A C; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pegrum, G D; Maini, R N; Scott, J T

    1980-10-01

    Thirty male patients with sexually acquired reactive arthritis (SARA) have been studied at the time of their initial presentation and thereafter. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the urethral exudate of 9 (36.0%) of the 25 patients from whom urethral specimens were taken, and elevated titres of IgM antibody of C. trachomatis were detected in 11 (36.6%) of the 30 initial sera. Thirteen (43.3%) of the patients has a positive urethral culture and/or elevated titre of IgM antibody, and it is therefore suggested that 43.3% of these patients suffered an acute chlamydial infection at or near the time of the onset of their joint disease. The demonstration of 4-fold or greater rises and/or falls in IgM antibody titre (8 patients) and IgG antibody titre (6 patients) in a group of 15 men studied throughout the course of their disease strongly supports this conclusion. A positive urethral culture and/or raised titre of IgM serum antibody was also detected in 25 (50%) of 50 men with uncomplicated nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), suggesting that the prevalence of chlamydial infections in the 2 conditions is similar. Titres of IgG serum antibody to C. trachomatis were, however, significantly higher in patients with SARA than in those with NGU or other rheumatic diseases, and in healthy controls. The geometric mean titres (GMT) of IgG serum antibody in patients with SARA, NGU, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in healthy controls were 1:47.5, 1:8.6, 1:2.2, 1;2.2, 1:3.5, and 1:1.4, respectively. These findings suggest that an exaggerated antibody response to acute infection by C. trachomatis may be an important factor in the development of SARA in some but not all patients.

  10. Delivery of Chlamydia vaccines.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph; Eko, Francis; He, Qing; Bandea, Claudiu; Lubitz, Werner; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Black, Carolyn

    2005-05-01

    The plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases of Chlamydia, including nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, conjunctivitis, blinding trachoma and interstitial pneumonia, and chronic diseases that may include atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, adult onset asthma and Alzheimer's disease, still pose a considerable public health challenge to many nations. Although antibiotics are effective against Chlamydia when effectively diagnosed, asymptomatic infections are rampart, making clinical presentation of complications often the first evidence of an infection. Consequently, the current medical opinion is that an effective prophylactic vaccine would constitute the best approach to protect the human population from the most severe consequences of these infections. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstration that Chlamydia immunity in animals and humans is mediated by T cells and a complementary antibody response, and the completion of the genome sequencing of several isolates of Chlamydia is broadening our knowledge of the immunogenic antigens with potential vaccine value. Thus, major advances have been made in defining the essential elements of a potentially effective subunit vaccine design and parameters for evaluation. However, the challenge to develop effective delivery systems and human compatible adjuvants that would boost the immune response to achieve long-lasting protective immunity remains an elusive objective in chlamydial vaccine research. In response to evolving molecular and cellular technologies and novel vaccinology approaches, considerable progress is being made in the construction of novel delivery systems, such as DNA and plasmid expression systems, viral vectors, living and nonliving bacterial delivery systems, the use of chemical adjuvants, lipoprotein constructs and the codelivery of vaccines and specific immuno-modulatory biological agonists targeting

  11. Incident and recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Owings, Alfred J; Clark, Leslie L; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections impose a significant clinical and public health burden on the Military Health System. Repeat infections contribute significantly to that burden. This report summarizes rates and relative risks of true incident (i.e., initial or "first time ever") and recurrent (i.e., repeat) chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among active component members between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. During the surveillance period, a total of 66,396 initial chlamydia and 9,138 initial gonorrhea cases were diagnosed. Annual crude rates of initial chlamydia infections increased by 23%. Crude rates of initial gonorrhea infections remained stable overall, but female rates decreased by 28.3% over the period. Among the incident cohorts, 11,699 cases of repeat chlamydia, and 1,138 cases of repeat gonorrhea were diagnosed over the period, accounting for 15.0% and 11.1% of overall cohort chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, respectively. The Army branch, those aged 17-19 years, females, non-Hispanic black service members, junior enlisted ranks, and single/never-married service members had the highest crude rates of initial chlamydia and gonorrhea infection, and (single/never-married service members excepted) highest adjusted relative risk of repeat chlamydia infection. PMID:26930148

  12. Lactobacillus crispatus inhibits the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nardini, Paola; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Parolin, Carola; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice; Marangoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus species dominate the vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women and protect the genitourinary tract from the attack of several infectious agents. Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide, can induce severe sequelae, i.e. pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In the present study we investigated the interference of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis, known to be dominant species in the vaginal microbiome, with the infection process of C. trachomatis. Lactobacilli exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Chlamydia infectivity mainly through the action of secreted metabolites in a concentration/pH dependent mode. Short contact times were the most effective in the inhibition, suggesting a protective role of lactobacilli in the early steps of Chlamydia infection. The best anti-Chlamydia profile was shown by L. crispatus species. In order to delineate metabolic profiles related to anti-Chlamydia activity, Lactobacillus supernatants were analysed by 1H-NMR. Production of lactate and acidification of the vaginal environment seemed to be crucial for the activity, in addition to the consumption of the carbonate source represented by glucose. The main conclusion of this study is that high concentrations of L. crispatus inhibit infectivity of C. trachomatis in vitro. PMID:27354249

  13. HIV Acquisition During Pregnancy and Postpartum is Associated with Genital Infections and Partnership Characteristics: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    KINUTHIA, John; DRAKE, Alison L.; MATEMO, Daniel; RICHARDSON, Barbra A.; ZEH, Clement; OSBORN, Lusi; OVERBAUGH, Julie; MCCLELLAND, R. Scott; JOHN-STEWART, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk and cofactors for HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Pregnant women in western Kenya were enrolled if HIV seronegative at that visit or within 3 months. Serial HIV nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) were conducted at 1–3 month intervals to 9 months postpartum. Genital swabs were collected for detection of chlamydia and gonorrhea at baseline, and for trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and yeast at baseline and follow-up. Results Among 1304 pregnant women, median age was 22 years, 78% were married for a median of 4 years, 66% reported knowing partner HIV status, and 8% reported using condoms. Study retention was 98%. During 1235 person-years of follow-up, HIV incidence was 2.31/100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]:0.71–4.10). Incident HIV was associated with syphilis (Hazard Ratio [HR] 9.18, 95% CI:2.15–39.3), chlamydia (HR 4.49, 95% CI:1.34–15.0), BV (HR 2.91, 95% CI:1.25–6.76), yeast (HR 3.46, 95% CI:1.46–8.19), STI history (HR 3.48, 95%, CI:1.31–9.27), lifetime number of sex partners, (HR 1.19, 95% CI:1.03–1.37), partner age discordance (HR 1.07 per year, 95% CI:1.02–1.13) and shorter marriage (HR 1.19 per year, 95% CI:1.03–1.38). No women with incident HIV reported an HIV-infected partner. In multivariate analyses, chlamydia, older partners, and yeast infection remained significant; however, power was limited. Conclusions Pregnant and lactating women may not perceive HIV risk and rarely used condoms. Prevention and treatment of genital infections and risk stratification to identify women for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could decrease HIV acquisition in pregnant/lactating women. PMID:26352880

  14. Potential protective effect of a G>A SNP in the 3'UTR of HLA-A for Chlamydia trachomatis symptomatology and severity of infection.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marleen E; Branković, Ivan; Spaargaren, Joke; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-03-01

    The interindividual differences in response to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are for an important part based on the differences in our host genetic make-up. In the past, several genes and pathways have been identified and linked to protection against or risk for CT infection (i.e. susceptibility), and/or the severity of infection, with a major emphasis on the development of tubal pathology, one of the main causes of female infertility. In the current study, we analyzed in Dutch Caucasian women whether the carriage of HLA-A G>A SNP (rs1655900) was related to the susceptibility of CT infection in a STD cohort (n = 329) and to the severity of infection in a subfertility cohort (n = 482). We also investigated if this A-allele was linked to increase in severity of symptoms, from mild symptoms (lower genital infection) to lower abdominal pain (upper genital tract infection) to the most severe late complication of tubal pathology, including double-sided tubal pathology. We showed that the carriage of HLA-A SNP rs1655900 studied is not associated with the susceptibility to CT infection based on the data from the STD cohort, but might be protective to the development of late complications (p = 0.0349), especially tubal pathology could be relevant.

  15. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  16. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  17. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Lonks, John R.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; Kojic, Erna M.; Hardy, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  18. Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

  19. Pathogenic potential of novel Chlamydiae and diagnostic approaches to infections due to these obligate intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-04-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exhibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology.

  20. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P < 0.001), as well as in retrospective studies (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.74–2.74, P < 0.001). Additionally, with a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for HPV and age, C. trachomatis infection was identified as an independent predictor of cervical cancer in 11 studies (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03–3.01, P = 0.04). Coinfection of human papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis based on histological type indicated an elevated risk for both squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 2.00–2.45, P < 0.001), and adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21–2.15, P = 0.001), in associated with C. trachomatis. Subgroup analysis by where C. trachomatis infection was detected showed a significantly higher risk of cervical cancer associated with C. trachomatis infection detected in serum (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 2.01–2.42, P < 0.001), cervical tissue blocks (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.21–6.83, P = 0

  1. Genital herpes in guinea pigs: pathogenesis of the primary infection and description of recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Stanberry, L R; Kern, E R; Richards, J T; Abbott, T M; Overall, J C

    1982-09-01

    Guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) developed a self-limiting infection characterized by vesiculo-ulcerative lesions on the external genital skin, urinary retention, and hindlimb paralysis. Infection rarely resulted in death. Virologic, histologic, and immunoperoxidase data suggested the following scheme for viral pathogenesis: initial replication in the introitus, vagina, and bladder; spread via sensory nerves to the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, and transmission via peripheral nerves to the external genital skin to produce the characteristic lesions. After recovery from primary infection, animals developed recurrent vesicular lesions, shed virus from genital sites in the absence of lesions, and harbored latent HSV-2 in dorsal root ganglia. Genital infection in the guinea pig shares many features with genital herpes in humans and provides a model to explore mechanisms of latency and reactivation and to evaluate several methods for control of recurrent disease.

  2. Cystitis associated with chlamydial infection of the genital tract in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Soloff, B L; Barron, A L

    1981-01-01

    Male guinea pigs were infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) by intraurethral injection of chlamydiae or by placement of a drop of chlamydial suspension on the meatus of the extruded penis. Transient urethritis and cystitis were observed in animals infected by either method. The production of cystitis by the drop-on technique indicated that chlamydiae are able to ascend the urethra and that the bladder may be a target organ of chlamydial infection. When infected animals were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide, the number of guinea pigs with cystitis was increased, and chlamydiae could be detected in the bladder for as long as 50 days after infection. In contrast, GPIC was not detected in the bladders of untreated animals after day 18.

  3. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. PMID:25637084

  4. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Lewis, Maria E.; Greene, Sheila J.; Foster, Timothy P.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1α protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72 hours after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNFα and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120 hours post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These

  6. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  7. Stable marital relationship protects men from oral and genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kero, K M; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Kortekangas-Savolainen, O; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with sexual behavior. Changes in the sexual habits of couples and their impact on male genital and oral HPV infections were determined during 7 years of follow-up (FU). At baseline and 7 years FU, urethral, semen/penile, and oral samples were collected from 46 men and cervical and oral samples of their spouses for HPV DNA detection. Demographic data and risk factors of spouses were recorded by questionnaire at both time points and analyzed for concordance. HPV genotyping was done with the Multimetrix® kit. At baseline, 29.5 % of the male genital and 11 % of their oral samples tested positive. Incident genital HPV infection was found in 23 % and oral infection in 10.9 % of men. Genotype-specific persistence was detected in one man (HPV53) in genital samples. Moderate to almost perfect concordance of changes in sexual habits during FU among spouses were found. Changing partners [p = 0.028; odds ratio (OR) = 15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.355-166.054] and marital status (p = 0.001; 95 % CI 0.000-0.002) increased the risk of incident genital HPV infections. The overall outcome of genital HPV disease in men was linked to the frequency of sexual intercourse (p = 0.023; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026) and changes in marital status (p = 0.022; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026), while oral HPV infections were associated with the number of sexual partners (p = 0.047; 95 % CI 0.041-0.052). Taken together, asymptomatic genital HPV infections among the men were common. The risk of incident genital HPV infections increased among men reporting a change of sexual partner during FU, implicating that a stable marital relationship protects against oral and genital HPV infection.

  8. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection.

  9. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, P<0.01) at risk of acquiring the infection compared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing

  11. Should screening of genital infections be part of antenatal care in areas of high HIV prevalence? A prospective cohort study from Kigali, Rwanda, 1992-1993. The Pregnancy and HIV (EGE) Group.

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, V; De Clercq, A; Ladner, J; Bogaerts, J; Van de Perre, P; Dabis, F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the prevalence and incidence of genital infections and their association with HIV-1 infection among pregnant women in Kigali, Rwanda. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--HIV+ and HIV- pregnant women were followed prospectively during the last three months of pregnancy. At enrolment, syphilis test (RPR) on blood sample, Chlamydiae trachomatis ELISA test on cervical smear, laboratory gonococcal culture, trichomonas and candida direct examination, CD4 lymphocyte count were performed. At each monthly follow-up clinic visit until delivery, genital infections were screened in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms. RESULTS--The HIV seroprevalence rate was 34.4% (N = 1233), 384 HIV+ women and 381 HIV- women of same parity and age were enrolled. Prevalence of genital infections at enrolment was generally higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- women: syphilis, 6.3% versus 3.7% (p = 0.13); Neisseria gonorrhoea, 7.0% versus 2.4% (p = 0.005); Trichomonas vaginalis, 20.2% versus 10.9% (p = 0.0007); Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.4% versus 5.5% (p = 0.21); Candida vaginalis, 22.3% versus 20.1% (p = 0.49). Until delivery, the relative risk of acquiring genital infections was also higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- women: 1.0 for syphilis (95% CI: 0.5-2.2), 3.7 for Neisseria gonorrhoea (1.0-13.3), 2.6 for Trichomonas vaginalis (1.5-4.6) and 1.6 for Candida vaginalis (1.1-2.4). CONCLUSION--In the context of high HIV-1 seroprevalence among pregnant women, prenatal care should include at least once screening for genital infections by clinical examination with speculum and a syphilis testing in Africa. PMID:7590709

  12. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

  13. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  14. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Branković, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F.; Noz, Marlies P.; Wiericx, Wilhelmina (Anke) J.; Spaargaren, Joke; Morré, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  15. Joint effects of different human papillomaviruses and Chlamydia trachomatis infections on risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, T; Lehtinen, M; Bjørge, T; Abeler, V; Hakama, M; Hallmans, G; Jellum, E; Koskela, P; Lenner, P; Lie, A K; Paavonen, J; Pukkala, E; Saikku, P; Sigstad, E; Thoresen, S; Youngman, L D; Dillner, J; Hakulinen, T

    2004-05-01

    This case-control study based in Nordic serum banks evaluated the joint effects of infections with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, and Chlamydia trachomatis in the aetiology of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Through a linkage with the cancer registries, 144 cases were identified and 420 controls matched to them. Exposure to past infections was defined by the presence of specific IgG antibodies. The odds ratio (OR) for the second-order interaction of HPV16, HPV6/11 and C. trachomatis was small (1.0) compared to the expected multiplicative OR, 57, and the additive OR, 11. The interactions were not materially different among HPV16 DNA-positive squamous cell carcinomas. When HPV16 was replaced with HPV18/33 in the analysis of second-order interactions with HPV6/11 and C. trachomatis, there was no evidence of interaction, the joint effect being close to the expected additive OR. Possible explanations for the observed antagonism include misclassification, selection bias or a true biological phenomenon with HPV6/11 and C. trachomatis exposures antagonizing the carcinogenic effects of HPV16.

  16. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  17. Murine granulated metrial gland cells are susceptible to Chlamydia psittaci infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Buendía, A J; Salinas, J; Bernabé, A; Rodolakis, A; Stewart, I J

    1996-09-01

    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are the most numerous lymphoid cells in the uteroplacental unit in rodent pregnancy. In an experimental murine model of abortion-causing infection, we have studied the responses of GMG cells to Chlamydia psittaci. Chlamydial inclusions have been found within GMG cells, both in apparently healthy cells and in cells with degenerative changes. Establishing the existence of GMG cells infected by C. psittaci opens a new and interesting chapter in the study of these cells.

  18. Murine granulated metrial gland cells are susceptible to Chlamydia psittaci infection in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, J; Buendía, A J; Salinas, J; Bernabé, A; Rodolakis, A; Stewart, I J

    1996-01-01

    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are the most numerous lymphoid cells in the uteroplacental unit in rodent pregnancy. In an experimental murine model of abortion-causing infection, we have studied the responses of GMG cells to Chlamydia psittaci. Chlamydial inclusions have been found within GMG cells, both in apparently healthy cells and in cells with degenerative changes. Establishing the existence of GMG cells infected by C. psittaci opens a new and interesting chapter in the study of these cells. PMID:8751945

  19. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  20. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  1. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  2. Applications and therapeutic actions of complementary and alternative medicine for women with genital infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Kong, Sai; Tsui, Ilene; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.

  3. Fierce Competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for Host Cell Structures in Dually Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients. PMID:23243063

  4. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  5. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Erik D.; Simmons, Ryan S.; Palmer, Amy L.; Hildebrand, William H.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8+ T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8+ killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins. PMID:26597986

  6. Poor Performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for the Detection of Asymptomatic Infections in South African Men: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abbai-Shaik, N S; Reddy, T; Govender, S; Ramjee, G

    2016-01-01

    Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 20-30 mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR (20%) (95% CI 3.7-6.2%); however, an excellent specificity was observed (100%) (one sided 97.5% CI: 96.0-100). Conclusions. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated. PMID:27195171

  7. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  8. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194

  9. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    PubMed

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  10. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the Chlamydia heat shock stress response in an intracellular infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Brett R.; Tan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacteria encode heat shock proteins that aid in survival during stressful growth conditions. In addition, the major heat shock proteins of the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis have been associated with immune pathology and disease. We developed a ChIP-qPCR method to study the regulation of chlamydial heat shock gene regulation during an intracellular infection. This approach allowed us to show that chlamydial heat shock genes are regulated by the transcription factor HrcA within an infected cell, providing validation for previous in vitro findings. Induction of chlamydial heat shock gene expression by elevated temperature was due to loss of HrcA binding to heat shock promoters, supporting a mechanism of derepression. This heat shock response was rapid, while recovery of HrcA binding and return to non-stress transcript levels occurred more slowly. We also found that control of heat shock gene expression was differentially regulated over the course of the intracellular Chlamydia infection. There was evidence of HrcA-mediated regulation of heat shock genes throughout the chlamydial developmental cycle but the level of repression was lower at early times. This is the first study of Chlamydia-infected cells showing the effect of an environmental signal on transcription factor-DNA binding and target gene expression in the bacterium. PMID:26075961

  12. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25 years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30 years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25 years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25 years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25 years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in

  13. Target cell limitation constrains chlamydial load in persistent infections: results from mathematical modelling applied to mouse genital tract infection data.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew P; Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Wand, Handan; Wilson, David P

    2015-02-01

    The interactions between chlamydial pathogens and their host contribute to the outcome of infection. Nonresolving infections in immunodeficient mice can provide insights into these mechanisms by allowing observation of a form of persistent infection. Using a mathematical model, we predict that in a nonresolving infection, the number of chlamydiae in the host will attain a stable equilibrium and that this equilibrium will be independent of the inoculum size. We test this hypothesis by infecting RAG(-/-) mice with 10(4)-10(7) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of Chlamydia muridarum and comparing the IFU levels at equilibrium. There were no statistically significant differences in equilibrium IFU levels between the reference group and other inoculation groups, supporting the hypothesis. Using the mathematical model, we estimated that at equilibrium just 3% of the chlamydiae infect a target cell. We predict that the equilibrium IFU level is highly sensitive to the rate of replenishment of healthy cells. The limitation of target cells is a key driver of infection dynamics, affecting both the peak of infection and the equilibrium level of persistent infections. Target cell limitation likely plays an important role in the dynamics of human infections as well.

