... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Genital Problems in Infants (Female)Any deformity or change in the genitals is ... and Children Foot Problems Genital Problems in Infants (Female) Genital Problems in Infants (Male) Genital Problems in ...
... practice of FGM. In 2010, WHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female ... practices Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female ...
Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J
Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.
... painless sores. Less common infections such as chancroid , granuloma inguinale , molluscum contagiosum , and syphilis may also cause ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 16. Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital herpes Genital warts Melanoma Molluscum contagiosum ...
Senegal has joined Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ghana, and Togo in outlawing female genital mutilation and assigning penalties of up to five years imprisonment to those who order or perform the procedure. Currently, 20% of Senegalese women have undergone female genital mutilation, and many girls are thought to have died as a result. UN agencies have made their opposition to female genital mutilation clear and have argued that women attempting to avoid the procedure should be granted asylum in other countries.
Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.
Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne
Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement
Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria
Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins
In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account.
Patel, V H; Somers, S
MR imaging continues to be an integral problem-solving modality in the evaluation of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases of the female genital tract organs and provides effective clinical information to the practicing gynecologist in those patients in whom sonography is technically suboptimal or the results are equivocal. This article describes the state-of-the art MR imaging of the female pelvis and addresses its current perspectives in the following sections: (1) technical aspects of MR in imaging the female pelvis, (2) normal pelvic anatomy and variations that are seen on MRI, (3) role of MRI in the diagnosis of congenital uterine and vaginal anomalies, (4) MR imaging approach to diagnose congenital uterine and vaginal anomalies, (5) advantages and limitations of MR in the evaluation of various benign diseases and malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract, (6) a MR staging system and criteria for each gynecologic malignancy, (7) fundamental MR criteria to differentiate benign from malignant tumors and recurrent tumors from fibrosis, and (8) the present cost-effective value of MR in pregnancy and obstetrics. Magnetic resonance (MR) technology continues to be an important problem-solving modality in the evaluation of benign, malignant, and recurrent diseases of the female pelvic organs with the development of new software and improved hardware over the last few years. The main issues addressed in this article are (1) to review the basic and expanded applications of the current state-of-the art MR imaging in the diagnosis and management of various congenital and acquired disorders of the female pelvic organs, (2) to illustrate a simplified clinico-radiologic (MRI) approach to the diagnosis of congenital and acquired pathologies of the pelvic organs, (3) to provide relevant information to the clinicians to make rational choices among the competing imaging modalities, and (4) to outline the future potential of this modality in the pelvis.
As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue.
Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E
The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.
Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.
The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…
Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana
Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360
Morris, R I
Female genital mutilation, traditionally known as female circumcision, is a surgically unnecessary modification of the female genitalia, practiced in nations in Africa, the Arab Peninsula, among some communities in Asia, and among immigrants and refugees from these areas who have settled in other areas. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among many different ethnic and cultural groups, including Christians, Muslims, Jews, and followers of indigenous African religions. As people from these areas immigrate to North America, health care professionals need to understand the important aspects of this growing problem, including management of complications, cultural attitudes, and sensitivities.
Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.
Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In Sudan, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure.
Brännström, Mats; Díaz-García, César
Transplantation of gynecological organs is a medical field where considerable advancements have been made in research during the last 25 years and with some procedures already introduced as clinical treatments. These types of transplantations aim at curing permanent infertility. Uterus transplantation has been proven to be a feasible procedure in different experimentation animal models with proof of concept concerning surgery, control of rejection and fertility. There has already been one human transplantation attempt, which, however, was unsuccessful. Based on the progress in this area, we predict that the first successful uterus transplantation attempt will come within 2-3 years. Orthotopic ovarian cortex transplantation has overcome the status of an experimental procedure since more than 20 pregnancies have been reported. Its main field of application is fertility preservation in oncologic patients undergoing high gonadotoxic risk therapies. The role of heterotopic ovarian cortex transplantation still remains at the research level, although co-transplantation with an orthotopic cortex might facilitate a more accurate endocrine environment. The major drawback of ovarian cortex transplantation remains the long ischemic interval between re-implantation and the establishment of neovascularization. Whole ovary cryopreservation followed by transplantation through vascular anastomosis may emerge as an important procedure in this field, because the warm ischemic time would be reduced from several days to less than 1 h, which will most likely improve follicle survival. In summary, transplantation surgery is also entering the field of gynecology and in the future several types of transplantations of organs/tissues of the female reproductive tract may become established clinical procedures.
Shah, Hardik Uresh; Sannananja, Bhagya; Baheti, Akshay Dwarka; Udare, Ashlesha Satish; Badhe, Padma Vikram
Genital tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of female infertility in the world, especially in developing countries. Majority of infertility cases are due to involvement of the fallopian tubes (92%-100%), endometrial cavity (50%), and ovaries (10%-30%); cervical and vulvovaginal TB are uncommon. Genital TB has characteristic radiological appearances based on the stage of the disease process (acute inflammatory or chronic fibrotic) and the organ of involvement. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ultrasonography (US) remain the main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of genital TB. HSG is the primary modality for evaluating uterine, fallopian tube, and peritubal involvement and also helps in evaluating tubal patency. US, on the other hand, allows simultaneous evaluation of ovarian and extrapelvic involvement.
Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899
Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.
Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S
Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.
Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J
Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients.
Ahanonu, E L; Victor, O
The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test was used to test for association between variables. Findings showed that the mothers held ambivalent beliefs about the practice. Although over half of the respondents (56.8%) perceived the practice of FGM as not being beneficial, 44.2% thought that uncircumcised girls will become promiscuous. Nearly a third (30.5%) believed that FGM promotes a woman's faithfulness to her husband. About a quarter (26.3%) reported that women who have undergone FGM are not at any risk of gynaecological complications. There was a significant relationship between the educational background of the mothers and the perception that uncircumcised girls will be promiscuous. These perceptions about FGM show that government at all levels should continue with educational efforts aimed at eradicating this practice.
Simoes, Elisabeth; Kronenthaler, Andrea; Emrich, Christine; Rieger, Monika A.; Rall, Kristin Katharina; Schäffeler, Norbert; Hiltner, Hanna; Ueding, Esther; Brucker, Sara Y.
Deficits of care exist during the transitional period, when young people with ongoing needs of support to achieve their physical, social, and psychological potential are entering adulthood. This study aims to develop a patient oriented, structured provisional model to improve transitional care for adolescents with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser-Syndrome as an example for orphan diseases, where problems of access and continuity are even more complex. The study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF-Funding Code 01GY1125). The target patient group are young females with this disorder, treated at the Centre for Rare Genital Malformations in Women (ZSGF), University Hospital of Tuebingen. The study comprises five phases: an appraisal of literature, assessment of patients (n = 25), parents', partners', and health and social care providers' (n = 24) needs and experienced deficits in care and support in a qualitative approach, construction of a provisional model via scenario technique, followed by communicative validation (including interested public, n = 100), preference finding, and identification of patient-oriented quality aims for follow-up. Quantitative data from questionnaires and chart review (as sociodemographic data, nonresponder analysis, and preference rating) are worked up for descriptive statistics. The results provide a platform for the development of future multidisciplinary transitional intervention programs in orphan diseases. PMID:25544945
Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles
As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.
Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K
Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.
Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition.
Farage, Miranda A; Lennon, Lisa; Ajayi, Funmi
A wide variety of products are used by women in the genital area and, therefore, come into contact with the genital mucosa. The largest category of such products would be those used for cleanliness and odor control, such as soaps and body washes, douches, premoistened wipes and towelettes, dusting powder and deodorant sprays. A second large category of products are those intended to absorb fluids, such as products used for menstrual protection (tampons, pads and panty liners) and incontinence protection. Lubricants and moisturizers, and aesthetic products (hair removal products and dyes) are also fairly common. In addition, over the counter medications are now available for the treatment of fungal infections. This chapter briefly discusses the products women use on or around the genital area, the perceived or real benefits, and the potential health effects of these products.
Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.
Genital symptoms in tropical countries and among returned travellers can arise from a variety of bacterial, protozoal, and helminthic infections which are not usually sexually transmitted. The symptoms may mimic classic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by producing ulceration (for example, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis), wart-like lesions (schistosomiasis), or lesions of the upper genital tract (epididymo-orchitis caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, and brucellosis; salpingitis as a result of tuberculosis, amoebiasis, and schistosomiasis). A variety of other genital symptoms less suggestive of STI are also seen in tropical countries. These include hydrocele (seen with filariasis), which can be no less stigmatising than STI, haemospermia (seen with schistosomiasis), and hypogonadism (which may occur in lepromatous leprosy). This article deals in turn with genital manifestations of filariasis, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and leprosy and gives clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:14755029
In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In
Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan
The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p < .001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p < .001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p < .001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.
Hosken, F P
Extensive research and field work have established that more than 74 million women and female children are mutilated by female genital operations in Africa alone. The operations are also practiced in many parts of the Middle East and, with Moslemization, were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia where they are preformed at the present time in a less damaging form. This paper lists the countries where instances of excision and infibulation have been reported and includes case reports from Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, and Senegal. The ethical issues posed by genital mutilation are also discussed.
Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.
Igwegbe, A O; Egbuonu, I
Three hundred and twenty-five consecutive live female deliveries at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi were followed up for 9 months for evidence of any genital mutilation. Their mothers were examined for genital mutilation and a questionnaire based on face-to-face interview of the mothers was also administered. There was no genital mutilation observed among the 200 female babies whose mothers completed the 9 months follow up, The prevalence of genital mutilation among the mothers was 48%. The prevalence of female genital mutilation among the mothers increased with age. The circumcision index C.I. was zero and 3.0 at 16-20 years and 31-35 years age groups, respectively. Also the prevalence decreased with increasing level of education. The circumcision index was 1.0 for mothers at primary level education and least 0.33 at tertiary level of education. There was no relationship with parity. None of the mothers was willing to allow genital mutilation to be performed on her baby but 36% applied local treatment to the clitoris especially powder (28%). Dystocia was the commonest complication in the mothers and the knowledge about female genital mutilation was acquired informally from fellow women. Female education is paramount in the campaign and advocacy against female genital mutilation.
Kochorova, M N; Kosnikov, A G
Comparative analysis of two groups of patients with female genital tuberculosis treated at the Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Phthiosiopulmonology in 1980 to 2005 has shown that patients of younger age have recently fallen ill with this disease. The genital tuberculous process is commonly preceded or attended by other forms of tuberculosis of various organs and systems, such as the lung, lymph nodes, and kidney. The pain syndrome and impaired menstrual cycle are observed in half the patients; infertility is present in 60%; profound anatomic changes are less frequently seen in the fallopian tubes. Improvement of bacteriological methods promoted the timely diagnosis of the disease.
Adekunle, A O; Fakokunde, F A; Odukogbe, A A; Fawole, A O
Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice that can adversely affect the health of women. Vulval complications of female circumcision in 39 patients managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria over a period of 10 years were reviewed. The complications were: labial adhesions of varying degrees (51.3%) and clitoral retention cysts (48.7%). However, both types of complications occurred concurrently in two (5.1%) patients. All patients were treated surgically with good outcome. The only immediate complication of treatment was secondary haemorrhage in one patient with clitoral cyst. Regrettably, one patient with labial adhesion required a repeat surgical procedure 2 months later. The histological examination of all the retention cysts revealed epidermal inclusion cysts. Emphasising the reproductive health implications of female genital mutilation may prove an effective strategy towards eradication of the practice.
Furneri, P M; Cianci, A; Campo, L; Roccasalva, L S; Tempera, G; Fiore, G; Palumbo, G; Lepore, A M; Nicoletti, G
The levels of flurithromycin in gynecological tissue in 20 female patients were studied after preoperative administration. The tissue flurithromycin levels obtained were comparable to those obtained in serum at 3 and 4 h but were frequently higher than those in serum at 6 and 12 h. Flurithromycin reached the highest concentrations in ovary at 4 h and in endometrium at 6 h. PMID:7486945
Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red
The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.
Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy
Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817
In Kenya, a new ceremony known as "Ntanira Na Mugambo," or "circumcision through words," is being offered in some rural communities as an alternative to the harmful practice of female genital mutilation. This new ceremony includes a week-long program of counseling, training, and provision of information to young women ending with a "coming of age" celebration that involves music, dancing, presents, and feasting. Since its initiation in August 1996, about 300 young women have accepted this alternative rite. Kenya is among the countries where the practice of female genital mutilation is slowly diminishing, but the mutilation is still common in at least 26 African countries and among immigrants in some developed countries. The new Kenyan rite has the advantage of requiring the cooperation and support of the communities where it is practiced. It was developed as a cooperative effort of the Kenyan Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organization and the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health after years of research. An important aspect of Ntanira Na Mugambo is the flexibility that arises from the ability to stress various components in response to community characteristics. Its success is also linked to the fact that it involves the entire family and community and has a male motivation component. It is hoped that this nonjudgmental rite will become a widely successful strategy to eliminate female genital mutilation and improve women's health throughout the world.
Matsushita, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko
Metastases to the female genital tract from gastric cancer are rare, but they significantly worsen the prognosis of such patients. The potential routes for metastasis to the female genital tract from gastric cancer include hematogenous spread, lymphatic spread and surface implantation. The rate of lymphatic metastasis to the ovary from gastric cancer has been reported to be higher compared with that from colorectal cancer. Uterine or Fallopian tube metastases are usually secondary to ovarian metastases, which are typically identified prior to the detection of gastric cancer in half of all synchronous cases, with complaints of abdominal distention, pain, palpable mass, or abnormal uterine bleeding. The prognosis of patients with female genital tract metastases from gastric cancer is extremely poor, and is worse compared with that of other primary sites, such as the breast and colorectum. In the past, surgical intervention in such patients consisted mainly of palliative resection to relieve the symptoms associated with a sizeable pelvic mass. However, recent retrospective studies based on a relatively small number of patients have reported that surgical tumor debulking plus chemotherapy may improve the prognosis of patients with metastatic ovarian cancer originating from gastric cancer. PMID:27882232
Spadacini, B; Nichols, P
In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information.
Rouzi, Abdulrahim A
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.
The clinical effect of imiquimod stems from cytokine-induced activation of the immune system. A randomized study was conducted to study the efficacy and safety of daily applications of 5% imiquimod cream in female patients with external genital warts and molluscum contagiosum (MC). The clearance rate of lesions was 75% in genital MC patients and 50% in patients with genital warts. Erythema was the commonest adverse reaction seen in 24% patients with the use of 5% imiquimod. Other side effects were excoriation seen in 16% patients, erosions in 10% patients, excoriation in 6% patients and pain was seen in 4% patients. PMID:21938126
The ritual genital mutilation of females is widely practiced across the greater part of the African continent affecting an estimated 100 million women in more than 25 countries. The practice also exists to a lesser extent along the Arab peninsula and in parts of Asia. Approximately 200,000 immigrants have come to the US over the past decade from such countries. Many of the women among this immigrant population are severely disabled by social constraints, chronic pain, and impaired mobility. They only rarely present, however, at conventional medical facilities because they are prevented by men and/or they do not expect their specialized medical problems to be understood or handled compassionately. The author spent 32 months between 1979 and 1984 in Sudan, Kenya, and Egypt researching female genital mutilation. She describes the immediate and long-term medical consequences of the process and condition, especially with regard to menstruation and childbirth. The significance of the procedure as a social phenomenon is explained in historical terms and in terms of the values of the societies in which it is established, with consideration given to how a working relationship may be established with the immigrant women.
Morrone, Aldo; Hercogova, Jana; Lotti, Torello
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional cultural practice, but also a form of violence against girls, which affects their lives as adult women. FGM comprises a wide range of procedures: the excision of the prepuce; the partial or total excision of the clitoris (clitoridectomy) and labia; or the stitching and narrowing of the vaginal orifice (infibulation). The number of girls and women who have been subjected to FGM is estimated at around 137 million worldwide and 2 million girls per year are considered at risk. Most females who have undergone mutilation live in 28 African countries. Globalization and international migration have brought an increased presence of circumcised women in Europe and developed countries. Healthcare specialists need to be made aware and trained in the physical, psychosexual, and cultural aspects and effects of FGM and in the response to the needs of genitally mutilated women. Health education programs targeted at immigrant communities should include information on sexuality, FGM, and reproduction. Moreover, healthcare workers should both discourage women from performing FGM on their daughters and receive information on codes of conduct and existing laws. The aim is the total eradication of all forms of FGM.
Kjetland, E F; Poggensee, G; Helling-Giese, G; Richter, J; Sjaastad, A; Chitsulo, L; Kumwenda, N; Gundersen, S G; Krantz, I; Feldmeier, H
A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions. Microscopy of genital biopsies revealed that 33 of the 51 women had S. haematobium ova in cervix, vagina and/or vulva in addition to the presence of ova in urine. The most sensitive diagnostic procedure was beside microscopic examination of a wet cervix biopsy crushed between two glass slides, which revealed 25 of the 33 genital infections. There was a significant correlation between the size of genital lesions and the number of ova counted per mm2 of crushed tissue. Women with FGS had significantly more tumours in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis limited to the urinary tract. Most of the observed genital pathology could easily be identified by the naked eye, but colposcopic examination yielded valuable additional information like the demonstration of neovascularisation around cervical sandy patches. Few of the symptoms previously regarded as indicators for FGS could be linked to the presence of schistosome ova in genital tissue. Husbands of infertile women with FGS had children with other women significantly more often than husbands of women who only had urinary schistosomiasis. This, together with the finding that the majority of the divorced women had FGS, indicates that the manifestation of this disease may have implications for the marital and sexual life of the affected women.
Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S
Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.
Ogunlola, I O; Orji, E O; Owolabi, A T
Female genital mutilation, despite efforts to abolish it, is still widely practised in Nigeria. The risk of female genital mutilation to a female child in southwest Nigeria was investigated by interviewing 430 consecutive pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria between July 2001 to October 2001. The results show that 60% of the pregnant women studied had a type of genital mutilation. The decision to mutilate a female child is taken before she is born. Seventy-four (17.2%) of the women and 146 (34%) of their husbands would circumcise their female child. The decision to circumcise a female child is made between the husband and wife but the final decision comes mainly from the husband. Because the majority of the women (58.4%) were yet to decide whether or not to circumcise their female children, they could sway the decision either way before the husband makes up his mind. Therefore, every effort should be taken to involve men in the struggle to eradicate this unwholesome practice.
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Nwakeze, Ngozi; Kandala, Shadrack Ngianga I I
The harmful effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) on women are recognized worldwide. Although it is practiced by persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds, there are differences within countries and between communities. The aim of this study was to use the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to determine the spatial distribution of the prevalence of FGM and associated risk factors. Data were available for 7,620 women; 1,673 (22.0%) interviewed had had FGM and 2,168 women had living children, of whom 485 (22.4%) daughters had undergone FGM. Unmarried women were more likely to report a lower prevalence of FGM. Modernization (education and high socioeconomic status) had minimal impact on the likelihood of FGM, but education plays an important role in the mother's decision not to circumcise her daughter. It follows from these findings that community factors have a large effect on FGM, with individual factors having little effect on the distribution of FGM.
Maganhin, Carla C; Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida Ferraz; Hatty, Juliana Halley; Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Portugal; Oliveira-Júnior, Itamar Souza de; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Simões, Ricardo S; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares-Jr, José Maria
Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and this is linked to the day/night cycle. It is an antioxidant and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the jet-lag stage, in several physiological reactions and in control of the biologic rhythm. Human melatonin has an important influence on the female genital system. In fact, melatonin may influence production and action of steroids, modifying cellular signalization on the target tissue. There are many evidences that the melatonin therapy may be interfering with neoplasia development, mainly of the estrogen-dependent tumor. This paper aims to analyze the actions of melatonin on the neuroendocrine, immunological and cardiovascular systems, as well as on the reproductive function.
Kisu, Iori; Tanaka, Kyoko; Banno, Kouji; Okuda, Shigeo; Aoki, Daisuke
Congenital uterine anomaly is a female genital disorder caused by developmental anomaly of the Müllerian ducts. In this report, we present a case of repair of congenital 'disconnected uterus' between the cervix and the body of the uterus. The case did not correspond to the consensus classifications that have been proposed for congenital uterine anomaly. The patient was a young woman whose chief complaints were not having first menstruation and experiencing monthly severe lower abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the uterine body was separated from the uterine cervix. Uteroplasty was conducted to anastomose the separated uterus. Periodic menstruation started 1 month after surgery and abdominal pain was improved. Performance of uteroplasty in this case was extremely significant and greatly improved the quality of life of the patient.
Soleilhavoup, Clement; Riou, Cindy; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Harichaux, Gregoire; Kohnke, Philippa; Reynaud, Karine; de Graaf, Simon P.; Gerard, Nadine; Druart, Xavier
The female genital tract includes several anatomical regions whose luminal fluids successively interact with gametes and embryos and are involved in the fertilisation and development processes. The luminal fluids from the inner cervix, the uterus and the oviduct were collected along the oestrous cycle at oestrus (Day 0 of the cycle) and during the luteal phase (Day 10) from adult cyclic ewes. The proteomes were assessed by GeLC-MS/MS and quantified by spectral counting. A set of 940 proteins were identified including 291 proteins differentially present along the cycle in one or several regions. The global analysis of the fluid proteomes revealed a general pattern of endocrine regulation of the tract, with the cervix and the oviduct showing an increased differential proteins abundance mainly at oestrus while the uterus showed an increased abundance mainly during the luteal phase. The proteins more abundant at oestrus included several families such as the heat shock proteins (HSP), the mucins, the complement cascade proteins and several redox enzymes. Other proteins known for their interaction with gametes such as oviductin (OVGP), osteopontin, HSPA8, and the spermadhesin AWN were also overexpressed at oestrus. The proteins more abundant during the luteal phase were associated with the immune system such as ceruloplasmin, lactoferrin, DMBT1, or PIGR, and also with tissue remodeling such as galectin 3 binding protein, alkaline phosphatase, CD9, or fibulin. Several proteins differentially abundant between estrus and the luteal phase, such as myosin 9 and fibronectin, were also validated by immunohistochemistry. The potential roles in sperm transit and uterine receptivity of the proteins differentially regulated along the cycle in the female genital tract are discussed. PMID:26518761
Cuburu, Nicolas; Kweon, Mi-Na; Hervouet, Catherine; Cha, Hye-Ran; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Holmgren, Jan; Stadler, Konrad; Schiller, John T; Anjuère, Fabienne; Czerkinsky, Cecil
We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Sublingual administration of OVA and CT induced Ag-specific IgA and IgG Abs in blood and in cervicovaginal secretions. These responses were associated with large numbers of IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) in the genital mucosa. Genital ASC responses were similar in magnitude and isotype distribution after s.l., intranasal, or vaginal immunization and were superior to those seen after intragastric immunization. Genital, but not blood or spleen, IgA ASC responses were inhibited by treatment with anti-CCL28 Abs, suggesting that the chemokine CCL28 plays a major role in the migration of IgA ASC progenitors to the reproductive tract mucosa. Furthermore, s.l. immunization with OVA induced OVA-specific effector CD8(+) cytolytic T cells in the genital mucosa, and these responses required coadministration of the CT adjuvant. Furthermore, s.l. administration of human papillomavirus virus-like particles with or without the CT adjuvant conferred protection against genital challenge with human papillomavirus pseudovirions. Taken together, these findings underscore the potential of s.l. immunization as an efficient vaccination strategy for inducing genital immune responses and should impact on the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases.
Gómez-Laencina, Ana M; Martínez Díaz, Francisco; Izquierdo Sanjuanes, Blanca; Vicente Sánchez, Elena M; Fernandez Salmerón, Rosario; Meseguer Peña, Francisco
Neurofibromatosis within the female genital tract is uncommon. The vulva is the most frequent genital location, but it has rarely been reported in the context of the vagina, uterine cervix or ovaries. In spite of its rarity, neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses, especially in patients with neurofibromatosis. In this paper we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with pelvic pain and a uterine mass who underwent a hysterectomy after having been diagnosed with an 11-cm neurofibroma occupying the myometrium of the entire uterine corpus. There were no neurofibromas in the endometrium, serosa, fallopian tubes or ovaries. The patient had an unknown von Recklinghausen's disease.
Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette
According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.
Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.
Mack-Detlefsen, B.; Banaschak, S.; Boemers, T. M.
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) occurs mainly in Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula and parts of Asia. It is commonly associated with acute complications as well as diverse late/delayed complications. One of the most common of these late complications is progressively enlarging painless cysts of the vulva. Case Report: An 8-year-old girl from Eritrea presented to our paediatric emergency department with a progressively enlarging mass of the vulva. She had undergone a clitoridectomy and partial removal of the labia minora as an infant in Eritrea. We performed surgical excision of the cyst and reconstruction of the labia. Histology showed a traumatic squamous epithelial inclusion cyst of the vulva. Conclusion: Epithelial or dermoid cysts of the vulva following FGM are extremely rare. Symptoms often require surgical intervention. Through increasing migration, more girls and female youths with FGM are likely to present to practices and hospitals in Germany. Thus increased knowledge and awareness of the medical complications of FGM and their treatment will be necessary in years to come. PMID:26500372
Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi
Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoimmune disease (AIID) that can develop after exposure to infectious agents. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported to induce or exacerbate AIIDs, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No guidelines are available for the management of genital warts in AOSD. Case report and literature review. We report a patient who was diagnosed AOSD in the setting of refractory and recurrent genital HPV infection, demonstrating a possible link between HPV infection and AOSD. In addition, we also discuss the management of genital warts in patients with AOSD. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of AOSD with genital HPV infection have been reported in literature. We then conclude that the patient AOSD may be triggered by primary HPV infection. Larger number of patient samples is needed to confirm whether HPV could trigger AOSD. PMID:27082556
Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva; Wander, Katherine; Moreau, Amadou
Although the international community has recently promoted legislation as an important reform strategy for ending female genital cutting (FGC), there exist divergent views on its potential effects. Supporters argue that legal prohibition of FGC has a general deterrent effect, while others argue legislation can be perceived as coercive, and derail local efforts to end the practice. This study examines the range of responses observed in rural Senegal, where a 1999 anti-FGC law was imposed on communities in which the practice was being actively contested and targeted for elimination. Drawing on data from a mixed-methods study, we analyze responses in relation to two leading theories on social regulation, the law and economics and law and society paradigms, which make divergent predictions on the interplay between social norms and legal norms. Among supporters of FGC, legal norms ran counter to social norms, and did little to deter the practice, and in some instances incited reactance or drove the practice underground. Conversely, where FGC was being contested, legislation served to strengthen the stance of those contemplating or favoring abandonment. We conclude that legislation can complement other reform strategies by creating an “enabling environment” that supports those who have or wish to abandon FGC. PMID:24771947
A new US law criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM) and requires notification of this fact to immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. In addition, US representative to international financial institutions are directed to oppose issuance of foreign aid to countries that lack established educational programs to eradicate FGM. FGM involves a range of procedures characterized by the amount of tissue removed and may be carried out in infants, adolescents, or new mothers. Complications include death, debilitating illness, and increased risk during child birth. FGM is firmly entrenched in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Arab peninsula and extends to a few groups in Asia and immigrant populations in developed countries. Most women in an Egyptian study had undergone FGM and justified the practice as a way of reducing sexual desire and, thus, preserving premarital virginity. Many women also consider FGM a religious requirement, but this claim is unsubstantiated. Successful eradication campaigns in Kenya have preserved the social and coming-of-age ritual aspects of the practice while rejecting the physical mutilation, and efforts in Nigeria have focuses on health education. A New York-based group working to eradicate FGM has criticized the new US law because it requires education of affected communities without allocating the necessary funding. The group charges that the new law needs revision to remove criminal liability from family members who may object to a proposed FGM procedure but fail to report or stop it.
Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck
Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount.
Slaughter, L; Brown, C R; Crowley, S; Peck, R
New colposcopic protocols for US forensic examiners enable documentation of genital trauma in 87-92% of rape victims--a significant improvement over protocols based on gross visualization or toluidine blue dye enhancement. It remains unresearched, however, whether colposcopic genital findings in sexual assault victims differ substantially from those in women who have had consensual intercourse. Thus, the type, extent, and distribution of genital injuries observed through colposcopy in 311 rape victims seen by the San Luis Obispo (California) County's Suspected Abuse Response Team in 1985-93 were compared to genital changes in 75 healthy women who had engaged in consensual intercourse in the past 24 hours. 213 assault victims (68%) had evidence of anogenital trauma. Among the 178 women (57%) with nongenital trauma, 132 (74%) also had genital injury (tears, ecchymoses, abrasions, redness, and swelling). The most common trauma site was the posterior fourchette (70%). Examination findings were significantly greater at 24 hours after rape than at 72 hours or more, but almost half the women seen at 72 hours or more after assault had positive genital findings. The injury pattern was not affected by age. In the consensual sex group, trauma was noted in eight women (11%). The proportion with genital injury was significantly higher for women reporting nonconsensual sex than those reporting consensual sex.
Genital surgery is one of the most controversial and contested practices, yet it is frequently described and referred to with little or no attention to cultural and social context. This article examines the practice, performed on both men and women, and the extent to which it clashes with issues of consent and capacity, as well as multicultural concepts of toleration for minority group practices. It then questions why female genital surgery, unlike male genital surgery, is legally prohibited in Australia. It argues that such legal gender bias stems from a liberal conception of "tolerance" and the limits of consent in Australia, placing female genital surgery in an "unacceptable" category and male genital surgery in an "acceptable" category.
... to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . It can cause sores in the genital ... TOPIC Talking to Your Partner About Condoms About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Talking to Your Partner About STDs 5 ...
Background Understanding women’s perspectives of female genital cutting is particularly critical for understanding the roots of the problem and enhancing effectiveness of any prevention program. Very limited research has examined how people in Iraqi Kurdistan Region think about this practice. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of women of female genital cutting with the aim of uncovering discrepancies and commonalities between women of different socio-educational groups. Methods An explorative study using Q-methodology was conducted with 29 women from different educational and socio-economic statuses in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 39 statements about different aspects of female genital cutting into a distribution on a scale of nine from “disagree most” to “agree most”. By-person factor analysis was performed with factors or latent viewpoints extracted through centroid method and varimax rotation. Results A four-factor solution and one consensus perspective provided the best conceptual fit for the women’s perspectives about female genital cutting. Factor 1, entitled “positive cultural tradition”, centers on recognizing female genital cutting as a positive cultural aspect and an essential part of the Kurdish culture. Factor 2, “active opponents”, positions around actively opposing the practice of female genital cutting and considering the practice a violation of human rights. Factor 3, “role of law”, stresses the importance of developing and enforcing law for combating female genital cutting. Factor 4, “health concerns and passive opposition”, represents the perspectives of recognizing the importance of health concerns resulting from female genital cutting and opposition of the practice but not in an active manner. A consensus perspective, “marital role”, centers primarily on lack of effect of female genital cutting on women’s marital role. Conclusions
Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR = 3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR = 15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR = 7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR = 1.4) or could only read and write (OR = 1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation
McDougall, Lindy Joan
In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit.
Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve
Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876
Francke, M L; Mihaescu, A; Chaubert, P
Isolated necrotizing arteritis (INA) of the polyarteritis-nodosa type localized to the female genital tract is rare. Approximately 30 case reports have been published to date. Eleven additional patients are described here, all with a favorable follow-up. INA is usually localized in the uterine cervix, but, when multifocal lesions are present, the latter is almost always involved. Patients most frequently report menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding. With immunohistochemical studies, immune-complex deposits (IgM, IgG, and C'3) in 7 of 11 patients with INA of the female genital tract were demonstrated for the first time. The inflammatory cells were composed mainly of T-lymphocytes with macrophages and scarce B-lymphocytes also present. These results suggest that INA is primarily an immune complex-mediated disease, implicating humoral and cellular mediator systems. Possible pathogenetic factors of INA are immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, foreign materials (after cone biopsy or curettage), and cancers, or an autoimmune reaction against constituents of the vessel walls caused by tissue injury after local surgical intervention through in situ immune-complex formation.
Zegels, Geert; Van Raemdonck, Geert Aa; Tjalma, Wiebren Aa; Van Ostade, Xaveer Wm
Cervicovaginal fluid has an important function in the homeostasis and immunity of the lower female genital tract. Analysis of the cervicovaginal fluid proteome may therefore yield important information about the pathogenesis of numerous gynecological pathologies. Additionally, cervicovaginal fluid has great potential as a source of biomarkers for these conditions.This review provides a detailed discussion about the human cervicovaginal proteome and the proteomics studies performed to characterize this biological fluid. Furthermore, infection-correlated pathological conditions of the female genital tract are discussed for which cervicovaginal fluid has been used in order to identify potential biomarkers. Recent years, numerous studies have analyzed cervicovaginal fluid samples utilizing antibody-based technologies, such as ELISA or Western blotting, to identify biomarkers for preterm birth, premature preterm rupture of membranes, bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer. The present article will discuss the importance of proteomic technologies as alternative techniques to gain additional meaningful information about these conditions. In addition, the review focuses on recent proteomic studies on cervicovaginal fluid samples for the identification of potential biomarkers. We conclude that the use of proteomic technology for analysis of human cervicovaginal fluid samples is promising and may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers which can improve disease prevention and therapy development.
Livingston, Julie B.; Lu, Shan; Robinson, Harriet; Anderson, Deborah J.
Vaccines are being sought for contraception and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. However, progress is slow in this area largely because of lack of information on induction of protective immune responses in genital tract mucosa. In this study, we investigated whether in vivo transfection with a model DNA-based antigen delivered by gene gun technology would induce an antibody response detectable in vaginal secretions. Female rats were immunized with plasmids encoding human growth hormone (HGH) under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV/HGH) via vaginal mucosa (V), Peyer’s patch (PP), and/or abdominal skin (S) routes. Localization of HGH in the target tissues demonstrated that all three sites can be transfected in vivo with pCMV/HGH. Vaginal tissues expressed roughly the same level of plasmid as skin. Antibodies to HGH were detectable in serum and vaginal secretions in rats immunized with pCMV/HGH. In the rats primed and boosted vaginally, vaginal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody titers to HGH were sustained for at least 14 weeks, whereas rats immunized via other routes and protocols (S/V, S/S, PP/PP, or PP/V) did not consistently sustain significant vaginal antibody titers beyond week 6. DNA-based immunizations administered by the gene gun may be an effective method of inducing local immunity in the female genital tract. PMID:9423874
Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M
Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women.
Adinma, J I; Agbai, A O
Genital mutilation occurred in 296 (48.5%) of 610 pregnant Nigerian Igbo women attending antenatal clinics. The incidence was especially high in association with high maternal age, high parity and low social class. Female genital mutilation (FGM) class 1 occurred in 75 (25.3%) cases while FGM class 2 occurred in 221 (74.7%). There was no cases of FGM class 3 (infibulation). The majority, 322 (52.8%) of the women were positively aware of their true genital mutilation status, but 288 (47.2%) showed negative response being either unaware of their true genital mutilation status or had become confused. Female genital mutilation was no longer practised in the locality of 337 (55.3%) of the women, was occasionally practised in that of 55 (9.0%) and was still fully practised in that of 88 (14.4%) of the respondents. Most of the women, 324 (53.1%) had no knowledge of any advantages of female genital mutilation. However, 157 (25.7%) believed that it discourages infidelity while 56 (9.2%) believed that it facilitated delivery. Similarly, 336 (55.1%) of the women were not aware of any risks of female genital mutilation, although 164 (26.9%) believed that it would cause difficult labour. Eighty (13.1%) of the respondents would advocate FGM for their daughters, out of which 34 (42.5%) cited cultural reasons. Four hundred and sixty-six women (76.4%) would not wish their daughters to be circumcised. The eradication of female genital mutilation must involve the identification of issues sustaining the practice in different localities and subsequent action supported either by logical persuasion following aggressive health education and by legislation.