  14. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  15. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  16. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

    PubMed

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-11-13

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection.

  17. Geomapping of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Birmingham

    PubMed Central

    Shahmanesh, M.; Gayed, S.; Ashcroft, M.; Smith, R.; Roopnarainsingh, R.; Dunn, J.; Ross, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if the core population hypothesis is applicable to patients with genital chlamydia infections. Design: Retrospective cross sectional study. Setting: Two genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in the city of Birmingham and eight adjacent clinics. Subjects: All patients with chlamydia (n = 665) or gonorrhoea (n = 584) attending between 1 October 1995 and 30 September 1996 with a postcode within the Birmingham health district. Controls were 727 patients seen in the same period with no infection. Methods: Postcodes were used to calculate population prevalence rates per 100 000 aged 15–65 in the 39 wards of the city and to estimate the socioeconomic status using the Super Profile (SP). Ethnic specific rates were also calculated. Data were obtained on gonorrhoea and chlamydia isolation from all the major laboratories of the city over the same time period. Results: GUM clinic attenders accounted for 67.6% and 82.5% of all chlamydia and gonorrhoea isolates reported by the laboratories and that were available for our epidemiological analysis. Both infections were more common in men and in black ethnic groups. However, patients with gonorrhoea only infection were more likely to be of black ethnicity than those with chlamydia only infection (p = 0.0001) and to have different SP distribution (p = 0.0001). On logistic regression age <20 years, male sex, black ethnicity, and living in neighbourhoods with SP J ("have nots") were predictive of both infections compared with controls. Overall chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence rates were 129 and 98.4 per 105 respectively. Corresponding rates for whites was 64.7 and 37.2 and for black ethnic groups 1105 and 1183 per 105 of each ethnic group. Eight adjacent wards accounted for 41% of the chlamydia and 66.5% of the gonorrhoea. Conclusion: In a large urban setting patients attending GUM clinics with chlamydia belong to core population groups with similar, but not identical, sociodemographic characteristics to

  18. Essential Role for Neutrophils in Pathogenesis and Adaptive Immunity in Chlamydia caviae Ocular Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, H. Marie; Bowlin, Anne K.; Hennings, Leah; Scurlock, Amy M.; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Rank, Roger G.

    2011-01-01

    Trachoma, the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, is produced by chronic ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium. While many studies have focused on immune mechanisms for trachoma during chronic stages of infection, less research has targeted immune mechanisms in primary ocular infections, events that could impact chronic responses. The goal of this study was to investigate the function of neutrophils during primary chlamydial ocular infection by using the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae inclusion conjunctivitis. We hypothesized that neutrophils help modulate the adaptive response and promote host tissue damage. To test these hypotheses, guinea pigs with primary C. caviae ocular infections were depleted of neutrophils by using rabbit antineutrophil antiserum, and immune responses and immunopathology were evaluated during the first 7 days of infection. Results showed that neutrophil depletion dramatically decreased ocular pathology, both clinically and histologically. The adaptive response was also altered, with increased C. caviae-specific IgA titers in tears and serum and decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in infected conjunctivae. Additionally, there were changes in conjunctival chemokines and cytokines, such as increased expression of IgA-promoting interleukin-5 and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β, along with decreased expression of T cell-recruiting CCL5 (RANTES). This study, the first to investigate the role of neutrophils in primary chlamydial ocular infection, indicates a previously unappreciated role for neutrophils in modulating the adaptive response and suggests a prominent role for neutrophils in chlamydia-associated ocular pathology. PMID:21402767

  19. Essential role for neutrophils in pathogenesis and adaptive immunity in Chlamydia caviae ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Lacy, H Marie; Bowlin, Anne K; Hennings, Leah; Scurlock, Amy M; Nagarajan, Uma M; Rank, Roger G

    2011-05-01

    Trachoma, the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, is produced by chronic ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium. While many studies have focused on immune mechanisms for trachoma during chronic stages of infection, less research has targeted immune mechanisms in primary ocular infections, events that could impact chronic responses. The goal of this study was to investigate the function of neutrophils during primary chlamydial ocular infection by using the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae inclusion conjunctivitis. We hypothesized that neutrophils help modulate the adaptive response and promote host tissue damage. To test these hypotheses, guinea pigs with primary C. caviae ocular infections were depleted of neutrophils by using rabbit antineutrophil antiserum, and immune responses and immunopathology were evaluated during the first 7 days of infection. Results showed that neutrophil depletion dramatically decreased ocular pathology, both clinically and histologically. The adaptive response was also altered, with increased C. caviae-specific IgA titers in tears and serum and decreased numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in infected conjunctivae. Additionally, there were changes in conjunctival chemokines and cytokines, such as increased expression of IgA-promoting interleukin-5 and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β, along with decreased expression of T cell-recruiting CCL5 (RANTES). This study, the first to investigate the role of neutrophils in primary chlamydial ocular infection, indicates a previously unappreciated role for neutrophils in modulating the adaptive response and suggests a prominent role for neutrophils in chlamydia-associated ocular pathology. PMID:21402767

  20. Chlamydia muridarum infection-induced destruction of male germ cells and sertoli cells is partially prevented by Chlamydia major outer membrane protein-specific immune CD4 cells.

    PubMed

    Sobinoff, Alexander P; Dando, Samantha J; Redgrove, Kate A; Sutherland, Jessie M; Stanger, Simone J; Armitage, Charles W; Timms, Peter; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are increasingly prevalent worldwide. Male chlamydial infections are associated with urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis; however, the role of Chlamydia in prostatitis and male factor infertility remains controversial. Using a model of Chlamydia muridarum infection in male C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the effects of chlamydial infection on spermatogenesis and determined the potential of immune T cells to prevent infection-induced outcomes. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells significantly reduced the infectious burden in the penile urethra, epididymis, and vas deferens. Infection disrupted seminiferous tubules, causing loss of germ cells at 4 and 8 wk after infection, with the most severely affected tubules containing only Sertoli cells. Increased mitotic proliferation, DNA repair, and apoptosis in spermatogonial cells and damaged germ cells were evident in atrophic tubules. Activated caspase 3 (casp3) staining revealed increased (6-fold) numbers of Sertoli cells with abnormal morphology that were casp3 positive in tubules of infected mice, indicating increased levels of apoptosis. Sperm count and motility were both decreased in infected mice, and there was a significant decrease in morphologically normal spermatozoa. Assessment of the spermatogonial stem cell population revealed a decrease in promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)-positive cells in the seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD4 cells, particularly T-helper 2-like cells, prior to infection prevented these effects in spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells. These data suggest that chlamydial infection adversely affects spermatogenesis and male fertility, and that vaccination can potentially prevent the spread of infection and these adverse outcomes.

  1. Opportunistic screening for genital chlamydial infection. II: Prevalence among healthcare attenders, outcome, and evaluation of positive cases

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, J; Catchpole, M; Rogers, P; Hopwood, J; Randall, S; Mallinson, H; Perkins, E; Jackson, N; Carlisle, C; Hewitt, G; Underhill, G; Gleave, T; McLean, L; Ghosh, A; Tobin, J; Harindra, V

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and treatment outcomes among young women screened opportunistically for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and to evaluate the impact of screening in those participating. Design: An opportunistic screening programme (1 September 1999 to 31 August 2000) using urine samples, tested by ligase chain reaction (LCR). In-depth interviews were used for programme evaluation. Setting: Screening was offered in two health authorities at general practice, family planning, genitourinary medicine (GUM), adolescent sexual health, termination of pregnancy clinics and women's services in hospitals (antenatal, colposcopy, gynaecology and infertility clinics). Main participants: Sexually active women (16–24 years) attending for any reason. Main outcome measures: Screening data: prevalence of infection by age and healthcare setting; proportion of positive patients attending for treatment. Evaluation data: participants' attitudes and views towards screening and follow up. Results: In total, 16 930 women (16–24 years) were screened. Prevalence was higher in younger women (16–20) than those aged 21–24 years and was highly variable at different healthcare settings (range 3.4%–17.6%). Prevalence was approximately 9% in general practice. The role of the project health advisers in managing results and coordinating treatment of positive individuals was essential; the vast majority of all positives were known to be treated. Women felt that screening was beneficial. Improving awareness and education about sexually transmitted infections is required to alleviate negative reactions associated with testing positive for infection. Conclusions: Prevalence of infection outside GUM clinics is substantial and opportunistic screening using urine samples is an acceptable method of reaching individuals with infection who do not normally present at specialist clinics. PMID:12576608

  2. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in

  3. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W.; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Group, CAPNETZ Study

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011–2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae–positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae–positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP. PMID:25693633

  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Alkylpolyamine DS-96 Inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis Infection by Blocking Attachment and Entry

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Ichie

    2014-01-01

    Vaginally delivered microbicides are being developed to offer women self-initiated protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis. A small molecule, DS-96, rationally designed for high affinity to Escherichia coli lipid A, was previously demonstrated to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria (D. Sil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:2811–2819, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.00200-07). Aside from the lack of the repeating O antigen, chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) shares general molecular architecture features with E. coli LPS. Importantly, the portion of lipid A where the interaction with DS-96 is expected to take place is well conserved between the two organisms, leading to the hypothesis that DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia infection by binding to LOS and compromising the function. In this study, antichlamydial activity of DS-96 was examined in cell culture. DS-96 inhibited the intercellular growth of Chlamydia in a dose-dependent manner and offered a high level of inhibition at a relatively low concentration (8 μM). The data also revealed that infectious elementary bodies (EBs) were predominantly blocked at the attachment step, as indicated by the reduced number of EBs associated with the host cell surface following pretreatment. Of those EBs that were capable of attachment, the vast majority was unable to gain entry into the host cell. Inhibition of EB attachment and entry by DS-96 suggests that Chlamydia LOS is critical to these processes during the developmental cycle. Importantly, given the low association of host toxicity previously reported by Sil et al., DS-96 is expected to perform well in animal studies as an active antichlamydial compound in a vaginal microbicide. PMID:24663021

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2011-05-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis. PMID:21370423

  8. A cohort study of Chlamydia trachomatis treatment failure in women: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world and diagnosis rates have increased dramatically over the last decade. Repeat infections of chlamydia are very common and may represent re-infection from an untreated partner or treatment failure. The aim of this cohort study is to estimate the proportion of women infected with chlamydia who experience treatment failure after treatment with 1 gram azithromycin. Methods/design This cohort study will follow women diagnosed with chlamydia for up to 56 days post treatment. Women will provide weekly genital specimens for further assay. The primary outcome is the proportion of women who are classified as having treatment failure 28, 42 or 56 days after recruitment. Comprehensive sexual behavior data collection and the detection of Y chromosome DNA and high discriminatory chlamydial genotyping will be used to differentiate between chlamydia re-infection and treatment failure. Azithromycin levels in high-vaginal specimens will be measured using a validated liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method to assess whether poor azithromycin absorption could be a cause of treatment failure. Chlamydia culture and minimal inhibitory concentrations will be performed to further characterize the chlamydia infections. Discussion Distinguishing between treatment failure and re-infection is important in order to refine treatment recommendations and focus infection control mechanisms. If a large proportion of repeat chlamydia infections are due to antibiotic treatment failure, then international recommendations on chlamydia treatment may need to be re-evaluated. If most are re-infections, then strategies to expedite partner treatment are necessary. PMID:23957327

  9. REASSESSING THE ROLE OF THE SECRETED PROTEASE CPAF IN CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION THROUGH GENETIC APPROACHES

    PubMed Central

    Snavely, Emily A.; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe D.; Saka, Hector A.; Nguyen, Bidong D.; Bastidas, Robert J.; McCafferty, Dewey G.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of post lysis degradation. Here we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858), and a third strain containing a mutation in Type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S− or CPAF− C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity, and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein Lamin-associated protein 1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection

  10. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 15-35 year-olds in Baltimore, MD, USA

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Elizabeth; Rogers, Susan M; Turner, Charles F; Miller, William C.; Roman, Anthony M; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Erbelding, Emily; Tan, Sylvia; Villarroel, Maria A.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the U.S. This article reports population and subpopulation prevalence estimates of Ct and correlates of infection among 15-35 year-olds in Baltimore, MD, USA. Methods The Monitoring STIs Survey Program (MSSP) monitored STI prevalence among probability samples of residents of Baltimore, a city with high STI rates. MSSP respondents completed telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviews and provided biospecimens for STI testing. Results Among 2120 Baltimore residents aged 15 to 35 years, the estimated prevalence of chlamydia was 3.9% (95% Cl: 2.8, 5.0). Prevalence was 5.8% (95% Cl: 4.1, 7.6) among black MSSP respondents versus 0.7% (95% Cl: 0.0, 1.4) among nonblack respondents; all but four infections detected were among black respondents. Sexual behaviors and other factors associated with infection were far more prevalent among black than nonblack Baltimore residents. Racial disparities persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral and health factors. Conclusion The MSSP highlights a higher Ct prevalence among young people in Baltimore than in the U.S. overall, with notable racial disparities in infection and associated risk behaviors. Public health efforts are needed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic infections in this population. PMID:21844726

  12. A vaccine formulated with the major outer membrane protein can protect C3H/HeN, a highly susceptible strain of mice, from a Chlamydia muridarum genital challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Tatarenkova, Olga V; de la Maza, Luis M

    2015-11-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were vaccinated with native Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP), using Montanide+CpG or Alum+CpG as adjuvants. Negative control groups were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and the same adjuvants. As positive control, mice were inoculated intranasally with live Chlamydia. Mice were challenged in the ovarian bursa with 10(5) C. muridarum inclusion forming units. Six weeks after the genital challenge the animals were caged with male mice and monitored for pregnancy. Mice vaccinated with MOMP+Montanide+CpG developed high levels of C. muridarum-specific antibodies, with a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and neutralizing titres. Animals immunized using Alum+CpG had low antibody levels. Cellular immune responses were significantly higher in mice vaccinated with MOMP and Montanide+CpG, but not with Alum+CpG, when compared with negative controls. Following the genital challenge, only 20% (4/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide had positive vaginal cultures whereas 100% (9/9) of mice immunized with MOMP+CpG+Alum had positive cultures. Of the positive control animals inoculated with live Chlamydia only 15% (3/20) had positive vaginal cultures. In contrast, 100% (20/20) of mice immunized with OVA+CpG+Montanide, or minimal essential medium, had positive cultures. Following mating, 80% (16/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide, and 85% (17/20) of animals inoculated intranasally with live C. muridarum carried embryos in both uterine horns. No protection against infertility was observed in mice immunized with MOMP and CpG+Alum or OVA. In conclusion, this is the first time that a subunit vaccine has been shown to elicit a protective immune response in the highly susceptible C3H/HeN strain of mice against an upper genital challenge.

  13. A vaccine formulated with the major outer membrane protein can protect C3H/HeN, a highly susceptible strain of mice, from a Chlamydia muridarum genital challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Tatarenkova, Olga V; de la Maza, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were vaccinated with native Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP), using Montanide+CpG or Alum+CpG as adjuvants. Negative control groups were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and the same adjuvants. As positive control, mice were inoculated intranasally with live Chlamydia. Mice were challenged in the ovarian bursa with 105 C. muridarum inclusion forming units. Six weeks after the genital challenge the animals were caged with male mice and monitored for pregnancy. Mice vaccinated with MOMP+Montanide+CpG developed high levels of C. muridarum-specific antibodies, with a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and neutralizing titres. Animals immunized using Alum+CpG had low antibody levels. Cellular immune responses were significantly higher in mice vaccinated with MOMP and Montanide+CpG, but not with Alum+CpG, when compared with negative controls. Following the genital challenge, only 20% (4/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide had positive vaginal cultures whereas 100% (9/9) of mice immunized with MOMP+CpG+Alum had positive cultures. Of the positive control animals inoculated with live Chlamydia only 15% (3/20) had positive vaginal cultures. In contrast, 100% (20/20) of mice immunized with OVA+CpG+Montanide, or minimal essential medium, had positive cultures. Following mating, 80% (16/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide, and 85% (17/20) of animals inoculated intranasally with live C. muridarum carried embryos in both uterine horns. No protection against infertility was observed in mice immunized with MOMP and CpG+Alum or OVA. In conclusion, this is the first time that a subunit vaccine has been shown to elicit a protective immune response in the highly susceptible C3H/HeN strain of mice against an upper genital challenge. PMID:26423798

  14. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  15. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Sixt, Barbara S; Siegl, Alexander; Müller, Constanze; Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13)C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  16. Chlamydia infection in street youth: Need for more aggressive screening programs

    PubMed Central

    Tam, R; MacDonald, N; Feder, S; Giglia, L; Peeling, R; Gully, P; Toye, B; Doherty, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine, first, the sexual practices among street youth in the Ottawa-Carleton, Ontario region; second, the percentage of street youth who report previous sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening; and third, the rate of previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in this population. METHODS: This prospective street youth pilot study was cross-sectional in design. Street youth aged 15 to 20 years were recruited through a drop-in centre or shelter in Ottawa, Ontario between August and October 1993. Information on demographics, substance use, current sexual practices and STD screening and infection history were obtained through a structured face to face interview and a 75-item questionnaire. Past C trachomatis infection was determined by microimmunofluorescence assay with purified antigens of C trachomatis (serovars A to K), Chlamydia psittaci (avian strain 6BC) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (TW-183 strain). RESULTS: Ninety-eight per cent of the youth approached participated. Of the 100 street youth (61 males, mean age 17.8 years; 39 females, mean age 17.1 years), 94% were sexually active, with 21% of males and 26% of females having had four or more different sexual partners in the previous year. Only 27% of males and 8% of females reported consistent condom use with all partners all of the time. Thirty per cent of males and 50% of females reported previous STD testing. Of the 100 street youth, 22 (16 males and six females) had had previous C trachomatis infection by serotesting, but only three of 16 (19%) of these males and three of six (50%) of these females reported previous STD testing. None of the 22 recalled previous diagnosis or treatment for any STD. CONCLUSIONS: These street youth reported a high prevalence of risky sexual behaviour, and this supports the national STD guidelines for targeted screening in this population. The current screening guidelines for C trachomatis in this population do not reach the majority of street youth. PMID

  17. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Methods Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. Results 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6 weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. Conclusions The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Trial registration number Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. PMID:26019232

  18. Localization of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by direct immunofluorescence and culture in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Kiviat, N B; Wølner-Hanssen, P; Peterson, M; Wasserheit, J; Stamm, W E; Eschenbach, D A; Paavonen, J; Lingenfelter, J; Bell, T; Zabriskie, V

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-five women with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and endometrial and tubal biopsy, with specimens for isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and for staining with a species-specific monoclonal fluorescein-conjugated antibody to C. trachomatis were obtained from the urethra, rectum, endocervix, endometrium, tubes, and cul-de-sac. C. trachomatis was isolated from 21 patients (38%), including 10 (18%) who had positive endometrial or tubal cultures. The fluorescein-conjugated antibody stain was positive for 43 (86%) of 50 culture-positive specimens, for 14 (18%) of 78 culture-negative specimens from 21 patients who had positive cultures from other sites, and for one (0.5%) of 192 specimens from 34 patients who had negative cultures at all sites. Thus the sensitivity of direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody for culture-positive specimens was 86% and the specificity for specimens from culture-negative patients was 99%. Twelve upper genital tract specimens were positive by fluorescein-conjugated antibody only. Fluorescein-conjugated antibody staining of 50 paraffin-embedded endometrial aspirates showed extracellular or intracellular elementary bodies and or cytoplasmic inclusions in all of seven culture-positive specimens, in four of six culture-negative specimens from patients who had positive cultures at other sites, and in none of 34 specimens from patients with negative cultures. Thus fluorescein-conjugated antibody staining is useful for confirming the role of C. trachomatis in endometritis and salpingitis. It is more sensitive than culture for detection of chlamydia in endometrial or tubal specimens and is able to confirm that the organism is actually present in endometrial tissue (rather than simply reflecting contamination from the cervix) in women with clinical evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease.

  19. Localization of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by direct immunofluorescence and culture in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Kiviat, N B; Wølner-Hanssen, P; Peterson, M; Wasserheit, J; Stamm, W E; Eschenbach, D A; Paavonen, J; Lingenfelter, J; Bell, T; Zabriskie, V

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-five women with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and endometrial and tubal biopsy, with specimens for isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and for staining with a species-specific monoclonal fluorescein-conjugated antibody to C. trachomatis were obtained from the urethra, rectum, endocervix, endometrium, tubes, and cul-de-sac. C. trachomatis was isolated from 21 patients (38%), including 10 (18%) who had positive endometrial or tubal cultures. The fluorescein-conjugated antibody stain was positive for 43 (86%) of 50 culture-positive specimens, for 14 (18%) of 78 culture-negative specimens from 21 patients who had positive cultures from other sites, and for one (0.5%) of 192 specimens from 34 patients who had negative cultures at all sites. Thus the sensitivity of direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody for culture-positive specimens was 86% and the specificity for specimens from culture-negative patients was 99%. Twelve upper genital tract specimens were positive by fluorescein-conjugated antibody only. Fluorescein-conjugated antibody staining of 50 paraffin-embedded endometrial aspirates showed extracellular or intracellular elementary bodies and or cytoplasmic inclusions in all of seven culture-positive specimens, in four of six culture-negative specimens from patients who had positive cultures at other sites, and in none of 34 specimens from patients with negative cultures. Thus fluorescein-conjugated antibody staining is useful for confirming the role of C. trachomatis in endometritis and salpingitis. It is more sensitive than culture for detection of chlamydia in endometrial or tubal specimens and is able to confirm that the organism is actually present in endometrial tissue (rather than simply reflecting contamination from the cervix) in women with clinical evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease. PMID:3515947

  20. The molecular basis for disease phenotype in chronic Chlamydia-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, John D; Gerard, Herve C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can elicit an inflammatory arthritis in some individuals, and recent surprising studies have demonstrated that only ocular (trachoma) strains, not genital strains, of the organism are present in the synovial tissues of patients with the disease. This observation suggests an explanation for the small proportion of genitally-infected patients who develop Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Other recent studies have begun to identify the specific chlamydial gene products that elicit the synovial inflammatory response during both active and quiescent disease, although much more study will be required to complete the understanding of that complex process of host–pathogen interaction. Several newly developed experimental methods and approaches for study of the process will enable identification of new therapeutic targets, and possibly strategies for prevention of the disease altogether. PMID:23440251

  1. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections.

  2. Guanylate Binding Proteins Enable Rapid Activation of Canonical and Noncanonical Inflammasomes in Chlamydia-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A.; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Miao, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  3. Molecular cartography in acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--a non-targeted metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Müller, Constanze; Dietz, Inga; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Moritz, Franco; Rupp, Jan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae cause several respiratory diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis. Here, we present an integrated non-targeted metabolomics analysis applying ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine metabolite alterations in C. pneumoniae-infected HEp-2 cells. Most important permutations are elaborated using uni- and multivariate statistical analysis, logD retention time regression and mass defect-based network analysis. Classes of metabolites showing high variations upon infection are lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Moreover, we observed several non-annotated compounds as predominantly abundant after infection, which are promising biomarker candidates for drug-target and diagnostic research.

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Moutel, Karinne; Merol, Jean-Claude; Prevost, Alain; Eb, Francois; Lefebvre, Jean-Francois; Coninx, Paul; Liautaud-Roger, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of epidemiological data, an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and head and neck cancer might be suggested. The aim of the present study was to detect Cp-DNA within tumour tissue specimens by a two-step polymerase chain reaction. Investigation was planned on the Fleming's procedure for early termination when initial results were extreme. So, after ten consecutive patients, only one tumour contained Cp-DNA. Hence the prevalence could be regarded as inferior to 60% (2a=b=0.08), the threshold under which a direct role of Cp in head and neck cancer development does not seem to be likely.

  5. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.

  6. The relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among low-income detained African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring, and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 22.6% and 4.3%, respectively. Findings indicated that, controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity.

  7. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  8. [HPV detection in the mouth and cervix of patients with histological diagnosis suggestive of genital infection].

    PubMed

    De Guglielmo, Z; Avila, M; Veitía, D; Fernández, A; Venegas, C; Correnti de Plata, M

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated HPV infection in the oral cavity (using oroscopy and exfoliative oral cytology) and its relation to genital infection in women with cytological diagnosis suggestive of HPV infection. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oroscopy, cytology and viral determination in mouth and cervix by PCR using generic primers MY09/MY11 and MPCR. HPV DNA was detected in oral and genital mucosa in 48.33% and 73.3% of patients, respectively, yielding a concordance of 44.2% (k=0.44, moderate agreement). The most common viral types were low risk, especially type 6, found in 86.2% of oral samples and 65.9% of cervical specimens, alone or in combination with other types of low (11) or high oncogenic risk (16, 18, 33), with a concordance of 10.45% (k = 0.1, insignificant agreement). However, in relation to type 6, there was a concordance of 75.86% (k=0.7, high agreement). The cytology of the oral cavity had a sensitivity of 3.5% and a specificity of 93.6%. For oroscopy, sensitivity was 27.6% and specificity was 74.2%. The results indicate that HPV infection in the oral cavity of patients with genital infection could be frequent. The low concordance between HPV types suggests that HPV infection in the mouth and cervix has a different biological behavior.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in African American women who exclusively have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina A; Kapil, Richa; Austin, Erika L; Brown, LaDraka; Hook, Edward W; Geisler, William M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about whether Chlamydia trachomatis can be sexually transmitted between women or how often it occurs in women who have sex with women (WSW). We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and serum Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibody responses among African American WSW who reported a lifetime history of sex only with women (exclusive WSW) (n = 21) vs. an age-matched group of women reporting sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42). Participants completed a survey, underwent a pelvic examination in which a cervical swab was collected for Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), and had serum tested for anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body-based ELISA. No exclusive WSW had a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT vs. 5 (11.9%) WSWM having a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT (p = 0.16). Compared with WSWM, WSW were significantly less likely to be Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive (7 [33.3%] vs. 29 [69%], p = 0.007). Among Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive women, all were seropositive by IgG1, and the magnitude of Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgG1 responses did not differ in Chlamydia trachomatis-seropositive WSW vs. WSWM. In conclusion, Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity was relatively common in exclusive African American WSW, though significantly less common than in African American WSWM.

  10. Differences in Innate Immune Responses (In Vitro) to HeLa Cells Infected with Nondisseminating Serovar E and Disseminating Serovar L2 of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Darville, Toni L.; Cuozzo, Francis P.; Ferguson, Kaethe; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2002-01-01

    The inflammatory response associated with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections is thought to be initiated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines from infected epithelial cells. This study focuses on the interactions between C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells and immune cells involved in the early stages of infection, i.e., neutrophils and macrophages. First, we showed that the expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), an anti-inflammatory cytokine mainly active on macrophages, was upregulated at the mRNA level in the genital tracts of infected mice. Second, incubation of differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells or monocyte-derived macrophages (MdM) with basal culture supernatants from C. trachomatis serovar E- or serovar L2-infected HeLa cells resulted in macrophage activation with a differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) but not of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression. Third, coculture of infected HeLa cells with dTHP-1 cells resulted in a reduction in chlamydial growth, which was more dramatic for serovar E than for L2 and which was partially reversed by the addition of anti-TNF-α antibodies for serovar E or exogenous tryptophan for both serovars but was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase or anti-IL-8 or anti-IL-1β antibodies. A gamma interferon-independent IDO mRNA upregulation was also detected in dTHP-1 cells from infected cocultures. Lastly, with a two-stage coculture system, we found that (i) supernatants from neutrophils added to the apical side of infected HeLa cell cultures were chlamydicidal and induced MdM to express antichlamydial activity and (ii) although polymorphonuclear leukocytes released more proinflammatory cytokines in response to serovar E- than in response to L2-infected cells, MdM were strongly activated by serovar L2 infection, indicating that the early inflammatory response generated with a nondisseminating or a disseminating strain is

  11. Differences in innate immune responses (in vitro) to HeLa cells infected with nondisseminating serovar E and disseminating serovar L2 of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Darville, Toni L; Cuozzo, Francis P; Ferguson, Kaethe; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2002-06-01

    The inflammatory response associated with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections is thought to be initiated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines from infected epithelial cells. This study focuses on the interactions between C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells and immune cells involved in the early stages of infection, i.e., neutrophils and macrophages. First, we showed that the expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), an anti-inflammatory cytokine mainly active on macrophages, was upregulated at the mRNA level in the genital tracts of infected mice. Second, incubation of differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells or monocyte-derived macrophages (MdM) with basal culture supernatants from C. trachomatis serovar E- or serovar L2-infected HeLa cells resulted in macrophage activation with a differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) but not of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression. Third, coculture of infected HeLa cells with dTHP-1 cells resulted in a reduction in chlamydial growth, which was more dramatic for serovar E than for L2 and which was partially reversed by the addition of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies for serovar E or exogenous tryptophan for both serovars but was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase or anti-IL-8 or anti-IL-1beta antibodies. A gamma interferon-independent IDO mRNA upregulation was also detected in dTHP-1 cells from infected cocultures. Lastly, with a two-stage coculture system, we found that (i) supernatants from neutrophils added to the apical side of infected HeLa cell cultures were chlamydicidal and induced MdM to express antichlamydial activity and (ii) although polymorphonuclear leukocytes released more proinflammatory cytokines in response to serovar E- than in response to L2-infected cells, MdM were strongly activated by serovar L2 infection, indicating that the early inflammatory response generated with a nondisseminating or a disseminating

  12. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population. PMID:21251265

  13. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  14. Expression of two novel proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Myers, G S; Grinvalds, R; Booth, S; Hutton, S I; Binks, M; Kemp, D J; Sriprakash, K S

    2000-08-01

    Genes for a putative membrane associated protein (mvi -homologue) and a 48 kDa protein (ctr48) in Chlamydia trachomatis were characterized. The mvi -homologue has 12 transmembrane domains and shows considerable homology to the members of this gene family in various organisms. The ctr48 has a leader sequence and the C-proximal half is tryptophan-rich. The latter region shares 65% identity with the N-proxima third of C. pneumoniae 76 kDa protein over an overlap of 231 amino acid residues. The genes for the mvi -homologue and the ctr48 are present in the B, Ba, D, E, J and L2 serotypes of C. trachomatis. Immediately downstream from the ctr48 gene are multiple stop codons which are followed by a functional rho-independent terminator. The mvi -homologue and ctr48 genes are independently transcribed, albeit poorly in serotype B. However, protein products corresponding to these genes could not be detected by western blotting in HEp2 cells infected with C. trachomatis. Nevertheless, antibodies to peptides corresponding to these proteins were detected in sera with high micro-immunofluorescence titre against C. trachoImatic, collected from a Chlamydia -endemic population. These results suggest that the mvi -homologue and ctr48 are expressed by C. trachomatis during natural infection. PMID:10906261

  15. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10−7) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  16. Binding of Galanthus nivalis lectin to Chlamydia trachomatis and inhibition of in vitro infection.

    PubMed

    Amin, K; Beillevaire, D; Mahmoud, E; Hammar, L; Mårdh, P A; Fröman, G

    1995-10-01

    A glycoprotein present in Chlamydia trachomatis, serotype L1, elementary bodies (EBs) was earlier found to bind the lectin from Galanthus nivalis (GNA). In the present paper we investigate the interaction of GNA with chlamydial EBs and its effect on in vitro infectivity. The binding affinity was studied with 125I-GNA lectin. Within 15 min about 80% maximal binding was obtained. The chlamydia-GNA interaction was inhibited by alpha-methylmannoside, causing a decrease of about 50% at 1 mM. Curve fit analyses indicated two types of binding sites for GNA on the EBs. The affinity to these differed by a factor of 15. The influence of the lectin on the ability of C. trachomatis to infect McCoy cells was also investigated. There was a GNA-dependent inhibition with a 50% reduction in the number of intracellular inclusions at 0.2 microM of the lectin. The findings indicate the presence of terminal mannose structures on the chlamydial surface at or in the proximity of the cell-binding domains. Mannose-binding proteins of eukaryotic cells could be important for the initial uptake of EBs.

  17. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  18. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in a newborn can cause meningitis (an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have ...

  19. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  20. Pregnancy outcomes in women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a population‐based cohort study in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Canchihuaman, Fredy A; Alva, Isaac E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To measure the risk of preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, infant low birth weight and infant mortality, by a population‐based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data. Methods All women diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis infection (n = 851), noted with a check box on the birth certificate from 2003, and a randomly selected sample of women not diagnosed with C trachomatis (n = 3404) were identified. To assess the RR between chlamydia infection and pregnancy outcomes, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used. Results Women with chlamydia infection were younger, more likely to be non‐white and had less years of education compared with women without chlamydia. Additionally, they were more likely to have inadequate prenatal care and coinfections with other sexually transmitted infections. After adjusting for age and education, chlamydia‐infected women were at an increased risk of preterm delivery (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.99) and premature rupture of membranes (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17) compared with non‐infected women. However, no increased risk of infant death (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.80) or low birth weight (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.68) associated with chlamydia infection was observed. Conclusion This study suggests that C trachomatis is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes, but not with infant death and low birth weight. Routine screening and opportune treatment for C trachomatis should be considered a necessary part of prenatal care to reduce these adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:17344249

  1. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  2. [European Association of Urology guidelines on urinary and male genital tract infections].

    PubMed

    Schneede, P; Hofstetter, A G; Naber, K G; Vahlensieck, W; Ludwig, M; Bach, D; Bauer, H W; Beyaert, G; Blenk, H; Bootz, Th; Friesen, A; Geiges, G; Himstedt, H-W; Hochreiter, W; Keller, H-J; Knopf, H-J; Lenk, S; Liedl, B; Michaelis, R; Neubauer, L; Piechota, H; Rassler, J; Riedasch, G; Rothenberger, K-H; Rüdiger, K; Schmitz, H-J; Stadie, G; Thiel, U; Truss, M C; Wagenlehner, F M E; Weidner, W; Westenfelder, M; Göckel-Beining, B; Heidenreich, A; Rübben, H; Schalkhäuser, K; Thon, W; Thüroff, J W; Weidner, W

    2003-01-01

    Today, the classical bacteria that cause venereal diseases, e.g. gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid and inguinal granuloma, only account for a small proportion of all known sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Other bacteria and viruses as well as yeasts, protozoa and epizoa must also be regarded as causative organisms of STD. Taken together, all sexually transmitted infections comprise more than 30 relevant STD pathogens. However, not all pathogens that can be sexually transmitted manifest diseases in the genitals and not all infections of the genitals are exclusively sexually transmitted. Concise information and tables summarising the diagnostic and therapeutic management of STDs in the field of urology allow a synoptic overview, and are in agreement with the recent international guidelines of other specialist areas. Special considerations (i.e. HIV infection, pregnancy, infants, allergy) and recommended regimens are presented.

  3. Endocytic mechanisms utilized by chlamydiae and their influence on induction of productive infection.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D J; Pearce, J H

    1991-09-01

    The microfilament-disrupting drug cytochalasin D and, initially, inoculation at 20 degrees C were used to differentiate between phagocytosis (sensitive to both treatments) and pinocytosis (resistant to both treatments) to assess whether chlamydial uptake into McCoy cells occurred by one or both mechanisms and whether each could contribute to productive infection. Both treatments suppressed the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis L2/434/Bu and C. psittaci GPIC (the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain) following static inoculation by only 50%, indicating that there was simultaneous operation of both phagocytosis and pinocytosis during uptake that led to productive infection. Measurement of the entry of organisms by two separate assays established that both strains predominantly used a cytochalasin D-resistant (pinocytic) mechanism, implying that phagocytic uptake was coupled to a higher frequency of productive infection. Integration of the data on infectivity and entry allowed the potential for an organism to infect a host cell to be quantified. This synthesis revealed that for both strains the infectivity potential following phagocytic entry was ca. 10-fold greater than that following pinocytic entry. However, both entry mechanisms were exploited more efficiently by strain L2/434/Bu than by strain GPIC (unless the latter was inoculated with centrifugation), indicating that intrinsic strain properties are more important for infectivity potential than the endocytic mechanism utilized.

  4. Reassessing the role of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Snavely, Emily A; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe Dan; Saka, Hector A; Nguyen, Bidong D; Bastidas, Robert J; McCafferty, Dewey G; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2014-08-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of postlysis degradation. Here, we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858) and a third strain containing a mutation in type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S(-) or CPAF(-) C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein lamin-associated protein-1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection

  5. Myeloradiculitis with meningoencephalopathy and optic neuritis in a case of previous Chlamydia psittaci infection

    PubMed Central

    Punter, M N M; Varma, A R

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of optic neuritis and myelo-radiculopathy as a late association following Chlamydia psittaci infection. A 45-year-old female patient with a prior history of C psittaci pneumonia and subsequent reactive arthritis presented to the neurology unit with severe headache, constitutional symptoms and monocular disturbance in vision. Clinical examination revealed focal signs with brisk upper limb reflexes compared to lower limbs and mild left-sided pyramidal signs. Systemic inflammatory markers were raised and serological studies showed no evidence of re-infection. MRI showed multiple high signal foci within the brain parenchyma and pachymeningeal thickening and enhancement. There was marked clinical and haematological improvement with high dose corticosteroids. PMID:22802266

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-1-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Low, Andrea J; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Mabey, David; Segondy, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are common sexually transmitted infections (STI). We assessed the cumulative risk of NG and CT in a cohort of HIV-1-infected high-risk women taking antiretrovirals over 4 years in Burkina Faso. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2011, participants were followed every 3–6 months. At each visit, participants underwent a gynaecological examination with collection of cervical and vaginal swabs. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to analyse associations of NG and CT infection with behavioural and biological factors. Results 172 women had samples tested for NG and CT during the study period, in a total of 1135 visits. NG was detected in 6.4% of women (11/172, 95% CI 2.7 to 10.1) at a rate of 2.76 cases (95% CI 1.53 to 4.99) per 100 person-years. CT was detected in 1.7% (3/172, 95% CI 0 to 3.7) of women at a rate of 0.75 cases (95% CI 0.24 to 2.34) per 100 person-years. The majority of women were asymptomatic (9/14). In the multivariable model, the presence of NG or CT was associated with tobacco use (aOR=11.85, 95% CI 1.13 to 124.17), and concurrent genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR=4.78, 95% CI 1.17 to 19.46). Higher levels of education (aOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.92), and age greater than 35 years (aOR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.92) were associated with lower odds of infection. Conclusions The risk of NG or CT infection remains low among high-risk women in Bobo-Dioulasso. This provides some evidence that antiretroviral use does not contribute to behavioural disinhibition. The asymptomatic nature of most infections underscores the need for regular screening and treatment of STIs in core groups. PMID:24337732

  7. Usefulness of quantifying leukocytes in first-voided urine to predict positivity for Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic men at high risk for chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shin; Horie, Kengo; Seike, Kensaku; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute non-gonococcal urethritis, but some infected men are asymptomatic. We examined leukocytes in uncentrifuged first-voided urine (FVU) from asymptomatic men at high risk for chlamydial infection by automated urine particle analyzers to assess whether the quantification of urinary leukocytes could predict chlamydial infection in these men. We enrolled 209 asymptomatic men, whose female sexual partners had been diagnosed as having a genital chlamydial infection. Their FVU specimens were examined for quantification of leukocytes with automated urine particle analyzers and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum by nucleotide acid amplification tests. Eleven men positive for N. gonorrhoeae or M. genitalium were excluded from further analysis. In the remaining 198 men, 84 positive for C. trachomatis (42.4%) had 1.8-1666.9 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl (median, 43.3 WBCs/μl) in their FVU, whereas 114 negative for C. trachomatis had 0.1-1378 WBCs/μl (median, 4.8 WBCs/μl). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of leukocytes counts for predicting chlamydial infection. A cut-off point of leukocyte counts of 12.5 WBCs/μl was determined from the ROC curve, resulting in a sensitivity of 86.9% and specificity of 88.6% for predicting chlamydial infection. Leukocyte quantification in FVU by automated urine particle analyzers showed good performance in predicting the positivity and negativity for chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men. This test could potentially develop into a relevant tool for preselecting asymptomatic men prior to C. trachomatis screening.