LeVasseur-Viens, Hélène; Polak, Michal; Moehring, Amanda J
Genitalia are one of the most rapidly diverging morphological features in animals. The evolution of genital morphology is proposed to be driven by sexual selection via cryptic female choice, whereby a female selectively uptakes and uses a particular male's sperm on the basis of male genital morphology. The resulting shifts in genital morphology within a species can lead to divergence in genitalia between species, and consequently to reproductive isolation and speciation. Although this conceptual framework is supported by correlative data, there is little direct empirical evidence. Here, we used a microdissection laser to alter the morphology of the external male genitalia in Drosophila, a widely used genetic model for both genital shape and cryptic female choice. We evaluate the effect of precision alterations to lobe morphology on both interspecific and intraspecific mating, and demonstrate experimentally that the male genital lobes do not affect copulation duration or cryptic female choice, contrary to long-standing assumptions regarding the role of the lobes in this model system. Rather, we demonstrate that the lobes are essential for copulation to occur. Moreover, slight alterations to the lobes significantly reduced copulatory success only in competitive environments, identifying precopulatory sexual selection as a potential contributing force behind genital diversification.
Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R
Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.
Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the
Dare, F O; Oboro, V O; Fadiora, S O; Orji, E O; Sule-Odu, A O; Olabode, T O
This study was conducted at three teaching hospitals in South-Western Nigeria. Paturients were examined to find out if they had had female genital mutilation. Those who did were given a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that all the patients had either Type I (69%) or Type II (31%) mutilation (using WHO classification). The average age at which the procedure was performed was 6.9+/-2.9 years, with 4% of women having the procedure performed in pregnancy. The majority of the procedures were performed by medically untrained personnel (89%). Up to 67% of the women reported complications following the procedure. Severe pain and bleeding were the most common (69%) of the complications reported. The most common reason given for the procedure is cultural/traditional (63%). About a fifth of the women want their female child to undergo female genital mutilation. This study highlights the need for further interventions aimed at discouraging the practice of female genital mutilation.
Monandry, in which a female has only one mating partner during the reproductive period, is established when a female spontaneously refrains from re-mating, or when a partner male interferes with the attempts of a female to mate again. In the latter case, however, females often have countermeasures against males, which may explain why polyandry is ubiquitous. Here, I demonstrate that the genital appendage, or scape, of the female orb-web spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) is injured after her first mating, possibly by her first male partner. This female genital mutilation (FGM) permanently precludes copulation, and females appear to have no countermeasures. FGM is considered to confer a strong advantage to males in sexual conflicts over the number of female matings, and it may widely occur in spiders.
Walley, C J
This article lays the groundwork for a feminist and anthropological political response to female genital "operations" that transcends the current debate over the phenomenon, which is couched in terms of cultural relativism or of politically-informed outrage. After an introduction, the study considers the politics involved in assigning a name to the procedure and explains the author's reason for choosing female genital "operation" over the more commonly used "circumcision," "mutilation," or "torture." In the next section, clitoridectomy is contextualized through a recounting of the circumstances under which the procedure was performed in the western Kenyan village of Kikhome in 1988. This discussion focuses on the ceremonies surrounding the circumcisions of young men and women, the author's attempts to discover how the young women involved really felt about the tradition, and a review of the anthropological literature on the significance and impact of these practices. The analysis then examines the international controversy surrounding female genital mutilation and provides an overview of the colonial discourse on female genital mutilation in Africa to expose 1) the origins of justifications for colonial dominance in the dominance of non-Western women by non-Western men and 2) the fact that use of cultural arguments that fuse women and tradition can support culturally-defined power relationships. The article concludes with a consideration of who is qualified to speak out against female genital mutilation given the fact that all women and all debates are the products of longstanding, tenacious power relationships.
Shokri, Hojjatollah; Khosravi, Alireza; Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Tootian, Zahra
Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosal sites in mammalians. The purposes of this study were to identify yeast flora and to determine the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in genital tract of healthy female dromedary camels, establishing their connection in both mated and unmated conditions. The samples were taken from different parts of genital tract including vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns of 50 camels using sterilized cotton swabs. They were cultured onto Sabouraud glucose agar containing chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 degrees C for 7-10 days. A total of 454 yeast colonies were obtained from genital tract. Yeast isolates belonged to 8 genera: Candida (73.1%), Trichosporon (10.1%), Geotrichum (7.5%), Kluyveromyces (3.5%), Rhodotorula (2.4%), Aureobasidium (1.4%), Cryptococcus (1.1%) and Prototheca (0.8%). Among different Candida species, C. zeylanoides was the most common isolated species, representing significant difference with other Candida species (P<0.05). The mean number of yeasts found in the vestibule (46%) was significantly higher than the results obtained from other parts (P<0.05). In addition, the mean value of CFUs from unmated females (71.1%) was significantly higher than mated females (P<0.05). The results showed that C. zeylanoides was a common component of healthy camel females' genital mycoflora and the number of yeasts varied between mated and unmated females.
Anderson, Christopher M; Langerhans, R Brian
The study of male genital diversity has long overshadowed evolutionary inquiry of female genitalia, despite its nontrivial diversity. Here, we identify four nonmutually exclusive mechanisms that could lead to genital divergence in females, and potentially generate patterns of correlated male-female genital evolution: (1) ecological variation alters the context of sexual selection ("ecology hypothesis"), (2) sexually antagonistic selection ("sexual-conflict hypothesis"), (3) female preferences for male genitalia mediated by female genital traits ("female-choice hypothesis"), and (4) selection against inter-population mating ("lock-and-key hypothesis"). We performed an empirical investigation of all four hypotheses using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish inhabiting blue holes that vary in predation risk. We found unequivocal support for the ecology hypothesis, with females exhibiting a smaller genital opening in blue holes containing piscivorous fish. This is consistent with stronger postmating female choice/conflict when predators are present, but greater premating female choice in their absence. Our results additionally supported the lock-and-key hypothesis, uncovering a pattern of reproductive character displacement for genital shape. We found no support for the sexual conflict or female choice hypotheses. Our results demonstrate a strong role for ecology in generating female genital diversity, and suggest that lock-and-key may provide a viable cause of female genital diversification.
Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C
The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.
Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine; Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Albregtsen, Fritz; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke
Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection. However, microscopy of urine and hematuria are nonspecific and insensitive predictors of FGS and gynecological investigation requires extensive training. Safe and affordable diagnostic methods are needed. We explore a novel method of diagnosing FGS using computer color analysis of colposcopic images. In a cross-sectional study on young women in an endemic area, we found strong associations between the output from the computer color analysis and both clinical diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, P < 0.001) and urine microscopy for schistosomiasis (OR = 3.52, P = 0.004). Finally, using latent class statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS.
Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine; Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Albregtsen, Fritz; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke
Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection. However, microscopy of urine and hematuria are nonspecific and insensitive predictors of FGS and gynecological investigation requires extensive training. Safe and affordable diagnostic methods are needed. We explore a novel method of diagnosing FGS using computer color analysis of colposcopic images. In a cross-sectional study on young women in an endemic area, we found strong associations between the output from the computer color analysis and both clinical diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, P < 0.001) and urine microscopy for schistosomiasis (OR = 3.52, P = 0.004). Finally, using latent class statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS. PMID:25918212
Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre
Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.
Kalra, J.; Cortes, E.; Chen, S.; Krumholz, B.; Rovinsky, J.J.; Molho, L.; Seltzer, V.; Papantoniou, P.; Lee, J.Y.
Fifteen patients with advanced or recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and urethra were treated with simultaneous combination chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil infusion and mitomycin C) and radiotherapy (3,000 rad for a period of three weeks). Three to four weeks after completion of radiotherapy, 13 of 15 patients achieved partial or complete tumor shrinkage. Nine of 15 patients are alive, eight of whom (at a median follow-up time of 24 months) have no evidence of disease. The longest survival time was 45 + months. There was minimal toxicity associated with this therapy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the simultaneous administration of radiation and chemotherapy is an effective method of treatment of advanced female genital tract carcinoma.
Hayford, Sarah R; Trinitapoli, Jenny
The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported, along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughters circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice.
Butrón Valdez, Karla; Ramírez Galves, Miguel; Germes Piña, Fernando; Ramos Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora Perea, Arturo
Primary female genital tract non Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare presentation for a common disease in the childhood, and its classification as primary extranodal lymphoma is still controversial. There are a few cases reported as a primary precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the female genital tract, but there is not any case reported as primary precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ovary in childhood. Herein we describe a 16 years old young woman with bilateral ovarian tumors, paraaortic lymphoadenophaty and disseminate disease to the female genital tract including extension of the tumor to neighboring organs like the omentum and the appendix. Exploratory laparatomy were performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, pelvic washings and with biopsy of vaginal vault. The chemotherapy regimen comprised of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, Prednisone/Prednisolone) and methotrexate, 3 months later presents left facial hemiparesia follow by right facial hemiparesia, 7 months later presents more Central Nervous System (CNS) complications and apparently was complicated with acute lymphocitic leukemia and after 16 months from the diagnosis, following by a torpid evolution, the pacient finally died.
Harmanli, Ozgur H.; Nyirjesy, Paul; Reece, E. Albert
Objective: Our objective was to determine the role of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Methods: The clinical and microbiologic variables in 114 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PID were compared prospectively according to the isolation of M. hominis and U. urealyticum from their endometrial cavities. Results: The groups were epidemiologically well matched. Clinical parameters such as temperature, leukocyte count, erythrocyte count, and C-reactive protein on admission and length of hospital stay were similar in the patients, regardless of their mycoplasma status. A significant percentage of the patients either continued or started to harbor genital mycoplasmas after the resolution of PID without any significant clinical sequelae. Conclusions: The presence of genital mycoplasmas does not change the clinical presentation and course of PID. Both M. hominis and U. urealyticum can persist or colonize the endometrium after complete recovery from PID. Therefore, the genital mycoplasmas do not seem to have a dominant pathogenic role in PID. PMID:18476105
Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria
Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984
51 women with urinary schistosomiasis underwent gynecological examinations, including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions, in a study conducted in 1994 at Mangochi Hospital near Lake Malawi. Microscopy of genital biopsies determined that 33 women had S. haematobium eggs in their cervix, vagina, and/or vulva. A significant correlation was identified between the size of genital lesion and the number of ova counted. Women with genital pathology had significantly more tumors in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis of the urinary tract only. Most of the observed pathology could be seen with the unaided eye. Even though the sample was very small, significantly more cases of genital schistosomiasis were found in women who had fewer children than desired and whose husbands had children with other women. Reasons for that observation were not investigated. The findings of this pilot study indicate that more research is needed to provide a better understanding of the implications of the disease upon marital and sexual lives.
Sutter, V L
In the selection of empiric therapy for infections of the female genital tract and intraabdominal infections in humans, the requisite information includes (1) the frequency of isolation of bacterial species dominant in the normal gastrointestinal and female genital tracts and in intraabdominal and female genital tract infections and (2) the in vitro susceptibilities of the dominant species to drugs that may be used against them (e.g., penicillin G, cefoperazone, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole). The predominant bacteria in fecal contents are not necessarily those most frequently found in infections. Intraabdominal and perirectal infections are usually polymicrobial, resulting from mixtures of facultative species (coliforms and streptococci) and anaerobes. The predominant bacteria of the normal vagina and cervix are lactobacilli, facultative streptococci, Peptococcus species, and Peptostreptococcus species. Most infections of the female genital tract are due to mixtures of facultative enteric bacilli, streptococci, and anaerobes (Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides disiens, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Bacteroides bivius, and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus). Of the antibiotics tested, clindamycin appears the most active against many of the groups of bacteria isolated.
Dustin, Donna; Davies, Liz
Female genital cutting (FGC) is an ancient practice that affects girls and young women around the world, defining the identity of women in cultures where it is practiced. FGC is carried out for a range of social and cultural reasons. The United Kingdom as a point of inward migration receives families from countries and cultures where FGC is the…
Background: Genital tuberculosis is a common entity in gynecological practice particularly among infertile patients. It is rare in developed countries but is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Objective: The present study has investigated the prevalence of female genital tract tuberculosis (FGT) among infertile patients, which was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit-I, Allied Hospital, affiliated with Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: 150 infertile women who were referred to infertility clinic were selected randomly and enrolled in our study. Patients were scanned for possible presence of FGT by examination and relevant investigation. We evaluated various aspects (age, symptoms, signs, and socio-economic factors) of the patients having tuberculosis. Results: Very high frequency of FGT (20%) was found among infertile patients. While, a total of 25 patients out of 30 (83.33%) showed primary infertility and the remaining 5 cases (16.67%) had secondary infertility. Among secondary infertility patients, the parity ranged between 1 and 2. A total of 40% of patients (12 cases) were asymptomatic but infertile. Evidence of family history was found in 4 out of a total of 30 patients (13.3%), respectively. According to histopathological and bacteriological examination of endometrial biopsy and laparotomy, tuberculous endometritis was found in 20 out of a total of 25 (80%) cases, while tuberculous salpingitis and tuberculous oophoritis were found both in 2 (8%) of the cases, respectively. Only one case (4%) of tuberculosis cervicitis was found in the present study. Conclusion: Although infertility is not a disease in classical sense, but it is an extremely important personal concern for many couples and a significant health problem for our profession. So, it is worthwhile to identify and evaluate the factors contributing to infertility. PMID:25246930
Nichols, Whitney A.; Birke, Leslie; Dufour, Jason; Loganantharaj, Nisha; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Molina, Patricia E.; Amedee, Angela M.
Problem HIV infection among women is frequently modeled in female rhesus macaques. Longitudinal studies on genital compartment and hormonal factors that can influence susceptibility to SIV infection are lacking in this animal model. Methods of Study Genital specimens and menstruation of indoor-housed female rhesus macaques were analyzed prior to and after SIV-infection. Results Median menstrual cycle length averaged 27 days, although highly variable cycle lengths and frequent periods of amenorrhea were observed during summer months. The vaginal microbiota, characterized by adapted Nugent scoring, showed predominance of small gram-variable rods and gram-positive cocci. Highly variable vaginal cytokine levels were observed pre- and post-SIV infection. Vaginal viral loads correlated with plasma viral loads, but were not associated with progesterone levels. Conclusion These results provide an integrated characterization of important factors in the vaginal microenvironment that are relevant to the experimental design of HIV prevention and transmission studies in female rhesus macaques. PMID:26290147
LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L
Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level.
Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo
In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery.
Krasucki, C; Kemp, R; David, A
A case of deliberate genital self-mutilation in a woman with familial schizophrenia is presented. Such behaviour, though well recognized in females with severe personality disorders, is extremely rare in female psychotics. The genital mutilation may be partially understood as a consequence of delusionally motivated action against a background of low self-esteem, premorbid body-image preoccupation, forced early sexual activity and hence profound ambivalence towards adult sexuality. Dealing with this constructively was hampered by a cognitive style characterized by impaired reasoning and reality testing. Tests of reasoning, judgement and reality testing showed deficits, and computed tomography revealed dilatation of the left frontal ventricular system. Both neuropsychological and psychodynamic factors appeared to be of relevance in this case.
Arnold, Kelly; Romas, Laura; Westmacott, Garrett; McCorrister, Stuart; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Cohen, Craig R.; Mackelprang, Romel; Lingappa, Jairam; Lauffenburger, Doug A.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Burgener, Adam D.
The mechanism(s) by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT) health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity. PMID:27656899
Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).
Ernst, E J; Speck, Patricia M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
With the patient's consent, physical injuries sustained in a sexual assault are evaluated and treated by the sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) and documented on preprinted traumagrams and with photographs. Digital imaging is now available to the SANE for documentation of sexual assault injuries, but studies of the image quality of forensic digital imaging of female genital injuries after sexual assault were not found in the literature. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) was developed to rate the image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. Three expert observers performed evaluations on 30 separate images at two points in time. An image quality score, the sum of eight integral technical and anatomical attributes on the PDIQSS, was obtained for each image. Individual image quality ratings, defined by rating image quality for each of the data, were also determined. The results demonstrated a high level of image quality and agreement when measured in all dimensions. For the SANE in clinical practice, the results of this study indicate that a high degree of agreement exists between expert observers when using the PDIQSS to rate image quality of individual digital photographs of female genital injuries after sexual assault.
Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Hoshyar, Azamossadat Hoseine; Shabane, Shima; Shahidsales, Soodabeh
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major worldwide concern. There is no pathognomonic clinical feature or imaging findings for definite diagnosis of extra pulmonary TB. Therefore, TB involvement of Gastrointestinal or Genitourinary tract can be easily confused with peritoneal carcinomatosis and advanced ovarian carcinoma. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of considering the disease based upon the epidemiologic clues of the patients, while interpreting the positive results for a suspicious ovarian malignancy. Cases: This paper illustrates 8 cases of ovarian or peritoneal tuberculosis, whose initial diagnoses were malignant processes of the GU tract. Conclusion: Tuberculosis (TB) should be always being considered in the differential diagnosis of advanced ovarian cancer, especially in the regions that are endemic for the disease. PMID:24778675
Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.
In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073
Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A
In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse.
Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre
We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM. PMID:26955127
Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre
We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.
Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak
Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of
Ashong, Ashong C; Batta, Herbert E
We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms.
Ashong, Ashong C.; Batta, Herbert E.
We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms. PMID:23445703
Burger, Matthias; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kropf, Christian
Female genital structures with their allied muscles of the haplogyne spider Opopaea fosuma are described. A functional explanation of this system is given, which indicates that cryptic female choice may occur in these spiders: the anterior wall of their spermatheca is strongly sclerotized and possesses a cone-shaped hole in its upper part. A transverse sclerite that serves as muscle attachment bears a nail-like structure and lies in a chitinized area of the anterior wall of the uterus externus. Muscle contraction presses this nail into the hole of the spermatheca. In this way, the uterus externus gets both locked and fixed. Furthermore, as this occurs the copulatory orifice is enlarged and the resulting suction probably leads to previously deposited sperm being drawn from the spermatheca and dumped. This is a common mechanism used by females to influence a male's chances of fathering their offspring in a process known as cryptic female choice.
Barnett, S.; Brundage, J.
Background/objectives: Few studies of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence, especially among men, and most studies of C trachomatis in US military populations are cross sectional prevalence surveys. A population based retrospective cohort was used to determine risk factors for repeat diagnoses of genital C trachomatis infections among male and female soldiers with previous C trachomatis infections. Methods: All active duty soldiers diagnosed with C trachomatis genital infections between 1994 and 1998. Cohort members were passively followed until repeat diagnoses of C trachomatis infection, termination of army service, or the end of the study. Results: Among 11 771 soldiers with initial diagnoses of chlamydia, the crude rate of repeat diagnoses was 52.0 per 1000 person years. Women and men aged 20–24 were at greatest unadjusted risk of reinfection. After adjustment, women aged 20–24 and men aged 25–29 were at higher risk than their younger or older counterparts. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that both male and female soldiers who are diagnosed with chlamydia infections have relatively high risks of reinfection through their 20s. Key Words: epidemiology; military personnel; sexually transmitted diseases; United States PMID:11158689
The epithelium-stromal interaction is important in the process of morphogenesis, differentiation, and hormone response, in female genital tract. This review is organized in four sections: i) female genital tract morphogenesis, based on genetic determinism; ii) hormonal control of endometrial proliferation; iii) TGF-beta key-role in epithelium-stromal communication; iv) endometrial apoptosis. Female genital tract derives from the Müllerian ducts, a number of genes being involved in its regulation, like Lim1, Lhx9, Emx, Pax-2, Hox-A9, Hox-A10, Hox-A11, Hox-A13, Wnt-4, Wnt-7, WT1, SF-1, and GATA-4. TGF-beta, whose expression is modulated by ovarian steroids, regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory and immune responses, extracellular matrix deposition, adhesion molecules, proteases, and protease inhibitor expression. In the endometrium, TGF-beta regulates its own expression, and that of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules and proteases implicated in trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis during embryo implantation, endometriosis, irregular bleeding, and endometrial cancer. Cellular response elicited by TGF-beta, mediated through a serine/threonine kinase receptor, induces the recruitment of multiple intracellular signals, specifically Smads, whose activation and subsequent translocation into the nucleus results in gene expression. Ubiquitin is involved in the degradation of short lived, regulatory or misfolded proteins, by tagging them to be taken to the proteasome. In the endometrium, ubiquitin may allow cells of stromal origin to grow, survive and evade T-cell mediated disposal, showing a functional duality. A complete understanding of the complex regulatory endometrial epithelium-stromal mechanism, concertating genes, hormones, and cytokines, may provide new therapeutic targets in female reproductive tract pathology.
Eke, N; Nkanginieme, K E
Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been practiced worldwide, clothed under the tradocultural term "circumcision." Indications for its practice include ensuring virginity, securing fertility, securing the economic and social future of daughters, preventing the clitoris from growing long like the penis, and purely as a "tradition." Outlawed only in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Belgium, no law forbids it in most other countries. Classified into four identified types, the current perpetrators are mainly quacks, but trained medical personnel still connive at and encourage FGM. Early complications include hemorrhage, urinary tract infection, septicemia, and tetanus. Late complications include infertility, apareunia, clitoral neuromas, and vesicovaginal fistula. Reasons for the ritual persisting include fear that legislation would force it underground and it will be performed in unsterile conditions, belief that it is racist to speak out against FGM, "tolerance" by health professionals, continued use of the term "female circumcision," lack of awareness of the culture of immigrants by the physicians in areas where FGM is not culturally practiced, and sporadic or uncommitted eradication efforts. We believe there is no reason for the continued practice of FGM. It should incur global abolition, the same way slave trade or Victorian chastity belts have done. We advocate that in medical communications the term "female genital mutilation" be used in place of "female circumcision." World leaders should include unacceptable cultural practices such as FGM in the "world summit" agenda. The year 1999 should be declared the year for global eradication of FGM.
Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O
To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.
Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn
Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.
Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia
The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.
Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J
Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s)that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest that the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected nonimmune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia activation of the innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor 2, and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation, which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-interferon-g-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that, although the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis that thwart development of optimally effective control programs, including vaccine development.
Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Campo, Rudi
Current proposals for classifying female genital anomalies seem to be associated with limitations in effective categorization, creating the need for a new classification system that is as simple as possible, clear and accurate in its definitions, comprehensive, and correlated with patients' clinical presentation, prognosis, and treatment on an evidence-based foundation. Although creating a new classification system is not an easy task, it is feasible when taking into account the experience gained from applying the existing classification systems, mainly that of the American Fertility Society.
Mayor, P; Bodmer, R E; Lopez-Bejar, M
This study examined anatomical and histological characteristics of genital organs of 38 black agouti females in the wild in different reproductive stages, collected by rural hunters in the North-eastern Peruvian Amazon. Females in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle had greater antral follicle sizes than other females, the largest antral follicle measuring 2.34mm. Antral follicles in pregnant females and females in luteal phase of the estrous cycle had an average maximum diameter smaller than 1mm. In black agouti females in follicular phase, some antral follicles are selected to continue to growth, reaching a pre-ovulatory diameter of 2mm. Mean ovulation rate was 2.5 follicles and litter size was 2.1 embryos or fetuses per pregnant female, resulting in a rate of ovum mortality of 20.8%. Many follicles from which ovulation did not occur of 1-mm maximum diameter luteinize forming accessory CL. The constituent active luteal tissues of the ovary are functional and accessory CL. Although all females had accessory CL, transformation of follicles into accessory CL occurred especially in pregnant females, resulting in a contribution from 9% to 23% of the total luteal volume as pregnancy advances. The persistence of functional CL throughout pregnancy might reflect the importance for the maintenance of gestation and may be essential for the continuous hormonal production. The duplex uterus of the agouti female is composed by two completely independent uterine horns with correspondent separate cervices opening into the vagina. In pregnant females, most remarkable observed uterine adaptations were induced by the progressive enlargement caused by the normal pregnancy evolution. The wild black agouti showed different vaginal epithelium features in accordance with the reproductive state of the female.
Osifo, David Osarumwese; Evbuomwan, Iyekoretin
This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.
Lyons, J M; Morré, S A; Land, J A
Critical to evaluating Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine candidates is the availability of appropriate animal models. At a minimum, models must mimic the essential features of transmission and disease progression that contribute to the severe outcomes associated with upper genital tract infection. Existing models, whether mouse, pig or nonhuman primate, are based on the generally accepted premise that upper genital tract infection, when it occurs, is an event subsequent to cervical infection. However, what this simple paradigm overlooks are many features of reproductive biology that could influence both the initial distribution and subsequent spread of C. trachomatis within the female genital tract, as well as the immune responses made at these site(s) of infection. A review of the literature strongly suggests that the menstrual cycle and coitusrelated phenomena are likely to have a profound effect on the course and outcome of female genital tract infection with C. trachomatis. Although the new paradigm that emerges raises concerns about the adequacy of existing animal models, it also suggests ways to modify these models to better mimic the complexities of human infection and therefore serve as appropriate models in which to test the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates against C. trachomatis infection in women.
Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.
ABSTRACT Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20–27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899
Collinet, P; Stien, L; Vinatier, D; Leroy, J L
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still performed on 98% of Djiboutian women. Infibulation (FGM type 3) is the most widely used method of FGM in Djibouti. Even though this operation is mutilating, illegal and sometimes results in death, it is still practiced at approximately the same rate as in the past. Mass immigration of African women to Europe, Canada, Australia and the United States in the past decade has brought the problems of FGM to these countries. Female genital mutilation is a problem unfamiliar to most Western obstetrician-gynecologists. A tight infibulation can be a high risk for the mother and fetus if not handled by a skilled operator. It can lead to an unnecessary cesarean section as a result of the fear of handling infibulated women. Therefore, Western physicians need to be informed. The aim of this article was to share our experience of FGM. It will focus on FGM in Djibouti, its types, epidemiology and health consequences. It will present the management of obstetric and gynecologic complications and discuss medico-legal and health service measures to combat these dangerous and unnecessary practices
Rank, Roger G.; Bowlin, Anne K.; Reed, Ronald L.; Darville, Toni
A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 104, 103, 102, and 101 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 102 IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 104 or 103 IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 102 IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 104 and 103 IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 102 IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 102-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 102 IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female. Immunization of females
Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Reed, Ronald L; Darville, Toni
A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 10(4), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(1) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 10(2) IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 10(4) or 10(3) IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 10(2) IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 10(4) and 10(3) IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 10(2) IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 10(2)-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 10(2) IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female
Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L
Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.
Pashaei, Tahereh; Ponnet, Koen; Moeeni, Maryam; Khazaee-pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers’ neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one’s daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. PMID:27031613
Pashaei, Tahereh; Ponnet, Koen; Moeeni, Maryam; Khazaee-pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.
The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood. PMID:23843795
Livermore, L; Monteiro, R; Rymer, J
There are considerable efforts in Kenya to increase awareness of the issues and health risks associated with female genital mutilation (FGM) through educational programmes. The Kenyan government formally outlawed FGM in 2001. This questionnaire-based study aimed to explore attitudes and awareness of FGM in Kenya with particular reference to the law, health complications and educational programmes. A significant decline in the prevalence of FGM was demonstrated and awareness of health complications of FGM shown to be the main factor causing this trend. The need for further efforts to eradicate the practice and the importance of religion and culture in shaping social attitudes was evident. The outlawing of FGM was considered a positive advance but may have the detrimental effect of deterring women from seeking medical assistance for complications relating to FGM.
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. PMID:26719732
Tosevski, Jovo; Tosevski, Dusica Lecic
Despite genetic similarities between man and other anthropoids, the cognitive abilities of man are distinct. Inaccessible and concealed external female genitals are one of the morphological characteristics distinguishing humans from other higher primates. External female sexual organs in subhuman primates are visible and accessible in the habitual quadrupedal and occasional bipedal posture, whereas these organs in the human female are inaccessible and concealed in any posture. A prospective consequence of gradual bipedalism of hominids during evolution was a shifting of the external female genitals in an anterior direction. In the completely bipedal Homo sapiens, this resulted in the vulvo-cryptic phenomenon, i.e. concealed female genitals in humans. The unique morphology of the human female pelvis served as an obstacle to easy access of the male in the process of copulation, necessitating the female's conscious decision for sexual intercourse. This circumstance might have created a psychological basis for female propellant psychosexual manipulation of the male as a natural consequence. Also, through the process of positive selection it could have formed a basis for linking reproductive success with the development of cognitive and emotional capacities. Female consent to copulation is a conscious and complex act that would be impossible without the involvement of highly developed emotional-cognitive and memoric brain systems. Thus the extraordinary evolutionary strategy might imply a teleological link between concealed female genitals and the emotional-cognitive characteristics of man, creating a permanent promoter of further development of emotional and cognitive brain systems with an impact on all domains of everyday life.
Brockmann, C; Mummert, R; Ruhberg, H; Storch, V
The female genital system of the oviparous peripatopsid Ooperipatellus decoratus consists of an ovary, oviducts equipped with receptacula seminis and additional pouches, uteri, and a vagina. It is examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The ovary is made up of paired ovarian tubes united anteriorly and posteriorly and differentiated into a sterile dorsal part and a fertile ventral part with exogenous oocytes. Fertilization presumably occurs in the oviducts once the oocytes pass the receptaculum seminis. Although the receptacula seminis have been reported to occur in juvenile O. decoratus females only, the present study reveals that they are present in adult females as well. Their wall consists of a cuboidal epithelium covered with a thin collagen-muscle layer. The additional pouches are projections of the oviducts facing the receptacula seminis. They are distally closed to the haemocoel by a flattened epithelium and lack external muscle cells. A thin collagen layer is only found proximally. The uteri are characterized by a columnar epithelium with folded cell membranes allowing extension of the uteri, thus facilitating the passage of the large uterine eggs towards the vagina. Another dominating feature of the uteri is a distally increasing secretory production, which probably contributes to chorion development. Cilia occurring along the entire length of the uteri are considered to assist in the transport of eggs towards the vagina.
Jiménez Ambriz, Georgina; Mota, Diana; Cordero, Carlos
Understanding the patterns of genetic variation of traits subject to sexual selection is fundamental for explaining its evolutionary dynamics and potential for sexual coevolution. The signa of female Lepidoptera are sclerotized structures located on the inner surface of the genital receptacle that receives the spermatophore during copulation (the corpus bursae), whose main function is tearing the spermatophore envelope. Comparative data indicate that the evolution of signa has been influenced by sexually antagonistic coevolution with spermatophore envelopes. We looked for additive genetic variation in the size and shape of signa in females of the butterfly Callophrys xami (Lycaenidae) from two localities (BG and FC) in Mexico City. We also looked for genetic variation in female body size and in the size of corpus bursae. There were significant between-population differences in female body size, signa width and three signa shape traits. We found significant extranuclear maternal effects in one component of signa shape in the BG population, and in body weight, signa length and in one uniform component of signa shape in the FC population. Extranuclear maternal contributions could permit the evolution of female adaptations even if these reduce male fitness. We found additive genetic variation in signa length and width only in one population (BG); heritability estimates were high: 0.96 and 0.8, respectively. The existence of additive genetic variation in signa size could be, at least in part, a result of relaxed sexually antagonistic selection pressures due to the low level of polyandry exhibited by this species. Our results imply that there is currently potential for further sexual coevolution in this trait.
Robles, Francisco E.; Deb, Sanghamitra; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.; Selim, Maria Angelica
Objectives Melanomas of the female genital tract present a unique clinical challenge. Not only are these lesions in an anatomically sensitive area, but also they tend to be multifocal and have high recurrence rates. Furthermore, several benign melanocytic proliferations resemble early-stage melanoma clinically and/or histopathologically. Thus, there is a significant need for additional tools that can help correctly diagnose and stage these lesions. Here, we quantitatively and nondestructively analyze the chemical composition of melanin in excised pigmented lesions of the female genital tract using pump-probe microscopy, a high-resolution optical imaging technique that is sensitive to many biochemical properties of melanin. Materials and Methods Thirty-one thin (~5 μm) tissue sections previously excised from female genital tract melanocytic lesions were imaged with pump-probe microscopy and analyzed. Results We find significant quantitative differences in melanin type and structure between melanoma and nonmalignant melanocytic proliferations. Our analysis also suggests a link between the molecular signatures of melanins and lesion-specific genetic mutations. Finally, significant differences are found between metastatic and nonmetastatic melanomas. The limitations of this work include the fact that molecular information is restricted to melanin pigment and the sample size is relatively small. Conclusions Pump-probe microscopy provides unique information regarding the biochemical composition of genital tract melanocytic lesions, which can be used to improve the diagnosis and staging of vulvar melanomas. PMID:28157824
Hervouet, Catherine; Luci, Carmelo; Cuburu, Nicolas; Cremel, Magali; Bekri, Selma; Vimeux, Lene; Marañon, Concepcion; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Hosmalin, Anne; Anjuère, Fabienne
A vaccine against heterosexual transmission by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should generate cytotoxic and antibody responses in the female genital tract and in extra-genital organs. We report that sublingual immunization with HIV-1 gp41 and a reverse transcriptase polypeptide coupled to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) induced gp41-specific IgA antibodies and antibody-secreting cells, as well as reverse transcriptase-specific CD8 T cells in the genital mucosa, contrary to intradermal immunization. Conjugation of the reverse transcriptase peptide to CTB favored its cross-presentation by human dendritic cells to a T cell line from an HIV(+) patient. Sublingual vaccination could represent a promising vaccine strategy against heterosexual transmission of HIV-1.
Sánchez, Víctor; Hernández-Baños, Blanca Estela; Cordero, Carlos
Background Sexual coevolution is considered responsible for the evolution of many male genital traits, but its effect on female genital morphology is poorly understood. In many lepidopterans, females become temporarily unreceptive after mating and the length of this refractory period is inversely related to the amount of spermatophore remaining in their genital tracts. Sperm competition can select for males that delay female remating by transferring spermatophores with thick spermatophore envelopes that take more time to be broken. These envelopes could select for signa, sclerotized sharp structures located within the female genital tract, that are used for breaking spermatophores. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that thick spermatophore envelopes and signa evolve in polyandrous species, and that these adaptations are lost when monandry evolves subsequently. Here we test the expected associations between female mating pattern and presence/absence of signa, and review the scant information available on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes. Methodology/Principal Findings We made a literature review and found information on female mating pattern (monandry/polyandry), presence/absence of signa and phylogenetic position for 37 taxa. We built a phylogenetic supertree for these taxa, mapped both traits on it, and tested for the predicted association by using Pagel's test for correlated evolution. We found that, as predicted by our hypothesis, monandry evolved eight times and in five of them signa were lost; preliminary evidence suggests that at least in two of the three exceptions males imposed monandry on females by means of specially thick spermatophore envelopes. Previously published data on six genera of Papilionidae is in agreement with the predicted associations between mating pattern and the characteristics of spermatophore envelopes and signa. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the hypothesis that signa are a product of sexually antagonistic
Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L
Men's genital arousal occurs in response to a limited number of sexual stimuli, whereas women's genital arousal occurs in response to a wide range of sexual stimuli, including those depicting nonpreferred cues. Researchers have hypothesized that women's nonspecific pattern of genital arousal prepares the body for sexual activity, thus functioning to protect the genital organs against injury. If this hypothesis is correct, women should show genital responses to any cues suggesting sexual activity, even unappealing cues that involve nonconsensual sex and extreme violence. Fifteen men and 15 women listened to fourteen 2-min audiotaped narratives that depicted an interaction between a man and a woman and that varied factorially according to the presence of consent, violence, and sexual activity. The results support the preparation hypothesis: Men showed the greatest genital arousal in response to narratives depicting consensual, nonviolent sex, whereas women showed similar responses to all the narratives involving sexual activities, including those describing a sexual assault.
Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R
To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the female pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from animals dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. A total of twenty females, 17 adults and 10 pre-puberal approximately 1 year old were studied by gross dissection. The ovaries of adult females without corpora lutea weighed 0.22±0.02 g on the right and 0.20±0.01 g on the left and accounted for 0.03±0.01% of body weight. All corpora lutea (n=6) were found in the right ovary, but in cases where there was no corpus luteum present, the right ovary tended to be heavier than the left (P=0.1). The absence of ovarian bursa, intercornual ligament and suburethral diverticle is peculiar to this deer species. Only 6 convex caruncles were found in the uterine horns, which differ from the more of 100 present in domestic ruminants. Four regular folds that were observed in the cervix of the uterus should not be an obstacle to the passage of a transcervical catheter, allowing intrauterine artificial insemination. The close relationship between the ovarian artery and vein stood up could be associated with the passage of the uterine luteolytic factor from the vein to the ovarian artery, avoiding its systemic way, as happens in domestic ruminants. While the plan of organization was similar, there are some differences with the descriptions of other ruminants. Our results may be very useful as it provides with information that may be considered for the development of female reproductive biotechnologies.
Background Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice with severe health complications, deeply rooted in many Sub-Saharan African countries. In The Gambia, the prevalence of FGM/C is 78.3% in women aged between 15 and 49 years. The objective of this study is to perform a first evaluation of the magnitude of the health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia. Methods Data were collected on types of FGM/C and health consequences of each type of FGM/C from 871 female patients who consulted for any problem requiring a medical gynaecologic examination and who had undergone FGM/C in The Gambia. Results The prevalence of patients with different types of FGM/C were: type I, 66.2%; type II, 26.3%; and type III, 7.5%. Complications due to FGM/C were found in 299 of the 871 patients (34.3%). Even type I, the form of FGM/C of least anatomical extent, presented complications in 1 of 5 girls and women examined. Conclusion This study shows that FGM/C is still practiced in all the six regions of The Gambia, the most common form being type I, followed by type II. All forms of FGM/C, including type I, produce significantly high percentages of complications, especially infections. PMID:21967670
Van Rossem, Ronan; Gage, Anastasia J
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost universal in Guinea and practiced by all ethnic and religious groups and social classes, although the prevalence of the various types of FGM varies by socioeconomic group. A common explanation for FGM practices is that they contribute to the social control over female sexuality and enhance the marriageability of women. These claims were tested using the 1999 Guinea Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (N = 6753). Event history techniques were used to examine the effect of type of FGM on the age at first sex and the age at first marriage and logistic regression for the effect of FGM on premarital sex. The results showed that the type of FGM had a significant zero-order effect on the age at first marriage and the prevalence of premarital sex, but not on the age at first sex. However, these effects became non-significant once controls for age, religion, ethnicity, education, residence, and wealth were added to the model. Variations in sexual behavior, therefore, were unrelated to type of FGM, but reflected differences in the social characteristics of the participants.
Asadi, Nasrin; Hemmati, Ensie; Namazi, Golnaz; Jahromi, Mahnaz Pakniat; Sarraf, Zahra; Pazyar, Nader; Salehi, Alireza
Background: Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease affecting 1% of the population. A prospective, open-label controlled trial was performed to compare topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. Methods: Seventy patients were enrolled in the study after convenience sampling. Right-sided lesions of the patients were treated by CO2 laser every 3 weeks. The left-sided lesions of the same patients were treated by topical 5% KOH solution twice a day using a toothpick with cotton wrap on the tip. The patients were visited at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after initiation of the treatment and followed up for 6 months after the last visit. Results: Out of seventy patients, sixty three completed the study and were analyzed. A total of 56 KOH treated-patients (88.9%) showed complete response. On the other hand, 56 laser-treated patients (88.9%) presented complete clearing of the lesion. There was not any difference in response to both modalities of treatment. Complications of KOH solution and CO2 laser were 24% and 19% respectively (P>0.05), but serious adverse events were not observed. The patients under KOH treatment displayed a recurrence rate of 11.1% (7 cases), while the same patients with CO2 laser therapy demonstrated a recurrence rate of 7.9% (5 cases) (P=0.54). Conclusion: Topical 5% KOH solution was as effective as CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. There was not any serious complication in the application of KOH solution. This could be used as a new treatment for genital warts. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201412207848N1 PMID:27382594
Carey, Alison J.; Weinberg, Jason B.; Dawid, Suzanne R.; Venturini, Carola; Lam, Alfred K.; Nizet, Victor; Caparon, Michael G.; Walker, Mark J.; Watson, Michael E.; Ulett, Glen C.
Postpartum women are at increased risk of developing puerperal sepsis caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS). Specific GAS serotypes, including M1 and M28, are more commonly associated with puerperal sepsis. However, the mechanisms of GAS genital tract infection are not well understood. We utilized a murine genital tract carriage model to demonstrate that M1 and M28 GAS colonization triggers TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17A production in the female genital tract. GAS-induced IL-17A significantly influences streptococcal carriage and alters local inflammatory responses in two genetically distinct inbred strains of mice. An absence of IL-17A or the IL-1 receptor was associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection; and clearance of GAS was significantly attenuated in IL-17A−/− mice and Rag1−/− mice (that lack mature lymphocytes) but not in mice deficient for the IL-1 receptor. Together, these findings support a role for IL-17A in contributing to the control of streptococcal mucosal colonization and provide new insight into the inflammatory mediators regulating host-pathogen interactions in the female genital tract. PMID:27241677
Berg, Rigmor C; Underland, Vigdis; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Fretheim, Atle; Vist, Gunn E
Objective Worldwide, an estimated 125 million girls and women live with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). We aimed to systematically review the evidence for physical health risks associated with FGM/C. Design We searched 15 databases to identify studies (up to January 2012). Selection criteria were empirical studies reporting physical health outcomes from FGM/C, affecting females with any type of FGM/C, irrespective of ethnicity, nationality and age. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts, applied eligibility criteria, assessed methodological study quality and extracted full-text data. To derive overall risk estimates, we combined data from included studies using the Mantel-Haenszel method for unadjusted dichotomous data and the generic inverse-variance method for adjusted data. Outcomes that were sufficiently similar across studies and reasonably resistant to biases were aggregated in meta-analyses. We applied the instrument Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation to assess the extent to which we have confidence in the effect estimates. Results Our search returned 5109 results, of which 185 studies (3.17 million women) satisfied the inclusion criteria. The risks of systematic and random errors were variable and we focused on key outcomes from the 57 studies with the best available evidence. The most common immediate complications were excessive bleeding, urine retention and genital tissue swelling. The most valid and statistically significant associations for the physical health sequelae of FGM/C were seen on urinary tract infections (unadjusted RR=3.01), bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.68), dyspareunia (RR=1.53), prolonged labour (AOR=1.49), caesarean section (AOR=1.60), and difficult delivery (AOR=1.88). Conclusions While the precise estimation of the frequency and risk of immediate, gynaecological, sexual and obstetric complications is not possible, the results weigh against the continuation of
Watson, Meg; Saraiya, Mona; Wu, Xiaocheng
In 2008, CDC published a supplement to the journal Cancer describing incidence patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers prior to availability of an HPV vaccine. This report updates the information on HPV-associated female genital cancer incidence with more recent data, adds information on trends, and includes American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We used combined data from two federal cancer surveillance programs, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, covering 92% of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2004, to examine recent trends and incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma and vaginal and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Incidence of in situ vaginal and vulvar SCC are also presented. The average annual age-adjusted rate of cervical cancer among women of all races/ethnicities was 8.5/100,000. Annual cervical cancer incidence rates were highest but declined more rapidly among Hispanic and black women compared with non-Hispanic and white women. The rate of vulvar cancer among all women was 1.7/100,000 and was higher among white women than other racial groups. Vulvar cancer rates rose among black women (+2.9% per year) and were relatively stable among all other racial and ethnic groups over the 6-year period. Vaginal cancer was rare (rate 0.5/100,000); the rate was higher among black women than other racial groups and higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic women. A significant decline of vaginal cancer was observed only among black women (-6.2% per year). This article confirms previous findings on racial disparities in HPV-associated female genital cancers. Any post-HPV vaccine declines in these cancers should be interpreted in light of current declines. Enhancing current cancer surveillance systems, combined with special studies to collect data on in situ or precancerous lesions of these cancers, will provide important information in
IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...
Kalyoussef, Sabah; Nieves, Edward; Dinerman, Ellen; Carpenter, Colleen; Shankar, Viswanathan; Oh, Jamie; Burd, Berta; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Fredricks, David N.; Madan, Rebecca P.; Keller, Marla J.; Herold, Betsy C.
Background Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E.) coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined. Methods The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected from 99 healthy women were determined. Results CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [−26, 100] (median [range]). CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p<0.001), but not with cytokines, chemokines or antimicrobial peptides. Four CVL with>90% inhibitory activity (active) and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli. Conclusion Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection. PMID:23185346
Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John
Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C.
Cham, Babucarr; Njie, Lamin A.; Blanco, Sandra; Utzet, Mireia
Efforts aimed at the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in the communities where it is deeply rooted have extensively considered and addressed women's perceptions on the issue, leaving those of men barely acknowledged. Although the practice is generally confined to the secret world of women, it does not mean that men cannot be influential. Indeed, men can play an important role in prevention. In order to address this gap, and having as background an extensive ethnographic field work, a transversal descriptive study was designed to explore Gambian men's knowledge and attitudes towards FGM/C, as well as related practices in their family/household. Results show ethnic identity, more than religion, as the decisive shaping factor on how men conceive and value FGM/C. The greater support towards the practice is found among traditionally practicing groups. A substantial proportion of men intend to have it performed on their daughters, although reporting a low involvement in the decision making process, with very few taking alone the final decision. Only a minority is aware of FGM/C health consequences, but those who understand its negative impact on the health and well-being of girls and women are quite willing to play a role in its prevention. PMID:23935631
Puig de Centorbi, O N; Calleri de Milán, M C; Abdón de Cuadrado, A M; Ciácera de Carrizo, S C; Giménez, D F
Staphylococcus sp was investigated in the female lower genital tract of 102 healthy women aged between 18 and 48 years in San Luis, Argentina. Three hundred and six samples were obtained from labia, introitus and vagina (posterior fornix). Samples were plated on sheep blood, mannitol salt and Baird-Parker media. Strains were identified by tube coagulase test; thermonuclease, fibrinolysin, pigment and hemolysin production; glucose and mannitol utilization and novobiocin sensitivity. Antibiotic susceptibility was assayed. Strains were examined for their ability to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Fourteen women (13.7%) had S. aureus in one or more samples: 10.7% labia, 3.9% introitus and 3.9% vaginal. All strains were sensitive to cephalotin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamycin and chloramphenicol; 21.0% were intermediate to methicillin; 15.7% were resistant to methicillin, 94.7% to penicillin and 21.0% to tetracycline. Three strains (15.7%) produced SEB, three (15.7%) SED, one (5.7%) SEC and three (15.7%) TSST-1. Only one strain (5.7%) produced both SEB and TSST-1. All strains produced hemolysins. Coagulase negative staphylococci were found in 40.1% of vaginal samples: S. epidermidis (32.2%) and S. saprophyticus (9.8%) were identified.
Berg, Rigmor C.; Underland, Vigdis
Various forms of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have been performed for millennia and continue to be prevalent in parts of Africa. Although the health consequences following FGM/C have been broadly investigated, divergent study results have called into question whether FGM/C is associated with obstetric consequences. To clarify the present state of empirical research, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and quantitative meta-analyses of the obstetric consequences of FGM/C. We included 44 primary studies, of which 28 were comparative, involving almost 3 million participants. The methodological study quality was generally low, but several studies reported the same outcome and were sufficiently similar to warrant pooling of effect sizes in meta-analyses. The meta-analyses results showed that prolonged labor, obstetric lacerations, instrumental delivery, obstetric hemorrhage, and difficult delivery are markedly associated with FGM/C, indicating that FGM/C is a factor in their occurrence and significantly increases the risk of delivery complications. There was no significant difference in risk with respect to cesarean section and episiotomy. These results can make up the background documentation for health promotion and health care decisions that inform work to reduce the prevalence of FGM/C and improve the quality of services related to the consequences of FGM/C. PMID:23878544
Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V
Despite global and local attempts to end female genital mutilation (FGM), the practice persists in some parts of the world and has spread to non-traditional countries through immigration. FGM is of varying degrees of invasiveness, but all forms raise health-related concerns that can be of considerable physical or psychological severity. FGM is becoming increasingly prohibited by law, both in countries where it is traditionally practised and in countries of immigration. Medical practice prohibits FGM. The Italian parliament passed a law prohibiting FGM, which has put in place a set of measures to prevent, to oppose and to suppress the practice of FGM as a violation of a person's fundamental rights to physical and mental integrity and to the health of women and girls. The Italian law not only treats new offences but also wants to deal with the problem in its entirety, providing important intervention in all the sectors. Different kinds of interventions are considered, starting with the development of informative campaigns, training of health workers, institution of a tollfree number, international cooperation programmes and the responsibility of the institution where the crime is committed. Particularly, the law recognises that doctors have a role in eliminating FGM by educating patients and communities.
Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne
Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women's attitudes towards FGM. Results: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation. Conclusions: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice - through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs - may play an important role in modifying women's attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. PMID:21483197
Martinez-Gomez, M; Chirino, R; Beyer, C; Komisaruk, B R; Pacheco, P
The present study describes several muscular reflexes produced by genital stimulation, the nerves that subserve them, and the visceral and postural effects induced by these reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the iliococcygeus (ic) and pubococcygeus (pc) (striated) muscles produced movement of the vaginal orifice and wall, membranous urethra, tail and pelvis. Electrical stimulation of the psoas major (pm) or iliacus (i) (striated) muscles produced movements of the lumbar vertebrae and extension of the ipsilateral hindlimb. Sensory mechanostimulation elicited responses of these muscles as follows: stimulation of the perineal skin, clitoral sheath or distal vagina produced reflex contraction of the ic and pc muscles. Stimulation of the cervix produced reflex contraction of the pm and i muscles and also blocked the above reflex contraction of the ic and pc muscles. Both the cervical stimulation-induced blockage of the ic and pc reflex response, and the cervical stimulation-induced activation of pm and i muscles was prevented by bilateral transection of the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic nerve. Based on the above observations, it is proposed that stimulation of the vaginal surface of the cervix resulting from penile intromission and/or seminal plug deposition during mating behavior in the rat may reflexively active pm and i, thereby contributing to the hindleg postural rigidity and lordotic dorsiflexion that are characteristic of the normal mating posture in female rats.
Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L
The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.
Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria
The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition.
Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco
Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.
Shabila, Nazar P
An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.
Abathun, Asresash Demissie; Sundby, Johanne; Gele, Abdi A
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a worldwide problem, and it is practiced by many communities in Africa and Asia as well as immigrants from those areas. This practice results in short- and long-term health consequences on women’s health. Like many other developing countries, FGM is widely practiced in Ethiopia, especially among Somali and Harari ethnic groups. Despite intensive campaigns against FGM in Ethiopia, since 2011, it has been practiced in the aforementioned communities. There is no recent information as to whether these campaigns have an impact on the attitude and practice of the community regarding FGM. This qualitative research was aimed at exploring the attitudes of Somali and Harari people between 18 and 65 years toward FGM. Methods A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 64 (32 in each region) participants. Data were collected from October to December 2015 in Somali and Harari Regions. Results The findings showed that there was a strong support for the continuation of the practice among female discussants in Somali region, whereas male discussants from the same region and the majority of the participants from Harari region had a positive attitude toward the discontinuation of the practice. Marriageability was the major reason for practicing FGM in Somali region, whereas making girls calm, sexually inactive, and faithful for their husbands were mentioned in Harari region. Although young men in both the regions prefer to marry uncircumcised girls, the study showed that there are some differences in the attitude toward the FGM practice between the people in the two regions. Conclusion The findings show that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions, which calls for behavioral change communication using women-centered approach and culturally appropriate strategies. As young people in both the regions had the intention to marry uncircumcised girls, there has to be a strong advocacy and multisectoral
Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Bingrong; Huo, Xia
In recent years, occupational and environmental exposure to toxic pollutants has increasingly contributed to declining sperm quality and increasing morbidity of human male genital diseases. This study explored the effects of electronic waste (e-waste) environmental pollutions on male genital health in Guiyu, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in the world. We collected outpatient case information from 2001 to 2009 in Guiyu and a control hospital and performed statistical analysis on male genital diseases morbidity (MGDM). The MGDM in Guiyu and the control hospital per thousand from 2004 to 2009 were 1.410/0.403 (2004), 0.539/0.385 (2005), 0.248/0.284 (2006), 0.485/0.195 (2007), 1.107/0.272 (2008), and 0.741/0.586 (2009) while the average total MGDM from 2004 to 2009 were 0.753 and 0.355 per thousand, respectively. Percentage of occurrence of epididymitis, impotence and prospermia, redundant prepuce, gonorrhea, urethritis, sexual function dysfunction, azoospermia, asthenospermia, and unknown etiology male sterility were higher in Guiyu (P < 0.05), whereas the frequency of prostatitis, condyloma accuminatum, and genital herpes were higher in the control (P < 0.05). Morbidity of male genital diseases was higher in Guiyu than in the control area. Male reproductive health may be threatened by e-waste environmental pollution in Guiyu, especially for diseases that could be influenced by environmental factors, and it may influence local population diathesis.
Deutsch, U.; Fioroni, P.
Experiments were performed with the mesogastropod Littorina littorea on Helgoland, in Roscoff, and in the laboratory in order to evaluate the reaction of the female genital system to TBT, an environmental toxicant. The snails were either injected with 50 or 100 ng tributyltin (TBT) soluted in ethanol or exposed to artificial sea water treated with 5, 50, 100, and 200 ng TBT/l, and 33 ng testosterone/l. The duration of the experiments was either four or eight weeks. None of the analysed female L. littorea showed signs of imposex. Compared to results for the control groups, the size of the female glandular complex was significantly reduced if the pre-experimental toxication was already high, as is the case in snails collected around Helgoland. TBT-related gland complex reduction occurs also in female L. littorea from other sampling sites. In addition, injection of ethanol also causes a decrease in gland size. The experimental results demonstrate that the distal female genital system responds with significantly lower sensitivity to TBT than that of other prosobranchs. This behaviour is ascribed to the lack of an androgen receptor at the ovipositor. The results further strengthen the case of the extreme rarity of imposex described for female L. littorea in natural habitats. However, strong TBT-toxication may affect L. littorea populations significantly because of increasing masculinization of the females, which reduces reproduction ability.
Wilkinson, S M
Rather than focus on the girl's phallic identification as a compensatory reaction to her femininity, I offer a conceptual framework through which to examine how the girl symbolically masters and elaborates her biologically unfolding sexuality. Presumably, because her genital inner space can be defined and filled only through the playful retention and expulsion of an external object, the girl's phallic identification paradoxically affords her the first experience of her genital femininity. Borne out of her genital stimulation at the oedipal threshold, the genital dress-rehearsal turns on outside gestures becoming registered as sensations inside her body. As a result of her dual experience, the girl is both phallic and vaginal, giver and receiver, father and mother. Through the magic of play, the girl renegotiates her oath of fidelity to her internal, pre-oedipal mother, while laying claim to the kind of sexual vibrancy that her external, oedipal mother shares with her oedipal father.
Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.
While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586
Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Pan, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei; Louissaint, Nicolette; Kalyoussef, Sabah; Torres, N. Merna; Hladik, Florian; Parikh, Urvi; Mellors, John; Hillier, Sharon L.; Herold, Betsy C.
Background Measurement of immune mediators and antimicrobial activity in female genital tract secretions may provide biomarkers predictive of risk for HIV-1 acquisition and surrogate markers of microbicide safety. However, optimal methods for sample collection do not exist. This study compared collection methods. Methods Secretions were collected from 48 women (24 with bacterial vaginosis [BV]) using vaginal and endocervical Dacron and flocked swabs. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) was collected with 10 mL of Normosol-R (n = 20), saline (n = 14), or water (n = 14). The concentration of gluconate in Normosol-R CVL was determined to estimate the dilution factor. Cytokine and antimicrobial mediators were measured by Luminex or ELISA and corrected for protein content. Endogenous anti-HIV-1 and anti-E. coli activity were measured by TZM-bl assay or E. coli growth. Results Higher concentrations of protein were recovered by CVL, despite a 10-fold dilution of secretions, as compared to swab eluents. After protein correction, endocervical swabs recovered the highest mediator levels regardless of BV status. Endocervical and vaginal flocked swabs recovered significantly higher levels of anti-HIV-1 and anti-E. coli activity than Dacron swabs (P<0.001). BV had a significant effect on CVL mediator recovery. Normosol-R tended to recover higher levels of most mediators among women with BV, whereas saline or water tended to recover higher levels among women without BV. Saline recovered the highest levels of anti-HIV-1 activity regardless of BV status. Conclusions Endocervical swabs and CVL collected with saline provide the best recovery of most mediators and would be the optimal sampling method(s) for clinical trials. PMID:21858008
Grant, Donald S.; Berggren, Vanja
Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM), assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.). There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent. PMID:24204384
Frey, Jordan D; Poudrier, Grace; Chiodo, Michael V; Hazen, Alexes
Although many transgender individuals are able to realize their gender identity without surgical intervention, a significant and increasing portion of the trans population is seeking gender-confirming surgery (alternatively, gender reassignment surgery, sexual reassignment surgery, or gender-affirming surgery). This review presents a robust overview of genital reconstruction in the female-to-male transgender patient-an operation that, historically, was seldom performed and has remained less surgically feasible than its counterpart (male-to-female genital reconstruction). However, as the visibility and public awareness of the trans community continues to increase, the demand for plastic surgeons equipped to perform these reconstructions is rising. The "ideal" neophallus is aesthetic, maintains tactile and erogenous sensibility, permits sexual function and standing urination, and possesses minimal donor-site and operative morbidity. This article reviews current techniques for surgical construction, including metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, with both pedicled and free flaps. Emphasis is placed on the variety of techniques available for constructing a functional neophallus and neourethra. Preparative procedures (such as vaginectomy, hysterectomy, and oophorectomy) and adjunctive reconstructive procedures (including scrotoplasty and genital prosthesis insertion) are also discussed.
Abolfotouh, Sherif M; Ebrahim, Ahmed Z; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A
The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students’ mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases) associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical medical phase of education. The low level of knowledge among even future health professions in our study suggests that communication, rather than passive learning, is needed to convey the potentially negative consequences of FGM/C and to drive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice. PMID:25759602
Abolfotouh, Sherif M; Ebrahim, Ahmed Z; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A
The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students' mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases) associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical medical phase of education. The low level of knowledge among even future health professions in our study suggests that communication, rather than passive learning, is needed to convey the potentially negative consequences of FGM/C and to drive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice.
Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa
Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes.
Renner-Martin, T F P; Forstenpointner, G; Weissengruber, G E; Eberhardt, L
Although donkeys play an important role as companion or pack and draught animals, theriogenological studies and anatomical data on the genital organs of the jenny are sparse. To provide anatomical descriptions and morphometric data, the organa genitalia feminina, their arteries and the ligamentum latum uteri of 10 adult but maiden jennies were examined by means of gross anatomical and morphometric techniques. In comparison with anatomical data of horses obtained from literature the genital organs of jennies appear to be more voluminous in relation to the body mass and the position of the ovaries is slightly further cranial than in mares. In asses, the ovaries contain large follicles reaching a diameter of up to 40 mm. The mesosalpinx is much wider than in the horse forming a considerably spacious bursa ovarica. The asinine ligamentum teres uteri reveals a very prominent cranial end, the 'appendix'. Tortuous mucosal folds occur in the wall of the jenny's cervical channel. The vascularization of the female genital organs of asses is very similar to that of horses. One of the examined specimens reveals a large mucosal fold dividing the cranial part of the vagina into a left and right compartment.
Bogale, Daniel; Markos, Desalegn; Kaso, Muhammedawel
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It is associated with health complications and human rights violations. Research on intention for the continuation of FGM and the social determinants underpinning this practice are scarce. Therefore, this study intended to assess the intention of women toward the continuation of FGM among Bale Zone reproductive-age women. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study design supplemented by qualitative methods was conducted in 2014. A total of 634 reproductive-age women were involved in the quantitative part of the study. The respondents were drawn from five randomly selected districts of Bale Zone. The total sample was allocated proportionally to each district based on the number of reproductive-age women it has. Purposive sampling method was used for qualitative study. Then, data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows version 16.0. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to examine the existence of a relationship between intentions for the continuation of FGM and selected determinant factors. Results This study revealed that 26.7% of the respondents had intention for the continuation of FGM. Religion, safeguarding virginity, tradition, and social values were the major reasons for the perpetuation of this practice. Circumcised respondents and those who were not able to read and write were ~3 (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = [1.33, 6.20]) and 7.58 (adjusted odds ratio = 7.58, 95% confidence interval = [3.47, 16.54]) times more likely intending the continuation of FGM than uncircumcised and those who attended secondary-level education and above, respectively. Conclusion The study shows that the intention toward the persistence of the practice is high in Bale Zone. Rural residents, those who were not able to read and
Background Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice which is harmful to health and is profoundly rooted in many Sub-Saharan African countries. It is estimated that between 100 and 140 million women around the world have been victims of some form of FGM and that each year 3 million girls are at risk of being submitted to these practices. As a consequence of the migratory phenomena, the problems associated with FGM have extended to the Western countries receiving the immigrants. The practice of FGM has repercussions on the physical, psychic, sexual and reproductive health of women, severely deteriorating their current and future quality of life. Primary healthcare professionals are in a privileged position to detect and prevent these situations of risk which will be increasingly more present in Spain. Methods/Design The objective of the study is to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the primary healthcare professionals, working in 25 health care centres in Barcelona and Girona regions, regarding FGM, as well as to investigate the perception of this subject among the migrant communities from countries with strong roots in these practices. A transversal descriptive study will be performed with a questionnaire to primary healthcare professionals and migrant healthcare users. Using a questionnaire specifically designed for this study, we will evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and skills of the healthcare professionals to approach this problem. In a sub-study, performed with a similar methodology but with the participation of cultural mediators, the perceptions of the migrant families in relation to their position and expectancies in view of the result of preventive interventions will be determined. Variables related to the socio-demographic aspects, knowledge of FGM (types, cultural origin, geographic distribution and ethnicity), evaluation of attitudes and beliefs towards FGM and previous contact or experience with cases or risk
Kunz, G; Beil, D; Deiniger, H; Einspanier, A; Mall, G; Leyendecker, G
double the frequency of contractions during the early and mid- as well as midluteal phase in comparison to the fertile and healthy controls. During midcycle these women display a considerable uterine dysperistalsis in that the normally long and regular cervico-fundal contractions during this phase of the cycle have become more or less undirected and convulsive in character. Hyperperistalsis results in the transport of inert particles from the cervix into the tubes within minutes already during the early follicular phase, and may therefore constitute the mechanical cause for the development of endometriosis in that it transports detached endometrial cells and tissue fragments via the tubes into the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, dysperistalsis may contribute to the infertility in these patients since it results in a break down of sperm transport within the female genital tract.
Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Sneha, J.; Singh, U. B.; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, K. K.; Singh, Neeta; Dharmendra, Sona
AIM: To evaluate the effect of antitubercular therapy (ATT) on an ovarian function such as ovarian reserve, ovarian dimensions, and ovarian stromal blood flow. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty infertile women with female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) without tubo-ovarian masses diagnosed by positive acid-fast bacilli culture or epithelioid granuloma on endometrial aspirate or positive polymerase chain reaction with positive findings on laparoscopy or hysteroscopy were recruited. The ovarian function tests were performed on day 2/3 as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels. Ovarian dimensions (length, width, and depth) were measured using a transvaginal ultrasound. Mean antral follicle count (AFC) and ovarian stromal blood flow (peak systolic velocity [PSV], pulsatility index (PI), and resistive index [RI]) were measured using a transvaginal ultrasound. All women were started on ATT for 6 months by directly observed treatment strategy. After completion of ATT, all the parameters were repeated. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in AMH (2.68 ± 0.97 ng/ml to 2.8 ± 1.03 ng/ml) pre- to post-ATT, nonsignificant increase in FSH (7.16 ± 2.34 mIU/ml to 7.26 ± 2.33 mIU/ml) post-ATT, significant increase in mean AFC (7.40 ± 2.12–8.14 ± 2.17), PSV in the right ovary (6.015–6.11 cm/s) and left ovary (6.05–6.08 cm/s), PI in the right ovary (0.935–0.951 cm/s) and left ovary (0.936–0.957 cm/s), and RI in the right ovary (0.62 ± 0.01–0.79 ± 0.02) and left ovary (0.65 ± 0.02–0.84 ± 0.01) with ATT. There was no significant change in mean ovarian dimensions (ovarian length, breadth, and width) and summed ovarian volume with ATT. On laparoscopy, tubercles were seen in 27 (54%) women. Caseous nodules and encysted ascites were seen in 8% cases each. CONCLUSION: ATT improves the ovarian function (AMH and AFC) and ovarian blood flow in women with FGTB. PMID:27803581
Hawes, Stephen E.; Sow, Papa Salif; Stern, Joshua E.; Critchlow, Cathy W.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Kiviat, Nancy B.
Background The differing magnitude of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 epidemics is likely a consequence of differing transmission rates between the two viruses. Similar to other sexually transmitted pathogens, risk of HIV-1 and HIV-2 transmission is likely associated with the presence and amount of HIV in the genital tract. Thus, understanding patterns of, and risk factors for HIV genital tract shedding is critical to effective control of HIV transmission. Methods We evaluated HIV DNA and RNA detection in cervicovaginal specimens among 168 HIV-1 and 50 HIV-2-infected women in Senegal, West Africa. In a subset of 31 women (20 with HIV-1, 11 with HIV-2), we conducted a prospective study in which cervicovaginal specimens were taken at 3-day intervals over a 6-week period. Results We found significantly lower rates and levels of HIV-2 RNA (58% shedding; 13% with >1000 copies/ml) in the female genital tract than HIV-1 RNA (78% shedding; 40% with >1000 copies/ml) (P =0.005 and 0.005, respectively), and shedding correlated with plasma viral load irrespective of virus type (odds ratio =1.9, 95% confidence interval =1.3–2.8 for each log10 increase in HIV viral RNA). Plasma viral load, not HIV type, was the strongest predictor of genital viral load. Over 80% of closely monitored women, regardless of HIV type, had at least intermittent HIV RNA detection during every 3-day sampling over a 6-week time period. Conclusion These data help in explaining the different transmission rates between HIV-1 and HIV-2 and may provide new insights regarding prevention. PMID:19005275
Telfer Brunton, W A; Young, H; Fraser, D R
Neisseria lactamica was isolated from the genital tract of a young patient with a persistent vaginal discharge. Although infection with N lactamica occurs very rarely, the importance of complete biochemical identification of neisseriae is emphasised in view of the serious social and medicolegal consequences which could result from a misdiagnosis of gonorrhoea.
Craven, Spencer; Kavanagh, Alex; Khavari, Rose
A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients’ lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States. PMID:27333917
Johnsdotter, Sara; Moussa, Kontie; Carlbom, Aje; Aregai, Rishan; Essén, Birgitta
To explore attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) in a migration perspective, qualitative interviews were conducted with men and women from Ethiopia and Eritrea in Sweden. We found firm rejection of all forms of FGC and absence of a guiding motive. Informants failed to see any meaning in upholding the custom. We conclude that children of Ethiopian or Eritrean parents resident in Sweden run little risk of being subjected to FGC. A societal structure prepared to deal with suspected cases of FGC with a high level of alertness should be combined with a healthy sceptical attitude toward exaggerations of risk estimates.
Scappatura, F. Philip
The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803
Simonis, M; Manocha, R; Ong, J J
Objective To explore general practitioner's (GP) knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Australia. Sample GPs who attended a women's health seminar and GPs who subscribed to a non-governmental, national health professional organisation database that provides education to primary care professionals. Method A national online survey of GPs was conducted for the 10-week period, starting 1 week prior and 2 months after a Women's Health seminar was held in Perth on 8 August 2015. 31 questions prompted GPs' knowledge, attitudes and practice in managing patients asking about FGCS. Results The survey was fully completed by 443 GPs; 54% had seen patients requesting FGCS. Overall, 75% (95% CI 71% to 79%) of GPs rated their knowledge of FGCS as inadequate and 97% (95% CI 94% to 99%) had been asked by women of all ages about genital normality. Of those who had seen patients requesting FGCS, nearly half (44%, 95% CI 38% to 51%) reported they had insufficient knowledge of risks of FGCS procedures and 35% (95% CI 29% to 41%) reported seeing females younger than 18 years of age requesting FGCS. Just over half (56%, 95% CI 51% to 60%) of the GPs felt that women should be counselled before making a referral for FGCS. More than half the GPs suspected psychological disturbances in their patients requesting FGCS such as depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties and body dysmorphic disorder. Conclusions GPs see women of all ages presenting with genital anatomy concerns and in those who request FGCS, GPs often suspected a range of mental health difficulties. GPs require greater education to support their patients who request FGCS. PMID:27678547
Mirmonsef, Paria; Krass, Laurie; Landay, Alan; Spear, Gregory T.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection are both very common and are associated with increased risk of sexual transmission of HIV. There are several mechanisms by which BV and TV could affect susceptibility including inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupting mucosal barrier function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of how these genital conditions lead to an increased risk of HIV infection in women. PMID:22384839
Baron, Penny; Bremer, James; Wasserman, Steven S.; Nowicki, Marek; Driscoll, Barbara; Polsky, Bruce; Kovacs, Andrea; Reichelderfer, Patricia S.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was detected in the genital tracts of 59% of 225 women by RNA PCR and in 7% of the women by culture. In a comparison of two sampling methods, endocervical swabs were more sensitive than cervicovaginal lavage for HIV-1 RNA detection by PCR but not by culture and their sensitivity was independent of the concentration of HIV-1 RNA. PMID:11015409
Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise
How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562
The males of invertebrates from a few phyla, including arthropods, have been reported to practise traumatic insemination (TI; i.e. injecting sperm by using the copulatory organ to penetrate the female's body wall). As all previously reported arthropod examples have been insects, there is considerable interest in whether TI might have evolved independently in other arthropods. The research reported here demonstrates the first case of TI in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, in particular how the genital morphology and mating behaviour of Harpactea sadistica (Rezác 2008), a spider from Israel, has become adapted specifically for reproduction based on TI. Males have needle-like intromittent organs and females have atrophied spermathecae. In other spiders, eggs are fertilized simultaneously with oviposition, but the eggs of H. sadistica are fertilized in the ovaries (internal fertilization) and develop as embryos before being laid. Sperm-storage organs of phylogenetically basal groups to H. sadistica provide males with last male sperm priority and allow removal of sperm by males that mate later, suggesting that TI might have evolved as an adaptive strategy to circumvent an unfavourable structure of the sperm-storage organs, allowing the first male to mate with paternity advantage. Understanding the functional significance of TI gives us insight into factors underlying the evolution of the genital and sperm-storage morphology in spiders.