  8. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26785849

  9. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  11. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better. PMID:23903989

  12. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  13. Tampons: a novel patient-administered method for the assessment of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fairley, C K; Chen, S; Tabrizi, S N; Quinn, M A; McNeil, J J; Garland, S M

    1992-06-01

    Assessment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection usually requires a speculum examination to collect genital specimens. A technique using tampons as a patient-administered method for the collection of specimens was studied by dot blot hybridization (HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tampons and cervical scrapes were collected from 48 consecutive women attending a dysplasia clinic. Tampons provided a significantly larger pellet volume (P less than .002) and more DNA (P less than .01) than scrapes. There was a close correlation when samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA. Using dot blot hybridization, 8 cervical scrapes (17%) and 9 tampons (19%) were positive for HPV DNA (90% correlation). By PCR, 35 cervical scrapes (73%) and 33 tampons (69%) were positive for HPV DNA (88% correlation). Thus, tampon specimens are an easy method for assessment of genital HPV infection.

  14. Biophysical and Biochemical Outcomes of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Pro-atherogenic Matrix Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies support the hypothesis that infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chlamydia pneumoniae is strongly implicated in atherosclerosis, but the precise role has been underestimated and poorly understood due to the complexity of the disease process. In this work, we test the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages lodged in the subendothelial matrix contribute to atherogenesis through pro-inflammatory factors and by cell-matrix interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used a 3D infection model with freshly isolated PBMC infected with live C. pneumoniae and chlamydial antigens encapsulated in a collagen matrix, and analyzed the inflammatory responses over 7 days. We observed that infection significantly upregulates the secretion of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP, oxidative stress, transendothelial permeability, and LDL uptake. We also observed that infected macrophages form clusters, and substantially modify the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix to an atherogenic phenotype. Together, our data demonstrates that C. pneumoniae-infection drives a low-grade, sustained inflammation that may predispose in the transformation to atherosclerotic foci. PMID:27582738

  15. Biophysical and Biochemical Outcomes of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Pro-atherogenic Matrix Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Dallo, Shatha F.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies support the hypothesis that infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chlamydia pneumoniae is strongly implicated in atherosclerosis, but the precise role has been underestimated and poorly understood due to the complexity of the disease process. In this work, we test the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages lodged in the subendothelial matrix contribute to atherogenesis through pro-inflammatory factors and by cell-matrix interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used a 3D infection model with freshly isolated PBMC infected with live C. pneumoniae and chlamydial antigens encapsulated in a collagen matrix, and analyzed the inflammatory responses over 7 days. We observed that infection significantly upregulates the secretion of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP, oxidative stress, transendothelial permeability, and LDL uptake. We also observed that infected macrophages form clusters, and substantially modify the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix to an atherogenic phenotype. Together, our data demonstrates that C. pneumoniae-infection drives a low-grade, sustained inflammation that may predispose in the transformation to atherosclerotic foci. PMID:27582738

  16. Is chlamydia screening and testing in Britain reaching young adults at risk of infection? Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483

  17. The Relationship between Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection before and after Mass Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhani, Athumani M.; Derrick, Tamsyn; Macleod, David; Holland, Martin J.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is a blinding disease, initiated in early childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The population prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma; ‘‘follicular conjunctivitis” (TF) and/or ‘‘intense papillary inflammation” (TI), guide programmatic decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the persistence of TF following resolution of infection at both the individual and population level raises concerns over the suitability of this clinical sign as a marker for C. trachomatis infection. Methodology/Principle Findings We systematically reviewed the literature for population-based studies and those including randomly selected individuals, which reported the prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma and ocular C. trachomatis infection by nucleic acid amplification test. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between active trachoma and C. trachomatis infection before and after MDA. TF and C. trachomatis infection were strongly correlated prior to MDA (r = 0.92, 95%CI 0.83 to 0.96, p<0.0001); the relationship was similar when the analysis was limited to children. A moderate correlation was found between TI and prevalence of infection. Following MDA, the relationship between TF and infection prevalence was weaker (r = 0.60, 95%CI 0.25 to 0.81, p = 0.003) and there was no correlation between TI and C. trachomatis infection. Conclusions/Significance Prior to MDA, TF is a good indicator of the community prevalence of C. trachomatis infection. Following MDA, the prevalence of TF tends to overestimate the underlying infection prevalence. In order to prevent unnecessary additional rounds of MDA and to accurately ascertain when elimination goals have been reached, a cost-effective test for C. trachomatis that can be administered in low-resource settings remains desirable. PMID:27783678

  18. Post-vaccination MDEM associated with MOG antibody in a subclinical Chlamydia infected boy.

    PubMed

    Azumagawa, Kohji; Nomura, Shohei; Shigeri, Yasushi; Jones, Leslie Sargent; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality. He was treated with a high-dose of intravenous methylprednisolone in the diagnosis of ADEM. However, these symptoms recurred with different magnetic resonance imaging lesion, and he was diagnosed as MDEM. Retrospective testing for pathogens revealed C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies, and it was considered that he was infected with C. pneumoniae subclinically. The patient's serum indicated a positive response for the anti-MOG antibody from the onset of the ADEM diagnosis and in all recurrent episodes. Chlamydia species infection has been known to play a role in demyelinating diseases. It is also known that the anti-MOG antibody may be present but not exhibit its pathogenesis in the absence of a cell-mediated inflammatory response; however, the precise mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet determined. We propose the possibility that post-vaccination demyelinating disease may result from the synergistic effects of a preceding anti-MOG antibody, possibly produced in response to a subclinical Chlamydia species infection.

  19. Post-vaccination MDEM associated with MOG antibody in a subclinical Chlamydia infected boy.

    PubMed

    Azumagawa, Kohji; Nomura, Shohei; Shigeri, Yasushi; Jones, Leslie Sargent; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality. He was treated with a high-dose of intravenous methylprednisolone in the diagnosis of ADEM. However, these symptoms recurred with different magnetic resonance imaging lesion, and he was diagnosed as MDEM. Retrospective testing for pathogens revealed C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies, and it was considered that he was infected with C. pneumoniae subclinically. The patient's serum indicated a positive response for the anti-MOG antibody from the onset of the ADEM diagnosis and in all recurrent episodes. Chlamydia species infection has been known to play a role in demyelinating diseases. It is also known that the anti-MOG antibody may be present but not exhibit its pathogenesis in the absence of a cell-mediated inflammatory response; however, the precise mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet determined. We propose the possibility that post-vaccination demyelinating disease may result from the synergistic effects of a preceding anti-MOG antibody, possibly produced in response to a subclinical Chlamydia species infection. PMID:26922251

  20. Intrauterine Infection with Plasmid-Free Chlamydia muridarum Reveals a Critical Role of the Plasmid in Chlamydial Ascension and Establishes a Model for Evaluating Plasmid-Independent Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Tang, Lingli; Ding, Yiling; Xue, Min; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with plasmid-competent but not plasmid-free Chlamydia muridarum induces hydrosalpinx in mouse upper genital tract, indicating a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial pathogenicity. To evaluate the contribution of the plasmid to chlamydial ascension and activation of tubal inflammation, we delivered plasmid-free C. muridarum directly into the endometrium by intrauterine inoculation. We found that three of the six mouse strains tested, including CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J, developed significant hydrosalpinges when 1 × 107 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of plasmid-free C. muridarum were intrauterinally inoculated. Even when the inoculum was reduced to 1 × 104 IFU, the CBA/J mice still developed robust hydrosalpinx. The hydrosalpinx development in CBA/J mice correlated with increased organism ascension to the oviduct following the intrauterine inoculation. The CBA/J mice intravaginally infected with the same plasmid-free C. muridarum strain displayed reduced ascending infection and failed to develop hydrosalpinx. These observations have demonstrated a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial ascending infection. The intrauterine inoculation of the CBA/J mice with plasmid-free C. muridarum not only resulted in more infection in the oviduct but also stimulated more inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in the oviduct than the intravaginal inoculation, suggesting that the oviduct inflammation can be induced by plasmid-independent factors, which makes the hydrosalpinx induction in CBA/J mice by intrauterine infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum a suitable model for investigating plasmid-independent pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25870225

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Low- and High-Risk Filipino Women and Performance of Chlamydia Rapid Tests in Resource-Limited Settings▿

    PubMed Central

    Saison, Francis; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Michel, Claude-Edouard E.; Buttress, Nigel D.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Villaruel, M. Odeta; Canong, Lorna; Celis, Rey L.; Lee, Helen H.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was determined with a PCR-based test of women from low- and high-risk populations in Iloilo City, Philippines, between August 2002 and March 2006. Two rapid tests for C. trachomatis, Clearview Chlamydia MF and the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT), were also evaluated in these resource-limited settings. Specimens were obtained from female sex workers (FSWs; n = 1,484) attending a social hygiene clinic (SHC) and from women (n = 838) attending an obstetrics-gynecology (OB-GYN) clinic. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the rapid tests were determined, with PCR as the gold standard. The PCR positivity rate for SHC participants (72% asymptomatic) ranged from 17.9 to 32.0% during the study period. Compared with those of PCR, the sensitivities and specificities of the Clearview test were 53.5 and 99.1%, respectively, with endocervical swab specimens (CS; n = 822) from the FSWs and 31.1 and 95.2%, respectively, with vaginal swab specimens (VS; n = 333) from these women. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CRT with VS from the FSWs were 71.0, 99.0, 97.1, and 87.9%, respectively. At the OB-GYN site, the PCR positivity rate with VS was 6.3%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CRT with these specimens were 86.8, 99.6, 93.9, and 99.1%, respectively. The performance of the Clearview test at the SHC was thus markedly lower with VS than with CS, whereas the CRT performed well with VS from both populations. PMID:17942659

  3. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  4. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100 % detection for ≥ 10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(- 1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 88 %. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks.

  5. High Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Mixed Infections Detected by Microarray Assay in South American Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I.; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F. PMID:27082962

  6. High Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Mixed Infections Detected by Microarray Assay in South American Samples.

    PubMed

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F.

  7. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Infant HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Xu, Jiahong; Ank, Bonnie; Morgado, Mariza G; Watts, D. Heather; Weir, Fred; Persing, David; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) can lead to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. STI prevalence and its association with HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated in a sub-study analysis from a randomized, multi-center clinical trial. METHODOLOGY Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women collected at the time of labor and delivery were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of CT and NG (Xpert® CT/NG, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Infant HIV infection was determined by HIV DNA PCR at 3 months. RESULTS Of the 1373 urine specimens, 249 (18.1%) were positive for CT and 63 (4.6%) for NG; 35 (2.5%) had both CT and NG detected. Among 117 cases of HIV MTCT (8.5% transmission) the lowest transmission rate occurred among infants born to CT and NG uninfected mothers (8.1%) as compared to those infected with only CT (10.7%) and both CT and NG (14.3%), (p = 0.04). Infants born to CT-infected mothers had almost a 1.5-fold increased risk for HIV acquisition (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.9–2.3, p=0.09). CONCLUSION This cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women are at high risk for infection with CT and NG. Analysis suggests that STIs may predispose to an increased HIV MTCT risk in this high risk cohort of HIV-infected women. PMID:26372927

  8. Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Macrophages Elicits Bactericidal Nitric Oxide Production via Reactive Oxygen Species and Cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika

    2015-01-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ≤1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-β). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  9. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (ulcus vulvae acutum).

    PubMed

    Sárdy, Miklós; Wollenberg, Andreas; Niedermeier, Andrea; Flaig, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may rarely be associated with genital ulcers (ulcus vulvae acutum), a very painful manifestation. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. We describe here a case of an adolescent virgin with multiple, deep genital ulcers associated with acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, atypical lymphocytosis, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, and the detection of EBV in a swab sample and a biopsy specimen by PCR. The virus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. After a short course of methylprednisolone as a supportive treatment, the ulcers healed within one month. No relapse occurred during the 2-year follow-up. Available data relating to the aetiopathogenesis of this condition are reviewed, and we speculate that it may have been caused by percutaneous autoinoculation through cervicovaginal fluid.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and repeat infection among pregnant urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Erica K.; Patchen, Loral

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative maternal and fetal consequences associated with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae during pregnancy make diagnosis essential. The CDC recommends routine screening for sexually transmitted infections at the first prenatal visit, and third trimester repeat screening, specifically for C. trachomatis, is recommended for women under age 25 or at increased infection risk. The impact of repeat screening on diagnosis during pregnancy is not well documented among adolescents. METHODS A prospective cohort of 125 pregnant adolescents with at least one prenatal screen for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was analyzed. All participants received prenatal care and delivered at one urban teaching hospital in Washington, DC. Screening results were documented for both sexually transmitted infections. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed to describe disease prevalence. RESULTS Thirty-one percent of pregnant adolescents were diagnosed with either C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae infection during pregnancy. Of the 75% (95/125) of patients who had more than one screening test, 11% (10/95) had a re-infection, and 7% (7/95) had a new infection on repeat testing. Nine percent (9/95) had recurrent C. trachomatis, while 4% (4/95) had a new diagnosis. Three percent (3/95) had recurrent N. gonorrhoeae, while 4% (4/95) had a new diagnosis. Some experienced co-infection at either initial or repeat testing. CONCLUSIONS Screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae is recommended during pregnancy. In this sample of pregnant adolescents, the overall high incidence and recurrence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae support CDC screening and re-screening recommendations, regardless of initial test results. PMID:20938375

  11. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Alhusain J.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Hassan, Manal I.; Almulhim, Abdalaziz A.

    2010-01-01

    Inroduction: Of the “top ten” sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group). C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95) and 34.4% (35/102) of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102) among the control group (P < 0.01). N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%), tetracycline (50%), ampicillin (25%), amoxycillin–clavulinic acid (25%) and ciprofloxacin (37.5%), while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective. PMID:21716786

  12. Characterisation of acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Petra; Hartmann, Helmut; Constable, Peter D

    2010-05-01

    This study characterises the acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis (Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and Constable's simplified strong ion equation). Eight pigs were challenged with the respiratory pathogen C. suis and four pigs served as non-infected controls. Pigs were monitored from 7 days before challenge to 8 days post-inoculation. Clinical examination was performed twice daily and venous blood samples were collected every two days. Blood-gas analysis, haemoxymetry, serum biochemical analysis and electrophoresis were performed in order to characterise the acid-base derangement. Aerosol challenge with C. suis resulted in severe acid-base disturbance characterised by acute respiratory acidosis and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis secondary to anaerobic metabolism and hyper L-lactataemia. Maximal changes were seen at day 3 post-inoculation when severe clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction were evident. The results of the study provide new information regarding the pathophysiology of respiratory infection caused by C. suis and the applicability and diagnostic utility of different approaches for assessing acid-base status in pigs.

  13. PREVALENCE AND PATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF CHLAMYDIA PECORUM INFECTIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS).

    PubMed

    Speight, K Natasha; Polkinghorne, Adam; Penn, Rachel; Boardman, Wayne; Timms, Peter; Fraser, Tamieka; Johnson, Kathryn; Faull, Rachel; Bate, Sarah; Woolford, Lucy

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is highly prevalent in many koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) populations in the eastern states of Australia, causing ocular and urogenital tract disease. In contrast, the current prevalence of chlamydiosis in South Australian (SA) koalas is largely unknown, with few reports of clinical cases. We examined 65 SA rescued wild koalas at necropsy and collected ocular and urogenital swabs for the detection of C. pecorum by PCR. We detected C. pecorum in ocular or urogenital swabs from 57 koalas (88%), and 34 koalas were positive at both ocular and urogenital sites. Clinically overt chlamydial disease was present in only 12 (21%) positive koalas. Gross lesions were often externally inapparent as they affected the urogenital tract (n=5), and 24 infected koalas had microscopically evident lesions only. Lesions were predominantly mild and included conjunctivitis, cystitis, and urethritis. Reproductive tract disease was infrequently observed. We detected C. pecorum in 16 (28%) koalas with no evidence of chlamydial disease, suggesting the presence of subclinical carriers in this population. Based on these findings, chlamydiosis has a higher occurrence in SA koala populations than previously thought, but is most often mild and does not always result in overt clinical disease; inapparent and subclinical infections appear common. Further studies of the prevalence in wild-caught SA koalas are needed along with research into the host and bacterial factors that may influence disease outcome in these animals. PMID:26967132

  14. [Infective endocarditis caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae after liver transplantation. Case report].

    PubMed

    P Szabó, Réka; Kertész, Attila; Szerafin, Tamás; Fehérvári, Imre; Zsom, Lajos; Balla, József; Nemes, Balázs

    2015-05-31

    The incidence of infective endocarditis is underestimated in solid organ transplant recipients. The spectrum of pathogens is different from the general population. The authors report the successful treatment of a 58-year-old woman with infective endocarditis caused by atypical microorganism and presented with atypical manifestations. Past history of the patient included alcoholic liver cirrhosis and cadaver liver transplantation in February 2000. One year after liver transplantation hepatitis B virus infection was diagnosed and treated with antiviral agents. In July 2007 hemodialysis was started due to progressive chronic kidney disease caused by calcineurin toxicity. In November 2013 the patient presented with transient aphasia. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation in the aortic valve and brain embolization was identified on magnetic resonance images. Initial treatment consisted of a 4-week regimen with ceftriaxone (2 g daily) and gentamycin (60 mg after hemodialysis). Blood cultures were all negative while serology revealed high titre of antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin was added as an anti-chlamydial agent, but neurologic symptoms returned. After coronarography, valvular surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery were performed which resulted in full clinical recovery of the patient.

  15. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  16. High frequency of latent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Boiko, Ernest V.; Pozniak, Alexei L.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.; Suetov, Alexei A.; Nuralova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the frequency of detection of ocular and extraocular Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in non-high myopes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). METHODS This was a single-center, nonrandomized, prospective, case-control study. One hundred and four patients were divided into a study group with RRD (n=63) and a control group with traumatic retinal detachment (n=41). Samples of subretinal fluid (SFR), conjunctival, urethral/cervical swabs, and blood were collected. The frequency of detection of CT infection in SRF samples was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and cell culture, whereas that in conjunctival swabs was determined by PCR and DFA, and those in urethral/cervical swabs and blood were determined by DFA. Yates Chi-square test (with Bonferroni correction) and two-tailed Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS SRF CT infection was detected more frequently in the study group (50.8%-71.4%) than in the control group (9.8%-12.2%) by all the methods used (P<0.01). The frequency of detection of conjunctival CT infection by DFA was higher in the RRD patients compared with the controls (81.0% vs 24.4%, P=0.004). The PCR detected conjunctival CT infection more often in the study group than in the controls (46.0% vs 9.8%, P=0.007). The DFA detected CT in blood specimens almost as frequently as in urogenital specimens, for the RRD patients (61.2% vs 63.5%) and the controls (7.3% vs 9.8%). CONCLUSION CT infection is detected with high frequency in non-high myopes with RRD. PMID:27366689

  17. Prevention of Chlamydia-induced infertility by inhibition of local caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M

    2013-04-01

    Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications.

  18. A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbour Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia's ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g. amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodelling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further highlights the

  19. Under-reporting of sexually transmitted infection with chlamydia trachomatis - a revision of surveillance system is required

    PubMed Central

    Kustec, Tanja; Keše, Darja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To consider whether a revision of the national chlamydia surveillance system is needed, the objectives were to estimate the proportion of laboratory confirmed cases at the Institute of Microbiology and Immunology (IMI) not reported to the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), and to assess the completeness of reporting for individual data items. Methods The dataset with information about the cases diagnosed at the IMI during 2007-2010, and the national chlamydia surveillance data at the NIPH, were linked using SOUNDEX code and the date of birth as unique identifier. The proportion of unreported cases was calculated. The proportions of records with missing data for individual variables were estimated for all reported cases during the same period. Chlamydia testing and reported rates for the period 2002-2010 were presented. Results Of 576 laboratory confirmed chlamydia cases at the IMI during 2007-2010, 201 were reported to the NIPH, corresponding to 65.1% of the overall underreporting (50.4% among dermatovenerologists, 90.1% among gynaecologist and 100% among other specialists). Item response was above 99% for demographic variables and from 69% to 81% for sexual behaviour variables. Higher testing rates corresponded to higher diagnosed rates. Conclusions Surveillance data underestimated diagnosed chlamydia infection rates. Mandatory reporting of cases by laboratories with less variables, including unique identifier, gender, date of diagnosis, and reporting physician specialty, together with numbers of tests performed (for estimating testing and positivity rates) would simplify the surveillance system and eliminate underreporting of laboratory confirmed cases, while still providing necessary information for public health policies. PMID:27703536

  20. Increasing diversity within Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Valassina, Marcello; Venditti, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, 16S ribosomal DNA analyses has allowed the recognition of new chlamydia organisms, requiring the creation of new species, genera, and families within this unique, deep lineage of prokaryotes. The trachoma and psittaci groups chlamydiae are now recognized as separate genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, respectively, and biovars of each group have been elevated to the species rank. Simkania and Parachlamydia have been associated with human respiratory infections, while Waddlia seems to be implicated in abortion in bovins. DNA amplification studies targeting the 16S rDNA have revealed a richer diversity within chlamydiae, identifying new lineages from both environmental and clinical samples. Further studies will be of interest to both examine the ecology and evaluate the clinical importance of these novel chlamydiae. Herein, we provide a summary of literature and our data about the novel chlamydial lineages.

  1. Failure of in vitro fertilization and embryo replacement following infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, G F; Forsey, T; Moss, T R; Steptoe, P C; Hewitt, J; Darougar, S

    1985-09-01

    Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis were detected in 54 (47.4%) of 114 infertile women attending Bourn Hall Clinic. Antibodies were solely of the IgG class and mainly of a low titer, suggesting past infection. Antibodies were found in significantly more patients with tubal damage (54.4%) than in women whose infertility was due to other causes (16.6%). Seventy-two women completed in vitro fertilization, with 52 having three embryos replaced. We found that this treatment offered the optimum chance of a pregnancy being established, and 20 (38.5%) of these women became pregnant. Antibodies to C. trachomatis were present in only six (30.0%) of the women becoming pregnant, whereas antibodies were found in 21 (65.6%) of those who failed to become pregnant. Thus past infection with C. trachomatis halved the success rate of in vitro fertilization in these patients. The implications of these findings are relevant to all aspects of infertility from prevention to in vitro fertilization treatment.

  2. Ligase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, J; Stamm, W E; Quinn, T C; Andrews, W W; Burczak, J D; Lee, H H

    1994-01-01

    We performed a multicenter evaluation of ligase chain reaction (LCR) in the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix. This LCR provides an amplification of target sequences within the chlamydial cryptic plasmid. The LCR results were compared with those of isolation in cell culture. Discrepant (tissue culture-negative and LCR-positive) test results were resolved by the application of a direct immunofluorescent-antibody test to detect chlamydial elementary bodies and by the use of alternate DNA primers that targeted the chlamydial major outer membrane protein gene. A total of 234 of 2,132 specimens (10.9%) could be confirmed as containing C. trachomatis. Of these, 152 were detected by isolation in cell culture and 221 were detected by LCR. The corresponding sensitivities were 94% for LCR and 65% for cell culture. There was greater variability among study site results for cell culture sensitivity (52 to 92%) than for LCR sensitivity (87 to 98%). The specificity of each test was greater than 99.9%. Thus, LCR offers a highly sensitive nonculture method for detecting chlamydial infection of the cervix. PMID:7814494

  3. Corn mint (Mentha arvensis) extract diminishes acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salin, Olli; Törmäkangas, Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Saario, Elise; Hagström, Marja; Ketola, Raimo A; Saikku, Pekka; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia M

    2011-12-28

    Corn mint ( Mentha arvensis ) provides a good source of natural phenols such as flavone glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives, which may have prophylactic properties against inflammations. This study investigated whether corn mint extract would be beneficial against a universal respiratory tract pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae , infection. The extract inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae CWL-029 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was confirmed against a clinical isolate K7. The phenolic composition of the extract was analyzed by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF/MS, the main components being linarin and rosmarinic acid. These compounds were active in vitro against C. pneumoniae. Linarin completely inhibited the growth at 100 μM. Inbred C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae K7. M. arvensis extract was given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days prior to inoculation and continued for 10 days postinfection. The extract was able to diminish the inflammatory parameters related to C. pneumoniae infection and significantly (p = 0.019) lowered the number of C. pneumoniae genome equivalents detected by PCR at biologically relevant amounts.

  4. Enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in diverse patient groups.

    PubMed

    Bakir, T M; Hossain, A; De-Silva, S; Siddiqui, A; Sengupta, B S; el-Sheikh, M M; Bakir, A F

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in parallel with cell culture was used to investigate the extent of infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis. EIA reactive confirmed in cell culture was taken as positive. C. trachomatis was found in 6 (26.0%) of 23 men with symptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), ten (17.2%) of 58 symptom-free males and in three of 4 with postgonococcal urethritis. Among 106 asymptomatic pregnant women studied the incidence of C. trachomatis was 8.5% while a higher incidence (16.7%) was found in those with symptoms. C. trachomatis positivity in asymptomatic and symptomatic post-natal screening were 11.4% and 7.7%. Of 43 symptomatic non-pregnant females investigated, 7 (16.3%) were found to be positive for C. trachomatis. Of 3 women with PID, 2 (66.7%) harboured C. trachomatis in their cervix while in another 29 infertile women, C. trachomatis was positive in 3 (8.1%). Contraceptives appeared to have an effect on the chlamydial positivity. Comparative testing of EIA with the standard cell culture method in this study indicate EIA as a suitable alternative for the definitive diagnosis of chlamydial infection in high prevalence settings and with caution in low prevalence settings. PMID:2671155

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in parturient women in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Luis; Lekuona, Arantza; Cilla, Gustavo; Lasa, Izaskun; Martinez-Gallardo, Laura-Pilar; Korta, Javier; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Southern Europe is poorly understood and its identification is essential for the design of appropriate prevention policies. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in 2011-2014 was determined through polymerase chain reaction in urine samples from 11,687 unselected parturient women from the Basque Country, Spain (San Sebastián area). The overall age-adjusted prevalence was 1.0 % (95 % CI 0.8-1.2). The prevalence of infection in women younger than 25 years was 6.4 % and decreased substantially with increasing age: 2.0 % in 25-29 year-olds and 0.5 % in older women (P < 0.001). The prevalence was higher in parturient of foreign origin (1.9 %, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5) than in Spanish parturients (0.8 %, 95 % CI 0.6-1.0), (P < 0.001). The results of this study support the need to screen young women as part of antenatal care in Spain. PMID:27247863

  6. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  7. Limited survey of genital infection by guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent.

    PubMed

    Reed, C; Campbell, L H; Soave, O A

    1977-09-01

    Cervical or urethral scrapings were collected from 245 guinea pigs that had clinical signs of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) or were parents of newborn young having clinical signs of GPIC. Giemsa-stained smears were examined for cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and samples were passaged in 6-day-old embryonating eggs. Complement-fixation tests were performed on 44 samples passaged through eggs in an effort to detect the presence of GPIC antigen. Unequivocal evidence of chlamydial infection of the genital tract was not found.

  8. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  9. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  10. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

  11. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract), plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for

  12. Comparison of nine antigen detection kits for diagnosis of urogenital infections due to Chlamydia psittaci in koalas.

    PubMed

    Wood, M M; Timms, P

    1992-12-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is the major cause of infectious disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). It causes four disease syndromes in the koala, namely, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, cystitis, and infertility (females only). Diagnosis of chlamydial infections in koalas relies primarily on isolation of the organism in cell culture. Serology has generally not been useful, and little use has previously been made of the commercially available antigen detection kits. We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of three direct fluorescent-antibody kits (Vet-IF [Cell Labs], IMAGEN [Celltech], Chlamydia-Direct IF [Bio Merieux]) and six antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Clearview [Unipath], Surecell [Kodak], Pathfinder [Kallestad], Chlamydia-EIA [Pharmacia], Chlamydiazyme [Abbott], IDEIA [Celltech]) for the detection of urogenital infections in koalas. Laboratory studies showed that the direct fluorescent-antibody kits were the least sensitive in this case and did not detect fewer than 10(4) elementary bodies per ml, while most ELISA kits detected between 130 and 600 elementary bodies per ml. Field study results showed that the Clearview kit was the most sensitive (91%) compared with the IDEIA (88%) and the Surecell (73%) kits. All three kits were more sensitive than cell culture (36%), highlighting viability loss problems that occur during transport. This study showed that the Clearview kit is sensitive, specific, and easy to use for the detection of type II (urogenital) C. psittaci from koalas in the field and warrants further evaluation. PMID:1452703

  13. Comparison of nine antigen detection kits for diagnosis of urogenital infections due to Chlamydia psittaci in koalas.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, M M; Timms, P

    1992-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is the major cause of infectious disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). It causes four disease syndromes in the koala, namely, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, cystitis, and infertility (females only). Diagnosis of chlamydial infections in koalas relies primarily on isolation of the organism in cell culture. Serology has generally not been useful, and little use has previously been made of the commercially available antigen detection kits. We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of three direct fluorescent-antibody kits (Vet-IF [Cell Labs], IMAGEN [Celltech], Chlamydia-Direct IF [Bio Merieux]) and six antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Clearview [Unipath], Surecell [Kodak], Pathfinder [Kallestad], Chlamydia-EIA [Pharmacia], Chlamydiazyme [Abbott], IDEIA [Celltech]) for the detection of urogenital infections in koalas. Laboratory studies showed that the direct fluorescent-antibody kits were the least sensitive in this case and did not detect fewer than 10(4) elementary bodies per ml, while most ELISA kits detected between 130 and 600 elementary bodies per ml. Field study results showed that the Clearview kit was the most sensitive (91%) compared with the IDEIA (88%) and the Surecell (73%) kits. All three kits were more sensitive than cell culture (36%), highlighting viability loss problems that occur during transport. This study showed that the Clearview kit is sensitive, specific, and easy to use for the detection of type II (urogenital) C. psittaci from koalas in the field and warrants further evaluation. PMID:1452703

  14. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  15. Optimal Method of Collection of First-Void Urine for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Men▿

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Craig A.; White, John A.; Michel, Claude-Edouard C.; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Barber, Penelope J.; Goh, Beng T.; Lee, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids/ml; P < 0.0001). Consequently, the use of FirstBurst to collect a urine sample improved the sensitivity of a rapid test for Chlamydia over testing of samples collected with a urine cup (82 versus 47% sensitivity using PCR as a reference; P < 0.0015). PMID:18234860

  16. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Activates Immune Function to Decrease Chlamydia trachomatis Shedding in a Murine Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Belay, Tesfaye; Fu, Chih-lung; Woart, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) against chlamydia genital infection in mice. AHCC is an extract of mushroom commonly used as a dietary supplement is known to boost the immune system. Mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis after a 24-day cold-stress application. Oral administration of AHCC to stressed or non-stressed mice was carried out seven days before infection and during the course of infection along with cervicovaginal swabbing. Cytokine production by peritoneal and splenic T cells isolated from AHCC-fed stressed mice and non-stressed mice was measured ELISA. Splenic T cells from both animal groups were co-cultured with mouse monocyte J774.2 cell line or cultured by addition of supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line for 24 hours. Infection studies showed that AHCC-feeding compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-feeding to stressed mice resulted in reduced Chlamydia trachomatis shedding from the genital tract. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. Production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the AHCC group was significantly high compared to production in PBS-fed group. Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines

  17. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  18. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  19. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J L

    2009-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  1. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  2. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C. W.; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. Methods A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1–9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. Results The prevalence of active trachoma in 1–9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4–4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1–9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4–2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. Discussion The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in

  3. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

  4. Protein antigens of Chlamydia psittaci present in infected cells but not detected in the infectious elementary body.

    PubMed

    Rockey, D D; Rosquist, J L

    1994-01-01

    Ocular infection of guinea pigs with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) strain of Chlamydia psittaci produces a clinical condition representative of acute chlamydial conjunctivitis in humans. Guinea pigs which had recovered from two challenges with GPIC were used as a source of sera for the identification of antigens present in GPIC-infected tissue culture cells but absent in the infectious elementary body (EB). Immunoblots of lysates of infected HeLa cells probed with the convalescent-phase sera identified protein antigens of 22, 34, and 52 kDa (p22, p34, and p52, respectively) that were not detected in lysates of purified EB or in uninfected HeLa cells. Protein p22 was also not detected in lysates of purified reticulate bodies. Immunoblotting of lysates of HeLa cells infected with other chlamydiae demonstrated that the antigenicity of p22 and p34 was subspecies specific. Immunoblotting was also used to detect p22 and p34 in lysates of the conjunctivae of infected guinea pigs. Adsorption of convalescent-phase sera with GPIC EB produced a reagent with dominant reactivity toward p22, p34, and a 28-kDa EB protein. Immunofluorescent staining of GPIC-infected HeLa cells demonstrated that these adsorbed sera labeled the inclusion and inclusion membrane, with no apparent reactivity toward EB or reticulate bodies. Collectively, these data identify non-EB chlamydial components which may be released into the inclusion during intracellular growth.

  5. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  6. IL-17/il-23 and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Shavlakadze, N; Gorgoshidze, B

    2010-06-01

    Ch. trachomatis is a gram negative bacteria, infecting the most organs of the uro-genital tract and harming greatly the woman's or man's reproductive field. Moreover, as this is not the limit of its destructive nature, it can form a favorable ground for developing ulcer and tumor processes. As observed, a special place is occupied by Ch. trachomatis chronization skill, which is developed irrespective the mighty humoral and cellular respond to its intrusion into the host's organism. It is also known that T (CD4) lymphocytes and their products - cytokines are directly involved into these processes. IL-17 and its regulator IL-23 are among them. For the significance of the above-mentioned processes for expiring the chlamydiosis immune-pathogenesis we have studied the problem in the patients with IL-17 and IL-23 chlamydiosis. We have investigated 56 chlamydia infected patients; 31 non-infected patients who were the carriers of a different pathology flora and 21 healthy donors. The investigation covered some impaired localities as well as the organism overall. To gain the objective we analyzed clinical -anamnesis data and carried out the appropriate instrumental, laboratorial and immunological researches. Stating the chlamydia infection was carried on with the serological and immunofluorescentical and PCR methods. The study of IL-17 and IL-23 is done by ELISA and RT-PCR methods.The findings after the statistical analyses makes us drive to the following conclusions: IL-17 occurs in almost all the patients infected with chlamydia - their organs or systemic environment compared with the patients of non-chlamydia infection (97% against 21%, P<0,05). At the same time, IL-17 has been measured by higher parameters, than IL-23. The highest parameters of IL-17 were recorded with the patients having acute chlamydiosis in the impaired localities and also with the patients having arthritis and high antiovarial antibodies, IL-23 in high digits was recorded with the patients having a

  7. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the penis. You can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  8. Immunotherapy of HPV infection-caused genital warts using low dose cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zeng, Wanjiang; Cao, Yuchun; Liang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    Condylomata acuminata (CA), caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is a common sexually transmitted disease with half a million new cases diagnosed in the United States per year and an annual increase in incidence in China. Conventional treatments, including topical cytotoxic agents, surgical excision and physical therapies, are traumatic, cause local side-effects and are invalid for subclinical or latent infection. Exploring immune approaches to eradicate HPV in CA therapeutics are highly desirable. Recent evidence shows that FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are accumulated in genital warts where they mediate immunosuppression. Intriguingly, a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), a conventional chemotherapy drug, can selectively target Treg cells, thereby enhancing the function of HPV-specific T cells and NK cells leading to efficient clearance of HPV infection. These findings have important clinical significance, and could potentially lead to a therapeutic breakthrough for the treatment of CA.

  9. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam L; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Devlin, Joanne M; Sansom, Fiona M

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of 'wet bottom' in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes. PMID:26932792

  10. Amphipathic β2,2-Amino Acid Derivatives Suppress Infectivity and Disrupt the Intracellular Replication Cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Tiirola, Terttu M.; Strøm, Morten B.; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate in the current work that small cationic antimicrobial β2,2-amino acid derivatives (Mw < 500 Da) are highly potent against Chlamydia pneumoniae at clinical relevant concentrations (< 5 μM, i.e. < 3.4 μg/mL). C. pneumoniae is an atypical respiratory pathogen associated with frequent treatment failures and persistent infections. This gram-negative bacterium has a biphasic life cycle as infectious elementary bodies and proliferating reticulate bodies, and efficient treatment is challenging because of its long and obligate intracellular replication cycle within specialized inclusion vacuoles. Chlamydicidal effect of the β2,2-amino acid derivatives in infected human epithelial cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Images of infected host cells treated with our lead derivative A2 revealed affected chlamydial inclusion vacuoles 24 hours post infection. Only remnants of elementary and reticulate bodies were detected at later time points. Neither the EM studies nor resazurin-based cell viability assays showed toxic effects on uninfected host cells or cell organelles after A2 treatment. Besides the effects on early intracellular inclusion vacuoles, the ability of these β2,2-amino acid derivatives to suppress Chlamydia pneumoniae infectivity upon treatment of elementary bodies suggested also a direct interaction with bacterial membranes. Synthetic β2,2-amino acid derivatives that target C. pneumoniae represent promising lead molecules for development of antimicrobial agents against this hard-to-treat intracellular pathogen. PMID:27280777

  11. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need

  12. Genital ulcers as initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection: two new cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Brevig, Trine; Aas, Torkild; Skar, Anne Grete; Slevolden, Ellen Margrethe; Moi, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Genital ulceration is an uncommon manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present here two cases of genital ulcers probably caused by EBV. The first case is a 12-year-old girl with a genital ulcer appearing before specific EBV serology could identify a primary infection. However, serology was positive 13 days after the ulcer appeared. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV was positive in the biopsy from the ulcer as well. The second case is an 18-year-old female in whom the specific EBV serology was positive 8 days after appearance of the ulcer. The ulcers in both cases healed after 21 days. We reviewed the literature and a total of 26 cases of EBV-associated genital ulcers in females are now published. Median age of the 26 cases is 14.5 years of whom only 6 reports previous sexual contact. Mean healing time for the ulcers is 18 days. Our two cases correspond well with clinical reports of 24 EBV-associated genital ulcers in the literature.

  13. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  14. Effect of age and vaccination on extent and spread of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular respiratory pathogen for humans. Infection by C. pneumoniae may be linked etiologically to extra-respiratory diseases of aging, especially atherosclerosis. We have previously shown that age promotes C. pneumoniae respiratory infection and extra-respiratory spread in BALB/c mice. Findings Aged C57BL/6 mice had a greater propensity to develop chronic and/or progressive respiratory infections following experimental intranasal infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae when compared to young counterparts. A heptavalent CTL epitope minigene (CpnCTL7) vaccine conferred equal protection in the lungs of both aged and young mice. This vaccine was partially effective in protecting against C. pneumoniae spread to the cardiovascular system of young mice, but failed to provide cardiovascular protection in aged animals. Conclusions Our findings suggest that vaccine strategies that target the generation of a C. pneumoniae-specific CTL response can protect the respiratory system of both young and aged animals, but may not be adequate to prevent dissemination of C. pneumoniae to the cardiovascular system or control replication in those tissues in aged animals. PMID:22594698

  15. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of interferon gamma in response to natural Chlamydia infection in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Marina; Pavasovic, Ana; Prentis, Peter J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-09-25

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a key Th1 cytokine, with a principal role in the immune response against intracellular organisms such as Chlamydia. Along with being responsible for significant morbidity in human populations, Chlamydia is also responsible for wide spread infection and disease in many animal hosts, with reports that many Australian koala subpopulations are endemically infected. An understanding of the role played by IFNγ in koala chlamydial diseases is important for the establishment of better prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against chlamydial infection in this host. A limited number of IFNγ sequences have been published from marsupials and no immune reagents to measure expression have been developed. Through preliminary analysis of the koala transcriptome, we have identified the full coding sequence of the koala IFNγ gene. Transcripts were identified in spleen and lymph node tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that koala IFNγ is closely related to other marsupial IFNγ sequences and more distantly related to eutherian mammals. To begin to characterise the role of this important cytokine in the koala's response to chlamydial infection, we developed a quantitative real time PCR assay and applied it to a small cohort of koalas with and without active chlamydial disease, revealing significant differences in expression patterns between the groups. Description of the IFNγ sequence from the koala will not only assist in understanding this species' response to its most important pathogen but will also provide further insight into the evolution of the marsupial immune system.