Moxey, Jordan M
Objectives To explore how Somali women exposed to female genital mutilation experience and perceive antenatal and intrapartum care in England. We explored women's perceptions of deinfibulation, caesarean section and vaginal delivery; their experiences of care during pregnancy and labour; and factors that affect ability to access these services, in order to make recommendations about future practice. Design A descriptive, exploratory qualitative study using face-to-face semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and data were analysed using a thematic approach. An interpreter was used when required (n=3). Setting Participants recruited from 2 community centres in Birmingham, England. Participants Convenience and snowball sample of 10 Somali women resident in Birmingham, who had accessed antenatal care services in England within the past 5 years. Results 3 core themes were interpreted: (1) Experiences of female genital mutilation during life, pregnancy and labour: Female genital mutilation had a significant physical and psychological impact, influencing decisions to undergo deinfibulation or caesarean section. Women delayed deinfibulation until labour to avoid undergoing multiple operations if an episiotomy was anticipated. (2) Experience of care from midwives: Awareness of female genital mutilation from midwives led to open communication and stronger relationships with women, resulting in more positive experiences. (3) Adaptation to English life: Good language skills and social support networks enabled women to access these services, while unfavourable social factors (eg, inability to drive) impeded. Conclusions Female genital mutilation impacts Somali women's experiences of antenatal and intrapartum care. This study suggests that midwives should routinely ask Somali women about female genital mutilation to encourage open communication and facilitate more positive experiences. As antenatal deinfibulation is unpopular, we should consider
... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having vaginal, anal, or ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...
A recent United Nations' (U.N.) Resolution, "Intensifying Global Efforts for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilations," urging all countries to enact legislation outlawing female circumcision or female genital ritual (FGR) signals a disturbingly new frontier in the polemic surrounding the ancient cultural practice. Never before has the apex global institution lent its imprimatur to a project whose foundation is profoundly muddled in uncertainties and murkiness. That the Resolution received an instantaneous and near-universal acclaim as a necessary protective weapon against supposed assault on the human rights of women is not news. After all, aside from essentially validating extant legislative frameworks in several countries, the proclamation fits seamlessly with decades-long agitations of activists, scholars and media pundits of one stripe or the other. What is absurd--indeed, the real news--is continued neglect of calls for a rethinking of the criminalization fervor currently gripping the world, for a reassessment of the evidence trumpeted by abolitionists as justificatory of their unbridled interference in what practicing communities revere as a sacred cultural rite. Relying on the premise that claims regarding harmful impact of FGR, the fulcrum upon which eradication forces depend for their activism, cannot be substantiated, this paper argues that prohibitory regimes based thereon, whether at the U.N. or country level, is per se a violation of the human rights of the women purportedly sought to be protected. Human rights (including, in this case, its self-appointed "apostles"), cannot, as a popular Igbo maxim admonishes, become "outsiders who wept louder than the bereaved." This is the prism from which this paper analyzes the on-going supranational crusade to suppress FGR. It is a critique of extant FGR legal and policy regimes, an instance of which is the U.N. Resolution, as unrepresentative of legitimate advancement of human rights.
Giraldo, Francisco; Mora, María José; Solano, Ana; González, Carlos; Smith-Fernández, Víctor
To determine the possibility of providing alternative surgical techniques for male genital reconstruction and for male-to-female sex reassignment surgery, the authors undertook an anatomic investigation of the perineogenital region in male cadavers. Anatomic dissection was performed on 14 male adult human cadavers (fresh and formalin-preserved) studying the main afferent vessels to the anterior perineal region and their mean internal diameters: deep external pudendal artery (0.60 mm), superficial perineal artery (0.50 mm), and funicular artery (0.37 mm). We established their exact topography, together with vascular anatomic variations, main vascular anastomosis circuits (base of the penis, scrotal septum, and perineal fat and lateral spermatic-scrotal fascia), angiosomes, anatomy of the rectovesical septum cavity, and their "critical" key points of dissection. The authors discuss the clinical possibility of elevation of a "tree" of previously described paragenital-genital flaps including mainly those based on the terminal branches of the internal pudendal vascular system, the erectile tissue pedicled flaps, and finally, flaps of the external pudendal system. The authors indicate the concrete vascularization system for each flap.
Creighton, Sarah M; Dear, Joanna; de Campos, Claudia; Williams, Louise; Hodes, Deborah
Objective To describe the first dedicated clinic in the UK for children with suspected or confirmed female genital mutilation (FGM) including referral patterns, clinical findings and subsequent management. Design and setting A prospective study of all children seen in a dedicated multidisciplinary FGM clinic for children over a 1-year period. Population Patients aged under 18 years referred for clinical assessment or for a second opinion on Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) images. Methods and main outcome measures Data were collected on reasons for referral, demography, genital examination findings including FGM type, and clinical recommendations. Results 38 children were referred of whom 18 (47%) had confirmed FGM; most frequently type 4 (61%). Social care and police referred 78% of cases. According to UK law FGM had been performed illegally in three cases. Anonymous information given to the police led to the referral of six children, none of whom had had FGM. Conclusions Mandatory reporting and increased media attention may increase the numbers of referrals of children with suspected FGM. This patient group have complex needs and management in a dedicated multidisciplinary service is essential. Paediatricians and gynaecologists should have the skills to carry out the consultation and detect all types of FGM including type 4 which was the most common type seen in this series. This is the first dedicated FGM service for children in the UK and similar clinics in high-prevalence areas should be established. PMID:26928027
Introduction External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50% to 60% of sexually active women aged 18 to 49 years have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10% to 15% will have genital warts. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for external genital warts? What are the effects of interventions to prevent transmission of external genital warts? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 55 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bi- and trichloroacetic acid; condoms; cryotherapy; electrosurgery; imiquimod; intralesional, topical, or systemic interferons; laser surgery; podophyllin; podophyllotoxin; surgical excision; and vaccines. PMID:21418685
Muralidhar, Sumathi; Talwar, Richa; Anil Kumar, Deepa; Kumar, Joginder; Bala, Manju; Khan, Nilofar; Ramesh, V.
Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2%) or homosexual (2.2%). There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%). Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis. PMID:26316954
Fabis, J J; Szkudlarek, L; Risatti, G R; Sura, R; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J
A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.
Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.
Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.
Johnson, Emma F; Hawkins, Danielle M; Gifford, Laura K; Smidt, Aimee C
Behçet disease is a complex, multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. It rarely occurs in infants or children. Neonatal Behçet disease has been reported in infants whose ulcers resolve at or before 9 weeks of age. Few cases of neonatal Behçet disease persisting into childhood have previously been reported. We report the case of a 1-month-old infant who presented with severe recurrent genital ulcerations and at 6 months developed recurrent oral ulcerations. Her orogenital ulcerations continue to recur. Human leukocyte antigen testing revealed HLA-B51 and B44 positivity. This is a case of pediatric Behçet disease in the neonatal period. Behçet disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent genital and oral ulcerations in infants and children.
Berendonck, Bettina; Greven, Hartmut
The female genital structures of the entelegyne spider Latrodectus revivensis are described using semithin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Apart from the tactile hairs overhanging the opening of the atrium, the contact zones of the female epigynum are devoid of any sensilla, indicating that the female does not discriminate in favor or against males due to their genital size or stimulation through copulatory courtship. The dumb-bell shape and the spatial separation of the entrance and the exit of the paired spermathecae suggest that they are functionally of the conduit type. Not described for other entelegyne spiders so far, the small fertilization ducts originating from the spermathecae of each side lead to a common fertilization duct that connects the spermathecae to the uterus externus. During oviposition, it is most likely that spermatozoa are indiscriminately sucked out of the spermathecal lumina by the low pressure produced by the contraction of the muscle extending from the epigynal plate to the common fertilization duct. As no greater amounts of secretion are produced by the female during oviposition, and no activated sperm are present within the female genital tract, the secretion produced by the spermathecal epithelium does not serve in displacement or (selective) activation of spermatozoa. These findings suggest that female L. revivensis are not able to exert cryptic female choice by selectively choosing spermatozoa of certain males.
Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E
We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.
Fried, Sarah; Mahmoud Warsame, Amina; Berggren, Vanja; Isman, Elisabeth; Johansson, Annika
Aim. To explore female outpatients' perspectives on problems related to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and their views on information, care, and counseling. Setting. An FGM/C support center at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Methods. A qualitative, descriptive study, using content analysis of seven semistructured interviews with female outpatients. Results. All participants had been ignorant of the etiology of their FGM/C-related complications and hesitant to seek care. All had undergone infibulation but did not wish the same for their daughters. In recent years they had learnt through religious leaders and media campaigns that infibulation was unapproved by Islam. A less severe FGM/C type, “Sunna,” was more accepted; however, few could define what “Sunna” meant. Condemning and ridiculing attitudes against uncircumcised women prevailed in their community. Conclusions. New ideas and concepts related to FGM/C enter the common discourse in the Somali society while traditional norms and values still prevail. Religion was shown to have a strong impact on FGM/C practices and beliefs. Interventions aiming to raise awareness of health consequences of all types of FGM/C, as well as where to seek care for complications, are needed in Somaliland. Involvement of religious leaders in anti-FGM/C programs is essential. PMID:24151505
Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…
Drea, Christine M; Weil, Anne
The extravagance and diversity of external genitalia have been well characterized in male primates; however, much less is known about sex differences or variation in female form. Our study represents a departure from traditional investigations of primate reproductive anatomy because we 1) focus on external rather than internal genitalia, 2) measure both male and female structures, and 3) examine a strepsirrhine rather than an anthropoid primate. The subjects for morphological study were 21 reproductively intact, adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), including 10 females and 11 males, two of which (one per sex) subsequently died of natural causes and also served as specimens for gross anatomical dissection. Male external genitalia presented a typical masculine configuration, with a complex distal penile morphology. In contrast, females were unusual among mammals, presenting an enlarged, pendulous external clitoris, tunneled by the urethra. Females had a shorter anogenital distance and a larger urethral meatus than did males, but organ diameter and circumference showed no sex differences. Dissection confirmed these characterizations. Noteworthy in the male were the presence of a "levator penis" muscle and discontinuity in the corpus spongiosum along the penile shaft; noteworthy in the female were an elongated clitoral shaft and glans clitoridis. The female urethra, while incorporated within the clitoral body, was not surrounded by erectile tissue, as we detected no corpus spongiosum. The os clitoridis was 43% the length and 24% the height of the os penis. On the basis of these first detailed descriptions of strepsirrhine external genitalia (for either sex), we characterize those of the female ring-tailed lemur as moderately "masculinized." Our results highlight certain morphological similarities and differences between ring-tailed lemurs and the most male-like of female mammals, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and call attention to a potential hormonal
Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zhang, Z L
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After treatment of penicillin and anti HIV virus therapy, the panuveitis was relived. The other patient was lost in the follow up. Recently epidemiological data indicate that syphilis and HIV infection increase, which can mimic the manifestation of Behcet's disease. Diagnosis of sexual transmitted diseases, such as HIV or syphilis needs to be ruled out in all cases that mimic the clinical feature of Behcet's disease, especially for those who had a history of high risk behaviors. Every patient should have history analysis in detail. Screening of sexual transmitted diseases, such as HIV or syphilis is important especially in those rapid progressive panuveitis. Also, other virus infections, such as cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus or Herpes simplex virus can cause mucosa ulcers and uveitis. CD4 T cell count is a very important marker to indicate that the patient has immunodeficiency. Erythema nodosa and pseudofolliculitis are the third common clinical manifestation in Chinese Behcet's disease patients. Rheumatologist should watch out for patients without skin involvement when making the diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Syphilis-associated uveitis usually has a good prognosis. Treatment of antibiotics can get good response, 92% uveitis can be relieved, with 67% improved vision. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) is a clinically and angiographically distinct manifestation of ocular
Genital warts Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted ... human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts, at some point during their lives. Women are ...
Sinha, R K
The herbal vendors are the mobile tribal medicinement seen on the busy streets of many Indian cities selling crude medicinal plants and their products. They prescribe herbal treatment for several diseases, a skill they inherited from their forefathers through several generations of experience. They claim to have specific herbal remedies for the complete cure of some urino - genital disorders such as dysuria, hematuria, syphilis and gonorrhea. Cocculus villosus, pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania Somnifera, Asparagus racemosus and Curculigo orchoides are the herbal drugs of choice used in the treatment.
Chow, Eric P F; Fairley, Christopher K
Australian-born women aged ≤32 years were eligible for the free female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program introduced in 2007. A total of 1165 heterosexual couples attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2011 and 2014 were included in this analysis. Findings showed the odds of having penile warts was 0.52-fold lower among men who had a female partner aged ≤32 years compared with men who had a female partners aged >32 years. This suggests men would have received herd protection from their female partners and hence they are at lower risk of acquiring genital warts.
Sánchez, Víctor; Cordero, Carlos
Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes has driven the evolution of the females signa; this idea is based in the fact that in many lepidopterans female sexual receptivity is at least partially controlled by the volume of ejaculate remaining in the corpus bursa. According to the SAC hypothesis, males evolved thick spermatophore envelopes to delay the post-mating recovery of female sexual receptivity thus reducing sperm competition; in response, females evolved signa for breaking spermatophore envelopes faster, gaining access to the resources contained in them and reducing their intermating intervals; the evolution of signa, in turn, favored the evolution of even thicker spermatophore envelopes, and so on. We tested two predictions of the SAC hypothesis with comparative data on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes of eleven species of Heliconiinae butterflies. The first prediction is that the spermatophore envelopes of polyandrous species with signa will be thicker than those of monandrous species without signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that the spermatophore envelopes of a polyandrous Heliconius species with signa are thicker than those of two monandrous Heliconius species without signa. The second prediction is that in some species with signa males could enforce monandry in females by evolving "very thick" spermatophore envelopes, in these species we predict that their spermatophore envelopes will be thicker than those of their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that in two out of three comparisons, spermatophore envelopes of monandrous species with signa have thicker spermatophore envelopes than their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. Thus, our results support the
Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes has driven the evolution of the females signa; this idea is based in the fact that in many lepidopterans female sexual receptivity is at least partially controlled by the volume of ejaculate remaining in the corpus bursa. According to the SAC hypothesis, males evolved thick spermatophore envelopes to delay the post-mating recovery of female sexual receptivity thus reducing sperm competition; in response, females evolved signa for breaking spermatophore envelopes faster, gaining access to the resources contained in them and reducing their intermating intervals; the evolution of signa, in turn, favored the evolution of even thicker spermatophore envelopes, and so on. We tested two predictions of the SAC hypothesis with comparative data on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes of eleven species of Heliconiinae butterflies. The first prediction is that the spermatophore envelopes of polyandrous species with signa will be thicker than those of monandrous species without signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that the spermatophore envelopes of a polyandrous Heliconius species with signa are thicker than those of two monandrous Heliconius species without signa. The second prediction is that in some species with signa males could enforce monandry in females by evolving “very thick” spermatophore envelopes, in these species we predict that their spermatophore envelopes will be thicker than those of their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that in two out of three comparisons, spermatophore envelopes of monandrous species with signa have thicker spermatophore envelopes than their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. Thus, our results support
Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Moscovice, Liza R.
Referential and iconic gesturing provide a means to flexibly and intentionally share information about specific entities, locations, or goals. The extent to which nonhuman primates use such gestures is therefore of special interest for understanding the evolution of human language. Here, we describe novel observations of wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus) using referential and potentially iconic gestures to initiate genito-genital (GG) rubbing, which serves important functions in reducing social tension and facilitating cooperation. We collected data from a habituated community of bonobos at Luikotale, DRC, and analysed n = 138 independent gesture bouts made by n = 11 females. Gestures were coded in real time or from video. In addition to meeting the criteria for intentionality, in form and function these gestures resemble pointing and pantomime–two hallmarks of human communication–in the ways in which they indicated the relevant body part or action involved in the goal of GG rubbing. Moreover, the gestures led to GG rubbing in 83.3% of gesture bouts, which in turn increased tolerance in feeding contexts between the participants. We discuss how biologically relevant contexts in which individuals are motivated to cooperate may facilitate the emergence of language precursors to enhance communication in wild apes. PMID:26358661
Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Moscovice, Liza R
Referential and iconic gesturing provide a means to flexibly and intentionally share information about specific entities, locations, or goals. The extent to which nonhuman primates use such gestures is therefore of special interest for understanding the evolution of human language. Here, we describe novel observations of wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus) using referential and potentially iconic gestures to initiate genito-genital (GG) rubbing, which serves important functions in reducing social tension and facilitating cooperation. We collected data from a habituated community of bonobos at Luikotale, DRC, and analysed n = 138 independent gesture bouts made by n = 11 females. Gestures were coded in real time or from video. In addition to meeting the criteria for intentionality, in form and function these gestures resemble pointing and pantomime-two hallmarks of human communication-in the ways in which they indicated the relevant body part or action involved in the goal of GG rubbing. Moreover, the gestures led to GG rubbing in 83.3% of gesture bouts, which in turn increased tolerance in feeding contexts between the participants. We discuss how biologically relevant contexts in which individuals are motivated to cooperate may facilitate the emergence of language precursors to enhance communication in wild apes.
Abathun, Asresash D; Gele, Abdi A; Sundby, Johanne
Introduction. Female genital cutting (FGC) is a harmful traditional practice that violates women's rights and threatens their health. Although much work has been done to tackle this practice in Ethiopia, the prevalence remains very high in Somali and Harari regions. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards FGC of young people (boys and girls) in Somali and Harari regions of Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out in Somali and Harari regions from October to December 2015. Two districts were purposely selected from the two regions, and a stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 480 subjects from the randomly selected schools. Results. Out of 480 questionnaires distributed, 478 (99.6%) respondents filled the questionnaires and returned them. The finding of the study reveals that 86% of study participants condemn the practice of FGC. Almost 59% of male participants from both study areas preferred to marry uncircumcised girls. Being a female and being a Muslim are significantly associated with the support toward the continuation of the FGC (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the study demonstrates a positive attitude towards the abandonment of FGC, there is a need to increase the knowledge about the position of Islam in FGC and to educate women about the harmful effect of FGC.
Introduction. Female genital cutting (FGC) is a harmful traditional practice that violates women's rights and threatens their health. Although much work has been done to tackle this practice in Ethiopia, the prevalence remains very high in Somali and Harari regions. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards FGC of young people (boys and girls) in Somali and Harari regions of Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out in Somali and Harari regions from October to December 2015. Two districts were purposely selected from the two regions, and a stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 480 subjects from the randomly selected schools. Results. Out of 480 questionnaires distributed, 478 (99.6%) respondents filled the questionnaires and returned them. The finding of the study reveals that 86% of study participants condemn the practice of FGC. Almost 59% of male participants from both study areas preferred to marry uncircumcised girls. Being a female and being a Muslim are significantly associated with the support toward the continuation of the FGC (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the study demonstrates a positive attitude towards the abandonment of FGC, there is a need to increase the knowledge about the position of Islam in FGC and to educate women about the harmful effect of FGC. PMID:28386281
Sri, T; Merideth, M A; Pulanic, T Klepac; Childs, R; Stratton, P
Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B-lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months, while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously are warranted.
Sri, T.; Merideth, M.A.; Pulanic, T.K.; Childs, R.; Stratton, P.
Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B- lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months. while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously is warranted. PMID:23710698
... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...
Perla, M. E.; Ghee, Annette E.; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R. Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R.; Sánchez, Jorge
Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended. PMID:22811592
Holmen, Sigve; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Pillay, Pavitra; Naicker, Thajasvarie; Taylor, Myra; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Albregtsen, Fritz
Background The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS. Methods In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest. Results We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001), increased vascular density (p = 0.015) and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071). Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%. Conclusions The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis. PMID:27073857
Ali, Chiku; Strøm, Agnete
This article is about efforts to unearth the facts about a myth in Tanzania about lawalawa, and the use of female genital mutilation (FGM) by some Tanzanian ethnic groups to cure lawalawa. The term lawalawa, used to describe certain vaginal and urinary tract infections, appeared soon after 1968, following the ban on FGM in the Arusha Declaration, and is still used today. When working with these ethnic groups on the subject of eliminating FGM, one always hears about lawalawa. Today, the arguments for using FGM to cure lawalawa are used not only in relation to small children, but also adolescent girls and boys. Lawalawa is not always limited to vaginal and urinary tract infections, but sometimes also when girls or boys have a fever for other reasons. This article is based on information from the continuous work against FGM in 45 villages by the Singida and Dodoma chapters of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices, Tanzania, from 2003 through 2012. The lesson we have learned is that the only way of eliminating FGM is to accept lawalawa as a fact and to give information and counselling. Only in this way, and not by force, will it be possible to break the connection between lawalawa and FGM.
Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale
This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.
Perla, M E; Ghee, Annette E; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R; Sánchez, Jorge
Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42-0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.
Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise
This study explores the factors addressed in folk psychology in The Gambia for protecting the girl-child from the potential traumatic stress of female genital cutting (FGC). The type and quality of the psychological care was analyzed and compared with research on traumatic stress and principles for crisis and trauma intervention. Thirty-three qualitative indepth interviews were conducted with mothers who had supervised their daughters’ FGC, women who had been circumcised, and professional circumcisers. The findings indicate that the girls have largely managed to handle the potentially traumatic event of FGC. The event is placed in a meaningful system of understanding, and the stress is dealt with in a traditional way that to a great extent follows empirically-based and evidence-based principles of crisis intervention. However, the approach tends to be culturally encoded, based on the local cultural belief system. This puts circumcised individuals in a potentially vulnerable position if they are living outside the homeland’s supportive cultural context, with consequences for psychological and culturally competent FGC health care in exile. PMID:24611023
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Komba, Paul N.
This paper draws on household data to examine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Senegal and the effectiveness of the country's anti-FGM law in dealing with actual breaches and providing protection to the victims. The 2010–2011 Senegal Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (SDHS-MICS) covers 14,228 women and their daughters. Logistic regression was used to investigate the geographic distribution of FGM across regions. For the enforceability of anti-FGM, desk research was used. Overall prevalence among women and daughters was 28.1% and 6.2%, respectively. Significant factors were sociodemographics, ethnicity, and region. This analysis shows both advantages and vulnerabilities of the anti-FGM law in relation to the issue of enforcement. It indicates that the law falls short of offering adequate protection to potential victims. FGM is a cultural and social norm imbedded predominantly in rural settings and as such, drives resistance to jettisoning FGM. Legislation has been one of the driving forces behind the eradication of the practice. PMID:25732681
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Komba, Paul N
This paper draws on household data to examine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Senegal and the effectiveness of the country's anti-FGM law in dealing with actual breaches and providing protection to the victims. The 2010-2011 Senegal Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (SDHS-MICS) covers 14,228 women and their daughters. Logistic regression was used to investigate the geographic distribution of FGM across regions. For the enforceability of anti-FGM, desk research was used. Overall prevalence among women and daughters was 28.1% and 6.2%, respectively. Significant factors were sociodemographics, ethnicity, and region. This analysis shows both advantages and vulnerabilities of the anti-FGM law in relation to the issue of enforcement. It indicates that the law falls short of offering adequate protection to potential victims. FGM is a cultural and social norm imbedded predominantly in rural settings and as such, drives resistance to jettisoning FGM. Legislation has been one of the driving forces behind the eradication of the practice.
Social and cultural stereotypes held about women and their health needs constitute a significant barrier to the enforcement of laws protecting women's health. While the promulgation of remedial legislation to address the problem is a positive step towards protecting women's health, these laws are promulgated in a cultural milieu that remains unwelcoming to women's rights. The clash between long-held cultural perceptions and health laws, such as those affecting women's reproductive health, engenders more problems for women's health because the laws sometimes fail to produce the desired behavioural changes. This paper attempts to debunk the uncritical assumption that legislative reforms without more are positive instruments of change in protecting women's health. In outlining this thesis, the paper examines the legal prohibition of Female Genital Cutting ('FGC') as a case study. To determine whether FGC prohibition laws are likely to be effective in achieving the public health agenda of protecting women's health, the paper analyzes FGC laws against the normative and instrumental theories of legal compliance, as well as against the socio-cultural worldviews underlying the practice. It concludes that legislative efforts to protect women's health may remain ineffective without structured efforts between health systems, governments or legal institutions and the cultural society.
Reed, Harold Morgan
Male to female transsexuals frequently seek feminizing vaginoplasty for "below the waist" conformation, enhancement of sexual identity, and interactive sexual function. The author shares his experience with his first 250 primary surgical procedures. Included is a brief historical background, the patient selection process, some guidelines from the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (standards of care), preoperative evaluation and instructions, surgical technique, postoperative regimen, risk factors, results, complications and management. The patients all underwent feminizing vaginoplasty at the author's ambulatory surgical facility, which includes an overnight stay. The author's results suggest that feminizing vaginoplasty when performed vigilantly on a select group of patients is feasible.
Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke
Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them
Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257
Christopher, Nim A.; De Luca, Francesco; Spilotros, Marco; Ralph, David J.
Background and purpose What factors influence transgender men’s decisions to undergo (and to not undergo) specific genital gender confirming surgeries (GCS) has not been described in the literature. Sexual function outcomes related to clitoral transposition and penile prosthesis placement is also not well described. Durability of neophallus dimensions after phalloplasty has not been described. A better understanding of these factors is necessary for pre-op counseling. We sought to assess patient genital-GCS related satisfaction, regret, pre/post-op sexual function, genital preferences, and genital measurements post-op. Materials and methods We evaluated ten female to male transgender patients who had previously undergone suprapubic pedicle-flap phalloplasty [suprapubic phalloplasty (SP); N=10] and 15 who had undergone radial artery forearm-flap phalloplasty [(RAP); N=15; 5/15 without and 10/15 with cutaneous nerve to clitoral nerve anastomosis] at our center (UK). We queried patients’ surgery related preferences and concerns, satisfaction, and sexual function pre/post-surgery, and accounted for whether patients had undergone clitoral transposition and/or cutaneous-to-clitoral nerve anastomosis. We measured flaccid and (where applicable) erect length and girth using a smart-phone app we designed. Results Mean age at surgery and follow-up for those that underwent SP was 35.1 and 2.23 years, and 34 and 6.8 for those that underwent RAP. Mean satisfaction scores were 9.1/10 and 9/10 for those that underwent SP and RAP, respectively. No patient (0%) regretted starting genital-GCS surgery. All (100%) patients that could achieve orgasm before GCS with clitoral transposition could achieve orgasm after surgery, and the vast majority reported preserved quality of erogenous sensation by our transposition technique. All (100%) RAP and 9/10 SP patients reported masturbation with their phallus. Inflatable penile prosthesis placement was not associated with decreased erogenous
Yirga, Wondimu Shanko; Kassa, Nega Assefa; Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday; Aro, Arja R
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women’s health. Methods Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years), in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5%) of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1%) reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9%) respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]). Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1%) respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003), illiteracy (P = 0.01), and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012). The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3%) were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM. Conclusion In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated
Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta
The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld.
Sung, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Nam-Woo
Objective. The aim of this review is to provide the available evidence on the external use of propolis (EUP) for oral, skin, and genital diseases. Method. We searched twelve electronic databases for relevant studies up to June 2016. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included and analysed. Results. Of the 286 articles identified, twelve potentially relevant studies met our inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of two studies on recurrent oral aphthae (ROA) indicated that there were no significant differences in total effective rate (TER) for pain disappearance between EUP and placebo groups (RR = 1.96, 95% CI = 0.97–3.98, and P = 0.06). In two studies on skin diseases, the combined treatment of EUP with other interventions revealed significant effects on the duration of treatment or TER. In one study on genital diseases, EUP showed significant differences in genital herpes outcome measures compared to placebo. Conclusions. Our results on the effectiveness of EUP for treating oral, skin, and genital diseases are not conclusive because of the low methodological qualities and small sample sizes. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials, with high quality and large samples for specific disorders, must be conducted to obtain firm conclusions. PMID:28265293
GARCÍA-VÁZQUEZ, Francisco Alberto; HERNÁNDEZ-CARAVACA, Iván; MATÁS, Carmen; SORIANO-ÚBEDA, Cristina; ABRIL-SÁNCHEZ, Silvia; IZQUIERDO-RICO, María José
Once deposited in the female tract, sperm face a series of challenges that must be overcome to ensure the presence of an adequate normal sperm population close to the site of fertilization. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the uterine milieu on boar sperm morphology. In experiment 1, sperm morphology was evaluated in the backflow (60 min after insemination) and within the uterotubal junction (UTJ) (collected ~24 h after insemination) following intrauterine sperm deposition (n = 6) and compared with the morphology of the sperm in the insemination dose. In experiment 2, the influence of the uterine fluid (UF) on sperm morphological modifications was evaluated. For this purpose, ejaculated (n = 4) and epididymal (n = 4) sperm were in vitro incubated with or without UF for 2 and 24 h. In both experiments, sperm were classified as normal, having a cytoplasmic droplet (proximal or distal) or having tail defects. The results of experiment 1 pointed to an increase in morphologically abnormal sperm collected in the backflow (27.70%) and a reduction of the same in the UTJ (2.12%) compared with the insemination dose (17.75%) (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, incubation of ejaculated sperm with UF did not provoke any morphological modifications; however, when epididymal sperm were incubated with UF, a pronounced increase in the percentage of normal sperm was evident after 24 h compared with the initial dose (from 25.77% to 53.58%, P < 0.05), mainly due to distal cytoplasmatic droplet shedding (53.22 vs. 20.20%). In conclusion, almost all the sperm that colonize the UTJ had a normal morphology, with part of the abnormal sperm having been discarded in the backflow and part selected/modified on their way to the oviduct. UF seems to influence cytoplasmic distal droplet removal, as demonstrated previously in seminal plasma. PMID:26119829
Al-Khulaidi, Ghadah Abdulmajid; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi
Objectives To elucidate the attitudes of women and their husband’s towards female genital mutilation (FGM) and their associations with the continuation of FGM upon their daughters. Methods Subjects were 10,345 (in 1997) and 11,252 (in 2003) ever married women aged 15 to 49 years from the Yemen Demographic Health Surveys. Performances of FGM on the most-recently-born daughters were investigated. Attitudes of women and their husbands were assessed by their opinions on the continuation of FGM. The association between the attitudes of women and their husbands and performance of FGM on the most-recently-born daughters were investigated after adjusting for age and education of the women. Findings The percentage among the most-recently-born daughters who received FGM of women who had undergone FGM declined from 61.9% in 1997 to 56.5% in 2003 (p<0.001). The percentages of women who had undergone FGM and who supported the continuation of FGM and of husbands who also supported its continuation decreased from 78.2% and 60.1% in 1997 to 70.9% and 49.5% in 2003, respectively (both p<0.001). When the women or the husbands did not agree with FGM, it was less likely to be performed on their daughter than when the women or the husbands agreed in 1997 (odds ratio=0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.16 and odds ratio=0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.12, respectively) and in 2003 (odds ratio=0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.16 and odds ratio=0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.16, respectively). Conclusion Non-supportive attitudes of women and their husbands towards the continuation of FGM have become common and were associated with their decision not to perform FGM upon their daughters. PMID:24367582
Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M
Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.
Stupp, Paul; Okoroh, Ekwutosi; Besera, Ghenet; Goodman, David; Danel, Isabella
Objectives In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed legislation making female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) illegal in the United States. CDC published the first estimates of the number of women and girls at risk for FGM/C in 1997. Since 2012, various constituencies have again raised concerns about the practice in the United States. We updated an earlier estimate of the number of women and girls in the United States who were at risk for FGM/C or its consequences. Methods We estimated the number of women and girls who were at risk for undergoing FGM/C or its consequences in 2012 by applying country-specific prevalence of FGM/C to the estimated number of women and girls living in the United States who were born in that country or who lived with a parent born in that country. Results Approximately 513,000 women and girls in the United States were at risk for FGM/C or its consequences in 2012, which was more than three times higher than the earlier estimate, based on 1990 data. The increase in the number of women and girls younger than 18 years of age at risk for FGM/C was more than four times that of previous estimates. Conclusion The estimated increase was wholly a result of rapid growth in the number of immigrants from FGM/C-practicing countries living in the United States and not from increases in FGM/C prevalence in those countries. Scientifically valid information regarding whether women or their daughters have actually undergone FGM/C and related information that can contribute to efforts to prevent the practice in the United States and provide needed health services to women who have undergone FGM/C are needed. PMID:26957669
Fields, Scott; Song, Benben; Rasoul, Bareza; Fong, Julie; Works, Melissa G; Shew, Kenneth; Yiu, Ying; Mirsalis, Jon; D'Andrea, Annalisa
Vaginal microbicides hold great promise for the prevention of viral diseases like HIV, but the failure of several microbicide candidates in clinical trials has raised important questions regarding the parameters to be evaluated to determine in vivo efficacy in humans. Clinical trials of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N9) and cellulose sulfate revealed an increase in HIV infection, vaginal inflammation, and recruitment of HIV susceptible lymphocytes, highlighting the need to identify biomarkers that can accurately predict microbicide toxicity early in preclinical development and in human trials. We used quantitative proteomics and RT-PCR approaches in mice and rabbits to identify protein changes in vaginal fluid and tissue in response to treatment with N9 or benzalkonium chloride (BZK). We compared changes generated with N9 and BZK treatment to the changes generated in response to tenofovir gel, a candidate microbicide that holds promise as a safe and effective microbicide. Both compounds down regulated mucin 5 subtype B, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 in vaginal tissue; however, mucosal brush samples also showed upregulation of plasma proteins fibrinogen, plasminogen, apolipoprotein A-1, and apolipoprotein C-1, which may be a response to the erosive nature of N9 and BZK. Additional proteins down-regulated in vaginal tissue by N9 or BZK treatment include CD166 antigen, olfactomedin-4, and anterior gradient protein 2 homolog. We also observed increases in the expression of C-C chemokines CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7 in response to treatment. There was concordance in expression level changes for several of these proteins using both the mouse and rabbit models. Using a human vaginal epithelial cell line, the expression of mucin 5 subtype B and olfactomedin-4 were down-regulated in response to N9, suggesting these markers could apply to humans. These data identifies new proteins that after further validation could become part of a panel of biomarkers to
Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.
Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing risk for STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive, growth factors and hematopoetic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared to those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that injectable HCs effects were similar between STI positive and STI negative participants. PMID:25956139
... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...
He, Fei; Akbari, Pedram; Mo, Rong; Zhang, Jennifer J.; Hui, Chi-Chung; Kim, Peter C.; Farhat, Walid A.
Disorders of sexual development (DSD) encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh) family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/–;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E)18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD), open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/–;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans. PMID:27814383
Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A
Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.
Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M
Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.
Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar
Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence.
O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Coetzee, K D; van den Ende, J
OBJECTIVE--To investigate patterns of sexual behaviour in men and women with genital ulcer disease (GUD) and their relevance to HIV-1 transmission. METHODS--A sexual behaviour questionnaire was administered by the same interviewer to all participants who were also entered into a study of the microbial aetiology of GUD. SETTING--City Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS--100 Zulu men and 100 Zulu women. RESULTS--36 (%) of men and 36 (%) of women had continued with sexual intercourse despite GUD. Patients with donovanosis and secondary syphilis were more likely than those with other causes of GUD to have intercourse despite ulcers. During swab collection bleeding was observed from ulcers in 59 women and 26 men. Prostitutes were not identified and were rarely named as source contacts. Men had more sexual partners (190) than women (122) during the previous three months. Condom use was minimal. Men who migrated between urban and rural areas appeared to have the most sexual partners. Urban women had more partners than women from rural areas. CONCLUSIONS--Men and women with GUD are practising riskful sexual behaviour and could benefit from behaviour modification programmes. In this community men who travel between urban and rural areas and who present late with GUD that bleeds easily are probably the most important high-frequency HIV transmitter core group. A significant potential risk of blood to blood contact during sexual intercourse exists in patients with GUD.
Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice with severe consequences for the health and well-being of girls and women. Health care professionals (HCPs) are therefore expected to be aware of how to identify and manage these consequences in order to ensure that those affected by the practice receive quality health care. Moreover, their integration and legitimacy within the communities allow them to play a key role in the prevention of the practice. Nevertheless, the perception of HCPs on FGM/C has been barely explored in African contexts. This study seeks to contribute to this field of knowledge by examining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among HCPs working in rural settings in The Gambia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed through a quantitative methodology, following a multiethnic approach. A pre-tested questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions was created. Forty medical students from the Community-based Medical Programme were trained to administer the questionnaire, face to face, at village health facilities in rural areas of The Gambia. A final sample of 468 HCPs included all nurse cadres and midwives. Results A significant proportion of Gambian HCPs working in rural areas embraced the continuation of FGM/C (42.5%), intended to subject their own daughters to it (47.2%), and reported having already performed it during their medical practice (7.6%). However, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices were shaped by sex and ethnic identity. Women showed less approval for continuation of FGM/C and higher endorsement of the proposed strategies to prevent it than men. However, it was among ethnic groups that differences were more substantial. HCPs belonging to traditionally practicing groups were more favourable to the perpetuation and medicalisation of FGM/C, suggesting that ethnicity prevails over professional identity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate an urgent
Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated
Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Macias, Aurélie; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Félicien, Tshimungu Kandolo; Verloo, Henk; Zacharie Bukonda, Ngoyi K; Chastonay, Philippe
Background Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported. Objective This review aims to characterize over a 40-year period the scientific output on the consequences of FGM in African countries, the most affected region known for the high prevalence of FGM, and review data on the socioeconomic consequences of the practice. Design A systematic review of literature was done, looking at the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BDSP, Web of Science, PsycINFO, FRANCIS, Sociological Abstracts, WHOLIS, RERO, and SAPHIR. The analysis was limited to articles concerning the African continent, published in English and French, from January 1, 1972, to December 31, 2011. Results One hundred ninety-eight articles were reviewed. More than half of the articles were published during the last decade of the study period. The majority of papers were published in biomedical journals (64.1%). Most studies looked at Africa as a region (33.3%). Nigeria was the single country most investigated (19.2%), followed by Egypt (10.6%). Most first authors were affiliated to non-African countries (60.6%): among them 21.2% were US-based, 4% were from African institutions, and 16.2% from Nigeria. The medical and psychological consequences (51.5%) and the prevalence and ethics of the practice (34.4%) were the most frequently investigated topics. The socioeconomic consequences were addressed in a minority of the papers (14.1%): they were classified into direct economic consequences (2.5%), school attendance (1
Background Female Genital Cutting (FGC) anchored in a complex socio-cultural context becomes significant at the interface of access of health and social services in host countries. The practice of FGC at times, understood as a form of gender-based violence, may result in unjustifiable consequences among girls and women; yet, these practices are culturally engrained traditions with complex meanings calling for ethically and culturally sensitive health and social service provision. Intents and meanings of FGC practice need to be well understood before before any policies that criminalize and condemn are derived and implemented. FGC is addressed as a global public health issue with complex legal and ethical dimensions which impacts ability to access services, far beyond gender sensitivity. The ethics of terminology are addressed, building on the sustained controversial debate in regards to the delicate issue of conceptualization. An overview of international policies is provided, identifying the current trend of condemnation of FGC practices. Socio-cultural and ethical challenges are discussed in light of selected findings from a community-based research project. The illustrative examples provided focus on Western countries, with a specific emphasis on Canada. Discussion The examples provided converge with the literature confirming the utmost necessity to engage with the FGC practicing communities allowing for ethically sensitive strategies, reduction of harm in relation to systems of care, and prevention of the risk of systematic gendered stigmatization. A culturally competent, gender and ethically sensitive approach is argued for to ensure the provision of quality ethical care for migrant families in host countries. We argue that socio-cultural determinants such as ethnicity, migration, sex and gender need to be accounted for as integral to the social construction of FGC. Summary Working partnerships between the public health sector and community based organisations
Kaplan Marcusán, Adriana; Riba Singla, Laura; Laye, Mass; Secka, Dodou M; Utzet, Mireia; Le Charles, Marie-Alix
Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs) in The Gambia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect and analyze data from an overall stratified sample consisting of 1,288 HCPs including health professionals and students throughout the six regions of The Gambia. Data were collected by the implementation of a self-administered written knowledge, attitudes, and practices questionnaire between 2012 and 2014. Results The results of this study showed that 76.4% of HCPs are eager to abandon FGM/C, and 71.6% of them regard it as a harmful practice with negative consequences on life and health. HCPs reported more knowledge and favorable attitudes towards FGM/C abandonment, being better able to identify the practice, more aware of its health complications, and more concerned in their essential role as social agents of change. However, 25.4% of HCPs still embraced the continuation of the practice, 24.4% expressed intention of subjecting their own daughters to it, and 10.5% declared to have performed it within their professional praxis. Conclusion Findings confirm progress in knowledge and attitudes regarding FGM/C among HCPs, who are better skilled to understand and manage the consequences. Nevertheless, discrepancies between information, intention, and behavior unveil resistance in practice and proves that FGM/C medicalization is increasing. Thus, there is an urgent need to support HCPs in the integration of FGM/C preventive interventions within the public health system, to address arguments favoring
Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Macias, Aurélie; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Félicien, Tshimungu Kandolo; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K. Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe
Background Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported. Objective This review aims to characterize over a 40-year period the scientific output on the consequences of FGM in African countries, the most affected region known for the high prevalence of FGM, and review data on the socioeconomic consequences of the practice. Design A systematic review of literature was done, looking at the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BDSP, Web of Science, PsycINFO, FRANCIS, Sociological Abstracts, WHOLIS, RERO, and SAPHIR. The analysis was limited to articles concerning the African continent, published in English and French, from January 1, 1972, to December 31, 2011. Results One hundred ninety-eight articles were reviewed. More than half of the articles were published during the last decade of the study period. The majority of papers were published in biomedical journals (64.1%). Most studies looked at Africa as a region (33.3%). Nigeria was the single country most investigated (19.2%), followed by Egypt (10.6%). Most first authors were affiliated to non-African countries (60.6%): among them 21.2% were US-based, 4% were from African institutions, and 16.2% from Nigeria. The medical and psychological consequences (51.5%) and the prevalence and ethics of the practice (34.4%) were the most frequently investigated topics. The socioeconomic consequences were addressed in a minority of the papers (14.1%): they were classified into direct economic consequences (2.5%), school attendance (1
Morris, Monica; Aubert, Rachael D; Butler, Katherine; Henning, Tara; Mitchell, James; Jenkins, Leecresia; Garber, David; McNicholl, Janet; Kersh, Ellen N
FTY720 has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and immune cells in the genital mucosa of macaques. This pilot study examined the ability of FTY720 to inhibit HIV acquisition. Systemic treatment with FTY720 failed to prevent or delay vaginal SHIV transmission.
Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K
Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.
Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel
With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698
Moncla, Bernard J.; Chappell, Catherine A.; Debo, Brian M.; Meyn, Leslie A.
that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (P<0.001). These studies present compelling evidence that the vaginal ecosystem responds to the presence of different vaginal microorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract. PMID:27437931
Thibodeau, V.; Fourcade, L.; Labbé, A.-C.; Alary, M.; Guédou, F.; Poudrier, J.; Roger, M.
We and others have shown that HIV-1 highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) female commercial sex workers (CSWs) maintain low genital inflammatory conditions to prevent HIV infection. HIV-1 interacts with toll-like receptors (TLR)-7/8 to induce interferon (IFN)-α, an important antiviral and immunomodulatory cytokine, which act together with interleukin (IL)-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-4 to initiate a “tolerogenic/regulatory” anti-inflammatory loop. In view of further unravelling elements associated with natural immunity to HIV-1, we have characterised TLR-7, IFN-α, IL-10, HLA-G and ILT-4 expression profiles in the genital tract of female CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs from Benin. Endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells from HESN CSWs expressed higher levels of IFN-α, TLR-7, IL-10 and HLA-G than those from both HIV-1-infected CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs. Further characterization of the endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells in HESN CSWs revealed a population of “tolerogenic” CD103+ CD14+ CD11c+ myeloid cells expressing high levels of IFN-α and IL-10. Concomitantly, HESN CSWs had higher frequencies of endocervical regulatory CD4+ T-cells when compared to those from the two other groups of women. These novel findings provide strong evidence to support the implication of tolerogenic myeloid cells expressing high levels of antiviral molecules in shaping the genital mucosal immune response to prevent HIV infection. PMID:28262752
Mintziori, G; Anagnostis, P; Toulis, K A; Goulis, D G
Thyroid diseases are very common in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women with thyroid disorders that are currently seeking fertility, undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) or being pregnant. Normal thyroid function is essential for normal function of the gonadal axis, thus important in maintaining normal reproductive capacity. On the contrary, any type of thyroid dysfunction may reduce the likelihood of pregnancy; the latter can be restored to normal after appropriate treatment. Over eight million children have been born as a result of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) since 1978. As these procedures are becoming more common in clinical practice, the exact impact of thyroid status on reproductive outcomes as well as that of drugs used in ART on thyroid function has to be fully elucidated. Maternal thyroid function is crucial, especially during the first weeks of gestation, for offspring's wellness and brain development. On the other hand, normal physiological mechanisms during gestation can have a major impact on maternal thyroid function. As human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-like effect, high hCG concentrations are associated with thyroid stimulation, both functionally (lower serum TSH concentrations) and anatomically (increased thyroid volume). Although the association between maternal hypothyroidism and increased perinatal morbidity has been described for over a century, more recently, even the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as recurrent abortions and placental abruption. This is of major clinical significance, as anti-thyroid antibodies are surprisingly prevalent in pregnancy, especially during the first two trimesters.
Byrne, Elizabeth H; Anahtar, Melis N; Cohen, Kathleen E; Moodley, Amber; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Bowman, Brittany A; Olson, Gregory S; Mabhula, Amanda; Leslie, Alasdair; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Dong, Krista L; Kwon, Douglas S
Summary Background The use of injectable progestin-only contraceptives has been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition in observational studies, but the biological mechanisms of this risk remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess the effects of progestins on HIV acquisition risk and the immune environment in the female genital tract. Methods In this prospective cohort, we enrolled HIV-negative South African women aged 18–23 years who were not pregnant and were living in Umlazi, South Africa from the Females Rising through Education, Support, and Health (FRESH) study. We tested for HIV-1 twice per week to monitor incident infection. Every 3 months, we collected demographic and behavioural data in addition to blood and cervical samples. The study objective was to characterise host immune determinants of HIV acquisition risk, including those associated with injectable progestin-only contraceptive use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards methods. Findings Between Nov 19, 2012, and May 31, 2015, we characterised 432 HIV-uninfected South African women from the FRESH study. In this cohort, 152 women used injectable progestin-only contraceptives, 43 used other forms of contraception, and 222 women used no method of long-term contraception. Women using injectable progestin-only contraceptives were at substantially higher risk of acquiring HIV (12·06 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 6·41–20·63) than women using no long-term contraception (3·71 per 100 person-years, 1·36–8·07; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2·93, 95% CI 1·09–7·868, p=0·0326). HIV-negative injectable progestin-only contraceptive users had 3·92 times the frequency of cervical HIV target cells (CCR5+ CD4 T cells) compared with women using no long-term contraceptive (p=0·0241). Women using no long-term contraceptive in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle also had a 3·25 times higher frequency of cervical target cells compared with those in the
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.
Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907
Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh
This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P < 0.001). There were significant variations in urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P < 0.001). The excretion rate of oxalate in urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P < 0.001). The magnesium in urine of females reduced over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary citric acid has however shown an increase over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary excretion of phosphorus (P < 0.001) and urinary uric acid (P < 0.001) showed a decreasing trend. There was a considerable increase in the percentage of females with high calcium:magnesium ratio over the years (P < 0.001). There was a definite decrease in female patients with hypercalcemia over the years. Serum phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This
Bhanothu, Venkanna; Lakshmi, Vemu; Theophilus, Jane P.; Rozati, Roya; Badhini, Prabhakar; Vijayalaxmi, Boda
Background Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) coordinate with a diverse array of cellular programs through the transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes and play an important role in immune system, reproductive physiology and basic pathology. Alterations in the functions of TLR2 2258G (guanine)/ A, IFN-γ (+874T/A) and signalling molecules that result from polymorphisms are often associated with susceptibility or resistance, which may, in turn, establish the innate host response to various infectious diseases. Presently, we proposed to investigate the risk of common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLR2 and IFN-γ genes, for their effect on infertility in women with female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) and healthy women as controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of TLR2 and IFN-γ gene polymorphisms was performed by amplification refractory mutation system multi-gene/multi-primer polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 175 FGTB patients and 100 healthy control women (HCW). The TLR2 polymorphism [adenine (A) allele] was observed in 57.7 and 58.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively. The IFN-γ (+874T/A) polymorphism (A allele) was significant in 74.3 and 71.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively, while the odds ratios for the AA and TA genotypes for predisposition of FGTB were found to be 0.304 and 1.650 in HCW, respectively. The SNP of TLR2 was not associated with FGTB but the SNP of IFN-γ was found to be associated with mycobacteria infections and to induce infertility. Conclusions/Significance At present, we hypothesize that infertile women with FGTB and HCW without tuberculosis (TB) have identical frequency of TLR variants, which may be adequate in the production of IFN-γ in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Thus, the study appears to be the first of its kind reporting a mutation in the IFN-γ gene [+874 T (thymine) to A] responsible for
Gibbs, Anna; Leeansyah, Edwin; Introini, Andrea; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Hasselrot, Klara; Andersson, Emilia; Broliden, Kristina; Sandberg, Johan K.; Tjernlund, Annelie
The female genital tract (FGT) mucosa is a critically important site for immune defense against microbes. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T cell population that recognizes microbial riboflavin metabolite antigens in an MR1-dependent manner. The role of MAIT cells in the FGT mucosa is unknown. Here, we found that MAIT cells and MR1+ antigen-presenting cells were present in the upper and lower FGT, with distinct tissue localization of MAIT cells in endometrium versus cervix. MAIT cells from the FGT and blood displayed a distinct phenotype with expression of IL-18Rα, CD127, α4β7, PD-1, as well as the transcription factors PLZF, RORγt, Helios, Eomes and T-bet. Their expression levels of PLZF and Eomes were lower in the FGT compared to blood. When stimulated with Escherichia coli, MAIT cells from the FGT displayed a bias towards IL-17 and IL-22 expression, whereas blood MAIT cells produced primarily IFN-γ, TNF, and Granzyme B. Furthermore, both FGT- and blood-derived MAIT cells were polyfunctional and contributed to the T cell-mediated response to E. coli. Thus, MAIT cells in the genital mucosa have a distinct IL-17/IL-22 profile and may play an important role in immunological homeostasis and control of microbes at this site. PMID:27049062
Kreuter, Alexander; Kryvosheyeva, Yulia; Terras, Sarah; Moritz, Rose; Möllenhoff, Katrin; Altmeyer, Peter; Scola, Nina; Gambichler, Thilo
Lichen sclerosus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory skin disease that predominantly affects the anogenital area. Accumulating evidence indicates that lichen sclerosus in women may be associated with other autoimmune disease, whereas this association seems to lack in male patients. We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of autoimmune diseases and serological parameters indicative for autoimmunity in male and female patients with lichen sclerosus. Of the 532 patients (396 women, 136 men; 500 adults, 32 children; mean age: 49 years; range 1-89 years; female:male ratio 3:1), 452 (85%) had genital and 80 (15%) had extragenital disease. In women, lichen sclerosus was significantly more often associated with at least one autoimmune disease as compared to men (odds ratio [OR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-9.6; p<0.0001). Moreover, female patients with lichen sclerosus had sinificantly more often associated autoimmune thyroid diseases (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-11.9; p<0.0002), antithyroid-antibodies (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.5; p=0.023), and elevated autoantibodies (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-9.3; p<0.0001) as compared to male patients. This observation is suggestive for a different pathogenetic background in male and female patients.
Wiggins, R; Hicks, S; Soothill, P; Millar, M; Corfield, A
Background: Mucinases and sialidases contribute to the process of invasion and colonisation in many conditions and infections of the female reproductive tract by degrading the protective cervical mucus. The role of hydrolytic enzymes in the pathogenesis of sexually transmitted diseases and their effect on cervical mucus are discussed in this review. Methods: Articles were searched for using the keywords "sialidase," "mucinase," "protease," and "sexually transmitted infections." As well as review and other articles held by our group, searches were conducted using PubMed, Grateful Med, and the University of Bath search engine, BIDS. Results: Numerous publications were found describing the production of hydrolytic enzymes in sexually transmitted diseases. Because the number of publications exceeded the restrictions imposed on the size of the review, the authors selected and discussed those which they considered of the most relevance to sexually transmitted infections. Key Words: mucinase; sialidase; microbial protease Abbreviations: BSM (bovine submaxillary mucin), BV (bacterial vaginosis); Fuc (fucose); Gal (galactose); GalNAc (N-acetylgalactosamine); Glc (glucose); GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine); Man (mannose); PMN (polymorphonuclear neutrophils), human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1); sIgA (secretory immunoglobulin A). PMID:11714935
Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John
The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789
Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John
The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure.
Mayer, Kenneth H.; Venkatesh, Kartik K.
Despite several decades of clinical trials assessing the impact of etiological treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to decrease HIV acquisition and transmission, almost all of these trials have not proven to be efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests that specific STD treatment alone may not be sufficient to alter the genital tract inflammatory milieu that is created by STDs. This paper examines the associations between STDs and HIV susceptibility and infectiousness, and considers the role of chronic and refractory inflammation to create an environment that potentiates HIV and STD transmission and acquisition by reviewing biological, observational, and clinical trial data. PMID:21214660
Mayer, Kenneth H; Venkatesh, Kartik K
Despite several decades of clinical trials assessing the impact of etiological treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to decrease HIV acquisition and transmission, almost all of these trials have not proven to be efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests that specific STD treatment alone may not be sufficient to alter the genital tract inflammatory milieu that is created by STDs. This paper examines the associations between STDs and HIV susceptibility and infectiousness, and considers the role of chronic and refractory inflammation to create an environment that potentiates HIV and STD transmission and acquisition by reviewing biological, observational, and clinical trial data.
... 5 Some persons who contract genital herpes have concerns about how it will impact their overall health, ... a patientâs relationships. 10 Clinicians can address these concerns by encouraging patients to recognize that while herpes ...
Ross, Cody T; Campiño, Patricia Joyas; Winterhalder, Bruce
We present a quantitative account based on ethnographic and documentary research of the prevalence of female genital modification (FGMo) in the African diaspora and indigenous populations of Colombia. We use these data to test hypotheses concerning the cultural evolutionary drivers of costly trait persistence, attenuation, and intergroup transmission. The uptake of FGMo by indigenous populations in Colombia is consistent with frequency-dependent hypotheses for the social transmission of the FGMo trait from the African diaspora population in the period following the era of slavery in Colombia. The prevalence and severity of practices related to FGMo decline with level of sociocultural integration into mainstream Colombian culture. Our results provide empirical support for the cultural evolutionary models proposed by Ross et al. (2015) to describe the transmission dynamics of FGMo and other costly traits. Analysis of costly trait dynamics contributes knowledge useful to applied anthropology and may be of interest in policy design and human rights monitoring in Colombia and elsewhere.
Berg, Rigmor C.; Denison, Eva
Understanding the forces underpinning female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a necessary first step to prevent the continuation of a practice that is associated with health complications and human rights violations. To this end, a systematic review of 21 studies was conducted. Based on this review, the authors reveal six key factors that underpin FGM/C: cultural tradition, sexual morals, marriageability, religion, health benefits, and male sexual enjoyment. There were four key factors perceived to hinder FGM/C: health consequences, it is not a religious requirement, it is illegal, and the host society discourse rejects FGM/C. The results show that FGM/C appears to be a tradition in transition. PMID:23489149
Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.
External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354
Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc
Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.
Ouldzeidoune, Nacerdine; Keating, Joseph; Bertrand, Jane; Rice, Janet
Objectives To establish the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) and force feeding (gavage) practices among children in Mauritania; to investigate factors related to FGM and gavage practices and attitude in Mauritania; and to explore implications related to the protection of children’s rights and welfare. Methods Data from the Mauritania 2000–2001 DHS were used in this analysis. Data were collected from men and women about their attitude toward the continuation of FGM and gavage; women only were asked if they ever experienced one of these practices. Chi-square statistics were used to investigate differences in attitude and practice of FGM and gavage by demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regression was used to identify socio-demographic factors related to FGM and gavage outcomes. Findings The overall prevalence of FGM was 77% but varied depending on ethnicity. The majority of both female and male respondents favored the continuation of the practice (64% and 70%, respectively). Almost a quarter (23%) of women reported being force fed as a child and 32% of women and 29% of men approved the continuation of the practice. Gavage is almost exclusively practiced among Arabs. Conclusion The practice of both FGM and gavage is ongoing, although the prevalence and attitude towards both appears to vary as a function of ethnicity, wealth, education, marital status, and age. Contextually relevant intervention and enforcement strategies are needed to challenge these cultural norms and protect the rights and welfare of children in Mauritania. PMID:23593257
Azzouna, Atf; Greve, Pierre; Martin, Gilbert
This study reports the results of examination of the gonadal morphology and ultrastructural features of the androgenic hormone (AH)-producing androgenic gland cells of laboratory stocks of functional male woodlice, Armadillidium vulgare, with female genital apertures ( male symbol fga), with and without experimentally induced infections of the sex-ratio-distorting endobacterial parasite, Wolbachia. Males ( male symbol fga) have been reported in wild populations containing individuals infected with this maternally transmitted sex-ratio-distorting parasite. We report a reduction of testicular segment (utricle) number, androgenic gland cell hypertrophy, and electron-dense ultrastructural cytological features in male symbol fga males. The presence of the Wolbachia parasite had no effect on the features we examined. These results suggest that male symbol fga males are produced as the result of a delayed expression/action of the male sex-determining AH which causes a "lag-phase" delay in male differentiation in genetic males and is not due to the presence, in genetic females, of a hypothetical, epigenetic "M" gene as suggested by Rigaud and Juchault. Our results favor the interpretation of males as true genetic (ZZ) males in which the delayed AH action appears to involve cellular AH trafficking pathways which may be controlled by an impaired autosomal gene responsible for AH action.
The research explored the link between type II Female Genital Cutting (FGC) and sexual functioning. This thesis summary thus draws from an exploratory ethnographic field study carried out among the Maasai people of Kenya where type II FGC is still being practiced. A purposely sample consisting of 28 women and 19 men, within the ages of 15-80 years took part in individual interviews and 5 focus group discussions. Participants responded to open-ended questions, a method deemed appropriate to elicit insider’s in-depth information. The study found out that one of the desired effects of FGC ritual among the Maasai was to reduce women’s sexual desire, embodied as tamed sexuality. This consequence was however not experienced as an impediment to sexual function. The research established that esteeming transformational processes linked with the FGC ‘rite of passage’ are crucial in shaping a woman’s femininity, identity, marriageable status and legitimating sexuality. In turn, these elements are imperative in inculcating and nurturing a positive body-self image and sex appeal and consequently, positive sexual self actualization. These finding brings to question the validity of conventional sexuality theory, particularly those that subscribe to bio-physical models as universal bases for understanding the subject of female sexual functioning among women with FGC. Socio-cultural-symbolic nexus and constructions of sexuality should also be considered when investigating psychosexual consequences of FGC. PMID:24753899
... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...
Coelho, Luci B. N.; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio F.
Abstract Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972 has its ovipositor described and illustrated based on the examination of specimens from its type locality. This is the first species of Gypona Germar, 1821 to have the female genitalia detailed description published. PMID:25589876
Huppert, Jill S.; Huang, Bin; Chen, Chen; Dawood, Hassan Y.; Fichorova, Raina N.
Background. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is responsible for regulating inflammatory damage to and innate and adaptive immune responses in the vaginal mucosa. Depressed cervicovaginal SLPI levels have been correlated with both Trichomonas vaginalis infection and poor reproductive health outcomes. Methods. We measured levels of SLPI in 215 vaginal specimens collected from adolescent and young adult females aged 14–22 years. Log-transformed SLPI values were compared by analysis of variance or by an unpaired t test before and after adjustment for confounding effects through the propensity score method. Results. Females receiving hormonal contraceptives and those with an abnormal vaginal pH had lower SLPI levels as compared to their peers. After propensity score adjustment for race, behavioral factors, hormonal use, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), SLPI levels were lower in females with a positive T. vaginalis antigen test result, a vaginal pH >4.5, vaginal leukocytosis, and recurrent (vs initial) T. vaginalis infection, with the lowest levels observed in those with the highest T. vaginalis loads. Conclusions. The SLPI level was reduced by >50% in a T. vaginalis load–dependent manner. Future research should consider whether identifying and treating females with low levels of T. vaginalis infection (before they become wet mount positive) would prevent the loss of SLPI and impaired vaginal immunity. The SLPI level could be used as a vaginal-health marker to evaluate interventions and vaginal products. PMID:23355743
Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Soltani, Minoo; Shokri, Hojjatollah
The purposes of this study were to investigate the enzymatic activity of different Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility patterns. The study involved a total of 83 isolates of Candida from the genital tract of the female Camelus dromedarius. After species identification, the isolates were analysed for the production/activity of phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin. In addition, the agar disc diffusion method was performed on the basis of CLSI guidelines M44-A2 protocol for antifungal susceptibility testing. All the isolates were able to produce phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin. A total of 35.48%, 87.09% and 64.51% of C. albicans isolates exhibited very high phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities, respectively, whereas very high phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities were determined in 5.76%, 23.07% and 45.16% of non-C. albicans isolates respectively. Overall, 61 (73.5%) of Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, 70 (84.3%) susceptible to clotrimazole, 82 (98.8%) susceptible to voriconazole, 76 (91.6%) susceptible to itraconazole, 75 (90.4%) susceptible to ketoconazole, 83 (100%) susceptible to amphotericin B, 81 (97.6%) susceptible to nystatin and 36 (43.4%) susceptible to flucytosine. Candida isolates showed higher haemolytic activity than that of other secreted hydrolases among vaginal Candida species. In addition, amphotericin B was the most in vitro effective antifungal drug and flucytosine had the poorest activity under such conditions.
Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Nielsen, Ann; Jensen, Allan; Nøhr, Bugge; Munk, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
We investigated the effects of socioeconomic, demographic and health-related indicators on the incidence of and survival from cancers of the cervix, endometrium and ovary diagnosed in 1994-2003 with follow-up through 2006 in Denmark using information from nationwide registers. The analyses were based on the data on 3007 patients with cervical cancer, 3826 with endometrial cancer and 3855 with ovarian cancer in a cohort of 3.22 million persons born between 1925 and 1973 and aged >or=30 years. The incidence of cervical cancer increased with decreasing socioeconomic position; the incidences of endometrial and ovarian cancer were mostly associated with higher disposable income. Relative survival from cervical cancer was the highest among women of high socioeconomic position; increased excess mortality rates from endometrial and ovarian cancer were associated with low educational level, mainly during the first year after diagnosis. Socioeconomic position seemed to affect both the incidence of and the survival from cancers of the female genital organs.
Andro, Armelle; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Lesclingand, Marie
Female genital mutilation (FGM) concerns an estimated half a million women in Europe. The studies based in countries where migrant women have settled highlight the need for more accurate information on FGM health consequences, in a European health care context. Excision and Handicap (ExH) is a multi-centric survey based on case-control methodology and conducted in France to assess the long-term consequences of FGM, sampling both FGM and non-FGM adult women. The interviews were conducted in 74 mother-and-child health centres and hospital departments providing gynaecological and family planning services in five French regions. The two groups were compared on health indicators (self-perceived health, illnesses, symptoms) and functioning indicators (daily, sexual and reproductive life) for cases (n = 678) and controls (n = 1706). Multivariate logistic models highlighted FGM-related health problems. Among women living in France, FGM was significantly associated with poor health indicators: gynaecological and urinary infections (OR = 2.0), sleep disorders (OR = 1.4), intense pain (OR = 1.5), difficulties in daily life (OR = 1.5) and in sexual life (OR = 1.7) or tearing during childbirth (OR = 1.6). Our results suggest that, even in a favourable healthcare context, FGM exposes women to long-term health problems, including in areas neglected in previous research. They confirm the need to establish recommendations to help physicians understand these women's needs.
Muthusamy, Swapna; Elangovan, Selvi
Introduction: Women with high-risk sexual behavior accounts for more than half of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees. The prevalence of trichomoniasis is as low as 5% in the general population to as high as 60% in high-risk population. This infection can pave the way to the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other STIs, vice versa and is even associated with cancer. Objectives: To identify, isolate and study the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in genital specimens of female outpatients. Materials and Methods: Total number of subjects involved in the study was 130, among them 85 belonged to high-risk group and 45 belonged to low-risk group. Two high vaginal swabs were collected from each patient. Saline wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified cysteine peptone liver infusion maltose medium were performed. Results were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Saline wet mount was positive for trichomoniasis in seven individuals, Giemsa detected trichomoniasis in five patients, and culture was positive in eight patients. Of these eight culture positive cases, one was wet mount negative and four were Giemsa stain negative. Conclusion: Culture is more sensitive than wet mount and Giemsa stain. PMID:28042211
Moylan, David C.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Saag, Michael S.; Richter, Holly E.; Mestecky, Jiri; Sabbaj, Steffanie
Background Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). Methods Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L−CCR7−CD103+CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. Results We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women. The expression of the mucosal retention receptor, CD103, from HIV-positive women was reduced compared to healthy women and was lowest in women with CD4 counts < 500 cells/mm3. Furthermore, CD103 expression on mucosa-derived CD8+ T cells correlated with antigen-specific IFN-γ production by mucosal CD4+ T cells and was inversely correlated with T-bet from CD8+CD103+ mucosa-derived T cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CD4+ T cells, known to be impaired during HIV-1 infection and necessary for the expression of CD103 in murine models, may play a role in the expression of CD103 on resident T cells from the human FGT. PMID:28164171
Birse, Kenzie D. M.; Cole, Amy L.; Hirbod, Taha; McKinnon, Lyle; Ball, Terry B.; Westmacott, Garrett R.; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Frank; Cole, Alexander M.; Burgener, Adam; Broliden, Kristina
Objective Cationic proteins found in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) are known to contribute to the early antiviral immune response against HIV-infection in vitro. We here aimed to define additional antiviral factors that are over-expressed in CVS from female sex workers at high risk of infection. Methods CVS were collected from Kenyan HIV-seronegative (n = 34) and HIV-seropositive (n = 12) female sex workers, and were compared with those from HIV-seronegative low-risk women (n = 12). The highly exposed seronegative (HESN) sex workers were further divided into those with less (n = 22) or more (n = 12) than three years of documented sex work. Cationic protein-depleted CVS were assessed for HIV-neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based HIV-neutralizing assay, and then characterized by proteomics. Results HIV neutralizing activity was detected in all unprocessed CVS, however only CVS from the female sex worker groups maintained its HIV neutralizing activity after cationic protein-depletion. Differentially abundant proteins were identified in the cationic protein-depleted secretions including 26, 42, and 11 in the HESN>3yr, HESN<3yr, and HIV-positive groups, respectively. Gene ontology placed these proteins into functional categories including proteolysis, oxidation-reduction, and epidermal development. The proteins identified in this study include proteins previously associated with the HESN phenotype in other cohorts as well as novel proteins not yet associated with anti-HIV activities. Conclusion While cationic proteins appear to contribute to the majority of the intrinsic HIV neutralizing activity in the CVS of low-risk women, a broader range of non-cationic proteins were associated with HIV neutralizing activity in HESN and HIV-positive female sex workers. These results indicate that novel protein factors found in CVS of women with high-risk sexual practices may have inherent antiviral activity, or are involved in other aspects of anti-HIV host defense, and warrant
Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A
Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.
Mulongo, Peggy; McAndrew, Sue; Hollins Martin, Caroline
The terms ‘Female Circumcision’ (FC), ‘FG Cutting’ (FGC) and ‘FG Mutilation’ (FGM) refer to procedures involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. In practicing countries, FGC/FC is more widely used, as it is believed to be inoffensive, providing more impartial ways of discussing the practice. Positive beliefs about FC/FGC include virginity, marriage prospects, family reputation, or passage to adulthood. Regardless of terminology, the practice exists in at least 28 African counties, and a few Asian and Middle Eastern countries. In Western society, FGM is considered a breach of human rights, being outlawed in a number of countries. With immigration trends, FGC is now prominent in Western society among practicing communities. While the past decade has seen an increase in studies and recommendations for health-care support related to the physical health consequences of FGM, little is known about the psychological impact and its management. For many girls and women, FGC is a traumatic practice, transforming it to FGM and affecting their mental health. This discussion paper focuses on evidence relating to the mental health consequences of FGM, therapeutic interventions, and the mental health nurse's role in addressing the needs of this group of women. PMID:24548699
Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram
Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347
Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram
Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.
Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136
Luo, Chenhong; Goshima, Fumi; Kamakura, Maki; Mutoh, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro
Genital herpes is an intractable disease caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2), and is a major concern in public health. A previous infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) enhances protection against primary HSV-2 infection to some extent. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HF10, a naturally occurring replication-competent HSV-1 mutant, to protect against genital infection in mice caused by HSV-2. Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. Immunization with HF10 inhibited HSV-2 replication in the mouse vagina, reduced local inflammation, controlled emergence of neurological dysfunctions of HSV-2 infection, and increased survival. In HF10-immunized mice, we observed rapid and increased production of interferon-γ in the vagina in response to HSV-2 infection, and numerous CD4(+) and a few CD8(+) T cells localized to the infective focus. CD4(+) T cells invaded the mucosal subepithelial lamina propria. Thus, the protective effect of HF10 was related to induction of cellular immunity, mediated primarily by Th1 CD4(+) cells. These data indicate that the live attenuated HSV-1 mutant strain HF10 is a promising candidate antigen for a vaccine against genital herpes caused by HSV-2.