  16. Adolescence and other risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, H; Tabrizi, S; Lee, W; Kovacs, G; Garland, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence of and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection to determine the role of universal versus targeted testing. Methods: A prospective study of 1107 women attending two sexual and reproductive health clinics in Melbourne, Australia, was carried out. A questionnaire was used to establish risk factors. Urine samples were tested for C trachomatis by PCR. The main outcome measures were prevalence of and risk factors for C trachomatis infection. Results: Of 1107 recruitable women, 851 (76.9%) consented and were successfully tested. C trachomatis was detected in 18 (4.8% (95% CI 2.9 to 7.5)) of 373 women in the inner city and eight (1.7% (95% CI (0.7 to 3.3)) of 478 women in the suburban clinic. Of women under 25 years, 17 (6.2% (95% CI 3.7 to 9.8)) of 273 in the inner city in contrast with three (1.7% (95% CI 0.4 to 5.0)) of 174 in the suburban clinic were infected. In the inner city clinic, age under 25 years (OR 5.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 41.5)), vaginal discharge (OR 4.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 11.1)), and recent change of sexual partner (OR 4.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 12.9)) were associated with C trachomatis. In contrast, in the suburban clinic, only vaginal discharge (OR 3.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 14.3)) and recent change of sexual partner (OR 3.4 (95% CI 0.8 to 15.7)) were identified as risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that recent change of partner (OR 4.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 13.8)) was the most strongly associated independent risk factor for infection in the inner city clinic. Conclusion: The high prevalence of C trachomatis indicates that universal testing should be undertaken in the inner city clinic. Young age may not be a risk factor for C trachomatis in more affluent populations with lower prevalence rates. No risk factors were identified with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be useful for targeted testing. Prevalence and identifiable risk factors for C trachomatis are not transferable between populations, even in the same city. PMID

  17. Attachment and internalization of a Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum strain by McCoy cells: kinetics of infectivity and effect of lectins and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, G; Kihlström, E

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of attachment and ingestion of Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1 by monolayers of McCoy cells were studied by using a method that discriminated between attachment and uptake. When about 1% of the McCoy cells was infected, the proteinase K-resistant chlamydial fraction, regarded as ingested chlamydiae, reached a constant value after about 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Uptake of chlamydiae at 4 degrees C could not be demonstrated. The attached and ingested chlamydial fractions were constant over an eightfold increase in chlamydial inoculum. Chitobiose and chitotriose, the di- and trisaccharides of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, reduced the association of C. trachomatis serotype L1 with McCoy cells. Higher concentrations of chitobiose also selectively inhibited ingestion of chlamydiae. A corresponding effect of chitobiose was also observed on the number of chlamydial inclusions. Wheat germ agglutinin, specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, reduced the association of chlamydiae when incubated at 4 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. A small inhibiting effect of concanavalin A on association of chlamydiae, but no effect of the corresponding carbohydrates, indicates a nonspecific effect on chlamydial attachment of this lectin. These results suggest that beta 1 leads to 4-linked oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are important in the specificity of attachment of C. trachomatis to McCoy cells. PMID:6642670

  18. Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

    2015-08-01

    Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed.

  19. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening Men in Maricopa County Jails for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea to Avert Infections in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Huang, Ya-Lin A.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Taylor, Melanie; Gales, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections can lead to serious and costly sequelae in women, but sequelae in men are rare. In accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, female jail inmates in Maricopa County (Phoenix area), Arizona, are screened for these infections. Owing to lack of evidence of screening benefits in men, male inmates are tested and treated based on symptoms only. Methods We developed a probabilistic simulation model to simulate chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in Maricopa County jail male inmates and transmissions to female partners per year. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening as the cost per infection averted. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health and the Correctional Health Services. Results Compared with symptom-based testing and treating strategy, screening male arrestees of all ages and only those 35 years or younger yielded the following results: averted approximately 556 and 491 cases of infection in women at a cost of approximately US $1240 and $860 per case averted, respectively, if screened during physical examination (between days 8 and 14 from entry to jail), and averted approximately 1100 and 995 cases of infections averted at a cost of US $1030 and $710 per infection averted, respectively, if screened early, within 2 to 3 days from entry to jail. Conclusions Screening of male inmates incurs a modest cost per infection averted in women compared with symptom-based testing. Screening in correctional settings can be used by public health programs to reduce disease burden, sequelae, and associated costs. PMID:24275727

  1. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection. PMID:27110813

  2. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection. PMID:27110813

  3. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  4. The Effects of Chronic Binge Alcohol on the Genital Microenvironment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  6. Prevalence, clinical features and quantification of genital non-viral infections.

    PubMed

    Carne, C A; Gibbs, J; Delaney, A; Sonnex, C; Verlander, N Q; Smielewska, A; Skeggs, E; Bentley, N; Jalal, H

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a study of the prevalence, clinical features and microscopy findings, by retrospective case-notes survey, of six non-viral organisms, among 1718 attendees at a genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic in England. An in-house assay for six non-viral infections was used and quantitation of ureaplasmas performed. The prevalences of the six organisms were: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), 7.1%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), 0.6%; Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), 1.0%; Trichomonas vaginalis, 0.2%; Ureaplasma urealyticum, 16.1%; Ureaplasma parvum, 35.6%. Among men (but not women) there were significantly raised odds ratios compared with that for U. parvum, for the symptom of discharge with CT, 7.30; MG, 6.43; NG 19.29; dysuria with CT, 5.89 and MG, 5.95; and the microscopy finding of >4 pus cells per high power field with: CT, 7.22; MG, 4.58 and NG 22.31. Evaluation of a possible link between quantitation of U. urealyticum and urethritis did not confirm research findings elsewhere.

  7. IL-22 Levels are Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in the Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Moradeke, Makinde Hadijat; Reza, Zariffard; Paria, Mirmonsef; Richard, Novak; Olamide, Jarrett; Alan L, Landay; GregoryT, Spear

    2013-01-01

    Problem IL-22 has important functions at mucosal surfaces, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of epithelium. However IL-22 has not been investigated in the genital tract during TV infection. Methods of Study Women who visited an STD clinic and women from a cohort with frequent Trichomoniasis were studied. IL-22, IL-17 and antimicrobial peptides were measured in cervicovaginal lavage by ELISA. Results In women visiting the STD clinic, those without STDs (n=10) had a median IL-22 of 0 pg/ml while women with infections (n=30) had 27 pg/ml (p=0.04). In the cohort, women with Trichomoniasis (n=19) had significantly higher IL-22 than women with no infections (n=21, 74 versus 0 pg/ml, p=0.0001). IL-17 was also significantly increased in Trichomoniasis and there was a correlation between IL-22 and IL-17 (p=0.001). Conclusion IL-22 is increased in STDs generally and in Trichomoniasis specifically suggesting an antimicrobial response of the mucosa and an epithelial repair process induced by the STDs. PMID:23445169

  8. Clinical Consequences of Immune Response to CT Upper Genital Tract Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Askienazy-Elbhar, M.; Orfila, J.

    1996-01-01

    C. TRACHOMATIS (CT) infections of the upper genital tract in women are either acute, sub acute or chronic. CT infection has a tendency to be chronic, latent and persistent as a consequence of the host immune reaction to CT major outer membrane protein, 57 Kd heat shock protein and lipopolysaccharide. Chlamydial persistence can be induced as a result of inflammatory and/or immune regulated cytokines, Interferon γ depletion of tryptophan causes a stress response involving development of abnormal forms with increased levels of stress response proteins which maintain host immune responses with continuous fibrin exudate. The main clinical consequences are acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, with infertility, ectopic pregnancy and, less frequently, chronic pelvic pain as late sequelae. PID, when acute, is marked by bilateral pelvic pain, plus other infectious signs in typical cases: fever, leucorrhea, red and purulent cervix. In 50% cases, infectious signs are slight or absent or there is an atypical clinical situation. Laparoscopy is the key for diagnosis. It allows the surgeon to have a direct look at the pelvic organs and perform microbiologic and histologic sampling. In severe cases, laparoscopy allows the surgeon to aspirate the purulent discharge and successfully treat pelvic abscesses. Chronic PID usually is clinically silent. It is in most cases discovered some years after the onset of CT infection, in women operated on for tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Further studies, to evaluate treatments efficiency in chronic cases and factors leading to ectopic pregnancy or to recurrence, are indicated. PMID:18476090

  9. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis and genital chlamydial infection among women in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A; Ishak, A; Stevens, R; Fergussen, E; Giles, M; Yohannes, G; Kidan, K G

    1998-03-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women visiting antenatal (ANC) and gynaecological clinics in Gondar, north-west Ethiopia, was investigated. Between April and August 1995, 728 women consented to enter the study. Prevalence rates were 5.9% (41/693) for chlamydial antigen in cervix, 18.8% (113/600) for syphilis (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay [TPHA]) and 25.3% (150/593) for HIV. Active syphilis (RPR)+, TPHA+ was detected in 74% (44/597). HIV infection rate was higher among women with higher age of first marriage and low gravidity. It was significantly associated with young age, urban residence, and presence of genital ulcer (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3), and lymphadenopathy (OR = 2.8) on examination. Women seropositive for syphilis had married at an earlier age, were significantly older and had changed husbands. Low gravidity and age < 30 were independently significant risk factors for cervical chlamydial antigen positivity which was predominantly asymptomatic. Significant association was observed between HIV infection and syphilis (OR = 2.6). Active syphilis was associated with chlamydial (OR = 3.4) and HIV infection (OR = 4.1). The rate of 23.4% and 15.1% of HIV seropositivity among ANC attenders and rural women respectively is an indicator of the rapid progression of the HIV epidemic in the area. PMID:9593487

  10. A cross-sectional study of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and correlates in women undergoing population-based screening or clinic-based testing for Chlamydia infection in London

    PubMed Central

    Svenstrup, H F; Dave, S S; Carder, C; Grant, P; Morris-Jones, S; Kidd, M; Stephenson, J M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine Mycoplasma genitalium infection and correlates among young women undergoing population-based screening or clinic-based testing for Chlamydia infection. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) and two London sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Participants 2441 women aged 15–64 years who participated in the NCSP and 2172 women who attended two London STI clinics over a 4-month period in 2009. Outcome measures (1) M genitalium prevalence in defined populations (%). (2) Age-adjusted ORs (aORs) for correlates of M genitalium infection. Results The overall frequency of M genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis was 3% and 5.4%, respectively. Co-infection was relatively uncommon (0.5% of all women); however 9% of women with C trachomatis also had M genitalium infection. M genitalium was more frequently detected in swab than urine samples (3.9 vs 1.3%, p<0.001) with a significantly higher mean bacterial load (p ≤ 0.001). Among NCSP participants, M genitalium was significantly more likely to be diagnosed in women of black/black British ethnicity (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.5, p=0.01). M genitalium and C trachomatis and were both significantly associated with multiple sexual partners in the past year (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.4, p=0.01 and aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8, p<0.01). Among STI clinic attendees, M genitalium was more common in women who were less than 25 years in age. Conclusions M genitalium is a relatively common infection among young women in London. It is significantly more likely to be detected in vulvovaginal swabs than in urine samples. Co-infection with Chlamydia is uncommon. The clinical effectiveness of testing and treatment strategies for M genitalium needs further investigation. PMID:24503298

  11. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  12. Correlation between CD4 T cell Counts and Virus Compartmentalization in Genital and Systemic Compartments of HIV-infected Females

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Noel, Richard J.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Collado, Santiago; Munoz, Jhoanne; Kumar, Anil; Yamamura, Yashuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/μ1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research. PMID:21745672

  13. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  14. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  15. Preliminary Characterisation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-10 Responses to Chlamydia pecorum Infection in the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine. PMID:23527290

  16. Kinetics of Local and Systemic Leucocyte and Cytokine Reaction of Calves to Intrabronchial Infection with Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Wolf, Katharina; Weber, Corinna; Müller, Kerstin E.; Menge, Christian; Sachse, Konrad; Rödel, Jürgen; Reinhold, Petra; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Infection of cattle with chlamydiae is ubiquitous and, even in the absence of clinical sequeleae, has a quantifiable negative impact on livestock productivity. Despite recent progress, our knowledge about immune response mechanisms capable of counteracting the infection and preventing its detrimental effects is still limited. A well-established model of bovine acute respiratory Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infection was used here to characterize the kinetics of the local and systemic immune reactions in calves. In the course of two weeks following inoculation, leukocyte surface marker expression was monitored by flow cytometry in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Immune-related protein and receptor transcription were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in blood, BALF and lung tissue. An early increase of IL2RA, IL10 and HSPA1A mRNA expressions was followed by a rise of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes exhibiting activated phenotypes in blood. Monocytes showed elevated expression rates of CD11b, CD14 and MHC class II. The rates of CD62L expression on CD8hi T cells in blood and on CD4+ T cells in BALF were also augmented and peaked between 2 and 4 dpi. Notably, CD25 antigen expression was significantly elevated, not only on CD8dim/CD62L+ and CD8-/CD62L+ cells in blood, but also on granulocytes in blood and BALF between 2–3 dpi. From 4 dpi onwards, changes declined and the calves recovered from the infection until 10 dpi. The findings highlight the effectiveness of rapid local and systemic immune reaction and indicate activated T cells, monocytes and granulocytes being essential for rapid eradication of the C. psittaci infection. PMID:26252769

  17. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E. histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E. histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E. histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR.

  18. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  19. HPV genotypes distribution in Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection in a large cohort of women from north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Seraceni, Silva; Campisciano, Giuseppina; Contini, Carlo; Comar, Manola

    2016-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are pathogens with oncogenic potential associated with persistent infections. Epidemiological data on C. trachomatis infection status, C. trachomatis/HPV co-infection and the relationship between HPV genotypes in Italian women are only preliminary. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between HPV genotypes and C. trachomatis in an extending cohort of asymptomatic immunocompetent women from an area of north-east Italy. A retrospective study was conducted using Luminex technology on cervical swabs from asymptomatic immunocompetent women, comprising 921 attending the prevention centre for the Cervical Cancer Program and 6214 who had been referred to the Sexually Transmitted Infections Center, with clinical indications of HPV and C. trachomatis infections. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed to assess chronic C. trachomatis infection by heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) gene expression. The overall prevalence of the investigated pathogens was 39 % (359/921) for HPV and 4 % (251/6214) for C. trachomatis. The Hsp60 gene was detected in 57 % of the women infected with C. trachomatis. HPV co-infection was present in 58 % of C. trachomatis-infected women. A high prevalence of co-infection was found in women with chronic C. trachomatis infection (68 %, P = 0.0002), especially in women ≤ 25 years (72 %) where HPV multiple infections were found in 78 % (P = 0.022). HPV genotype distribution showed that uncommon low-risk genotypes were associated with C. trachomatis. These results indicate a high frequency of co-detection of multiple HPV genotypes in chronically infected young women and suggest that the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60 gene may favour HPV infection. PMID:26944507

  20. Pilot study of the utility and acceptability of tampon sampling for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections by duplex realtime polymerase chain reaction in United Kingdom sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kimmitt, P T; Tabrizi, S N; Crosatti, M; Garland, S M; Schober, P C; Rajakumar, K; Chapman, C A

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the acceptability of self-collected tampon samples for the screening of female sex workers for sexually transmitted infections. We recruited 65 sex workers, and 63 agreed to provide tampon samples. The tampon samples were processed by realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Urethral and endocervical swabs were also obtained from 61 of 63 participants and tested using culture (N. gonorrhoeae) and the BD ProbeTec strand displacement amplification (SDA) (C. trachomatis) assay. Tampon sampling was preferred by 95% of the women and all favoured being tested away from genitourinary medicine clinics; the most common reasons cited were avoidance of embarrassment (40%) and convenience (30%). Besides near-universal acceptability of tampon sampling, the tampon sampling-PCR approach described in this study appeared to have enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional testing, suggesting the possibility of a residual hidden burden of N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis genital infections in UK female sex workers.

  1. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  2. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16–26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2–8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6–4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01–8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available. PMID:25483545

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available. PMID:25483545

  6. Application of β-Lactamase Reporter Fusions as an Indicator of Effector Protein Secretion during Infections with the Obligate Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Konrad E.; Fields, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. utilize multiple secretion systems, including the type III secretion system (T3SS), to deploy host-interactive effector proteins into infected host cells. Elucidation of secreted proteins has traditionally required ectopic expression in a surrogate T3SS followed by immunolocalization of endogenous candidate effectors to confirm secretion by chlamydiae. The ability to transform Chlamydia and achieve stable expression of recombinant gene products has enabled a more direct assessment of secretion. We adapted TEM-1 β-lactamase as a reporter system for assessment of chlamydial protein secretion. We provide evidence that this system facilitates visualization of secretion in the context of infection. Specifically, our findings provide definitive evidence that C. trachomatis CT695 is secreted during infection. Follow-up indirect immunofluorescence studies confirmed CT695 secretion and indicate that this effector can be secreted at multiple points during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results indicate that the BlaM-fusion reporter assay will allow efficacious identification of novel secreted proteins. Moreover, this approach can easily be adapted to enable more sophisticated studies of the secretion process in Chlamydia. PMID:26258949

  7. Immunologic uniqueness of the genital tract: challenge for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Mestecky, Jiri; Moldoveanu, Zina; Russell, Michael W

    2005-05-01

    Although the genital tract is considered to be a component of the mucosal immune system, it displays several distinct features not shared by other typical mucosal tissues and external secretions. Both male and female genital tract tissues lack inductive mucosal sites analogous to intestinal Peyer's patches. Consequently, local humoral and cellular immune responses stimulated by infections [with e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, papilloma virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)] are weak or absent, and repeated local intravaginal immunizations result in minimal humoral responses. In contrast to typical external secretions such as intestinal fluid that contain secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) as the dominant isotype, semen and cervico-vaginal fluid contain more IgG than IgA. Furthermore, irrespective of the route of infection, humoral immune responses to HIV-1 are dominated by specific IgG and low or absent IgA antibodies in all external secretions. Because a significant proportion of IgG in genital tract secretions is derived from the circulation, systemic immunization may provide protective IgG antibody-mediated immunity in the genital tract. Furthermore, combined systemic and mucosal (oral, rectal, and especially intranasal) immunization may induce protective humoral responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments of the immune system.

  8. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  9. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV.

  10. The IL-6 response to Chlamydia from primary reproductive epithelial cells is highly variable and may be involved in differential susceptibility to the immunopathological consequences of chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary human cellular responses to chlamydial stress response proteases and chlamydial infection to further identify the immune processes involved in serious disease sequelae. Results Laboratory cell cultures and primary human reproductive epithelial cultures produced IL-6 in response to chlamydial stress response proteases (CtHtrA and CtTsp), UV inactivated Chlamydia, and live Chlamydia. The magnitude of the IL-6 response varied considerably (up to 1000 pg ml-1) across different primary human reproductive cultures. Thus different levels of IL-6 production by reproductive epithelia may be a determinant in disease outcome. Interestingly, co-culture models with either THP-1 cells or autologous primary human PBMC generally resulted in increased levels of IL-6, except in the case of live Chlamydia where the level of IL-6 was decreased compared to the epithelial cell culture only, suggesting this pathway may be able to be modulated by live Chlamydia. PBMC responses to the stress response proteases (CtTsp and CtHtrA) did not significantly vary for the different participant cohorts. Therefore, these proteases may possess conserved innate PAMPs. MAP kinases appeared to be involved in this IL-6 induction from human cells. Finally, we also demonstrated that IL-6 was induced by these proteins and Chlamydia from mouse primary reproductive cell cultures (BALB/C mice) and mouse laboratory cell models. Conclusions We have demonstrated that IL-6 may be a key factor for the chlamydial disease outcome in humans, given that primary human reproductive epithelial cell culture showed considerable variation in IL-6 response to Chlamydia or chlamydial proteins, and that the presence of live Chlamydia (but not UV killed) during co-culture resulted in a reduced IL-6 response

  11. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides.

  12. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. PMID:27681924

  13. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. PMID:27681924

  14. Alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae survival during experimental murine genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Jerse, Ann E

    2006-07-01

    The addition of host-derived sialic acid to Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide is hypothesized to be an important mechanism by which gonococci evade host innate defenses. This hypothesis is based primarily on in vitro assays of complement-mediated and phagocytic killing. Here we report that a nonpolar alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (lst) mutant of N. gonorrhoeae was significantly attenuated in its capacity to colonize the lower genital tract of 17-beta estradiol-treated female BALB/c mice during competitive infection with the wild-type strain. Genetic complementation of the lst mutation restored recovery of the mutant to wild-type levels. Studies with B10.D2-HC(o)H2(d)H(2)-T18c/OSN (C5-deficient) mice showed that attenuation of the lst mutant was not due to increased sensitivity to complement-mediated bacteriolysis, a result that is consistent with recently reported host restrictions in the complement cascade. However, Lst-deficient gonococci were killed more rapidly than sialylated wild-type gonococci following intraperitoneal injection into normal mice, which is consistent with sialylation conferring protection against killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). As reported for human PMNs, sialylated gonococci were more resistant to killing by murine PMNs, and sialylation led to reduced association with and induction of a weaker respiratory burst in PMNs from estradiol-treated mice. In summary, these studies suggest sialylation confers a survival advantage to N. gonorrhoeae in mice by increasing resistance to PMN killing. This report is the first direct demonstration that alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase contributes to N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis in an in vivo model. This study also validates the use of experimental murine infection to study certain aspects of gonococcal pathogenesis. PMID:16790783

  15. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  16. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  17. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.

  18. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR).

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, C C; Jackson, L A; Campbell, L A; Grayston, J T

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) is a recently recognized third species of the genus Chlamydia that causes acute respiratory disease. It is distinct from the other two chlamydial species that infect humans, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci, in elementary body morphology and shares less than 10% of the DNA homology with those species. The organism has a global distribution, with infection most common among children between the ages of 5 and 14 years. In children, TWAR infection is usually mild or asymptomatic, but it may be more severe in adults. Pneumonia and bronchitis are the most common clinical manifestations of infection, and TWAR is responsible for approximately 10% of cases of pneumonia and 5% of cases of bronchitis in the United States. The microimmunofluorescence serologic assay is specific for TWAR and can distinguish between recent and past infections. The organism can be isolated in cell culture; however, PCR techniques have recently facilitated its detection in tissues and clinical specimens. PMID:8665464

  20. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  1. Interferon-gamma gene polymorphism influences the frequency of a Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Eleutério, José; Teles, Rosiane A; Linhares, Iara M; Normand, Neil; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Cervicitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis is frequent worldwide, but the factors determining susceptibility to infection remain incompletely determined. We evaluated whether a functional single nucleotide polymorphism at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma (rs2430561) influenced the likelihood of having a cervical C. trachomatis infection. This was a cross-sectional study of 142 sexually-active women attending a general gynaecology service on the outskirts of the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil between August 2011 and August 2012. Endocervical swabs were evaluated for C. trachomatis DNA using hybrid capture. DNA from buccal swabs was utilised for detection of the interferon gamma 874 T/A single nucleotide polymorphism by gene amplification, endonuclease digestion and gel electrophoresis. Nineteen women (13.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis in their cervix. Positivity was 21.7% in women with the A,A genotype versus 7.0% in women with one or two T alleles (p = 0.0227). The variant T allele frequency, associated with elevated interferon gamma production, was 36.2% in women who were negative for C. trachomatis as opposed to 18.4% in women who were positive for a cervical infection with this organism (p = 0.0415). Possession of the T allele at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma is associated with a reduced likelihood of a C. trachomatis cervical infection.

  2. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells mediate the regulation of inflammatory type T cell response for optimal immunity against respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Joyee, Antony George; Yang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection is a leading cause for a variety of respiratory diseases and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. The regulatory mechanisms in host defense against Cpn infection are less understood. In this study, we investigated the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in immune regulation in Cpn respiratory tract infection. We found that in vivo depletion of pDCs increased the severity of infection and lung pathology. Mice depleted of pDC had greater body weight loss, higher lung bacterial burden and excessive tissue inflammation compared to the control mice. Analysis of specific T cell cytokine production pattern in the lung following Cpn infection revealed that pDC depleted mice produced significantly higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-α, but lower IL-10 compared to the controls. In particular, pDC depleted mice showed pathogenic T cell responses characterized by inflammatory type-1 (CD8 and CD4) and inflammatory Th2 cell responses. Moreover, pDC depletion dramatically reduced CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, pDC-T cell co-culture experiments showed that pDCs isolated from Cpn infected mice were potent in inducing IL-10 producing CD4 Tregs. Together, these findings provide in vivo evidence for a critical role of pDCs in homeostatic regulation of immunity during Cpn infection. Our findings highlight the importance of a 'balanced' immune response for host protective immunity and preventing detrimental immunopathology during microbial infections.

  3. An optimized, fast-to-perform mouse lung infection model with the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis for in vivo screening of antibiotics, vaccine candidates and modified host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutow, Pavel; Wask, Lea; Bothe, Miriam; Fehlhaber, Beate; Laudeley, Robert; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted diseases with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease and neonatal pneumonia as complications. The duration of urogenital mouse models with the strict mouse pathogen C. muridarum addressing vaginal shedding, pathological changes of the upper genital tract or infertility is rather long. Moreover, vaginal C. trachomatis application usually does not lead to the complications feared in women. A fast-to-perform mouse model is urgently needed to analyze new antibiotics, vaccine candidates, immune responses (in gene knockout animals) or mutants of C. trachomatis. To complement the valuable urogenital model with a much faster and quantifiable screening method, we established an optimized lung infection model for the human intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis serovar D (and L2) in immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrated its usefulness by sensitive determination of antibiotic effects characterizing advantages and limitations achievable by early or delayed short tetracycline treatment and single-dose azithromycin application. Moreover, we achieved partial acquired protection in reinfection with serovar D indicating usability for vaccine studies, and showed a different course of disease in absence of complement factor C3. Sensitive monitoring parameters were survival rate, body weight, clinical score, bacterial load, histological score, the granulocyte marker myeloperoxidase, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6.

  4. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  5. Confirmation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in herpes-like genital lesions by a simple complement-fixation test.

    PubMed

    Arsenakis, M; May, J T

    1982-02-01

    The presence of complement-fixing antibody to an early herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antigen (the AG-4 antigen) was correlated with HSV-2 infection in the sera of patients with genital herpes. Eighty-eight per cent of sera taken two weeks after clinical diagnosis of a primary or recurrent herpes infection in patients, confirmed to have HSV-2 by virus isolation and typing, contained the anti-AG-4 complement-fixing antibody. None of the patients with genital HSV-1 had the antibody, and only 9% of controls or patients with facial HSV-1 infection had positive results for the antibody. This correlation was used to identify genital HSV-2 infections when either no virus sample had been taken or when virus isolations had been unsuccessful. Thus, a simple complement-fixation test can confirm an HSV-2 virus infection without isolation of the virus from the herpetic lesion.

  6. Nonoxynol-9 use, genital ulcers, and HIV infection in a cohort of sex workers.

    PubMed

    Weir, S S; Roddy, R E; Zekeng, L; Feldblum, P J

    1995-04-01

    To determine whether nonoxynol-9 produces disruption of the genital epithelium and, in turn, places users of this spermicide at increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 273 seronegative female commercial sex workers in Cameroon were enrolled in a 12-month cohort study. Subjects were instructed to use condoms and 100 mg nonoxynol-9 suppositories at each act of intercourse and to maintain coital logs. The presence or absence of vaginal and cervical ulcers was recorded at monthly gynecologic examinations; HIV testing was performed every three months. Included in the final analysis were the 191 women with no cervical ulcers at baseline. Of these, 77 (40%) were classified as frequent (15 times/month) nonoxynol-9 users, 84 (44%) as intermediate (11-15 times/month) users, and 30 (16%) as infrequent (10 or fewer times/month) users. 40 women had evidence of cervical ulceration during the observation period and 18 developed vaginal ulcerations. Unexpectedly, nonoxynol-9 use was not associated with an increased risk of ulceration. The incidence rates for cervical and vaginal ulcers, respectively, were 2.7% and 0.6% among frequent users, 2.2% and 0.8% among intermediate users, and 9.0% and 3.0% among infrequent users. Of the 17 women who became infected with HIV during the study, 29% had experienced ulceration compared to a rate of 28% for matched controls (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.5). It is speculated that nonoxynol-9 provides sufficient lubrication during intercourse to prevent epithelial trauma. It is further plausible that any ulcers caused by nonoxynol-9--as opposed to those of infectious etiology--lack the immunologic cell responses required to increase susceptibility to HIV.

  7. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.

    PubMed

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32 %) chickens, 130 (38.92 %) ducks and 97 (31.09 %) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54 % and 29.63 %, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13 % and 45.29 %, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent.

  8. Pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Shann, F; Walters, S; Pifer, L L; Graham, D M; Jack, I; Uren, E; Birch, D; Stallman, N D

    1986-01-01

    Paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea. All but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. Only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the Harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the Harvard median). Pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. Twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Five children were probably infected with Chlamydia trachomatis at the time of the study, and there was less convincing serological evidence of current infection in a further 11 children. Five children showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although only one child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to cytomegalovirus, 86 children had this antibody. No child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Ureaplasma urealyticum or Legionella pneumophila. P carinii, respiratory syncytial virus, C trachomatis, M pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus may be important causes of pneumonia in children in developing countries. PMID:3002538

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia psittaci infection in domestic geese Anser domestica, in Hainan province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ming; Rong, Guang; Zhou, Han-Lin; Hou, Guan-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of bird species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic geese in China, the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in domestic geese in Hainan province, tropical China was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 25.6% (461/1800; 95% CI: 23.6-27.6). The C. psittaci seroprevalence ranged from 19% (95% CI: 14.6-23.4) to 34% (95% CI: 28.6-39.4) among different regions in Hainan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The risk factors significantly associated with C. psittaci seroprevalence were the presence of hygiene conditions, age, gender, and environment of geese in the farms. The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in geese in Hainan province, tropical China. Close contact with these geese is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of C. psittaci seroprevalence in geese in China.

  10. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species.

  11. Human papillomavirus and chlamydia trachomatis infections in rheumatoid arthritis under anti-TNF therapy: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Waisberg, Mariana G; Ribeiro, Ana C M; Candido, Wellington M; Medeiros, Poliana B; Matsuzaki, Cezar N; Beldi, Mariana C; Tacla, Maricy; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Bonfa, Eloísa; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in RA patients pre- and post-TNF blocker. Fifty female RA patients (ACR criteria), who were eligible to anti-TNF therapy [n = 50 at baseline (BL) and n = 45 after 6 months of treatment (6 M)], and 50 age-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. They were assessed for demographic data, gynecologic, sexual, cervical cytology and histological evaluations, disease parameters and current treatment. HPV DNA and CT DNA testing in cervical specimens were done using Hybrid Capture II assays. At BL, the median current age of RA patients and controls was 49 (18-74) versus 49 (18-74) years, p = 1.0. A trend of lower frequency of HPV infection was observed in AR patients pre-anti-TNF compared with controls (14 vs. 30%, p = 0.054). Further evaluation of AR patients with and without HPV infection before anti-TNF therapy showed that the former group had higher frequency of sexual intercourses (100 vs. 48%, p = 0.014), higher median number of sexual partners [1 (1-1) vs. 0 (0-1), p = 0.032] and higher frequency of abnormal cervical cytology (43 vs. 7%, p = 0.029). Current age, disease duration, disease parameters and treatments were alike in both groups (p > 0.05). At 6 M after TNF blockage, HPV infection remained unchanged in five patients, whereas two became negative and one additional patient turned out to be positive (p = 1.0). CT infection was uniformly negative in RA patients pre- and post-TNF blockage and in controls. Anti-TNF does not seem to increase short-term risk of exacerbation and/or progression of HPV and CT infections in RA patients.

  12. Isolation of Chlamydia psittaci from naturally infected African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed Central

    Wilcke, B W; Newcomer, C E; Anver, M R; Simmons, J L; Nace, G W

    1983-01-01

    An inclusion-forming agent was isolated from the livers of commercially raised African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) involved in an epizootic of high morbidity and mortality. Original isolation was made in McCoy cells. This agent was identified as Chlamydia psittaci based on the formation of typical intracytoplasmic inclusions which developed within 48 h, were not stained by iodine, and were resistant to sulfadiazine. The isolate from one particular frog (designated as strain 178) was further studied and found to be lethal for 7-day-old embryonated chicken eggs after intra-yolk sac inoculation. This strain was demonstrated not to be pathogenic for mice when inoculated intraperitoneally. The cell culture isolate of C. psittaci was transmitted to uninfected X. laevis, causing disease and death. Images PMID:6347897

  13. A Retrospective Review of Treatment Failures Using Azithromycin and Doxycycline in the Treatment of Rectal Chlamydia Infections in Women and Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Brandley, Judith; Dane, Marla; Plitt, Sabrina S; Smyczek, Petra; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2016-02-01

    We examined the prevalence of rectal chlamydia treatment failures in men who have sex with men and women attending Alberta sexually transmitted infection clinics. Among those completing a test of cure, there was no significant difference among patients treated initially with azithromycin (treatment failure, 39/460 [8.5%]; 95% confidence interval, 5.9%-11.0%) compared with patients treated with doxycycline (0/16; 95% confidence interval, 0%-0.2%; P = 0.63).

  14. Association of caveolin with Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions at early and late stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Wolfrom, S A; Stuart, E S

    2001-06-10

    The mechanism by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis enters eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. There are conflicting reports of entry occurring by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. We report here that C. trachomatis serovar K enters HEp-2 and HeLa 229 epithelial cells and J-774A.1 mouse macrophage/monocyte cells via caveolin-containing sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains in the host cell plasma membranes. First, filipin and nystatin, drugs that specifically disrupt raft function by cholesterol chelation, each impaired entry of C. trachomatis serovar K. In control experiments, filipin did not impair entry of the same organism by an antibody-mediated opsonic process, nor did it impair entry of BSA-coated microspheres. Second, the chlamydia-containing endocytic vesicles specifically reacted with antisera against the caveolae marker protein caveolin. These vesicles are known to become the inclusions in which parasite replication occurs. They avoid fusion with lysosomes and instead traffic to the Golgi region, where they intercept Golgi-derived vesicles that recycle sphingolipids and cholesterol to the plasma membrane. We also report that late-stage C. trachomatis inclusions continue to display high levels of caveolin, which they likely acquire from the exocytic Golgi vesicles. We suggest that the atypical raft-mediated entry process may have important consequences for the host-pathogen interaction well after entry has occurred. These consequences include enabling the chlamydial vesicle to avoid acidification and fusion with lysosomes, to traffic to the Golgi region, and to intercept sphingolipid-containing vesicles from the Golgi.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Kakar, S; Bhalla, P; Maria, A; Rana, M; Chawla, R; Mathur, N B

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31%) neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  16. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  17. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  18. SINC, a type III secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, targets the inner nuclear membrane of infected cells and uninfected neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Sergio A.; Hovis, Kelley M.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Tran, Bao; Hsia, Ru-ching; Ravel, Jacques; Jenkins-Houk, Clifton; Wilson, Katherine L.; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2015-01-01

    SINC, a new type III secreted protein of the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia psittaci, uniquely targets the nuclear envelope of C. psittaci–infected cells and uninfected neighboring cells. Digitonin-permeabilization studies of SINC-GFP–transfected HeLa cells indicate that SINC targets the inner nuclear membrane. SINC localization at the nuclear envelope was blocked by importazole, confirming SINC import into the nucleus. Candidate partners were identified by proximity to biotin ligase-fused SINC in HEK293 cells and mass spectrometry (BioID). This strategy identified 22 candidates with high confidence, including the nucleoporin ELYS, lamin B1, and four proteins (emerin, MAN1, LAP1, and LBR) of the inner nuclear membrane, suggesting that SINC interacts with host proteins that control nuclear structure, signaling, chromatin organization, and gene silencing. GFP-SINC association with the native LEM-domain protein emerin, a conserved component of nuclear “lamina” structure, or with a complex containing emerin was confirmed by GFP pull down. Our findings identify SINC as a novel bacterial protein that targets the nuclear envelope with the capability of globally altering nuclear envelope functions in the infected host cell and neighboring uninfected cells. These properties may contribute to the aggressive virulence of C. psittaci. PMID:25788290

  19. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction in endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR.

    PubMed

    Jenab, Anahita; Roghanian, Rasoul; Golbang, Naser; Golbang, Pouran; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the major cause of sexually transmitted disease in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the best method of DNA extraction for detecting C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sexually active women (n = 80) attending Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women, 22 of whom were asymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Three different DNA extraction methods were used in this study (phenol-chlorophorm, proteinase K, and boiling). DNA yield was evaluated by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR. The internal control was assayed by beta-globin primers (PCO4, GH20). The DNA cryptic plasmid was selected as the target for C. trachomatis and samples were examined by PCR using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. It was shown that DNA extraction by boiling was the most sensitive with the highest yield of DNA. Of the 80 samples, 17 (21.25%) showed positivity for C. trachomatis by PCR. The highest rate of C. trachomatis infection was found in the group aged between 35 and 45 years old and those who used withdrawal or an intrauterine device as methods of contraception. It was demonstrated that DNA extraction by boiling was the least expensive and a very rapid method that gave the highest DNA yield. The infection rate in the sexually active women, including symptomatic and asymptomatic, was 21.25%, with a presumably high prevalence compared with other studies done in this field.

  20. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  1. A gonococcal efflux pump system enhances bacterial survival in a female mouse model of genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jerse, Ann E; Sharma, Nirmala D; Simms, Amy N; Crow, Emily T; Snyder, Lori A; Shafer, William M

    2003-10-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial substances is likely to be an important bacterial defense against inhibitory host factors inherent to different body sites. Two well-characterized multidrug resistance efflux systems (MtrCDE and FarAB-MtrE) exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterial pathogen of the human genital mucosae. In vitro studies suggest that the MtrCDE and FarAB-MtrE efflux systems protect the gonococcus from hydrophobic antimicrobial substances that are likely to be present on mucosal surfaces. Here we report that a functional MtrCDE efflux system, but not a functional FarAB-MtrE system, enhances experimental gonococcal genital tract infection in female mice. Specifically, the recovery of mtrD and mtrE mutants, but not a farB mutant, from mice inoculated with mutant or wild-type gonococci was reduced compared with that of the wild-type strain. Competitive-infection experiments confirmed the survival disadvantage of MtrCDE-deficient gonococci. This report is the first direct evidence that a multidrug resistance efflux system enhances survival of a bacterial pathogen in the genital tract. Additionally, experiments using ovariectomized mice showed that MtrCDE-deficient gonococci were more rapidly cleared from mice that were capable of secreting gonadal hormones. MtrCDE-deficient gonococci were more sensitive to nonphysiological concentrations of progesterone in vitro than were wild-type or FarAB-MtrE-deficient gonococci. These results suggest that progesterone may play an inhibitory role in vivo. However, hormonally regulated factors rather than progesterone itself may be responsible for the more rapid clearance of mtr-deficient gonococci from intact mice.