A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.
Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan
Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850
Kolachevskaia, E N; Smetnik, V P; Malysheva, O K; Smirnova, N A
Blood concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactin, growth hormone, cortisol, testosterone and progesterone have been examined in 76 patients with active tuberculosis of the internal genitalia (group 1), 18 patients with longterm sequelae of clinically asymptomatic tuberculosis (group 2) and 41 patients with nontuberculous diseases of the internal genitalia. Abnormalities were identified in 56.5% of group 1 patients, 33% of group 2 and 46.4% of group 3 patients. The patients with active tuberculosis characteristically had a low gonadotropin and estradiol secretion. High prolactin levels were related to pituitary adenoma or tuberculous infection; polycystic ovaries were a cause of testosterone and stress of examination of cortisol elevation.
Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Hikono, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Chie; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro
We compared the effects of extenders of frozen-thawed semen on post-thaw sperm characteristics and the distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the female genital tract after fixed-timed deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) in sows. Frozen semen samples were thawed and diluted in either modified Modena solution (mMS) or porcine fertilization medium (PFM) containing theophylline, adenosine and cysteine. Sperm quality, assessed in vitro based on motility using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer and the integrity of the plasma and acrosomal membranes using flow cytometry, was evaluated at 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6h after thawing. Progressive motility and the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged acrosomal membranes in PFM were significantly better than in mMS throughout the 6h. Sows with estrus synchronized using prostaglandin F2 alpha, equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were inseminated once with mMS- or PFM-diluted 5 × 10(8) frozen-thawed spermatozoa by DIUI at 34 h after the hCG injection. At 4h after DIUI, reproductive tracts were recovered from 30 sows. There were significantly fewer polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and more spermatozoa outside PMNs in the uterine horn after PFM treatment than with mMS. When 22 sows were administered DIUI with 10 × 10(8) frozen-thawed spermatozoa at 36 h after hCG, the pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between the mMS- (36%) and PFM- (64%) treated groups. Thus, PFM enhanced progressive sperm motility but increased sperm membrane damage compared with mMS; it also suppressed the migration of PMNs into the uterine lumen.
Background Female Genital Cutting is a cultural practice among many ethnic groups in Ethiopia that has affected many girls over the past centuries. Although the trend is slowly decreasing in Ethiopia, the magnitude is still very high as the procedure has no known benefit but has many consequences. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and belief in the continuation of FGC among High School Girls in Hadiya Zone. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out among high school girls in Hadiya Zone from January to February 2011. A multi-staged cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. In total, 780 girls completed a self-administered questionnaire for this study. Statistical analysis was done using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 780 high school girls, 82.2% were circumcised at a mean age of 11(±2.3) years. Half of the total participants responded that FGC was being practiced in their village. About 60% of the circumcisions were performed by traditional circumcisers while health professionals had performed 30% of them. A few of the circumcised girls (9.4%) supported their status as a circumcised girl, but only 5% believe in the continuation of FGC. The odds of being cut was higher among girls whose fathers and mothers had educational status under high school level (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.09) and (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.38) respectively when compared to those whose parents had attended high school and above. The odds of believing in the continuation of FGC was 2.33(95% CI: 1.01, 5.33) times higher among those who responded that FGC was practiced in their areas. Conclusion While there is an urgent need to stop the practice of FGC in Hadiya Zone, cultural beliefs related to the hygiene of female genitalia and other social factors contribute to sustaining the practice. Local organizations in collaboration with religious institutions and community leaders should work together to engage in
Kaplan, Adriana; Forbes, Mary; Bonhoure, Isabelle; Utzet, Mireia; Martín, Miguel; Manneh, Malick; Ceesay, Haruna
Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice deeply rooted in 28 Sub-Saharan African countries. Its prevalence in The Gambia is 76.3%. The objective of this study was to gain precise information on the long-term health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia as well as on its impact on delivery and on the health of the newborns. Methods Data were collected from 588 female patients examined for antenatal care or delivery in hospitals and health centers of the Western Health Region, The Gambia. The information collected, both through a questionnaire and medical examination, included sociodemographic factors, the presence or not of FGM/C, the types of FGM/C practiced, the long-term health consequences of FGM/C, complications during delivery and for the newborn. Odds ratios, their 95% confidence intervals, and P values were calculated. Results The prevalence of patients who had undergone FGM/C was 75.6% (type I: 75.6%; type II: 24.4%). Women with type I and II FGM/C had a significantly higher prevalence of long-term health problems (eg, dysmenorrhea, vulvar or vaginal pain), problems related to anomalous healing (eg, fibrosis, keloid, synechia), and sexual dysfunction. Women with FGM/C were also much more likely to suffer complications during delivery (perineal tear, obstructed labor, episiotomy, cesarean, stillbirth) and complications associated with anomalous healing after FGM/C. Similarly, newborns were found to be more likely to suffer complications such as fetal distress and caput of the fetal head. Conclusion This study shows that FGM/C is associated with a variety of long-term health consequences, that women with FGM/C are four times more likely to suffer complications during delivery, and the newborn is four times more likely to have health complications if the parturient has undergone FGM/C. These results highlight for the first time the magnitude of consequences during delivery and for the newborn, associated with FGM
Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291
Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti
Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404
Creatsas, George; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women are of great concern to all health-care providers since many of them are preventable and/or treatable conditions which, if left untreated, could have serious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cervical cancer, systemic disease, etc. They may also become a major public health problem when dealing with diseases such as hepatitis, etc., or in people with human immunodeficiency virus. We present here a comprehensive review of the common causes of STDs and their treatment.
Weidemann, Frank; Niemann, Markus; Sommer, Claudia; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Frank; Wanner, Christoph
Fabry's disease is a rare genetic storage disorder leading to an accumulation of globotriaosylceramides in the lysosomes of various organs. Being X-chromosomal-linked, most studies in the past focused on involvement in male patients. However, it has been elucidated recently that female patients can present typical organ involvement and, thus, have to be treated respectively. This synopsis wants to systematically review the typical organ involvement in female Fabry patients. Moreover, therapy recommendations especially for female patients are discussed.
Frey, Jordan D.; Poudrier, Grace; Chiodo, Michael V.
Introduction: The complex anatomy and function of the native penis is difficult to surgically replicate. Metoidioplasty and radial forearm flap phalloplasty (RFFP) are the 2 most commonly utilized procedures for transgender neophallus construction. Methods: A MEDLINE search for metoidioplasty and RFFP in female-to-male genital reconstruction was performed. Primary outcome measures were subsequently compared. A systematic review was planned in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyse guidelines. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was utilized to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: Using Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes tool criteria, a total of 188 articles were identified; 7 articles related to metoidioplasty and 11 articles related to RFFP met inclusion criteria. The GRADE quality of evidence was low to very low for all included studies. In studies examining metoidioplasty, the average study size and length of follow-up were 54 patients and 4.6 years, respectively (1 study did not report [NR]). Eighty-eight percent underwent a single-stage reconstruction (0 NR), 87% reported an aesthetic neophallus (3 NR), and 100% reported erogenous sensation (2 NR). Fifty-one percent of patients reported successful intercourse (3 NR), and 89% of patients achieved standing micturition (3 NR). In studies examining RFFP, the average study size and follow-up were 60.4 patients and 6.23 years, respectively (6 NR). No patients underwent single-stage reconstructions (8 NR). Seventy percent of patients reported a satisfactorily aesthetic neophallus (4 NR), and 69% reported erogenous sensation (6 NR). Forty-three percent reported successful penetration of partner during intercourse (6 NR), and 89% achieved standing micturition (6 NR). Compared with RFFP, metoidioplasty was significantly more likely to be completed in a single stage (P < 0.0001), have an aesthetic result (P = 0
As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569
As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.
Jagadeeshan, S; Singh, R S
Male genitalia in Drosophila exemplify strikingly rapid and divergent evolution, whereas female genitalia are relatively invariable. Whereas precopulatory and post-copulatory sexual selection has been invoked to explain this trend, the functional significance of genital structures during copulation remains obscure. We used time-sequence analysis to study the functional significance of external genitalic structures during the course of copulation, between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. This functional analysis has provided new information that reveals the importance of male-driven copulatory mechanics and strategies in the rapid diversification of genitalia. The posterior process, which is a recently evolved sexual character and present only in males of the melanogaster clade, plays a crucial role in mounting as well as in genital coupling. Whereas there is ample evidence for precopulatory and/or post-copulatory female choice, we show here that during copulation there is little or no physical female choice, consequently, males determine copulation duration. We also found subtle differences in copulatory mechanics between very closely related species. We propose that variation in male usage of novel genitalic structures and shifts in copulatory behaviour have played an important role in the diversification of genitalia in species of the Drosophila subgroup.
Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174
Beauman, John G
Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications.
Pinto, Andre; Mclaren, Son H; Poppas, Dix P; Magro, Cynthia M
Genital melanocytic nevus represents a distinct form of melanocytic proliferation, which can exhibit significant atypia, both clinically and histologically. In a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), the histologic changes could be misconstrued as indicative of malignant melanoma. We present herein a case of the atypical genital nevus of childhood complicated by LS, and a review of the literature is performed. Tissue was available for routine light microscopy and immunohistochemical evaluation to assess the expression of soluble adenylyl cyclase. Fluorescent in situ hybridization studies were conducted to assess for abnormalities in Myb1, CCND1, RREB1 and CEP6. The specimen showed an atypical compound melanocytic proliferation arising in a background of LS. The lesion exhibited significant architectural atypia based on the high-density confluent nature of the junctional melanocytic proliferation with epidermal effacement, rare areas of pagetoid ascent, and the heavily pigmented epithelioid quality of the melanocytes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization studies were normal. The soluble adenylyl cyclase antibody preparation demonstrated a benign nevus-like pattern. The lesion was felt to represent an atypical genital melanocytic nevus, which can resemble a partially regressed melanoma in a background of LS. It is very important for the pathologist to be aware of this entity to avoid misdiagnosis.
... or ulcer [called a chancre] on the genitals) Granuloma inguinale (small, beefy-red bumps appear on the ... nih.gov/pubmed/26042815 . Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital warts Itching Molluscum contagiosum Urination - painful ...
Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio
Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.
Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.
Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821
Narovlyansky, A N; Ivanova, A M; Shevlyagina, N V; Didenko, L V; Borovaya, T G; Izmest'eva, A V; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V; Ershov, F I
An experimental model of the primary genital herpes (herpes simplex type 2, HSV-2) in the female guinea pigs was suggested to study the infectious process activity of polyprenyl phosphates (PPP) and PPP+acyclovir (AC) complex treatment. The morphofunctional features of the guinea pig ovaries were studied in the control and experimental groups (the latter were inoculated with PPP and/or AC as a primary infection treatment) at the stage of the recurrent genital herpes aggravation. It was shown that in the case of combined PPP +AC use significant changes in the disease symptoms were observed, as well as a decrease in the infectious process activity and duration, and positive remote effect on the ovarian morphophysiology.
Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko
Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes.
Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius
Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.
Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa
Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters.
Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J.; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Garrett, Nigel J.
Introduction Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Methods Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. Results The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. Conclusions MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples. PMID:26147923
... transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh- ... completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...
Groves, Mary Jo
Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.
Phytosphingosine-containing neutral glycosphingolipids and sulfatides in the human female genital tract: their association in the cervical epithelium and the uterine endometrium and their dissociation in the mucosa of fallopian tube with the menstrual cycle.
In human cervical epithelium and uterine endometrium, globo-series neutral glycosphingolipids with N-alpha-hydroxy fatty acyl phytosphingosine (4-D-hydroxysphinganine) as the ceramide and sulfatide (I3SO3-GalCer), which were contained in trace amount at the follicular phase, significantly increased in concentration at the luteal phase, comprising about 20% of the individual neutral glycosphingolipids and about 15% of the total acidic glycosphingolipids, respectively. However, in the mucosa of fallopian tube, neutral glycosphingolipids with the same polarity as those in the cervical epithelium and uterine endometrium at the luteal phase and sulfatide remained at a constant and higher level independently of the menstrual cycle. The structures of neutral glycosphingolipids in the fallopian tube, having the same polarity as that of N-alpha-hydroxy fatty acyl phytosphingosine-containing molecules appeared in the cervical epithelium and uterine endometrium at the luteal phase, were determined to be N-alpha-hydroxy palmitoyl 4-sphingenine-containing ones by negative-ion FABMS. Also, laminin, but not collagen type IV, was found to be contained in the concentration correlated well with that of sulfatide in the genital tract, when determined by western blotting with monoclonal anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies, indicating a possible function of sulfatide as a receptor for laminin in the human female genital tract.
Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee
Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697
Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora
Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429
Baumann, Matthias; Finsterer, Josef; Gizewski, Elke R; Löscher, Wolfgang N
Objectives: Hirayama disease is a rare myelopathy, occurring predominantly in males with onset in the teens. Methods and results: Here, we report a young female patient who developed the first signs of Hirayama disease at 10.5 years of age. Prior to onset, she had experienced a growth spurt and grew about 8 cm. The disease progressed over 3 years and the typical clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging signs of Hirayama disease were found. After this period and achievement of her final height, no further progression was noticed. Conclusions: This case highlights that pediatric neurologists should be aware of Hirayama disease, which can also occur in girls in early adolescence. PMID:28228960
Njunda, Anna L.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Palle, John N.; Kamga, Henri L.; Nde, Peter F.; Ntube, Mengang N.C.; Weledji, Patrick E.
Genital mycoplasmas are implicated in pelvic inflammatory diseases, puerperal infection, septic abortions, low birth weight, nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis as well as spontaneous abortion and infertility in women. There is paucity of data on colonisation of genital mycoplasma in women and their drug sensitivity patterns. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealiticum and Mycoplasma hominis) infection and their drug sensitivity patterns in women. A mycofast kit was used for biochemical determination of mycoplasma infection in 100 randomly selected female patients aged 19–57 years, attending the University of Yaoundé Teaching Hospital (UYTH) from March to June 2010. Informed consent was sought and gained before samples were collected. Genital mycoplasmas were found in 65 patients (65%) [95% CI=55.7–74.3%] and distributed as 41 (41%) [95% CI=31.4–50.6%] for U. urealiticum and 4 (4%) [95% CI=0.20– 7.8%] for M. hominis while there was co-infection in 20 women (20%) [95% CI=12.16–27.84%]. In our study, 57 (57%) [95% CI=47.3–67%] had other organisms, which included C. albicans (19 [19%]), G. vaginalis (35 [35%]) and T. vaginalis (3 [3%]). Among the 65 women with genital mycoplasma, the highest co-infection was with G. vaginalis (33.8%). Pristinamycine was the most effective antibiotic (92%) and sulfamethoxazole the most resistant (8%) antibiotic to genital mycoplasmas. We conclude that genital mycoplasma is a problem in Cameroon and infected women should be treated together with their partners. PMID:28299057
Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Fulp, William J; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Ingles, Donna J; Stoler, Mark; Messina, Jane L; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the incidence of histopathologically confirmed condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and rates of genital HPV infection progression to these lesions differs by country (Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.). At each visit, lesions were biopsied and were categorized by pathologic diagnoses. The Linear Array genotyping method was used to identify HPV genotypes from genital swabs, while the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra method was used for tissue specimens. Age-specific analyses were conducted for lesion incidence by country, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to condyloma and PeIN, the median time to lesion development and the incidence rates were estimated by country. When comparing demographic and sexual characteristics across the three countries, sexual orientation (p = 0.008) and lifetime number of female sexual partners (p < 0.0001) were differentially associated with lesion incidence in the three countries. Condyloma incidence in Brazil and the U.S. decreased with age, while incidence remained constant across the lifespan in Mexico. There were no differences by country and age for PeIN incidence. HPV types 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to condyloma and HPV types 16, 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to PeIN in all three countries. The continuous risk of condyloma and PeIN across all age groups and countries in this study emphasizes the need to ensure that strong HPV immunity, such as that obtained through vaccination, is maintained across the lifespan of men.
Rodríguez Rodríguez, Paula; Pedraza Serrano, Fernando; Morán Caicedo, Liliana Patricia; Rodríguez de Guzmán, Maria Carmen; Cebollero Presmanes, María; de Miguel Díez, Javier
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a subgroup of pulmonary arterial hypertension with a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is usually delayed and treatment options other than lung transplantation are unfortunately limited. We report the case of 51-year-old female gardener diagnosed with PVOD by open lung biopsy before her death. Although there are many reported cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease due to toxic agents present in nature, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure, to date this has not been linked to PVOD.
Echevarria, L; Benistan, K; Toussaint, A; Dubourg, O; Hagege, A A; Eladari, D; Jabbour, F; Beldjord, C; De Mazancourt, P; Germain, D P
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by the deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase (α-Gal). While males are usually severely affected, clinical presentation in female patients may be more variable ranging from asymptomatic to, occasionally, as severely affected as male patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in females with FD, its concordance between tissues, and its contribution to the phenotype. Fifty-six females with FD were enrolled. Clinical and biological work-up included two global scores [Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and DS3], cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, measured glomerular filtration rate, and measurement of α-Gal activity. XCI was analyzed in four tissues using DNA methylation studies. Skewed XCI was found in 29% of the study population. A correlation was found in XCI patterns between blood and the other analyzed tissues although some punctual variability was detected. Significant differences in residual α-Gal levels, severity scores, progression of cardiomyopathy and deterioration of kidney function, depending on the direction and degree of skewing of XCI were evidenced. XCI significantly impacts the phenotype and natural history of FD in females.
Disease classification is an important part in the process of medicalisation and one important tool by which medical authority is exerted. The demand for, or proposal of a diagnosis may be the first step in casting life's experiences as medical in nature. Aronowitz has written about how diagnoses result from social framing mechanisms (2008) and consensus (2001), while Brown (1995) has demonstrated a complex range of interactions between lay and professionals, institutions and industries which underpin disease discovery. In any case, there are numerous social factors which shape the diagnosis, and in turn, provide a mechanism by which medicalisation can be enacted. Focussing on diagnostic classification provides an important perspective on the human condition and its relationship to medicine. To illustrate how layers of social meaning may be concealed in a diagnosis, this paper uses as heuristic the relatively obscure diagnosis of Female Hyposexual Desire Disorder which is currently surfacing in medical and marketing literature as a frequent disorder worthy of concern. I describe how this diagnosis embodies long-standing fascination with female libido, a contemporary focus on female hypersexuality, and commercial interest of the pharmaceutical industry and its medical allies to reify low sexual urge as a pathological disorder in women.
Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim
Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells, leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than those in normal animals. However, luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F series to the E series by a phospholipase A2-mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins, and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease.
... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 46. Genital Warts — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital warts estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...
... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...
Horgan, M; Bersoff-Matcha, S
Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.
Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael
Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art  and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood . In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout  of the vertebrate brain.
Narang, T; Kanwar, A J
Genital elephantiasis is a disease that is characterized by massive enlargement of the genitalia. Early aetiological diagnosis is of paramount importance so that development of genital elephantiasis can be prevented; otherwise it is not completely reversible with medical therapy and often requires surgical intervention. Chronic mental distress and disability can result as it interferes with daily/routine activities of the affected individual. Over time, the infectious causes of genital elephantiasis have evolved, from syphilis in the pre-penicillin era to donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and recently filariasis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, HIV and chromoblastomycosis. With a declining prevalence globally, donovanosis is at risk of being forgotten as a cause of genital swelling; however, it is known to persist for years without treatment and can lead to complications such as lymphoedema and genital mutilation. We herein present a case of genital elephantiasis that was eventually diagnosed as being due to donovanosis.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a bacterial infection causing an inflammatory reaction in the upper genital tract. It can be treated with antibiotics, but since it is often asymptomatic, women often delay seeking health care, which may result in long-term sequelae such as infertility. Among 161,501 female recruits who began basic training between January 2002 and December 2011, 1,750 (1.1%) met the surveillance case definition for PID during the 12 months following completion of their basic military training. The overall incidence rate (11.2 per 1,000 person-years) showed a stable trend during the surveillance period, with the exception of a decline for females accessed in 2011. The unadjusted rates were higher among women who were not screened for chlamydia during basic training. Compared to their respective counterparts, rates were higher in service women aged 17-20, of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, married, in the Army, and who had a chlamydia diagnosis after basic training. The lowest rates were among women 25 years and older, other race/ethnicity, and in the Coast Guard. The findings in this report may warrant further evaluation of the long-term impact of chlamydia screening programs for recruit trainees on PID and PID-related sequelae among service women.
Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward.
Park, Ina U; Introcaso, Camille; Dunne, Eileen F
To provide updates for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts (AGWs), a review of the literature was conducted in key topic areas: (1) epidemiology and burden of disease; (2) transmission and natural history; (3) diagnosis and management of AGWs; (4) occupational exposure of healthcare workers; (5) anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM); and (6) HPV vaccine recommendations. Most sexually active persons will have detectable HPV at least once in their lifetime; 14 million persons are infected annually, and 79 million persons have prevalent infection. HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females. A new formulation of imiquimod (3.75% cream) is recommended for AGW treatment. Appropriate infection control, including performing laser or electrocautery in ventilated rooms using standard precautions, is recommended to prevent possible transmission to healthcare workers who treat anogenital warts, oral warts, and anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias (eg, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or HIV-negative MSM. An annual digital anorectal examination may be useful for early detection of anal cancer in these populations. HPV vaccine is recommended routinely for 11- or 12-year-olds, as well as for young men through age 21 years and young women through age 26 years who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccine is also recommended for MSM, people living with HIV/AIDS, and immunocompromised persons through age 26 years.
O’Connell, Catherine M.; Ferone, Morgan E.
Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days). However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal. PMID:28357377
Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E
Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity–longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional
Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E
Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional
SINGH, R; KUMAR, A; CREERY, W D; RUBEN, M; GIULIVI, A; DIAZ-MITOMA, F
Cell-mediated T-helper type-1 (Th1) responses play a vital role in the immunopathogenesis of genital infections caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). We investigated the role of Th responses in HSV-2 infection at different disease stages by analysing the production of Th cytokines in HSV-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). IFN-γ production decreased over time following a recurrence, whereas levels of IL-10, and to a lesser extent IL-2, remained elevated during this period. In addition, PBMCs from asymptomatic seropositive individuals produced high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-10, in contrast to individuals with a history of genital ulcers. Following a recurrence, virus copy number in the genital lesions decreased progressively over time, in a manner similar to IFN-γ production by HSV-2-stimulated PBMCs. Enhanced production of IFN-γ may modulate HSV replication and B7 expression on monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals. In contrast to seronegative controls, IFN-γ failed to enhance B7 expression on monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals. In addition, monocytic cells from HSV-2-infected individuals with recurrent disease supported greater HSV replication than did those of HSV-infected asymptomatic individuals or seronegative controls. Furthermore, addition of IFN-γ resulted in enhanced HSV replication in monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals with recurrent disease, in contrast to the inhibition observed in HSV-seropositive asymptomatic individuals and seronegative controls. Taken together, our results suggest that dysregulated production of IFN-γ at different disease stages and the impaired ability of monocytic cells to respond to IFN-γ may play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes disease. PMID:12823283
Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181
This paper examines the diverse ways in which Chinese medical experts historically gendered breast disease as a female ailment. By comparing representations of the female breast from the "Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of Medical Learning (Yuzuan yizong jinjian, 1742)" to those from earlier and contemporary texts, this paper analyzes how breast disease was alternately categorized as an ailment of childbearing and as a disease rooted in pathological female emotion. Medical awareness of breast disease in men did somewhat challenge these connections between womanhood and disease. Nevertheless, medical illustrations of women helped to reinforce the idea that breast disease was a characteristically female problem.
Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a
Schlippe, Gerrit; Voss, Werner; Brenn, Lars Christian
Genital herpes is the manifestation of a herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Standard treatment uses both local and systemic approaches. Here, we report on the results of a local therapy approach with 31 female patients at a gynecological practice. In the here-described approach, established genital herpes infection was treated with the medical device Herpotherm(®), with or without virostatic drugs. Herpotherm(®) is a certified medical device operating on the basis of local heat application. Parameters evaluated during the approach were (i) subjective patient assessments and (ii) objective assessment of the physician. In the described therapy approach a positive effect in terms of nature and severity in the course of the disease using Herpotherm(®) could be demonstrated. It could be shown that Herpotherm(®) can also be used for genital herpes and that it is well tolerated. In relation to other therapies using topical treatment for genital herpes, an extremely rapid reduction of pain and herpetic symptoms could be observed. Intolerances or discontinued use as a result of complications were not observed.
Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. )
Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.
The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.
Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam
Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.
Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta
The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.
Beutner, K R; Reitano, M V; Richwald, G A; Wiley, D J
A consensus process was undertaken to describe and evaluate current information and practice regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of patients with external genital warts (EGWs) and their sex partners. This process developed a number of key statements that were based on strong evidence in the literature or reasonable suppositions and opinions of experts. Key statements included the following. In most cases, EGWs can be diagnosed clinically by visual inspection. No one treatment is ideal for all patients or all warts. Women with EGWs and female sex partners of men with EGWs are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related cervical disease and, like all women, should be screened for cervical cancer. The diagnosis of EGWs in children requires a sexual abuse evaluation. Clinicians who treat EGWs have a responsibility to counsel patients and to provide information about the infectivity, diagnosis, treatment, and natural history of EGWs and general information about sexual health and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Berkowitz, Carol D.
Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…
Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle development that simulates urethrogenesis from the urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure in differentiating male embryos. The model, constructed in CompuCell3D, implemented spatially dynamic signals from SHH, FGF10, and androgen signaling pathways. These signals modulated stochastic cell behaviors, such as differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent property of the model that was quantitatively dependent on SHH and FGF10 induced effects on mesenchymal proliferation and endodermal apoptosis, ultimately linked to androgen signaling. In the absence of androgenization, simulated genital tubercle development defaulted to the female condition. Intermediate phenotypes associated with partial androgen deficiency resulted in incomplete closure. Using this computer model, complex relationships between urethral tube closure defects and disruption of underlying signaling pathways could be probed theoretically in multiplex disturbance scenarios and modeled into probabilistic predictions for individual risk for hypospadias and potentially other developmental defects of the male genital tubercle. We identify the minimal molecular network that determines the outcome of male genital tubercle development in mice.
Shelmidine, Nichole; Borries, Carola; Koenig, Andreas
The occurrence of genital swellings was examined in adult female silvered langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus). In contrast to the exaggerated swellings found in cercopithecines and apes, genital swellings in silvered langurs are confined to the vulva and the surrounding perineum, but they may nevertheless convey information similar to that of exaggerated swellings (i.e., correlate with the receptive period and fertility). If so, genital swellings would be expected to occur most frequently in cycling females, and sexual behavior and male interest should most frequently involve females with swellings. Swellings during gestation, if they occur at all, should be most pronounced at the beginning. Swelling sizes (in three size categories) in nine adult females were examined throughout different reproductive states (cycling, pregnant, and lactating), and in relation to proceptivity, receptivity, and attractivity. Data were collected from November 2002 through March 2004 (on 500 of the 502 calendar days) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Female sexual behavior (proceptivity and receptivity) and male inspection (attractivity) were recorded each day for 6 hr by video camera (2,948 hr total) and analyzed as present or absent for each female day. Swellings were assessed directly (not from videotapes). In contrast to the predictions, swellings occurred significantly less frequently in cycling females (compared to pregnant females) and no regular, cyclic pattern could be detected. Some females conceived without a swelling. Female attractivity was independent of swellings but coincided with proceptive behavior. Swellings occurred most frequently in pregnant females, especially toward the end of the gestation period. Therefore, genital swellings in silvered langurs are not similar to exaggerated swellings or the smaller genital swellings that have been described for some other primates. It is currently not clear what they signal to conspecifics. Male behavior needs
Oyinlade, O.A.; Lagunju, I.A.; Adebayo, B.E.
Background: Nemaline rod disease is a congenital myopathy, presentation of which may mimic myasthenia gravis. Method: We report a suspected case of nemaline rod disease in a female adolescent who presented with features similar to myasthenia gravis but failed to respond effectively to its conventional management. She had features of respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy. Results: Patient had a turbulent clinical course and finally succumbed to illness on the fifth day of admission. Conclusion: This report is meant to sensitize child neurologists and general paediatricians on the need to have a broad spectrum of considerations in the management of suspected myasthenia gravis, especially when response to anticholinesterase is poor.
Wang, B; Wang, B; Shao, Y
Genital warts (condyloma accunimata) are a kind of sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, we report 75 cases of genital warts treated with highly purified podophyllotoxin. All volunteers were selected in our clinic and diagnosed according to typical skin lesions and positive 0.5% acetic acid test. Of the 74 cases 48 were male and 26 were female, with a mean age of 28.4 years (21-54). The average duration of disease was 4.4 months (2 weeks-3 years). All lesions were treated with 0.5% podophyllotoxin-ethanal solution topically 2 times per day for 3 successive days. The treatment was repeated if any warts persisted, but not more than 3 therapies in total were applied. The results showed that 41/48 (85.4%) of male and 23/26 (88.5%) of female patients were cured, the overall cure rate was 86.5% and the effectiveness rate (more than 50% lesions disappeared) was 96.15%. During another 3 months of follow-up, 9 male and 4 female patients (17.6% in total) experienced relapsed warts; these were cured with another treatment. Side effects including slight local irritation and erythema or superficial erosions were common, but 3 male and 2 female patients complained of sever pain and local swelling. All side effects were tolerable. It is concluded that our domestically produced highly purified podophyllotoxin is an effective, comparatively safe drug for the treatment of genital warts. It is also very simple to apply, and can be used for self-treatment.
... development. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 150. Grinder NM, Cooper AR. Vulvovaginal and mullerian anomalies. In: Kliegman RM, ...
Houman, Justin; Feng, Tom; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T
Female sexual dysfunction affects approximately 40% of women (Sexual problems and distress in United States women: prevalence and correlates; Shifren et al., Obstet Gynecol, 112(5): 970-978, 2008). Due to its multi-factorial etiology, a wide variety of treatments are available that address specific symptoms, but no treatment exists that treats the overall disorder. Significant strides have recently been made in an effort to treat the plethora of symptoms associated with this disorder. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of recent research on the available treatments for female sexual dysfunction. We discuss novel agents such as flibanserin, as well as various mechanical devices and hormonal treatments aimed at the specific subtypes of female sexual dysfunction.
Chatterjee, R N; Chatterjee, P; Kuthe, S; Acharyya-Ari, M; Chatterjee, R
In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSX(F)) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix(1)/ix(1) , XX ix(2)/ix(2) and XX ix(5)/ix(5) individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dpp(disk)) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dpp(disk) mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that: (i) loss of function of ix causes massive cell death in both male and female genital primordia of genital discs, resulting phenotype mimicking in male and female characteristics in genitals; and (ii) at the discs, the apoptotic cells persist as 'undead' cells that can induce oncogenic transformation in the neighbouring disc cells when dpp signalling is blocked or reduced by dpp(disk) mutations.
Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions
Gibas, Andrea L; Klatt, Regan; Johnson, Jack; Clarke, Joe TR; Katz, Joel
BACKGROUND The clinical onset of Fabry disease, a rare, X-linked, multisystemic disorder, is marked by neuropathic pain. Males suffer extensively from this disease. Females, as genetic ‘carriers’, have traditionally been viewed as either asymptomatic or mildly afflicted with this disease. OBJECTIVES To describe Fabry-related pain and compare experiences between the sexes. Patients’ perceptions of physician pain assessments were also examined. METHODS A disease-specific questionnaire was accessible on-line (www.fabry.org) and mailed to 552 members of a Fabry disease support group. RESULTS The response rate was 14.3% for the support group-based mail questionnaire. Females (58.0%) were significantly older (mean ± SD 45.9±13.5 years) than males (mean ± SD 40.0±12.1; t =−2.11, P<0.05). Females were diagnosed with Fabry disease later (31.1±14.0 years) than males (24.2±11.9 years; t =−2.43, P<0.05). Females (mean score for pain disability rating 3.0±1.4) suffered more extensive disability from migraine pain (mean score 2.2±1.3; F [1, 74]=45.0, P<0.005), and, unlike males, did not exhibit a decline in pain intensity with disease duration. Satisfaction with physician pain assessments was moderate. CONCLUSIONS Contrary to the traditional view of females as carriers, females with Fabry disease experienced intense disease-related pain; pain produced comparable distress and impairment in both sexes. The diagnostic delay and absence of a decline in pain symptoms over time in females suggest additional disease burden. Females may be triply disadvantaged in the health care system due to disease rarity, devalued carrier status and sex. PMID:16960635
Urban, Renata R; Teng, Nelson N H; Kapp, Daniel S
We report a case of uterine cancer and invasive cervical cancer, detected incidentally during the female-to-male sex reassignment surgery. The management of these patients is presented. Such individuals may not be receiving regular gynecologic care appropriate to their remaining genital organs; symptoms of malignant disease may be missed.
Sasabe, M; Takami, Y; Sota, T
Marked diversification of genital morphology is common in internally fertilizing animals. Although sexual selection may be the primary process controlling genital evolution, factors promoting genital evolution are controversial, and the genetic background of genital morphology is poorly understood. We analyzed the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphologies in carabid beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus, Carabidae) using two parapatric species with hybrid zones. Biometric analyses on experimental F(1) and backcross populations revealed that inheritance of genital morphology is polygenic. Applying Lande's modification of the Castle-Wright estimator to population means and variances to estimate the minimum number of genes involved, we found that a relatively small number of loci is responsible for species differences in genital morphology. In addition, joint-scaling tests indicated that the additive genetic effect accounts for most interspecific differences in genital traits, but dominance and epistatic genetic effects also play roles. Overall, the genetic basis of male and female genitalia is fairly simple, enabling these traits to respond quickly to selection pressures and to diverge rapidly. Our results provide insight into the diversification of genital morphology in carabid beetles, and will hopefully stimulate further studies on the genetic basis of genitalia, such as mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting species-specific genital morphology.
Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania; Bertolasi, Laura
This chapter discusses the all too common problem of sex-related pain in women. Pain is a complex perceptive experience, involving biologic as well as psychologic and relational meanings. They become increasingly important with the chronicity of pain. Neurologists are quite aware of the painful aspect of many neurologic disorders, but lifelong and acquired genital and sexual pain is still neglected in a consistent percentage of women. One reason is the view - still held by many - that psychologic factors play the most important role in sex-related pain complaints. The consequences of diagnostic delay can be dramatic. Persisting tissue inflammation induces pain to change from acute and "nociceptive," which indicates a "friendly signal," alerting one to ongoing tissue damage, to chronic and "neuropathic," a disease per se. Whilst the primary disease is progressing and neuroinflammation becomes a prominent feature, affected women have to bear years of pain and distress, huge quantifiable and non-quantifiable costs, and a progressive deterioration of personal and relational health and happiness. The scenario is even more dramatic when pain complicates an already disabling disease. The main aspects considered in this chapter include neuroinflammation as a key feature of pain; genital and sexual pain as part of neurologic diseases; and genital and sexual pain syndrome (dyspareunia and vaginismus) as primary problems, and their pelvic comorbidities (bladder pain syndrome, endometriosis, irritable bowel syndrome, provoked vestibulodynia/vulvodynia). Finally, we discuss iatrogenic pain, i.e., genital and sexual pain caused by ill-conceived medical, surgical, pharmacologic or radiologic therapeutic interventions.
Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160
Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero
Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956
Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania
"Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.
Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Call your health care provider if you have any of the following: Symptoms of an outbreak that worsen despite medicine and self-care ...
Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z
It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).
Margraf, A; Costa-Ayub, C L S; Okada, M A; Gomes, J R; Ortolani-Machado, C F; Soares, M A M
We examined the post-embryonic development of the male and female genital apparatus of the brown spider, Loxosceles intermedia. The development of the genital apparatus for both sexes begins with the appearance of inner structures. In the male genital apparatus, formation of the testes occurs first, followed by differentiation of the duct, ampulla and vas deferens, and finally the formation of the genital opening and differentiation of the copulatory organ (secondary sexual characteristic). Similarly, the development of the female genital apparatus begins with the formation of the ovaries, followed by the appearance of oocytes in vitellogenesis, then the development of oviducts and uterus internus and, finally, the spermatheca. These data may be very important in further comparative studies on the development of the reproductive system of spiders.
Abu Daia, J M
It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.
Wagner, Aaron P; Frank, Laurence G; Creel, Scott; Coscia, Elizabeth M
The highly masculinized genitalia of female spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta is unique among mammals: Crocuta have no external vagina so urination, penile intromission and parturition take place through the clitoris, which mimics a fully erectile male penis. Among hyenids, virilization of external female genitalia has previously been observed only in Crocuta, so functional explanations of masculinization have focused on aspects of social ecology unique to the species. Here we first show that the striped hyena Hyaena hyaena exhibits both unusual similarity in male and female androgen concentrations and transient genital anomalies characterized by a convergence in genital appearance among young males and females. We then evaluate hypotheses regarding the evolution of genital masculinization in the Hyaenidae and other taxa. Hyaena are behaviorally solitary, so discovery of unusual genital development patterns in this species does not support any current evolutionary models for masculinization in Crocuta, which all rely on the trait originating within a highly social species. Some hypotheses can be modified so that masculinization in Crocuta represents an extreme elaboration of a preexisting trait, shared as a homology with Hyaena.
Kuzmickiene, I H; Stukonis, M K
The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk among the workers at two Lithuanian textile mills vis-a-vis occupational hazards and professional status. Our retrospective investigation included 12,602 females who had been followed up in 1978-2002. Cancer risk was evaluated using a standardized incidence ratio and a relative one - on the basis of confidential interviews. Overall cancer risk for textile workers in Lithuania was lower than that of the general population (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81-0.99). However, excess risk of thyroid cancer was reported among females at the linen finishing unit (SIR 5.85; 95% CI 1.21-17.2) cotton one (SIR 3.24; 95% CI 1.19-7.06). An inverse correlation was shown between cumulative exposure to cotton dust and risk at all occupational sites (p=0.03). Our results point to a link between probability occupational factors in a variety of textile industry jobs and risk of cancer. Further research is required to better understand the potential of professional factor influence.
Horning, S.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.
The probability of maintaining ovarian function, becoming pregnant, and delivering a normal child is important to young women anticipating successful therapy for Hodgkin's disease. In this study, reproductive function was retrospectively examined in 103 women 40 years old or younger who had undergone treatment for Hodgkin's disease with total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, combination chemotherapy, or combined TLI and chemotherapy. Infertility was directly related to gonadal exposure to therapy and to age at treatment. Twenty women became pregnant after receiving total-nodal irradiation or combination chemotherapy or both. No fetal wastage occurred, and no birth defects were seen in the 24 infants born to these women. Even after intensive treatment programs, women successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease have become pregnant and delivered phenotypically normal children.
Litz, Brett T.; And Others
Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…
Neonakis, Ioannis; Mantadakis, Elpis; Gitti, Zoe; Mitrouska, Ioanna; Manidakis, Louis George; Maraki, Sofia; Samonis, George
Background Female genital tuberculosis is an uncommon disease that is rarely diagnosed in developed countries. Case presentation A 61-year-old postmenopausal woman who had undergone surgery and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast five years ago, presented with bloody vaginal discharge, fatigue, weight loss, and low grade fevers at night for two months. Histological examination of the endometrium, done based on the suspicion of a second primary cancer due to the tamoxifen therapy, revealed a granulomatous reaction. Liquid and solid mycobacterial cultures of the tissues were performed. Although the acid fast staining was negative, the liquid culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Involvement of other systems was not detected. The patient was treated with a three-drug antituberculosis regimen for 9 months and recovered fully. Conclusion Female genital tuberculosis is a rare but curable disease that should be included in the differential diagnosis of women with menstrual problems. Early diagnosis is important and may prevent unnecessary invasive procedures for the patient. PMID:16948834
Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X
Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by speciﬁc polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to conﬁrm the clinical diagnosis.
Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni
OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108
Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan; Wellenhof, Rainer Hofmann
BACKGROUND The dermoscopic features of vulvar melanosis lesions are well known. To our knowledge, there are only a few case reports about dermoscopic features of pigmented genital lesions in male patients. OBJECTIVE To evaluate dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of benign lesions of the genital area in both males and females, and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of vulvar melanosis and atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type. METHODS 68 patients with pigmented genital lesions were included in this observational study (28 male and 40 female). A punch biopsy was taken from all pigmented lesions and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens. RESULTS We histopathologically diagnosed: genital melanosis in 40 lesions, atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type in 15 lesions, melanocytic nevi in 9 lesions, seborrheic keratosis in 4 lesions. The most frequent locations were the glans penis (19 patients, 67.9%) in males and the labia minora (19 patients, 47.5%) in females. The mean age of patients with atypical nevi (28,6 ± 11,36) was significantly lower than the mean age of patients with genital melanosis (47,07 ± 15,33). CONCLUSIONS Parallel pattern is prominent in genital melanosis, ring-like pattern is only observed in genital melanosis. Most pigmented lesions on the genital area are solitary. Blue-white veil and irregular dots are only observed in AMNGT. According to these results, we propose that histopathological examination is performed, especially if blue-white veil and irregular dots are found by dermoscopy. PMID:25830986
Gomez, F. M. Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R.
Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.
You, Hong; Kong, Yuanyuan; Hou, Jinlin; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Yuexin; Niu, Junqi; Han, Tao; Ou, Xiaojuan; Dou, Xiaoguang; Shang, Jia; Tang, Hong; Xie, Qing; Ding, Huiguo; Ren, Hong; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Wen; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Youqing; Li, Yujie; Li, Jie; Chow, Shein-Chung; Zhuang, Hui; Jia, Jidong
Female gender and younger age are protective factors against disease progression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, it is not clear whether the disease progression still remains slow in elderly females. This study investigated the interaction of female gender and older age on the development of cirrhosis in patients recorded in China Registry of Hepatitis B. A total of 17,809 CHB patients were enrolled in this multi-center cross-sectional study. The prevalence of cirrhosis in female CHB patients increased faster than that in male CHB patients over 50 years old. Multivariate analysis showed that the increase of adjusted ORs for developing cirrhosis in females started to accelerate after 50 years old: 11.19 (95% CI: 5.93–21.11) in women versus 14.75 (95% CI: 8.35–26.07) in men at ages of 50–59 years, 21.67 (95% CI: 11.05–42.47) versus 24.4 (95% CI: 13.00–45.80) at ages 60–69 years, and 18.78 (95% CI: 6.61–53.36) versus 12.09 (95% CI: 4.35–33.61) in those over 70 years. In conclusion, the protective effect of female gender against cirrhosis gradually lost with increasing age, therefore disease progression should be monitored more closely in elderly women with CHB. PMID:27892487
Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K
Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.
Sakurai, G; Himuro, C; Kasuya, E
Rapid evolution has led to a large diversity in the sizes and morphology of male genitals across taxa, but the mechanisms driving this evolution remain controversial. In this study, we investigated the function of male genital sclerites in the adzuki bean beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) and compared the length and morphology of genital sclerites between two populations that vary in their degree of polyandry. We found that the length of male genital sclerites was negatively correlated with copulation duration but positively correlated with the speed of matings with multiple females. Additionally, we found that the average length and number of genital sclerite spines of males from the more polyandrous population were larger than those from the less polyandrous population. We suggest that the genital sclerite of male adzuki bean beetles evolved by sexual selection, and a larger genital sclerite has a selective advantage because it allows for rapid copulations with multiple females.
Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377
Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types. HPV probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; intralesional candida antigen; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; and topical salicylic acid. PMID:24921240
Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Agumas, Yirdaw Amare; Tarekegn, Molalign
Background Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method. Data were collected using an interview with structured questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package. Results The findings of this study showed that the overall prevalence of STDs was 20.6%. The reported prevalence of genital discharge, ulcer, and bubo was 15.9%, 15.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, respondents who did not use a condom were about four times at higher risk of STDs than those who were using a condom consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.812, 9.139). Respondents who experienced condom breakages were more than 12 times more likely to report STDs than those who never experienced condom breakages (AOR = 12.291, 95% CI: 5.701, 26.495). Conclusion The findings of this study showed that one in five commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town had STDs. Sex without a condom and condom breakage during sexual intercourse showed a significant association with STDs. Therefore, the Woreda Health Office in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations in the area should work on safe sex promotion to enhance consistent condom use and reduce condom breakage through continuous education among commercial sex workers. PMID:28280391
Sacknoff, Eric J.; Schweitzer, Jay; Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.
The ability to vaporize extremely thin layers of epithelial tissue without any char and with minimal thermal necrosis is extremely advantageous in the treatment of superficial lesions of the external genitalia. We present a novel CO2 laser `SwiftLase' flashscan technology capable of providing char free ablation of 3 mm diameter lesions with only 150 micron residual thermal necrosis depth at power level as low as 10 watts. These power levels are achievable with a small transportable CO2 laser. The SwiftLaser is a miniature opto- mechanical scanner which homogeneously covers a 3 mm diameter surface with a 0.1 mm spot size focused beam within 0.1 seconds. The instantaneous beam's dwelling time is 1 millisecond. The instantaneous power density level at the focal point is higher than the threshold for char free ablation, thus providing a large char free ablation crater. Since depth of each ablated layer is 0.1 mm, the depth of treatment can be precisely controlled. The SwiftLaser technology has extensively and successfully been used in the last two years for the treatment of HPV in female lower tracts (Vulvectomy). The same technique may be performed with extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva, penile condylomata, and other epithelial disorders of the external genitalia without damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Technique and clinical results will be discussed.
Mell, Howard K
The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K.; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T.
An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even “silent” infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. PMID:26015484
Manguro, Griffins O.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth W.; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.
Objectives Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment. Results At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period. Conclusion Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation. PMID:27683204
van den Tweel, Xandra W; Hatzmann, Janneke; Ensink, Elske; van der Lee, Johanna H; Peters, Marjolein; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Grootenhuis, Martha
Caring for a child with sickle cell disease poses extra demands on parents, both practically and psychologically, which may influence their quality of life. Since families of children with sickle cell disease in the Netherlands usually belong to immigrant communities with a low socio-economic status, there may be an additional strain on caregivers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life of caregivers of children with sickle cell disease. The quality of life of female caregivers of sickle cell disease patients, measured with the TNO-AZL Adult Quality of Life questionnaire, was compared to the norm data of healthy Dutch females (n=700) and female caregivers of healthy children with the same socio-economic status and ethnic background (socio-economic status control group). Groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the median difference are presented. The results of questionnaires of 54 caregivers of children with sickle cell disease and 28 caregivers of a control group of the same socio-economic status were analyzed. Caregivers of patients with sickle cell disease had a significantly lower quality of life on all subscales compared to the Dutch norm population. Compared to the control group of the same socio-economic status, the quality of life of caregivers of patients with sickle cell disease was significantly lower on the subscales depressive moods, daily activities and vitality. In this first study reporting on the quality of life of caregivers of children with sickle cell disease, we demonstrate a reduced quality of life in these caregivers compared to the healthy Dutch female population and caregivers of healthy children with the same socio-economic status.
An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared.
Wilcox, William R; Oliveira, João Paulo; Hopkin, Robert J; Ortiz, Alberto; Banikazemi, Maryam; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Sims, Katherine; Waldek, Stephen; Pastores, Gregory M; Lee, Philip; Eng, Christine M; Marodi, Laszlo; Stanford, Kevin E; Breunig, Frank; Wanner, Christoph; Warnock, David G; Lemay, Roberta M; Germain, Dominique P
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. The Fabry Registry is a global clinical effort to collect longitudinal data on FD. In the past, most "carrier" females were usually thought to be clinically unaffected. A systematic effort has been made to enroll all FD females, regardless of symptomology. Of the 1077 enrolled females in the Registry, 69.4% had symptoms and signs of FD. The median age at symptom onset among females was 13 years, and even though 84.1% had a positive family history, the diagnosis was not made until a median age of 31 years. Twenty percent experienced major cerebrovascular, cardiac, or renal events, at a median age of 46 years. Among adult females with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) data (N=638), 62.5% had an eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 19.0% had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria 300 mg/day was present in 39.0% of females, and 22.2% had >1 gram/day. Quality of life (QoL), as measured by the SF-36((R)) survey, was impaired at a later age than in males, but both genders experience significantly impaired QoL from the third decade of life onward. Thus, females with FD have a significant risk for major organ involvement and decreased QoL. Females should be regularly monitored for signs and symptoms of FD, and considered for enzyme replacement therapy.
Several major breakthroughs have occurred in our understanding of the epidemiology, immunology and biological behavior of the human herpes virus I and II. The family physician, however, is still confronted with four basic clinical situations: patients who present with a genital erosion or ulcer, affected patients in the reproductive age group, patients who ask if herpes causes cervical cancer, and patients who are very troubled by endless recurrences. As syphilitic chancre is becoming rare, the family physician has to recognize the increasing importance of herpes viruses in the etiology of the genital erosion-ulcer syndrome to acquire the clinical and laboratory skills to make that distinction. The prevention of neonatal disease is now possible in the majority of cases provided that pregnancies at risk are identified. Adequate virological surveillance should make it possible to virtually eliminate the disease. The evidence for the oncogenecity is circumstantial. Potential intra- and interpersonal effects of the disease are outlined. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3 PMID:21286567
Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene
This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…
Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743
Scattoni, R; Verrotti, A; Rinaldi, V E; Paglino, A; Carelli, A; D'Alonzo, R
Vaginal ulcers can be associated with a number of different diseases. We describe two girls who presented genital ulcers as a persistent symptom of PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) syndrome. The possibility of considering this clinical manifestation as a clue for the diagnosis of PFAPA is discussed.
Zikry, Joseph; Chapman, Lance W; Korta, Dorota Z; Smith, Janellen
Full-body skin exams (FBSE) play an integral role inearly detection and treatment of skin cancer. Promptdetection of melanoma is especially importantas survival outcomes decrease significantly withpresentation of advanced disease. Given thatmelanoma may grow in areas of skin with little to nosun exposure, genital melanomas are a recognizedentity in cutaneous oncology.
Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K
Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.
de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20±3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Results: Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports. PMID:24728243
Rampersaud, Ryan; Randis, Tara M.; Ratner, Adam J.
Summary Our understanding of the bacterial species inhabiting the female genital tract has been limited primarily by our ability to detect them. Early investigations using microscopy and culture-based techniques identified lactobacilli as the predominant members of the vaginal microbiota and suggested that these organisms might serve a protective function at the mucosal surface. Improvements in cultivation techniques and the development of molecular-based detection strategies validated these early findings and enabled us to recognize that the microbiota of the female genital tract is much more complex than previously suspected. Disruption of the vaginal microbial community due to invasion of exogenous organisms or by overgrowth of one or more endogenous species has important health implications for both the mother and newborn. PMID:21920833
Martins, Elisabete; Pinho, Teresa; Carpenter, Stirling; Leite, Sérgio; Garcia, Raquel; Madureira, António; Oliveira, João Paulo
Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the alpha-galactosidase gene. The most frequent cardiac presentation of Fabry disease is cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, usually concentric. Heart disease in affected females tends to be clinically recognized later than in males and cardiac complications are the most frequently reported cause of death in females with Fabry disease. There are few data regarding the association between Fabry disease and LV noncompaction. We report a case of a 30-year-old asymptomatic woman, heterozygous for a nonsense alpha-galactosidase gene mutation (p.R220X), who presented LV noncompaction on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, without LV wall hypertrophy. Histopathological examination of myocardial fragments showed marked deposition of glycosphingolipids in cardiomyocytes, confirming the diagnosis of Fabry cardiomyopathy. Based on this finding, the patient was proposed for enzyme replacement therapy. This case illustrates the role of endomyocardial biopsy in the clarification of doubtful or atypical findings related to cardiac Fabry disease, even in heterozygous women, and corroborates the contention that Fabry disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of LV hypertrabeculation/noncompaction.
Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; Benmohamed, Lbachir
Targeting of the mucosal immune system of the genital tract with subunit vaccines has failed to induce potent and durable local CD8(+) T cell immunity, which is crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral pathogens, including HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide vaccine and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8(+) T cell epitope (gB(498-505)), and both were delivered intravaginally in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared with mice immunized with the homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo) vaccine, the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice 1) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected in both the genital tract draining nodes and in the vaginal mucosa; 2) had significantly lower virus titers; 3) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and 4) did not succumb to lethal infection (p < 0.005) after intravaginal HSV-2 challenge. Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells, producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 and exhibiting cytotoxic activity, were associated with protection (p < 0.005). The protective CD8(+) T cell response was significantly compromised in the absence of the adapter MyD88 (p = 0.0001). Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting of the vaginal mucosa with a Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost vaccine elicits a potent, MyD88-dependent, and long-lasting mucosal CD8(+) T cell protective immunity against sexually transmitted herpes infection and disease.
García-López, Silvia Juliana; Pérez-Martínez, Andrés; Chávez-Martínez, Sareni; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio
Tuberculosis continues to be a worldwide public health issue, known as "the great pretender" resembling many diseases. Overall 1% of women infected with Mycobacterium species develop genital tuberculosis (GT) which is widespread more commonly during their fertility age, 20-40 years old. GT is the second most common cause of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. One of the clinical manifestations in these patients is Infertility; with a poor prognosis of a successful pregnancy even with a correct diagnosis, medical and/or surgical treatment. Most pregnancies result in ectopic pregnancies or abortions. In low income countries GT may account for 5-20% of infertility cases. It was widely believed that pregnancy represented a period of risk to women infected with tuberculosis; and actually abortion is suggested. We report a case of a 21 year old female patient who came to the General Hospital Dr. Miguel Silva in the city of Morelia, Michoacán with the diagnosis of late puerperium postpartum complicated with retained placental tissue to perform a uterine curettage. The patient had fever and anemia for which we had to perform a laparotomy exploration of the doubt of uterin perforation; the surgical findings were pathognomonic of GT for which we continue to realize Hysterectomy. The macro and microscopically pathologic findings consists in GT, confirming the diagnosis with Ziehl-Neelsen acid stain. GT findings must always be differentiated from ovarian cancer.
Chan, C-C; Reed, G F; Kim, Y; Agrón, E; Buggage, R R
Background/aims: Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with the activity of autoimmune diseases including uveitis. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, hormones are reported to alter inflammatory cytokines and influence disease activity. The authors studied ocular inflammation, female hormones, and serum cytokine levels during and after pregnancy. Methods: A prospective, observational case study was conducted. Four pregnant women in their first trimester with chronic non-infectious uveitis were followed monthly until 6 months after delivery. Serum female hormones (oestrogen, progesterone, prolactin) and various cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Results: The four patients had five full term pregnancies. Uveitis activity decreased after the first trimester but flared in the early postpartum period. Serum female hormones, highly elevated during pregnancy, drastically dropped post partum. Cytokine levels except TGF-β were mostly undetectable. Conclusion: Female hormones and TGF-β may contribute to the activity of uveitis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:15548800
... transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), although it also can be caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), which normally causes cold sores ...
Simms, I; Catchpole, M; Brugha, R; Rogers, P; Mallinson, H; Nicoll, A
OBJECTIVE: To describe the recent epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in England and Wales. DESIGN: Retrospective study of routinely available surveillance datasets and ad hoc prevalence studies. METHODS: Numbers of new cases of genital C trachomatis infection, obtained from the Department of Health and Welsh Office, were combined with the estimated mid-year resident population of England and Wales. Rates were analysed for trend over time using a log linear age period model in GLIM4. Ad hoc prevalence and case finding studies carried out over the past 20 years were critically assessed in terms of study design and testing methodologies. RESULTS: Attendance rates at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics were higher for women than men over the period 1989 to 1994 as were the number of laboratory reports. The highest rate of attendance (GUM clinic data) was for women aged 16 to 19 years. There was an overall significant linear decrease in the attendance rates over time for both men (p = 0.0172) and women (p = 0.0000) between 1989 and 1994. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection detected within different clinical settings, together with a substantial level of asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genital C trachomatis infection is broadly distributed throughout the sexually active population, with a substantial reservoir of asymptomatic infection among those generally perceived to be at low risk of a sexually transmitted infection. Young people, particularly women aged 16 to 19 years, are at highest risk of genital C trachomatis infection. This is of concern since younger women are more susceptible than older women to developing complications of chlamydial infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The broad distribution of infection across all sexually active health service attenders and the high level of asymptomatic infection suggest that a new, screening based, approach to the control of genital C
From 1874 to 1906 regular examinations for venereal diseases were mandatory for prostitutes in Copenhagen. The leading physician Rudolph Bergh saw the opportunity to obtain detailed knowledge of the genital anatomy through his studies of almost 3.000 prostitute women: He accounted for details as the size of the clitoris, the amount and curliness of the pubic hair, hymeneal remains etc. He related his findings to classical artworks and literature. But he gave no explicit reason for his studies apart from the unique opportunity to study live anatomy. Neither did he conclude on or interpret his findings. Though in late life he supplemented his studies on the genital sphere with an account of the occurrence of some small depressions in the female sacral region; to obstetricians these depressions are known as the lateral demarcations of the rhombus of Michaelis. These depressions were by the classical writer Alciphron called gelasini- dimples; they were seen as characteristics of the hetaera. Bergh found these depressions absent only on a small percentage of the prostitutes he had studied. As he may have, as his contemporary Cesare Lombroso did for criminals, searched for physical characteristics or deviations, these dimples may to Bergh have represented positive signs of the lascivious body.
Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz
White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.
Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz
White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268
Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal
The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.
Roland, Kaitlyn P; Jones, Gareth R; Jakobi, Jennifer M
Females with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased risk for frailty, yet are often excluded from frailty studies. Daily electromyography (EMG) recordings of muscle activity can dissociate stages of frailty and indicate functional decline in non-neurological conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether muscle activity can be used to identify frailty phenotypes in females with PD. EMG during a typical 6.5-h day was examined in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris on less-affected PD side. Muscle activity was quantified through burst (>2% maximum exertion, >0.1s) and gap characteristics (<1% maximum exertion, >0.1s). Differences across frailty phenotype (nonfrail, prefrail, frail) and muscle (biceps brachii, BB; triceps brachii, TB; vastus lateralis, VL; biceps femoris, BF) were evaluated with a 2-way repeated measure ANOVA for each burst/gap characteristic. Thirteen right-handed females (mean=67 ± 8 years) were classified as nonfrail (n = 4), prefrail (n = 6), and frail (n = 3) according to the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index (CHSfi). Frail females had 73% decreased gaps and 48% increased burst duration compared with nonfrail. Decreased gaps may be interpreted as reduced muscle recovery time, which may result in earlier onset fatigue and eventually culminating in frailty. Longer burst durations suggest more muscle activity is required to initiate movement leading to slower movement time in frail females with PD. This is the first study to use EMG to dissociate frailty phenotypes in females with PD during routine daily activities and provides insight into how PD-associated motor declines contributes to frailty and functional decline.
Background Fabry disease (FD), an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by a reduced activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A. The disorder ultimately leads to organ damage (including renal failure) in males and females. However, heterozygous females usually present a milder phenotype with a later onset and a slower progression. Methods A combined enzymatic and genetic strategy was used, measuring the activity of α-galactosidase A and genotyping the α-galactosidase A gene (GLA) in dried blood samples (DBS) of 911 patients undergoing haemodialysis in centers across Spain. Results GLA alterations were found in seven unrelated patients (4 males and 3 females). Two novel mutations (p.Gly346AlafsX347 and p.Val199GlyfsX203) were identified as well as a previously described mutation, R118C. The R118C mutation was present in 60% of unrelated patients with GLA causal mutations. The D313Y alteration, considered by some authors as a pseudo-deficiency allele, was also found in two out of seven patients. Conclusions Excluding the controversial D313Y alteration, FD presents a frequency of one in 182 individuals (0.55%) within this population of males and females undergoing haemodialysis. Moreover, our findings suggest that a number of patients with unexplained and atypical symptoms of renal disease may have FD. Screening programmes for FD in populations of individuals presenting severe kidney dysfunction, cardiac alterations or cerebrovascular disease may lead to the diagnosis of FD in those patients, the study of their families and eventually the implementation of a specific therapy. PMID:20122163
One of the goals of the Brazilian Newborn Screening Program created in 2001 was to inform couples with the possibility of having children with sickle cell diseases regarding reproductive decision-making. This article presents the reproductive choices and analyzes the notion of biomedical reproductive risk of female caregivers of children with sickle cell disease participating in a newborn screening program. Qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2008 was based on interviews with 50 female caregivers of children with sickle cell disease participating on the Federal District Newborn Screening Program. The research revealed the following perceptions underlying reproductive decisions: women who want to have other children even with the risk of recurrence of the disease; women who do not want to have any more children; and women whose reproductive plans are still being considered on the basis of the information provided by the newborn screening program. The study revealed that women's reproductive choices are based on the experience of child care and self care. The notion of reproductive risk is built in order to strengthen women's decisions together with their family and other social groups to which they belong.
Dodds, K N; Beckett, E A H; Evans, S F; Grace, P M; Watkins, L R; Hutchinson, M R
In the central nervous system, bidirectional signaling between glial cells and neurons (‘neuroimmune communication') facilitates the development of persistent pain. Spinal glia can contribute to heightened pain states by a prolonged release of neurokine signals that sensitize adjacent centrally projecting neurons. Although many persistent pain conditions are disproportionately common in females, whether specific neuroimmune mechanisms lead to this increased susceptibility remains unclear. This review summarizes the major known contributions of glia and neuroimmune interactions in pain, which has been determined principally in male rodents and in the context of somatic pain conditions. It is then postulated that studying neuroimmune interactions involved in pain attributed to visceral diseases common to females may offer a more suitable avenue for investigating unique mechanisms involved in female pain. Further, we discuss the potential for primed spinal glia and subsequent neurogenic inflammation as a contributing factor in the development of peripheral inflammation, therefore, representing a predisposing factor for females in developing a high percentage of such persistent pain conditions. PMID:27622932
The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood. PMID:28299217
Legoff, Jérôme; Aymard, Michèle; Braig, Suzanne; Ramel, Françoise; Dreno, Brigitte; Bélec, Laurent; Malkin, Jean-Elie
The epidemiology of genital herpes is changing. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 infections is increasing, while HSV-1 is an increasingly common cause of herpetic ulcerations. The reference examination provides direct diagnosis after viral isolation in a cell culture or genome amplification. Herpes serology is indicated principally if direct examination is negative and in the absence of lesions. Non-type-specific serology detects antibodies common to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Its specificity and sensitivity are excellent, and it is approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. It cannot specify the viral type involved. Type-specific serology can distinguish between anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 antibodies. Currently available kits have a sensitivity and specificity, depending on the population studied, of 90 to 100%. It is not approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. HSV-1-specific serology cannot diagnose old HSV-1 genital infections, but seropositivity for HSV-2 generally suffices to diagnose HSV-2 genital herpes. The indication for type-specific serology must be discussed according to clinical context. The value of non-type-specific serology is limited.
Okuzaki, Y; Sota, T
To identify factors leading to the correlated evolution of exaggerated male and female genitalia, we studied the effects of the variable dimensions of corresponding functional genital parts (male copulatory piece and female vaginal appendix) on copulatory performance in the polygamous carabid beetle Carabus (Ohomopterus) maiyasanus. We used mating pairs of individuals from two populations to increase the variances in genital dimensions and determined the copulation performance (insemination and spermatophore replacement, and copulation time) in single- and double-mating situations. In single mating, insemination success was not affected by genital dimensions, although the copulation time was significantly shorter when the male aedeagus was longer. In the double-mating experiment, insemination and replacement of spermatophores by the second male succeeded more frequently when the copulatory piece was shorter and the vaginal appendix was longer, and when the difference between the length of the copulatory piece and the vaginal appendix was smaller. Thus, a matching of the corresponding genital parts between the sexes increases the male's reproductive success in sperm competition, but elongation of the copulatory piece cannot be explained simply by the improvement in male reproductive success. We discuss possible factors for the elongation of genital parts in terms of sexual conflict and reproductive interference through interspecific copulation.
Imamov, A A; Troshina, I V; Fomicheva, G B; Zamalieva, M A
The paper analyzes an association between occupational risk factors in the female workers of greenhouses and allergic diseases in their children. The major factors contributing to the occurrence of allergic disease in children are their maternal employment in greenhouses with harmful working conditions, much dust in an apartment, a family history of allergic diseases, and unfavorable family lifestyle.
Kliś, K; Żurawiecka, M; Suder, A; Teul, I; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Suliga, E; Wronka, I
Until recently, most studies report an increasing prevalence of allergy and asthma. The research suggests that the increase may have to do with changes in lifestyle and living conditions. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and changes in allergic diseases in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) 6 years apart. The research material consisted of data collected in two cross-sectional surveys conducted among university female students in 2009 and 2015 (respectively, 702 and 1305 subjects). The surveys evaluated the incidence of allergic conditions and socio-economic status. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were defined on the basis of medical work-up. The prevalence of allergic diseases increased from 14.0% to 22.3% over a 6-year period. In both cohorts, allergic diseases were more prevalent among females with high SES than with low SES. In 2009, significant differences were noted in relation to urbanization of the place of living and the number of siblings. In 2015, all socioeconomics factors significantly bore on the prevalence of allergy.
Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Hebels, Dennie G.; Liampa, Irene; Valavanis, Ioannis; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Johansson, Anders; Palli, Domenico; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Siskos, Alexandros P.; Keun, Hector; Botsivali, Maria; de Kok, Theo M. C. M.; Pérez, Almudena Espín; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Gottschalk, Ralph; van Leeuwen, Danitsja; Timmermans, Leen; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Kelly, Rachel; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lutzen; Saberi-Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Melin, Beatrice; Hallmans, Göran; Lenner, Per; Athersuch, Toby J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Myridakis, Antonis; Fazzo, Lucia; De Santis, Marco; Comba, Pietro; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Airaksinen, Riikka; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Gilthorpe, Mark; Fleming, Sarah; Fleming, Thomas; Tu, Yu-Kang; Jonsson, Bo; Lundh, Thomas; Chen, Wei J.; Lee, Wen-Chung; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hung, Hung; Liao, Shu-Fen
We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers. Strikingly, these features relate to numerous genes with a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, especially thrombin signaling, including the thrombin receptors on platelets F2R (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor; PAR1) and GP5 (glycoprotein 5), as well as HMOX1 (haem oxygenase 1) and BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1) which are involved in protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. These results are in concordance with epidemiological evidence of higher female susceptibility to tobacco-induced cardiovascular disease and underline the potential of blood-based omic profiling in hazard and risk assessment. PMID:28225026
Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav
The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838
... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...
Hopwood, Paul E.; Head, Megan L.; Jordan, Eleanor J.; Carter, Mauricio J.; Davey, Emma; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.
Male and female genital morphology varies widely across many taxa, and even among populations. Disentangling potential sources of selection on genital morphology is problematic because each sex is predicted to respond to adaptations in the other due to reproductive conflicts of interest. To test how variation in this sexual conflict trait relates to variation in genital morphology we used our previously developed artificial selection lines for high and low repeated mating rates. We selected for high and low repeated mating rates using monogamous pairings to eliminate contemporaneous female choice and male–male competition. Male and female genital shape responded rapidly to selection on repeated mating rate. High and low mating rate lines diverged from control lines after only 10 generations of selection. We also detected significant patterns of male and female genital shape coevolution among selection regimes. We argue that because our selection lines differ in sexual conflict, these results support the hypothesis that sexually antagonistic coevolution can drive the rapid divergence of genital morphology. The greatest divergence in morphology corresponded with lines in which the resolution of sexual conflict over mating rate was biased in favor of male interests. PMID:27144373
Florakas, C; Wilson, R; Toffelmire, E; Godwin, M; Morton, R
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a difference in the allocation of types of dialysis to male and female patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Canada. PATIENTS: All patients registered with the Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR) whose treatment began between 1981 and 1991. Data were obtained for 19,732 patients, of whom 18,010 had sufficiently complete data and were being treated with either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis 3 months after the diagnosis of ESRD. OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis according to sex. RESULTS: Significantly more male (58.1%) than female (50.8%) patients were receiving hemodialysis 3 months after diagnosis (p < 0.00001). Multivariate analysis to control for the possible confounding effects of age, province of treatment, diagnosis, concurrent illness and year of diagnosis did not explain the difference. CONCLUSIONS: In Canada from 1981 to 1991 male patients were more likely than female patients to receive hemodialysis for the treatment of ESRD. Additional research is needed to explain this finding. PMID:7954176
Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel
Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as a model of menopause, to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota. Basic metabolic profiles concerning glucose/insulin homeostasis were also explored. The effects of the sex hormonal perturbations, either developmentally (androgenization) or in adulthood (OVX), clearly outshone the impact of nutritional interventions, especially concerning the gut microbiota profile. Notably, we observed a lower diversity in the androgenized group, with the highest Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, supporting the occurrence of durable alterations in gut microbiota composition, even in adulthood. Moreover, the elimination of adult ovarian secretions by OVX affected the richness of gut microbiota. Our data are the first to document the durable impact of sex steroid manipulations, and particularly early androgenization, on gut microbiota composition. Such dysbiosis is likely to contribute to the metabolic perturbations of conditions of obesity linked to gonadal dysfunction in the female.
Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E
Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood.
Dhawan, Rakhi; Kumar, Manish; Mohanty, Ajeet Kumar; Dey, Gourav; Advani, Jayshree; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, Ashwani
The female Aedes aegypti mosquito is an important vector for several tropical and subtropical diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika and yellow fever. The disease viruses infect the mosquito and subsequently spread to the salivary glands after which the viruses can be transmitted to humans with probing or feeding by the mosquito. Omics systems sciences offer the opportunity to characterize vectors and can inform disease surveillance, vector control and development of innovative diagnostics, personalized medicines, vaccines, and insecticide targets. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we performed an analysis of the A. aegypti salivary gland proteome. The A. aegypti proteome resulted in acquisition of 83,836 spectra. Upon searches against the protein database of the A. aegypti, these spectra were assigned to 5417 unique peptides, belonging to 1208 proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest set of proteins identified in the A. aegypti salivary gland. Of note, 29 proteins were involved in immunity-related pathways in salivary glands. A subset of these proteins is known to interact with disease viruses. Another 15 proteins with signal cleavage site were found to be secretory in nature, and thus possibly playing critical roles in blood meal ingestion. These findings provide a baseline to advance our understanding of vector-borne diseases and vector-pathogen interactions before virus transmission in global health, and might therefore enable future design and development of virus-blocking strategies and novel molecular targets in the mosquito vector A. aegypti.
Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service
Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng
Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185
Kolehmainen, Maija; Suominen, Sinikka
Genital surgery is performed at the final stage of the gender reassignment process and is in Finland by statutory regulation of 2003 concentrated to be carried out by the HUCH multiprofessional team. Statutory recommendations from the psychiatry units at both HUCH and Tays Central Hospital are required for this. Sex reassignment surgery will be undertaken on the basis of a steadfast wish of an adult patient on the condition that he/she understands the risks associated with surgery and is mentally and physically fit for the operation.
Cummings, Anne L.
Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…
Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F
Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.
Lockwood, Gina; Durkee, Charles; Groth, Travis
Neonatal genital prolapse is a rare condition seen early in life, often in conjunction with spinal cord anomalies. We present a case of a 38-week gestational age female in whom urinary obstruction and bilateral hydronephrosis resulted from genital prolapse. We suggest that although a serious urologic outcome can potentially result from this condition, cure for both can be achieved swiftly and without major complications. PMID:26023398
Berggren, Kiersten L.; Lu, Zhen; Fox, Julia A.; Dudenhoeffer, Megan; Agrawal, Sonal; Fox, Jonathan H.
Background: Dysregulation of iron homeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. We have previously shown that increased iron intake in R6/2 HD neonatal mice, but not adult R6/2 HD mice potentiates disease outcomes at 12-weeks of age corresponding to advanced HD [Redox Biol. 2015;4 : 363–74]. However, whether these findings extend to other HD models is unknown. In particular, it is unclear if increased neonatal iron intake can promote neurodegeneration in mouse HD models where disease onset is delayed to mid-adult life. Objective: To determine if increased dietary iron intake in neonatal and adult life-stages potentiates HD in the slowly progressive YAC128 HD mouse model. Methods: Female neonatal mice were supplemented daily from days 10–17 with 120μg/g body weight of carbonyl iron. Adult mice were provided diets containing low (50 ppm), medium (150 ppm) and high (500 ppm) iron concentrations from 2-months of age. HD progression was determined using behavioral, brain morphometric and biochemical approaches. Results: Neonatal-iron supplemented YAC128 HD mice had significantly lower striatal volumes and striatal neuronal cell body volumes as compared to control HD mice at 1-year of age. Neonatal-iron supplementation of HD mice had no effect on rota-rod motor endurance and brain iron or glutathione status. Adult iron intake level had no effect on HD progression. YAC128 HD mice had altered peripheral responses to iron intake compared to iron-matched wild-type controls. Conclusions: Female YAC128 HD mice supplemented with nutritionally-relevant levels of iron as neonates demonstrate increased striatal degeneration 1-year later. PMID:27079948
Handsfield, H H; Stone, K M; Wasserheit, J N
Few meeting participants envisioned a prevention and control program on the scale or scope of CDC's programs to prevent HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection, but all agreed that the virtual absence of public health interventions to prevent genital herpes is no longer appropriate in light of evolving epidemiologic knowledge and other research advances. The ultimate scope of a national genital herpes prevention effort will depend in part on the results of the recommended research agenda, which probably will evolve over the better part of a decade. Numerous other STD prevention partners will also need to contribute to this effort and help to determine the makeup of future programs. Substantial new fiscal resources will be required both to implement the proposed research agenda and, depending on the results, to undertake the prevention efforts indicated by those studies. Competing STD prevention priorities and other national health needs will influence the availability of those resources. The consultants' meeting and the research and program activities summarized above are described in more detail in the full meeting report, which is posted on the Division's web site (www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/dstdp.html) or may be requested directly from the Division. DSTDP is interested in receiving comments and suggestions about herpes prevention.
Davarmanesh, M.; Samsami Dehaghani, A.; Deilami, Z.; Monabbati, A.; Dastgheib, L.
Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (n = 2) was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged. PMID:22675343
It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480
Kyogoku, D; Sota, T
Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species.
Izquierdo, Matías A.; Rubio, Gonzalo D.
Male genital mutilation is a common mechanism by which males reduce sperm competition by plugging female insemination ducts with different parts of its own genital system. This behavior is frequent in many spider families but is uncommon in Haplogynae. The reproductive biology of Dysderoidea is not well studied and the data is fragmentary; male genital mutilation has been reported only for one species of Oonopidae. This study provides evidence of male genital mutilation in Unicorn catleyi Platnick and Brescovit (Araneae: Oonopidae). Pieces of the embolus were found in the female posterior receptaculum. This behavior is a strategy used by the males in order to guarantee their paternity and not for escape from female attacks as has been reported for other species of Araneae, since cannibalism is unlikely in this species. The presence of embolus in the posterior receptaculum suggests this is the first place where sperm is received. The similarity of the female genitalia of U. catleyi to those of Orsolobidae, along with sclerotization of the seminal duct in the male copulatory bulb that is also present in Orchestina, Xiombarg, and Orsolobidae, provide strong evidence of the basal position of this genus in the family Oonopidae. PMID:22225476
Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A
Objective: To present the case of an elite female volleyball player who complained of diarrhea and fatigue after preseason training. Background: The athlete lost 8.1 kg during the first 20 days of training, and we initially suspected an eating disorder. The sports medicine team interviewed the athlete and found she did not have psychological symptoms indicative of an eating disorder. The results of routine blood tests revealed critically high platelet counts; in conjunction with the physical findings, the athlete was referred to a gastroenterologist. Differential Diagnosis: Our initial suggestion was an eating disorder. Therefore, the differential diagnosis included anorexia athletica, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. On referral, the differential diagnosis was anemia, gastrointestinal dysfunction, lymphoma, or bowel adenocarcinoma. Diarrhea, weight loss, and blood test results were suggestive of active celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis. Treatment: The athlete was treated with a gluten-free diet, which excludes wheat, barley, and rye. Dietary substitutions were incorporated to maintain adequate caloric intake. Uniqueness: The presence of active celiac disease may not be uncommon. However, elite athletes who face celiac disease present a new challenge for the athletic trainer. The athletic trainer can help guide the athlete in coping with the lifestyle changes associated with a gluten-free diet. Conclusions: One in every 200 to 400 individuals has celiac disease; many of these individuals are asymptomatic and, therefore, their conditions are undiagnosed. Undiagnosed, untreated celiac disease and patients who fail to follow the gluten-free diet increase the risk of further problems. PMID:16404459
Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.
Riese, H; Van Doornen, L J; Houtman, I L; De Geus, E J
This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen, tPA activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance and regression analyses revealed no effects of either job strain or social support on these risk indicators. All risk indicators deteriorated with age and body mass index. Oral contraceptive use improved fibrinolytic potential and increased HDL-C but had adverse effects on TG levels. Results suggest that in healthy young women job strain is not associated with an unfavorable metabolic or fibrinolytic risk profile.
McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A
Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in
McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.
Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in
Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R.
Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the female reproductive tract throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this back backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063
Satoh, Masataka; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
Pyoderma gangrenosum is an ulcerative skin disorder showing characteristic non-infectious ulcers and affects the lower extremities in approximately 70% of cases. Pyoderma gangrenosum is commonly associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and hematological malignancies. Herein, we report two cases of Japanese patients diagnosed with genital pyoderma gangrenosum. Case 1 was a 74-year-old woman without associated systemic complications, whose skin lesion resembled a squamous cell carcinoma and was limited to the vulva. Case 2 is an 89-year-old man, who suffered from myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, and presented with penile and leg ulcers mimicking pressure sores. Both cases responded well to systemic steroids. We review 13 genital pyoderma gangrenosum cases (76.9% male; aged 30-89 years) from 1996 to 2012 in Japan, including 11 previously reported cases and the present study's two cases. Four of the 13 genital pyoderma gangrenosum cases had associated systemic diseases and their skin lesions spread to the extragenital areas. Eight of the remaining nine genitalia-localized pyoderma gangrenosum cases had no associated systemic diseases. In conclusion, genital pyoderma gangrenosum is rare and may be misdiagnosed. It should therefore be considered in cases of refractory genital ulcers. In addition, genitalia-localized pyoderma gangrenosum tends to be without systemic complications.
Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit
Objective: To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. Results: PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA. PMID:28042218
Gianturco, L; Bodini, B D; Atzeni, F; Colombo, C; Stella, D; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Drago, L; Galaverna, S; Turiel, M
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are becoming increasingly frequent and associated with a high incidence of CV events, disability and death. It is known that there is a relationship between CV burden and systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) that is mainly due to inflammation and autoimmunity, but the other mechanisms underlying the high CV risk of SAD patients have not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this review article is to discuss some of the specific factors associated with the accelerated atherosclerosis (ATS) characterising SADs (female sex, the microcirculation and the endothelium) in order to highlight the importance of an early diagnosis and the prompt implementation of preventive measures, as well as the possible role of new therapeutic strategies such as vaccine immunomodulation. Finally, as the natural history of ATS begins with endothelial injury (a potentially reversible process that is influenced by various factors) and microvascular damage plays a central role in the etiopathogenesis of SADs, it underlines the crucial need for the development of reliable means of detecting sub-clinical abnormalities in the microcirculation, particularly coronary microcirculation dysfunction.
Conrad, Turner Allen; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Matulich, Patrick; Keck, Jonathon; Beltrami, Noah; Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Dai, Jin
We previously associated a missense mutation of the tc0668 gene of serial in vitro-passaged Chlamydia muridarum, a murine model of human urogenital C. trachomatis, with severely attenuated disease development in the upper genital tract of female mice. Since these mutants also contained a TC0237 Q117E missense mutation that enhances their in vitro infectivity, an effort was made here to isolate and characterize a tc0668 single mutant to determine its individual contribution to urogenital pathogenicity. Detailed genetic analysis of C. muridarum passages revealed a truncated variant with a G216* nonsense mutation of the 408-amino-acid TC0668 protein that does not produce a detectable product. Intracellular growth and infectivity of C. muridarum in vitro remain unaffected in the absence of TC0668. Intravaginal inoculation of the TC0668 null mutant into C3H/HeJ mice results in a typical course of lower genital tract infection but, unlike a pathogenic isogenic control, is unable to elicit significant chronic inflammation of the oviduct and fails to induce hydrosalpinx. Thus, TC0668 is demonstrated as an important chromosome-encoded urogenital pathogenicity factor of C. muridarum and the first with these characteristics to be discovered for a Chlamydia pathogen. PMID:26597987
Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; López-Alcaide, Saúl; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo
The control of triatomine insects is necessary because these insects are the principal vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. Nevertheless, some of these vectors, such as Triatoma protracta, have not been studied adequately and their importance and taxonomic status has not yet been defined in detail and must be reevaluated in view of the continuing taxonomic uncertainties associated with the species. To help clarify the taxonomic status of T. protracta, the eggs and genital plates of two morphotypes were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative morphological differences were observed in two morphotypes, designated T. p. protracta and T. p. nahuatlae according to Ryckman (1962). The morphotype T. p. protracta exhibited large and wide eggs with pores forming large padded polygonal structures, whereas the eggs of the morphotype T. p. nahuatlae were small and smooth. The size of the 9(th) genital urosternite was longer and wider in females in contrast to males in both morphotypes. However, these size differences were relatively greater in T. p. protracta. The high morphological variation found between the morphotypes of T. protracta suggests that they should be separated. Accordingly, it is probable that this group should be re-classified.
Donovan, G A; Dohoo, I R; Montgomery, D M; Bennett, F L
A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affect performance (growth) between birth and 14 months of age in a convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms. Data collected on each calf at birth included farm of origin, birth date, weight, height at the pelvis, and serum total protein (a measure of colostral immunoglobulin absorption). Birth season was dichotomized into summer and winter using meteorological data collected by University of Florida Agricultural Research Stations. Data collected at approximately 6 and 14 months of age included age, weight, height at the pelvis, and height at the withers. Growth in weight and stature (height) was calculated for each growth period; growth period 1 (GP1) = birth to 6 months, and growth period 2 (GP2) = 6 to 14 months. Health data collected included data of initial treatment and number of treatments for the diseases diarrhea, omphalitis, septicemia, pneumonia and keratoconjunctivitis. After adjusting for disease occurrence, passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins had no significant effect on body weight gain or pelvic height growth. Season of birth and occurrence of diarrhea, septicemia and respiratory disease were significant variables decreasing heifer growth (height and weight) in GP1. These variables plus farm, birth weight and exact age when '6 month' data were collected explained 20% and 31% of the variation in body weight gain and pelvic height growth, respectively, in GP1. The number of days treated for pneumonia before 6 months of age significantly decreased average daily weight gain in GP2 (P < 0.025), but did not affect stature growth. Treatment for pneumonia after 6 months of age did not significantly affect weight or height gain after age 6 months. Neither omphalitis nor keratoconjunctivitis explained variability in growth in either of the growth periods.
Hunt, Patricia A.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Fowler, Paul A.
Context: A growing body of evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to female reproductive disorders. Objective: To calculate the associated combined health care and economic costs attributable to specific EDC exposures within the European Union (EU). Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used multiple peer-reviewed sources. Setting, Patients and Participants and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. Results: The most robust EDC-related data for female reproductive disorders exist for 1) diphenyldichloroethene-attributable fibroids and 2) phthalate-attributable endometriosis in Europe. In both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as moderate, with an assigned probability of causation of 20%–39%. Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with total combined economic and health care costs potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion. Conclusions: EDCs (diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may contribute substantially to the most common reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually. These estimates represent only EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs. PMID
Joesoef, M R; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; Kambodji, A; Schulz, K
Sex workers and their clients as core groups of high frequency transmitters play a dominant role in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In Surabaya, Indonesia, little is known about the prevalence of STDs in various sex establishments. We conducted an STD prevalence survey of 1873 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia. We did not find any sex workers with HIV infection. Prevalence rates of other STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, serological test for syphilis positive, and/or trichomoniasis) in female sex workers were 48% in brothels (n = 696), 42% on the streets (n = 192), 16% in massage parlours (n = 344), 25% in barber shops (n = 150), 17% at call-girl houses (n = 73), and 10% in nightclubs (n = 418). Sex workers from the brothels had the highest prevalence rates of gonorrhoea (24%) and trichomoniasis (8%), while sex workers from the streets and the barber shop had the highest rates of serological test for syphilis (STS) positive (30%) and chlamydia (18%). STD rates decreased with an increase in age (except for STS positive), an increase in education, a decrease in the number of sex partners, and condom use in the previous week. Condom use in the previous week was universally low among sex workers, especially among sex workers from the brothels (14%). Sex workers from the brothels had STD rates about 4 times higher than sex workers from the nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 4.4). Although the HIV seroprevalence rate is currently low, widespread prostitution and high rates of STDs in sex workers warrant programmes to avert a potential explosion of HIV transmission. Because sex workers from the brothels in Surabaya have high rates of STDs and low use of condoms but good cooperation with local authorities, STD preventive measures should focus on this group.
Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571
Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Vieites, Begoña; Evgenyeva, Elena; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo; Forteza, Jeronimo
Genital leiomyoma in men include those superficial leiomyomas arising in the scrotum and the areola. They are unusual neoplasms: few cases have been reported in the literature and they usually escape clinical diagnosis. Three cases of male genital leiomyomas are reported: two in the scrotum and one in the areola. They were all conservatively excised and the behaviour was completely benign in all cases. Histopathological examination showed the typical findings of superficial leiomyomas, with some minor differences between cases arising in the scrotum and those from the areola. Immunohistochemical findings not only confirmed the smooth muscle nature of all cases but also showed unequivocal immunostaining for androgen receptors in the leiomyomas from the scrotum. Immunostaining for androgen receptors in scrotal leiomyomas is, as far as we are aware, a previously unknown characteristic of male genital leiomyomas. This finding supports the role of steroid hormones in the growth of genital leiomyomas, similar to leiomyomas found in other locations.
Zhang, Aixia; Lei, Yu; Yang, Bin; Li, Ping; Pan, Lianjun
Non-malignant cervical diseases are common causes of disease among women worldwide. Although many studies have focused on sexual function in women with cervical cancer, little is known about the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and its risk factors in women with non-malignant cervical diseases. The present study aims to assess sexual function in Chinese women with non-malignant cervical diseases and to identify potential risk factors for these diseases. A cross-sectional hospital-based survey was conducted in Nanjing, China. The Chinese version of the Female Sexual Function Index (CVFSFI) was used to evaluate sexual function. Three hundred three women who had been diagnosed with at least one non-malignant cervical disease and 293 healthy women were recruited from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. We found that women with non-malignant cervical diseases had a significantly higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) (51.8% vs. 34.8%), low desire (43.2% vs. 26.3%), arousal disorder (41.6% vs. 28.3%), and lubrication disorder (51.2% vs. 36.9%) compared with the control group. Cervicitis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were found to be independent risk factors for FSD. Our study indicates that women with cervicitis and CIN are at a high risk for FSD and deserve focused initial and follow-up management. PMID:26473480
Valencia, Frances; Veselenak, Ronald L; Bourne, Nigel
Both the guinea pig and mouse are important animal models for the study of genital herpes. The murine model has been used extensively to evaluate vaccines and antiviral agents by measuring the incidence of infection and the magnitude of viral replication; however, this model is limited with regard to distinguishing between candidate vaccines or treatments. In contrast, the guinea pig closely mimics human infection and provides an excellent model of both primary and recurrent genital herpes disease. This animal model is especially important in the study of viral transmission through the evaluation of latent viral reactivation and virus shedding into the genital tract. Here, we describe methodologies to determine viral infection, severity of primary disease, and quantification of primary viral replication in the genital tract for both the guinea pig and murine models of genital herpes. Additionally, we detail the evaluation of the onset of primary disease and progression to the day of death in the mouse model. Further, we summarize methods to assess the frequency of recurrences, frequency and magnitude of virus shedding, and latent viral load in the sensory nerve ganglia of the guinea pig.
Schmidt, Elizabeth M d S; Santos, Ivan F C; Paulillo, António C; Martins, Gislaine R V; Denadai, Janine; Lapela, Ivan M
The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota) of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease.
Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike
Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease
Schuberth, H J; Taylor, U; Zerbe, H; Waberski, D; Hunter, R; Rath, D
When spermatozoa, seminal plasma and semen extender reach the uterus and interact with local leukocytes and endometrial cells, several immune mechanisms are initiated which have immediate, mid-term and long-term effects on ovulation, sperm cell selection, fertilization and pregnancy success by assuring the acceptance of fetal tissues. This report gives an overview on relevant key immune mechanisms following roughly the time axis after insemination. Detailed knowledge regarding these mechanisms will aid maximizing reproductive efficiency in livestock production. In the future, the many species involved will require a more comparative approach, since evidence is growing that endometrial physiology and the response to varying amounts and compositions of seminal plasma, various semen extenders, and variable numbers of spermatozoa also provoke different immune responses.
Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.
Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786
Cai, Ping; König, Rolf; Boor, Paul J; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Khan, M Firoze; Ansari, G A S
Trichloroethene (TCE) exacerbates the development of autoimmune responses in autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice. Although TCE-mediated autoimmune responses are associated with an increase in serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, the underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is not known. To determine the progression of TCE-mediated immunotoxicity, female MRL +/+ mice were chronically exposed to TCE through the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml of TCE) for various periods of time. Serum concentrations of antinuclear antibodies increased after 36 and 48 weeks of TCE exposure. Histopathological analyses showed lymphocyte infiltration in the livers of MRL +/+ mice exposed to TCE for 36 or 48 weeks. Lymphocyte infiltration was also apparent in the pancreas, lungs, and kidneys of mice exposed to TCE for 48 weeks. Immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli were found after 48 weeks of exposure to TCE. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to TCE promotes inflammation in the liver, pancreas, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to SLE-like disease in MRL +/+ mice.
Cai Ping; Koenig, Rolf; Boor, Paul J.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Ansari, G.A.S.
Trichloroethene (TCE) exacerbates the development of autoimmune responses in autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice. Although TCE-mediated autoimmune responses are associated with an increase in serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, the underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is not known. To determine the progression of TCE-mediated immunotoxicity, female MRL +/+ mice were chronically exposed to TCE through the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml of TCE) for various periods of time. Serum concentrations of antinuclear antibodies increased after 36 and 48 weeks of TCE exposure. Histopathological analyses showed lymphocyte infiltration in the livers of MRL +/+ mice exposed to TCE for 36 or 48 weeks. Lymphocyte infiltration was also apparent in the pancreas, lungs, and kidneys of mice exposed to TCE for 48 weeks. Immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli were found after 48 weeks of exposure to TCE. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to TCE promotes inflammation in the liver, pancreas, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to SLE-like disease in MRL +/+ mice.
Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313
Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S
Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.
Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S
Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.
Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind
Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (p<0.05) was observed between age group of 15-30 years and HIV negative status (p<0.05) in age group of 31-45 years. HIV positive status significantly higher in patients with self-admitted multiple sexual partners (p<0.01), homosexuality (p<0.05) and presentation with anal warts (p<0.01). HIV negative status correlated significantly with single sexual partner admission (p<0.01) and hetero-sexuality (p<0.05). Gender did not show significant association with number of sexual partners or HIV positivity. Extra-genital or only genital warts had no association with HIV status. Co-STDs though more in number in ser-positive group, did not show any significant association with HIV positivity (p>0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028
Wojcieszek, Janine M; Simmons, Leigh W
Genitalia appear to evolve rapidly and divergently in taxa with internal fertilization. The current consensus is that intense directional sexual selection drives the rapid evolution of genitalia. Recent research on the millipede Antichiropus variabilis suggests that the male genitalia are currently experiencing stabilizing selection – a pattern of selection expected for lock-and-key structures that enforce mate recognition and reproductive isolation. Here, we investigate how divergence in genital morphology affects reproductive compatibility among isolated populations of A. variabilis. Females from a focal population were mated first to a male from their own population and, second, to a male from one of two populations with divergent genital morphology. We observed variation in mating behavior that might indicate the emergence of precopulatory reproductive barriers: males from one divergent population took significantly longer to recognize females and exhibited mechanical difficulty in genital insertion. Moreover, we observed very low paternity success for extra-population males who were successful in copulating. Our data suggest that divergence in genital shape may be contributing to reproductive isolation, and incipient speciation among isolated populations of A. variabilis. PMID:23467632
Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M
Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS.
Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.
Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787
Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N
Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.
Brender, Teva; Wallerstein, Donna; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is neurodegenerative leukodystrophy caused by dysfunction of the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene on Xq22, which codes for an essential myelin protein. As an X-linked condition, PMD primarily affects males; however there have been a small number of affected females reported in the medical literature with a variety of different mutations in this gene. No affected females to date have a deletion like our patient. In addition to this, our patient has skewed X chromosome inactivation which adds to her presentation as her unaffected mother also carries the mutation.
Brender, Teva; Wallerstein, Donna; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is neurodegenerative leukodystrophy caused by dysfunction of the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene on Xq22, which codes for an essential myelin protein. As an X-linked condition, PMD primarily affects males; however there have been a small number of affected females reported in the medical literature with a variety of different mutations in this gene. No affected females to date have a deletion like our patient. In addition to this, our patient has skewed X chromosome inactivation which adds to her presentation as her unaffected mother also carries the mutation. PMID:25789183
Huber, Bernhard A
Males of the Venezuelan pholcid spider Kaliana yuruani have unique genitalia, with the procursi about six times as long as usual in the family. The present article describes the previously unknown female, searching for a morphological correlate in the female genitalia to the male's exaggeration. Reconstruction of histological serial sections reveals an internal female complexity that is unequalled in pholcid spiders. An intricate system of ducts and folds is arranged in an asymmetric way, making this the third known case of genital asymmetry in spiders. The term "cryptic female exaggeration" is used in analogy to cryptic female choice, pointing to the fact that from the outside, the female genitalia do not appear unusual. I propose that cryptic female exaggeration may be relatively common in copulatory structures if male exaggerations need to be evaluated according to the female choice by mechanical fit model. Finally, the evolution of genital asymmetry in spiders is contrasted with that in insects.
Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku
About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078
Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L.; Keogh, J. Scott; Jennions, Michael D.
Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital–body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6–8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478
Neely, Michael; Louie, Stan; Xu, Jiaao; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Mordwinkin, Nicholas; Kovacs, Andrea
Few studies characterize longitudinal female plasma and genital antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Among 20 regimen-naïve HIV-infected adult women initiating atazanavir- (n=9) or efavirenz-based therapy (n=11), we measured blood CD4+ T-lymphocytes, and paired plasma and genital HIV RNA and atazanavir or efavirenz 2 days before starting therapy, and 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, 28, 60, 120, and 180 days after. The mean (range) log10 baseline plasma viral load was 4.89 (2.64 – 6.09) copies/mL and genital was 3.30 (1.60 – 5.00). In the atazanavir and efavirenz groups, mean (SD) days to 50% decrease in plasma viral load was 8.2 (4.9) vs. 9.3 (7.4), P=0.7, and in the genital tract was 7.3 (3.5) vs. 9.3 (7.7), P=0.5. The median (interquartile range) plasma:genital concentration ratio for atazanavir was 0.11 (0.001 to 0.46), vs. 0.34 (0.05 to 1.30) for efavirenz, P=0.5. Average plasma efavirenz or atazanavir concentrations over time did not affect virologic response. Blood CD4+ percentages increased by +2.3 (P=0.06) and +3.0 (P=0.003) for every 1 mg/L increase in average plasma and genital drug concentration, respectively. Plasma and genital viral pharmacodynamics were similar between the groups and independent of average concentrations, but blood CD4+ response was related in particular to genital extravascular drug concentrations. PMID:25683232
Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K
Herpes genitalis is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence in the US of greater than 20%. Two viruses of the same family cause herpes genitalis: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. After the resolution of primary infection, the virus persists in the nerve roots of the sacral plexus, often causing recurrent (though generally less severe) outbreaks. These outbreaks, as well as the infectious potential to the patient's sexual partners, results in significant psychological stress on the patient, and has a tremendous negative impact on QOL. Current treatment modalities may result in a reduction in the number of outbreaks and viral shedding, but no cure exists. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the negative impact of recurrent genital herpes on QOL, an assessment scale specific to herpes was not developed until recently. Earlier studies indicated that patients did not perceive a significant benefit from episodic treatment with antivirals, but studies using the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL) have now demonstrated that suppressive antiviral therapy improves quality of life in patients with frequent recurrences of genital herpes. However, not all patients with recurrent genital herpes need suppressive therapy, and proposed factors to consider include frequency of recurrence, physical and psychological distress caused by recurrences, and the potential for transmission to the patient's sexual partner. Newer therapeutic modalities, including the topical immune response modifier resiquimod and herpes vaccines, may eventually be shown to further decrease the psychological morbidity of recurrent genital herpes.
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach ... THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine for genital herpes could be nearing human clinical ...
Mochtar, Chaidir A.; Hamid, Agus Rizal A. H.; Sukasah, Chaula L.
Condyloma acuminata in the external genitalia (genital warts) is a sexually transmitted disease that is often caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). We report a case of giant genital condyloma acuminata in a 35-year-old male patient with HIV comorbidity treated by wide surgical excision. Excision defect was covered with split thickness skin graft (STSG) and double keystone flaps. There was no complication after surgery. Ten months following surgery, there was no new condyloma lesion and the patient had normal voiding and erectile functions. PMID:27974988
Rybakov, I D; Bakirov, A B; Masiagutova, L M
The article presents results of immunologic parameters study in female workers of contemporary poultry factories. Occupational factors were proved to affect all immunity sections. The authors suggested coefficient to diagnose latent sensibilization.
Brantley, Julie S; Hicks, Lindsey; Sra, Karan; Tyring, Stephen K
Genital herpes is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the USA. While sometimes mild in severity, it can be a distressing and painful chronic condition. Likewise, herpes labialis and herpes zoster can be both physically and psychologically painful. While there is no cure for these conditions, treatment to alleviate symptoms, suppress recurrences and reduce transmission has been drastically improved over the past 20 years with the use of guanine nucleoside antivirals, such as valacyclovir hydrochloride (Valtrex), GlaxoSmithKline) the highly bioavailable prodrug of acyclovir (Zovirax((R)), GlaxoSmithKline), and famciclovir (Famvir, Novartis), a highly bioavailable prodrug of penciclovir (Denavir, Novartis). Clinical trials involving approximately 10,000 patients (including patients from nongenital herpes studies, such as herpes zoster) have assessed the safety and efficacy of valacyclovir in the treatment of initial genital herpes outbreaks, episodic treatment of recurrent episodes and daily suppressive therapy. It was shown that valacyclovir has similar efficacy to acyclovir in the episodic and suppressive treatment of genital herpes. Valacyclovir is the only antiviral drug approved for a once-daily dose of suppressive therapy for genital herpes, as well as the only antiviral drug US FDA approved for a 3-day regimen of episodic treatment of recurrent genital herpes. In addition, valacyclovir is also indicated in the reduction of the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus infection and for the treatment of herpes labialis. In herpes zoster, valacyclovir is more effective than acyclovir or placebo (and as equally effective as famciclovir) in shortening the length and severity of herpes zoster-associated pain and postherpetic neuralgia. Valacyclovir has an acceptable safety profile in patients with herpes simplex and herpes zoster. The less frequent dosing regimen makes it an attractive option in the treatment of genital herpes and other viral
Baddour, L M; Bucak, V A; Somes, G; Hudson, R
Although recent data have supported the role of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in women, studies generating these data have enrolled few black women. We therefore examined black female participants attending our local health department's sexually transmitted disease clinic for the treatment of presumed uncomplicated gonorrhea in serologic and risk-factor surveys of hepatitis B virus infection. Twenty-four (17.6%) of 136 subjects tested had evidence of prior hepatitis B infection. Serologic evidence of hepatitis B infection was significantly associated with three different barometers of sexual activity that included: (1) years of sexual activity (P less than 0.005); (2) history of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.02); and (3) number of lifetime heterosexual partners (P less than 0.001). These data provide further support that the quantity of sexual exposure seems to be an important risk factor for hepatitis B infection in heterosexually active females.
Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent
Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions.
Farrell, Elizabeth F.
According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…
Gutiérrez-Amavizca, B E; Orozco-Castellanos, R; R Padilla-Gutiérrez, J; Valle, Y; Figuera, L E
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by α-galactosidase A deficiency; in contrast to other X-linked diseases, heterozygous females can be as affected as men. The construction and analysis of a family pedigree is a powerful tool to aid clinicians in diagnosis, establishment of inheritance pattern, and early detection of potentially affected relatives. The present study highlights the importance of pedigree analysis in families with FD for identifying other possibly affected relatives and investigating the clinical manifestations. This clinical report included 12 Mexican index cases with confirmed FD diagnosis. We constructed and analyzed their pedigree, and diagnosed FD in 24 affected relatives. Clinical features were similar to those reported for other populations. Pedigree analysis further identified an additional 30 women as possible carriers. We conclude that pedigree construction and analysis is a useful tool to help physicians detect and diagnose relatives at risk for FD, particularly heterozygous females, so that they can receive genetic counseling and early treatment. Mexican families with FD were similar to other populations reported in the literature, and our findings confirmed that heterozygous females can have signs and symptoms ranging from subtle manifestations to the classical severe presentation described in males.
Winchester, B; Young, E; Geddes, S; Genet, S; Hurst, J; Middleton-Price, H; Williams, N; Webb, M; Habel, A; Malcolm, S
We report the occurrence of Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a karyotypically normal girl who was one of identical twins. Molecular studies showed nonrandom X-inactivation in both her fibroblasts and lymphocytes, while her normal twin showed equal usage of both X chromosomes. In view of previous reports of 7 pairs of identical female twins in which one had Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it seems that twinning may be strongly associated with nonrandom X-inactivation, and is not specific to the properties of the disease causing gene.
Koba, Shigeru; Sekioka, Toshio; Takeda, Sorou; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Nishimura, Keisuke
A previously healthy 74-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized with fever and high C-reactive protein. She developed palatal herpangina-like aphthous ulcers, localized intestinal wall thickening, terminal ileum ulcers, and an erythematous acneiform rash; thus Behçet's disease-like illness was suspected. Significant peripheral blood acute monocytosis developed during her hospitalization and acute monocytic leukemia (FAB M5b) with normal karyotype was diagnosed. By immunostaining, the infiltrating cells in the skin and the terminal ileum were identified as monocytic leukemic cells. This case exhibited a unique initial presentation of Behçet's disease-like illness associated with acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:27610252
Zayabaatar, Dalai; Dashdavaa, Vanchinsuren; Enkhjargal, Dagvasumberel; Onon, Tsulbaatar
This paper presents peculiarities of the genitive case marked subject in Modern Mongolian. First, we argue that subordinate clauses with the genitive case-marked subject in Modern Mongolian are CP. Second, we provide an explanation for certain conditions of the genitive subject construction in Modern Mongolian (MM). Third, we attempt to show the…
Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D
Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.
Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin
Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find
Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441
Sacks, Stephen L.
This article offers some background information on diagnosis and treatment of three major causes of genital ulcers: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21263799
Longo, David J.; And Others
Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…
Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.
Tanaka, Satomi S; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi
Sex determination is essential for the sexual reproduction to generate the next generation by the formation of functional male or female gametes. In mammals, primary sex determination is commenced by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, which controls the fate of the gonadal primordium. The somatic precursor of gonads, the genital ridge is formed at the mid-gestation stage and gives rise to one of two organs, a testis or an ovary. The fate of the genital ridge, which is governed by the differentiation of somatic cells into Sertoli cells in the testes or granulosa cells in the ovaries, further determines the sex of an individual and their germ cells. Mutation studies in human patients with disorders of sex development and mouse models have revealed factors that are involved in mammalian sex determination. In most of mammals, a single genetic trigger, the Y-linked gene Sry (sex determination region on Y chromosome), regulates testicular differentiation. Despite identification of Sry in 1990, precise mechanisms underlying the sex determination of bipotential genital ridges are still largely unknown. Here, we review the recent progress that has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying genital ridge formation as well as the regulation of Sry expression and its functions in male sex determination of mice.
Estradiol is a steroid hormone that regulates the structure and function of the female reproductive system. In addition to its genomic effects, which are mediated by activated nuclear receptors, estradiol elicits a variety of rapid signaling events independently of transcriptional or genomic regulation. These nongenomic actions influence the milieu of the genital tract, which changes the ability of pathogens to infect the genital tract. This review discusses our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and relevance of nongenomic estradiol signaling in the genital tract that could change the ability of pathogens to invade epithelial cells. PubMed was searched through January 1980 for papers related to estradiol actions in the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus and cervix. The mechanisms conveying these rapid effects consist of a multitude of signaling molecules and include cross-talk with slower transcriptional actions. The nongenomic actions of estradiol that influence the infectious abilities of pathogens occur either directly on the genital tract cells or indirectly by modulating the local and systemic immune systems. Additional in-depth characterization of the response is required before the normal and pathological reproductive functions of the nongenomic estradiol pathway can be targeted for pharmacological intervention. PMID:23351368
Takahashi, Atsushi; Kono, Soichi; Wada, Akira; Oshima, Sachie; Abe, Kazumichi; Imaizumi, Hiromichi; Fujita, Masashi; Hayashi, Manabu; Okai, Ken; Miura, Itaru; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohira, Hiromasa