  2. Comparison of risk factors, severity, and treatment of women with genital HPV.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J W

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) has increased 10-fold in the past 5 years, and HPV has recently been linked with cervical carcinoma. This retrospective study compared risk behaviors and cofactors of HPV between two groups of women diagnosed with HPV. Women attending a Student Health Center were younger and more likely to have more sex partners, chlamydia, and other sexually transmitted disease infections than women attending private gynecologists. These women were older, and more likely to be former smokers and to have had gardnerella infections than the women students. Age at first sexual intercourse and duration of oral contraceptive use did not differ between the groups. Diagnostic reports of HPV were compared, and women attending gynecologists had significantly higher colposcopy impressions and cervical biopsies than the student group. Women attending private gynecologists were more likely to receive laser treatment on several genital sites, whereas students were more likely to receive trichloracetic acid or cryotherapy on their cervix only.

  3. Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the “macrophage infectivity potentiator”, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the “translocated actin recruitment protein”, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the “chlamydial protease-like activity factor”, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the “Polymorphic membrane protein D”, PmpD), and the “hypothetical proteins” CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  4. Selection for a CEACAM Receptor-Specific Binding Phenotype during Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection of the Human Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Sintsova, Anna; Wong, Henry; MacDonald, Kelly S.; Kaul, Rupert; Virji, Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are increasingly common, are often caused by antibiotic-resistant strains, and can result in serious and lasting sequelae, prompting the reemergence of gonococcal disease as a leading global health concern. N. gonorrhoeae is a human-restricted pathogen that primarily colonizes urogenital mucosal surfaces. Disease progression varies greatly between the sexes: men usually present with symptomatic infection characterized by a painful purulent urethral discharge, while in women, the infection is often asymptomatic, with the most severe pathology occurring when the bacteria ascend from the lower genital tract into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Classical clinical studies demonstrated that clinically infectious strains uniformly express Opa adhesins; however, their specificities were unknown at the time. While in vitro studies have since identified CEACAM proteins as the primary target of Opa proteins, the gonococcal specificity for this human family of receptors has not been addressed in the context of natural infection. In this study, we characterize a collection of low-passage-number clinical-specimen-derived N. gonorrhoeae isolates for Opa expression and assess their CEACAM-binding profiles. We report marked in vivo selection for expression of phase-variable Opa proteins that bind CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 but selection against expression of Opa variants that bind to the neutrophil-restricted decoy receptor CEACAM3. This is the first study showing phenotypic selection for distinct CEACAM-binding phenotypes in vivo, and it supports the opposing functions of CEACAMs that facilitate infection versus driving inflammation within the genital tract. PMID:25605771

  5. Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jessica; Hall, Jennifer V; Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans. PMID:26726882

  6. Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Jessica; Hall, Jennifer V.; Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans. PMID:26726882

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177

  9. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  10. Outbreak of psittacosis in a group of women exposed to Chlamydia psittaci-infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Laroucau, K; Aaziz, R; Meurice, L; Servas, V; Chossat, I; Royer, H; de Barbeyrac, B; Vaillant, V; Moyen, J L; Meziani, F; Sachse, K; Rolland, P

    2015-01-01

    Eight cases of psittacosis due to Chlamydia psittaci were identified in May 2013 among 15 individuals involved in chicken gutting activities on a mixed poultry farm in France. All cases were women between 42 and 67 years-old. Cases were diagnosed by serology and PCR of respiratory samples. Appropriate treatment was immediately administered to the eight hospitalised individuals after exposure to birds had been discovered. In the chicken flocks, mainly C. gallinacea was detected, a new member of the family Chlamydiaceae, whereas the ducks were found to harbour predominantly C. psittaci, the classical agent of psittacosis. In addition, C. psittaci was found in the same flock as the chickens that the patients had slaughtered. Both human and C. psittaci-positive avian samples carried the same ompA genotype E/B of C. psittaci, which is widespread among French duck flocks. Repeated grassland rotations between duck and chicken flocks on the farm may explain the presence of C. psittaci in the chickens. Inspection by the veterinary service led to temporary closure of the farm. All birds had to be euthanised on site as no slaughterhouses accepted processing them. Farm buildings and grasslands were cleaned and/or disinfected before the introduction of new poultry birds.

  11. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections due to Chlamydia spp. and related species].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Mario; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; Salinas, Jesús; Alonso, Roberto; Gutiérrez, José; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Until recently the number of completed genomes belonging to Chlamydia trachomatis was very low, despite its importance in Public Health. Now, there are currently sixty-six completed genomes of C.trachomatis sequenced in different parts of the world. This genomic revolution has helped in understanding its biology, as well as improved the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis, and the development of epidemiological tools, not only for in C.trachomatis, but also for related species such as C.pneumoniae and C.psittaci. The diagnosis based on cell culture, serology and microimmunofluorescence is gradually being replaced by molecular techniques based on PCR or real-time PCR. This is because these molecular tests do not have cross-reactions problems and the procedures are easily standardised between laboratories. Moreover, molecular epidemiology tools described recently, such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR), have increased our knowledge on local and global epidemiology. This article focuses on the impact of the genomics advances achieved over the last few years as applied to the diagnosis, epidemiology and biology of the family Chlamydiaceae family and related species.

  12. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  13. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  14. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  15. Community-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening and Increased Detection of Pharyngeal and Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Horas T.H.; Lee, Krystal C.K.; Chan, Denise P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio. Methods A cross-sectional study was conduct on 340 FSWs attending a community organization for HIV/STI screening, and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was administered to all FSWs. Results The prevalence of syphilis infection was 2.1%, and none was tested positive for HIV. The positivity for pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas that for urogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infection was 10.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Of 313 FSWs offering fellatio, having unprotected fellatio with clients was significantly associated with the perceived low risk of contracting STI via fellatio (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88), working in clubs (adjusted OR, 11.14), working on streets (adjusted OR, 3.28), recently started working in the sex industry for 1 year or less (adjusted OR, 3.05), and reporting group sex in the previous year (adjusted OR, 11.03). Conclusions The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection remains low. This study reveals a relatively high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae detected mostly in the pharynx. Offering pharyngeal screening for STI would facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infection in FSWs in Hong Kong. PMID:25768859

  16. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  18. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-γ-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains.

  19. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Smelov, Vitaly; Gheit, Tarik; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Eklund, Carina; Tommasino, Massimo; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Background A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited. Methods A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls) were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG) assay. Results Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively. Conclusions A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection. Impact C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas. PMID:27227411

  20. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains. PMID:25740768

  1. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-γ-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains. PMID:25663156

  2. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains.

  3. Human papillomaviruses prevalence and genital co-infections in HIV-seropositive women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Sagna, T; Djigma, F; Zeba, M; Bisseye, C; Karou, S D; Ouermi, D; Pietra, V; Gnoula, C; Sanogo, K; Nikiema, J B; Simpore, J

    2010-10-01

    The vaginal swabs among HIV-positive women in Africa often revealed opportunistic infections such as human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Mycoplasma that induce respectively cervix cancer and diseases such as vaginosis, abortions, infertility in through salpingitis. The purposes of this study were to: (1) seek for, the prevalence of pathogens such as HPV and Mycoplasma; (2) characterize the strains of HPV and estimate their prevalence; (3) identify among these women, those who were co-infected by these pathogens in order to cure them. From February 2009 to January 2010, 156 HIV-positive women attending our medical centers and aged from 19-45 years (mean age 33.65 +/- 5.75 years) had voluntarily accepted vaginal specimen's tests. PCR, ELISA and molecular hybridization were used for the identification and characterization of these pathogens. The results revealed the presence of Mycoplasma and HPV in 25.64 and 58.33% cases, respectively. The following HPV genotypes and the following prevalence were recorded: HPV-50'S (24.11%), HPV-18 (21.28%), HPV-30'S (18.44%) and HPV-16 (5.67%). The study also enable the identification of co-infections such as HPV-18 strains with HPV-30'S (5.67%) and HPV-30'S with HPV-50'S (3.55%). Other germs infecting the female genital tract including Candida albicans (20.51%), Escherichia coli (12.18%), Treponema pallidum (3.85%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.21%) and Staphylococcus aureus (1.92%) were isolated. This preliminary research work showed the incidence of several genital pathogens, this could be a springboard for nationwide epidemiological study on HPV strains circulating in Burkina Faso. PMID:21313918

  4. Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Chlamydia muridarum Associated Inflammation in a Mouse Model Using Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manishkumar; Boddicker, Melissa A.; DeMaula, Christopher; Connolly, Brett; Bednar, Bohumil; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease with over 1.3 million cases reported to the CDC in 2010. While Chlamydia infection is easily treated with antibiotics, up to 70% of infections are asymptomatic and go untreated. The current mouse model relies on invasive upper genital tract gross pathology readouts at ~60–80 days postinfection. High throughput optical imaging through the use of biomarkers has been successfully used to quickly evaluate several disease processes. Here we evaluate Neutrophil Elastase 680 (Elastase680) for its ability to measure Chlamydia muridarum associated inflammation in live mice using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS). Optical imaging was able to distinguish with statistical significance between vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice as well as mock-challenged and challenged mice 2 weeks after challenge which was 9 weeks sooner than typical gross pathological assessment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neutrophils and correlated well with both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. In this report we demonstrate that Elastase680 can be used as a molecular imaging biomarker for inflammation associated with chlamydial infection in a mouse model and that these biomarkers can significantly decrease the time for pathology evaluation and thus increase the rate of therapeutics discovery. PMID:26663988

  5. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  6. Seminal Levels of Pro-inflammatory (CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10) and Homeostatic (CXCL12) Chemokines in Men With Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zainodini, Nahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemokines play important roles in immune system activation against microbial infections. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate seminal levels of CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected patients. Materials and Methods: The C. trachomatis infection was determined employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods. Seminal concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The current study results demonstrated that the semen levels of CXCL1 and CXCL9, but not CXCL10 and CXCL12, significantly increased in C. trachomatis infected patients compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions: Based on the current study results, it may be concluded that both CXCL1 and CXCL9 play more important roles than CXCL10 and CXCL12 in induction of immune responses against C. trachomatis and could possibly be considered as future targets for immunotherapy of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25741424

  7. Bacterial vaginosis: a synthesis of the literature on etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Christian T; Wurapa, Eyako; Sateren, Warren B; Morris, Sara; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Sanchez, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. Since the initial work of Leopoldo in 1953 and Gardner and Dukes in 1955, researchers have not been able to identify the causative etiologic agent of BV. There is increasing evidence, however, that BV occurs when Lactobacillus spp., the predominant species in healthy vaginal flora, are replaced by anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardenella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, M. mulieris, other anaerobic bacteria and/or Mycoplasma hominis. Worldwide, it estimated that 20-30 % of women of reproductive age attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics suffer from BV, and that its prevalence can be as high as 50-60 % in high-risk populations (e.g., those who practice commercial sex work (CSW). Epidemiological data show that women are more likely to report BV if they: 1) have had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners; 2) are unmarried; 3) have engaged in their first intercourse at a younger age; 4) have engaged in CSW, and 5) practice regular douching. In the past decade, several studies have provided evidence on the contribution of sexual activity to BV. However, it is difficult to state that BV is a STI without being able to identify the etiologic agent. BV has also emerged as a public health problem due to its association with other STIs, including: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). The most recent evidence on the association between BV and CT/NG infection comes from two secondary analyses of cohort data conducted among women attending STI clinics. Based on these studies, women with BV had a 1.8 and 1.9-fold increased risk for NG and CT infection, respectively. Taken together, BV is likely a risk factor or at least an important contributor to subsequent NG or CT infection in high-risk women. Additional research is required to determine whether this association is also present in

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalase is not required for experimental genital tract infection despite the induction of a localized neutrophil response.

    PubMed

    Soler-García, Angel A; Jerse, Ann E

    2007-05-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces several antioxidant defenses, including high levels of catalase, which may facilitate the persistence during an inflammatory response via neutralization of H2O2 produced by phagocytes. In vivo testing of the role of catalase in gonococcal survival is critical since several physiological factors impact interactions between N. gonorrhoeae and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Here we assessed the importance of gonococcal catalase in a surrogate model of female genital tract infection. Female BALB/c mice were treated with 17-beta estradiol to promote susceptibility to N. gonorrhoeae and inoculated intravaginally with wild-type gonococci or a catalase (kat) deletion mutant. A localized PMN influx occurred in an average of 43 and 81% of mice infected with wild-type or kat mutant gonococci, respectively, and PMNs associated with numerous wild-type or catalase-deficient bacteria were observed in vaginal smears. The combined results of six experiments showed a significant difference in the number of days wild-type bacteria were recovered compared to the catalase-deficient gonococci. However, there was much variability between experiments, and we found no correlation between PMN influx, colonization load, and clearance of wild-type or kat mutant bacteria. Estradiol treatment did not impair bacterial uptake, the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence response, or the killing capacity of isolated murine PMNs against N. gonorrhoeae or Staphylococcus aureus. Our data suggest N. gonorrhoeae is not significantly challenged by H2O2 produced by PMNs in the murine lower genital tract; alternatively, redundant defense mechanisms may protect the gonococcus from reactive oxygen species during infection.

  9. Comparison of two methods of screening for genital chlamydial infection in women attending in general practice: cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Grun, L.; Tassano-Smith, J.; Carder, C.; Johnson, A. M.; Robinson, A.; Murray, E.; Stephenson, J.; Haines, A.; Copas, A.; Ridgway, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women attending general practice: to assess the potential of the ligase chain reaction as a screening tool; and to evaluate selective screening criteria. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Four general practices in northeast London. SUBJECTS: 890 women aged 18-35 years attending general practice for a cervical smear or a "young well woman" check between October 1994 and January 1996. The women were tested for C trachomatis with confirmed enzyme immunoassay (endocervical specimens) and ligase chain reaction assay on urine specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of C trachomatis infection in women aged 18-35 on the basis of each test; sensitivity and specificity of both tests in this population. RESULTS: Prevalence of confirmed infection was 2.6% (95% confidence interval 1.6% to 3.6%) in all women. Prevalence on the basis of enzyme immunoassay was 1.6% (0.8% to 2.7%), with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100%. Prevalence on the basis of ligase chain reaction was 2.5% (1.5% to 3.9%), with 90% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. Screening all women aged < or = 25 and all women who had had two or more partners in the past year would have detected 87% (20/23) of infections. CONCLUSION: Ligase chain reaction on urine samples performs at least as well as enzyme immunoassay on cervical specimens in this low prevalence population. It offers potential as a non-invasive screening tool. A simple selective screening strategy might be appropriate and would be able to detect most cases of infection. However, a rigorous economic evaluation of possible screening strategies is needed first. PMID:9253271

  10. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  11. Influence of the estrous cycle on the development of upper genital tract pathology as a result of chlamydial infection in the guinea pig model of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Sanders, M M; Kidd, A T

    1993-04-01

    Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis at varying times during the estrous cycle. Genital tract tissues were collected 30 days after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. No difference was seen in the course of lower genital tract infection. However, a significantly greater percentage of tissues from animals infected on day 11 of the cycle were found to have chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the mesosalpinx compared to those from animals infected on day 6 or day 16. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of oviduct tissues from day 11-infected guinea pigs had marked tubal dilatation when compared to oviducts from day 6-or day 16-infected animals. The increased incidence of pathological changes was also noted in the endocervix, uterine fundus, and uterine horns but not the exocervix. These data indicate that the time of the estrous cycle and the corresponding hormonal influences may be an important influence on the development of upper genital tract disease.

  12. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae.

  13. Vaccination of koalas with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum major outer membrane protein induces antibodies of different specificity compared to those following a natural live infection.

    PubMed

    Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females) would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a) natural live infection or (b) administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD) four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations.

  14. A Novel Microbicide/Contraceptive Intravaginal Ring Protects Macaque Genital Mucosa against SHIV-RT Infection Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Ugaonkar, Shweta; Zhang, Shimin; Kizima, Larisa; Mizenina, Olga; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Cooney, Michael L; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Women need multipurpose prevention products (MPTs) that protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and provide contraception. The Population Council has developed a prototype intravaginal ring (IVR) releasing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 (M), zinc acetate (ZA), carrageenan (CG) and levonorgestrel (LNG) (MZCL IVR) to protect against HIV, HSV-2, HPV and unintended pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZCL IVR in genital mucosa. First, macaque vaginal tissues were challenged with SHIV-RT in the presence of (i) MIV-150 ± LNG or (ii) vaginal fluids (VF); available from studies completed earlier) collected at various time points post insertion of MZCL and MZC IVRs. Then, (iii) MZCL IVRs (vs. LNG IVRs) were inserted in non-Depo Provera-treated macaques for 24h and VF, genital biopsies, and blood were collected and tissues were challenged with SHIV-RT. Infection was monitored with one step SIV gag qRT-PCR or p27 ELISA. MIV-150 (LCMS/MS, RIA), LNG (RIA) and CG (ELISA) were measured in different compartments. Log-normal generalized mixed linear models were used for analysis. LNG did not affect the anti-SHIV-RT activity of MIV-150 in vitro. MIV-150 in VF from MZC/MZCL IVR-treated macaques inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal mucosa in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). MIV-150 in vaginal tissue from MZCL IVR-treated animals inhibited ex vivo infection relative to baseline (96%; p<0.0001) and post LNG IVR group (90%, p<0.001). No MIV-150 dose-dependent protection was observed, likely because of high MIV-150 concentrations in all vaginal tissue samples. In cervical tissue, MIV-150 inhibited infection vs. baseline (99%; p<0.05). No cervical tissue was available for MIV-150 measurement. Exposure to LNG IVR did not change tissue infection level. These observations support further development of MZCL IVR as a multipurpose prevention technology to improve women's sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27428377

  15. A Novel Microbicide/Contraceptive Intravaginal Ring Protects Macaque Genital Mucosa against SHIV-RT Infection Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ugaonkar, Shweta; Zhang, Shimin; Kizima, Larisa; Mizenina, Olga; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Cooney, Michael L.; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández-Romero, José A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; Teleshova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Women need multipurpose prevention products (MPTs) that protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and provide contraception. The Population Council has developed a prototype intravaginal ring (IVR) releasing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 (M), zinc acetate (ZA), carrageenan (CG) and levonorgestrel (LNG) (MZCL IVR) to protect against HIV, HSV-2, HPV and unintended pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZCL IVR in genital mucosa. First, macaque vaginal tissues were challenged with SHIV-RT in the presence of (i) MIV-150 ± LNG or (ii) vaginal fluids (VF); available from studies completed earlier) collected at various time points post insertion of MZCL and MZC IVRs. Then, (iii) MZCL IVRs (vs. LNG IVRs) were inserted in non-Depo Provera-treated macaques for 24h and VF, genital biopsies, and blood were collected and tissues were challenged with SHIV-RT. Infection was monitored with one step SIV gag qRT-PCR or p27 ELISA. MIV-150 (LCMS/MS, RIA), LNG (RIA) and CG (ELISA) were measured in different compartments. Log-normal generalized mixed linear models were used for analysis. LNG did not affect the anti-SHIV-RT activity of MIV-150 in vitro. MIV-150 in VF from MZC/MZCL IVR-treated macaques inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal mucosa in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). MIV-150 in vaginal tissue from MZCL IVR-treated animals inhibited ex vivo infection relative to baseline (96%; p<0.0001) and post LNG IVR group (90%, p<0.001). No MIV-150 dose-dependent protection was observed, likely because of high MIV-150 concentrations in all vaginal tissue samples. In cervical tissue, MIV-150 inhibited infection vs. baseline (99%; p<0.05). No cervical tissue was available for MIV-150 measurement. Exposure to LNG IVR did not change tissue infection level. These observations support further development of MZCL IVR as a multipurpose prevention technology to improve women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID

  16. Bovine Genital Mycoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Doig, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Infection, lesions and clinical significance of Acheloplasmas, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. A more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. Acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion. Recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is discussed. There are problems in differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. Methods are being developed to treat semen for these organisms. This paper provides a concise summary of clinical and microbiological aspects of bovine genital mycoplasmosis. PMID:7337908

  17. A Bovine Model of Respiratory Chlamydia psittaci Infection: Challenge Dose Titration

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci